The Full Wiki

Orchidaceae: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Orchidaceae

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Orchidaceae
Fossil range: 80 Ma
Late Cretaceous - Recent
Color plate from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Juss.
Subfamilies
Distribution range of family Orchidaceae
.Orchidaceae, the Orchid family, is the largest family of the flowering plants (Angiospermae).^ After all, the orchid family is the largest plant family in nature.

^ The Orchidacae is probably the largest flowering plant family.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids belong the the family Orchidaceae.
  • Orchids | The Flower Expert - Flowers Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.theflowerexpert.com [Source type: General]

[1][2] .Its name is derived from the genus Orchis.^ Later, this name was applied not only to one genus, Orchis, but also to the entire family (even though the majority of orchids do not have this kind of root).
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another genus described by Linnaeus was Orchis , a Greek name refering to the shape of two small tubers that the species of this genus show, which resemble testicles .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.

.The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew list 880 genera and nearly 22,000 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as many as 25,000)[3] because of taxonomic disputes.^ The orchid family has over 880 different types (called genera) and over 22,000 species.
  • Orchid Care Tips and FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC myorchidcare.com [Source type: General]

^ Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, 201pp.
  • The Sobralia Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Number of accepted genera: 857.
  • Orchidaceae information from NPGS/GRIN 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.ars-grin.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The number of orchid species equals about four times the number of mammal species, or more than twice the number of bird species.^ Representing a full fourth of the world's flowering plants, there are four times as many orchid species as mammals, and twice as many as birds.
  • Orchids | MetaFilter 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.metafilter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 1000 different orchid species blossom .

^ Ontario, for example, has more than 60 species of native orchids.

.It also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants.^ There are nearly 25 thousand accepted species - about eight percent of all seed plants [6] four times as many as there are mammal species and twice as many as there are spsecies of birds .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Handled: Cypripediums, ALL plants are guaranteed to be raised from seed in flask.

^ This site is a valuable resource about orchid plants of all kinds for orchid growers or aspiring, would-be orchid growers of every level of experience.

[4] .About 800 new orchid species are described each year.^ Luer has described about three thousand new species of orchids.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid seeds must establish a symbiotic relationship with a special fungus to survive its first year of life.
  • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Click into the pictures to the left to learn more about China's orchid species.

.The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species).^ EPIDENDRUM: Over 1,000 species are found throughout tropical America from Florida to northern Argentina.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least 30,000 native species have been found throughout the world, making orchids one of the largest families of flowering plants.
  • Hunting the Elusive Orchidaceae 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC fwp.mt.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of writing some 1,400 natural genera and hybrid genera and an estimated 30,000 species are recognized in the Orchidaceae.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The family also includes the Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants like some Phalaenopsis or Cattleya.^ The following growing orchid articles should give you more ideas on how to grow different orchids: Growing dendrobium orchid Growing house orchid plant tip Growing phalaenopsis orchid Growing vanilla orchid Growing vanda orchid .

^ Look at some large cattleya plants available click right here Our most recent award winner Phal.

^ The coral-roots ( Corallorhiza ), named for the corallike branching of their underground rhizomes, are a nongreen saprophytic genus which includes some North American species.
  • orchid Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about orchid 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.^ In addition, there are more than a hundred thousand hybrid species!

^ There are over 25,000 orchid species and more than 100,000 hybrids.

^ COELOGYNE: More than 100 species.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The complex mechanisms which orchids evolve to achieve cross-pollination were investigated by Charles Darwin and described in his 1862 book Fertilisation of Orchids.^ In order to achieve pollination, some Orchids of the genus Ophrys (called bee Orchids) bear flowers resembling female insects in appearance and smell.
  • Orchids | The Flower Expert - Flowers Encyclopedia 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.theflowerexpert.com [Source type: General]

^ Darwin immediately predicted that some day a moth with an antenna at slightest twelve inches long would be discovered to be responsible for cross pollination of this abnormal orchid .

^ Among these pollination mechanisms is sexual deception, which is usually referred to for orchids that are pollinated by male insects in search of a mate.

Contents

Distribution

Orchidaceae are cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat apart from deserts and glaciers. .The great majority are to be found in the tropics, mostly Asia, South America and Central America, but they are also found above the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia and even on Macquarie Island, close to Antarctica.^ Order :     • Convert Currency Native almost to the neo tropics the range includes Mexico, Central America, West Indies, and Northern South America.

^ There are more than 25,000 species, found all the way up to the Arctic Circle.
  • Orchid Care - Orchid Care 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC argusorchids.net [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, vanilloid orchids today are distributed across the tropical belt of the Southern Hemisphere: Africa, eastern Australia, the Pacific island of New Caledonia, South America, and Southeast Asia (especially Papua New Guinea, but also Indonesia and Malaysia), all of which were once part of Gondwana.

The following list gives a rough overview of their distribution:
  • tropical America: 250 to 270 genera
  • tropical Asia: 260 to 300 genera
  • tropical Africa: 230 to 270 genera
  • Oceania: 50 to 70 genera
  • Europe and temperate Asia: 40 to 60 genera
  • North America: 20 to 26 genera

Taxonomy

.This family is totally recognised, and the APG II system of 2003 places it in the order Asparagales.^ Genetic analysis shows that Orchidaceae is a member of the order Asparagales, to which the agave, asparagus, hyacinth, iris, and onion families also belong.

The taxonomy of this family is in constant flux, as new studies continue to identify more classificatory elements.
Five subfamilies are now recognised. The cladogram has been made according to the APG system:


Apostasioideae: 2 genera and 16 species, south-western Asia



Cypripedioideae: 5 genera and 130 species, from the temperate regions of the world, as well as tropical America and tropical Asia

 Monandrae 

Vanilloideae: 15 genera and 180 species, humid tropical and subtropical regions, eastern North America



Epidendroideae: more than 500 genera and more or less 20,000 species, cosmopolitan


Orchidoideae: 208 genera and 3,630 species, cosmopolitan





Ecology

.A majority of orchids are perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics.^ Orchids in nature grow protected from the tropical sun by the shades of trees.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids can grow in just about any environment and the majority of orchids are growing in tropical environments.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ Orchids are also classed as epiphytes (those that grow naturally on trees, etc.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other species are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky soil, or are terrestrial.^ Some species grow on trees, while a few can be found growing on rocks.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ The fossil is from a terrestrial species very similar to species that today are classified under the genus Microchilus .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other species are monopodial , and grow continuously upwards, shooting new leaves from a central stem.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly all temperate orchids are terrestrial.^ There are many terrestrial orchids in tropical areas too, and in contrast to the ones from temperate regions, many of them grow almost constantly during most of the year.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can expect a Moth Orchid to flower about once a year so, as the flowers can last up to 6 months, you will have a beautiful spray of orchids nearly all the time.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ In their native environments, nearly all orchids are exposed to constant breezes.
  • OrchidMania: Orchid Culture 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.org [Source type: General]

.Some orchids, like Neottia and Corallorhiza, lack chlorophyll and are unable to photosynthesize.^ Some species lack chlorophyll.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Off-shoots and Keikis In some monopodial orchids like Ascocenda and Phalaenopsis, Keikis or off-shoots emerge frequently on the main stem..
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further some orchids like Anaectochilus respond more to vegetative propagation through cutting than any other method.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, these species obtain energy and nutrients by parasitising soil fungi through the formation of orchid mycorrhizas.^ Furthermore, the 14 Thelephoroid fungi associated with Cephalanthera and the 18 Russuloid fungi associated with Corallorhiza are small fractions of the hundreds of North American species in each of these families.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Orchids can be germinated in glass flasks on agar with the same sugars ordinarily produced by the fungi along with some mineral nutrients.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We argue that these orchids are cheaters because they do not provide fixed carbon to associated fungi.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The fungi involved include those that form ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites such as Armillaria, and saprotrophs.^ They grow on trees or other plants, and they get moisture from the air.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) are the dominant mycorrhizal type formed by forest trees in temperate regions ( 12 ), and they are critical to nutrient cycling and to structuring of plant communities in these regions ( 13 ).
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other Thelephoroid species, in addition to those associated with the orchid, often formed ECM, which were recovered from the same soil cores; numbers of these are given in parentheses.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5] .These orchids are known as myco-heterotrophs, but were formerly (incorrectly) described as saprophytes due to the belief that they gained their nutrition by breaking down organic matter.^ They are a tropical orchid and are also known as the Singapore orchid .

^ The orchid gets no nutrients from the tree itself, it is not a parasite, it gets only support and a bit of food from the organic matter decaying in the crooks of branches or from animal droppings that wash down the tree in the rain.
  • Orchid Care Tips and FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC myorchidcare.com [Source type: General]

^ We argue that these orchids are cheaters because they do not provide fixed carbon to associated fungi.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.While only a few species are achlorophyllous holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination and seedling growth and even photosynthetic adult plants may continue to obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.^ All orchid plants have scientific names.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ All epiphytic orchids are myco-heterotrophic during their germination and seedling periods and many adult plants continue to obtain nutrients from their mycorrhizal fungi.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Placing a plant in the center of a room, on a coffee table for example, is fine for display during an evening of entertaining, but to maintain proper growth and flower development it is best to keep the plant in its growing area (near a window or under lights ).
  • OrchidWeb.com: Orchid Learning Center - FAQs 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidweb.com [Source type: General]

Description

.Orchids are easily distinguished, as they share some very evident apomorphies.^ Some species of orchids are so tiny that they can easily be mistaken for moss .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid seeds cannot utilize their own reserve or do so very slowly, they can also not hydrolyse large molecules like starch or cellulose.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pseudobulbs are very variable; they may be fat and as large as a papaya, as in some Gramatophyllum species, or thin and long as sugarcane, as in some Epidendrum .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among these: bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic), many resupinate, one petal (labellum) is always highly modified, stamens and carpels are fused, and the seeds are extremely small.^ The flowers characteristically consist of three petals and three petallike sepals, the central sepal modified into a conspicuous lip (labellum) specialized to secrete nectar that attracts insects.
  • orchid Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about orchid 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third tepal of the inner whorl forms a labellum that typically is highly modified in shape and or coloration.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ LABELLUM - A modified petal, usually quite distinct from the other two petals; the median petal; the lip.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Leaves

A close-up of an phalaenopsis orchid leaf; the parallel veins and cuticle are visible.
.Like most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have a reticulate venation.^ Leaves : Most orchids have leaves of longitudinal parallel venation with hardly visible crossings.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the orchids are perennial herbs with simple leaves.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leaves are alternate or seldom opposite or whorled and have a sheathing base and an entire, often fleshy, parallel-veined blade.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size.^ The leaves may be very thin and malleable (as in Stigmatosema ), or fleshy, firm and breakable (as in Cattleya ), or entirely succulent (as in Leptotes ).
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pseudobulbs are very variable; they may be fat and as large as a papaya, as in some Gramatophyllum species, or thin and long as sugarcane, as in some Epidendrum .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of the leaves may or may not show a petiole , with a variable number of longitudinal parallel nerves, which may be very visible (as in many Coeogyne and Stanhopea species), or almost imperceptible.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their characteristics are often diagnostic. .They are normally alternate on the stem, often plicate, and have no stipules.^ They are usually arranged in two alternated opposed rows, on both sides of the stem.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orchid leaves often have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous.^ BACKBULB - An old pseudobulb, often without leaves but still alive and bearing live eyes, behind the actively growing portion of a sympodial orchid.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mid section of stems of sympodial orchids are often expanded into water-storage organs called pseudobulbs.
  • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid roots often creep over the edge of the pot before the body of the plant makes it to the edge of the pot.
  • OrchidMania: Orchid Culture 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.org [Source type: General]

.The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant.^ The best answer came from Charles Frensdorf, when asked what he had learned from seeing the plants in their natural habitat, his answer was "to leave them where they are".

.Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminas are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply.^ The leaves of epiphytic orchids are usually leathery or fleshy to varying degrees and a waxy cuticle covers the laminas.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid growing supply means water, a little fertilizer and the right light, temperature and humidity if you get this right you can enjoy beautiful orchids blooming several times a year.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ This species is typically found growing in shady locations in rich moist soil near waterfalls, rivers and streams.

.Shade species, on the other hand, have long, thin leaves.^ Other species are monopodial , and grow continuously upwards, shooting new leaves from a central stem.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pseudobulbs are very variable; they may be fat and as large as a papaya, as in some Gramatophyllum species, or thin and long as sugarcane, as in some Epidendrum .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is they live for several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves, shed them annually and develop new leaves together with new pseudobulbs, as in Catasetum.^ Most of the orchids are perennial herbs with simple leaves.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, many others are easy to grow, and new species are appearing year after year in commercial growers’ catalogues.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can be deciduous or they can persist for several years or indefinitely.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental.^ My orchid has dropped some leaves.
  • OrchidWeb.com: Orchid Learning Center - FAQs 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Some orchids are endemic to Indian Species are so ornamental and in demand that their natural populations have been over exploited.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exposure to direct mid-afternoon sunlight during the late spring through early fall will scorch the leaves of some orchids.
  • ORCHIDS.COM : SUPPORT : FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or lithophyte, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background.^ You want the leaves to be a light grass green.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most plants, you want the leaves to be a light green color.
  • OrchidMania: Orchid Culture 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.org [Source type: General]

^ If the leaves become dark emerald green, move the plant to more light.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cordate leaves of Psychopsiella limminghei are light brownish green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower pigments.^ You want the leaves to be a light grass green.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most plants, you want the leaves to be a light green color.
  • OrchidMania: Orchid Culture 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.org [Source type: General]

^ If the leaves become dark emerald green, move the plant to more light.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The attractive mottle of the leaves of Lady's Slippers from tropical and subtropical Asia, (Paphiopedilum) is caused by uneven distribution of chlorophyll.^ The Paphiopedilums are those Lady's Slipper orchids that are found in Asia.
  • Orchids & Orchid Growing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchidessences.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some orchids, such as paphiopedilums or lady-slipper orchids, have no lip.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the Paphiopedilum (lady's slipper) species are restricted to N.E Himalayas except for P. druryi which has been reported from kerala but now is almost extinct from its original habitat.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green.^ Cattleya Orchid Pink and green color .

^ Mainly, warm Paphs are recognized by their attractive, mottled light and dark green (some have 3 colors of green!
  • Orchids & Orchid Growing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchidessences.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard test for Cattleya light levels is: jade green leaves not enough light.
  • Orchids & Orchid Growing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchidessences.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Jewel Orchid (Ludisia discolor) is grown more for its colorful leaves than its fairly inconspicuous white flowers.^ Growing jewel orchids is fairly straightforward.

^ Jewels of the Orchid Family These orchids are grown for their leaves, not their flowers!
  • Orchid Articles by The Orchid Lady 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidlady.com [Source type: General]

^ Orchid flower white violet .

.Some orchids, as Dendrophylax lindenii (Ghost Orchid), Aphyllorchis and Taeniophyllum depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophic species.^ My orchid has dropped some leaves.
  • OrchidWeb.com: Orchid Learning Center - FAQs 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Some orchid species are comparatively huge.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some orchids have no scent at all.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stem and roots

.All orchids are perennial herbs and lack any permanent woody structure.^ Orchid Habitats: Orchids are perennial herbs and according to their habitat are divided into terrestrials and epiphytics.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some species show perennial structures that are a sort of modified stem used only for blooming during several years, as happens with some species of Masdevallia and all species of Psychopsis .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids are herbaceous (non-woody) perennials that occur as vines, shrubs, and grass-like plants.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Orchids can grow according to two patterns:
.
  • Monopodial: The stems grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly.^ MONOPODIAL - The form of growth in which there is a single stem that continues to grow from the apex indefinitely.
    • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other species are monopodial , and grow continuously upwards, shooting new leaves from a central stem.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Monopodial orchids have a central stem which grows continuously from the tip.
    • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla.
  • Sympodial: The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing, to be then replaced.^ Monopodial orchids have a central stem which grows continuously from the tip.
    • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Several types of monopodial and sympodial orchids are illustrated in Figure 1.
    • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike monopodial orchids, orchids with sympodial growth have a determinate type of growth whereby, after the production of a certain number of leaves, growth abruptly stops or is terminated by an inflorescence.
    • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support.^ Once the orchid has been watered it should go back to its growing space until the next watering which may be anything from a few days to a week or more later.
    • Orchid Care Tips and FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC myorchidcare.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Postscript Why do you think I zeroed in on the silly root rather than the orchid flower?
    • A pre-school child learns observation drawing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.bartelart.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Orchid hybrids usually are stronger than wild orchids, for they have mixed genes from two species and this generally produces stronger individuals, which grow faster than wild species.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya.^ In time, from the base of this growth, a new shoot develops and so on in a continuous cycle.
    • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other species are monopodial , and grow continuously upwards, shooting new leaves from a central stem.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Plants see light from above, not sideways, and if you grow your plants too far from a window you will notice new growths becoming smaller and the leaves much narrower.
    • OrchidWeb.com: Orchid Learning Center - FAQs 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidweb.com [Source type: General]

    While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called 'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching.
Anacamptis lactea showing the two tubers
.Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers.^ Within the solitary type group of terrestrial orchids there are two kinds of growth habit; one with plants producing single, erect, leafy stems arising from underground tubers or corms which are terminated by an inflorescence.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrestrial species may or may not have developed stems and, unlike epiphytic orchids which always have perennial stems, these may be partially or entirely deciduous .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids may also be classified as saprophytic, terrestrial, partly-terrestrial, and epiphytic.

.The root caps of terrestrials are smooth and white.^ In terrestrial orchids the root caps are usually smooth and white.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The creeping terrestrial orchids have mostly slender, smooth, fleshy rhizomes with elongated internodes and several short or long roots at the nodes.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some sympodial terrestrials, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots.^ Some Australian species of the subtribus Caladeniinae have almost no roots, only a small ovoid tuber.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another genus described by Linnaeus was Orchis , a Greek name refering to the shape of two small tubers that the species of this genus show, which resemble testicles .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many terrestrial species have some roots that are thickened into structures that resemble tubers.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops.^ Vanilla is one kind of orchid used in food; other orchids are used in perfumes.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ The first type of two vegetative growths can develop from the base of the pseudobulb either simultaneously or over a period.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some species grow continuously, more or less constantly all year, while some others have seasonal periods of growth and rest.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In warm and humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs.^ Humid warm atmosphere is most essential for the growth of most of the tropical orchids, which do not have well established root system.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the lack of this fungus that prevents many terrestrial orchids from surviving when removed from their natural environment to an alien one.

^ While tropical orchid enjoy humid, warm atmosphere and burst into activity during rainy season, temperate orchid should be growing in cool houses.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Epiphytic orchids have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long.^ Epiphytic types have a stem swollen at the base to form a pseudobulb (for food storage) and pendulous aerial roots adapted for water absorption and sometimes containing chlorophyll to make photosynthesis possible.
  • orchid Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about orchid 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid research until now has been limited to taxonomic research done by visitors, some long-term residents and by a few private growers.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Few orchids will thrive on this, as most are epiphytes, and need their roots to be dry again soon after having been watered.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis called velamen has the function to absorb humidity.^ Some species store water in thickened, succulent stems, called pseudobulbs, others have highly porous roots covered by a spongy layer that can absorb humidity from the air.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid roots are covered by a spongy tissue called vellamen .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are often covered by the vellamen, a thick spongy tissue that helps orchids to quickly absorb water from rainfall, and even humidity from the air.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance.^ In epiphytic orchids the velamen is silvery-grey, white or brown.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some orchids the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells.^ Some orchids are naturally warm growing while others are intermediate or cool growing but most will do OK in intermediate conditions where it isn't blazing hot nor near freezing cold.
  • Orchid Care Tips and FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC myorchidcare.com [Source type: General]

^ VELAMEN - The thick corky layer of cells covering the roots of epiphytic orchids.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The roots of epiphytic orchids have an outer layer or corky cells called velamen, which protects the thin, living cortex within.
  • Growing Orchids 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC pubs.caes.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These structures are named tilosomes.
.The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support.^ Anthers single; terminal, incumbent (bent downward during development) so as to form a right angle with the column axis or pointed backward in many genera.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monopodial Orchids: Monopodial orchids have a single, continuously elongating axis that enables the plant to grow in a trailing fashion over supporting plants or to form large, dense masses of vegetation.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nutrients mainly come from animal droppings and other organic detritus on their supporting surface.
The pseudobulb of Prosthechea fragrans
.The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form what is called a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods.^ The other segment is aerial, and may or may not be thickened into a structure called a pseudobulb which stores water and nutrients.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stems became specialized for water storage.

^ Stems : On epiphytic species of sympodial growth the stem usually is formed by two segments.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves and can have different shapes, often conical or oblong. .Its size is very variable; in some small species of Bulbophyllum it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world, Grammatophyllum speciosum (giant orchid), it can reach three meters.^ Orchids have very varied blooming habits.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some orchid species are comparatively huge.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two new orchid species from Colombia.
  • Orchid Literature 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.mu [Source type: Academic]

.Some Dendrobium have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length, some other orchids have hidden or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves.^ My orchid has dropped some leaves.
  • OrchidWeb.com: Orchid Learning Center - FAQs 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Some are subtle and others are extremely strong.
  • ORCHIDS.COM : SUPPORT : FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchid research until now has been limited to taxonomic research done by visitors, some long-term residents and by a few private growers.
  • PAPUA NEW GUINEA ORCHID NEWS 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchidspng.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With ageing the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At this stage it is often called a backbulb. A pseudobulb then takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which eventually dies off too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five years.

Flower

Dactylorhiza sambucina, Orchidoideae for reference
.Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers.^ Most flashy of these, the Cypripedium or well-known “woman’s slipper,” has a wide sort of territory in the United States and has attractive foliage as well as flowers.

^ Erect to pendant racemes of few to many, variously colored flowers are produced.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of the leaves may or may not show a petiole , with a variable number of longitudinal parallel nerves, which may be very visible (as in many Coeogyne and Stanhopea species), or almost imperceptible.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some orchids have single flowers but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers.^ These orchids are some of the most beautiful flowers in the world.

^ Today, wild orchids still grow and flower in large numbers throughout the Mediterranean region, starting in February and continuing right through to the start of the hot, dry summer around the end of May.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ The most commonly available orchids from garden centres and flower shops for use as house plants are Phalaenopsis, Odontoglossum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum/Cypripedium, Miltonia and .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

.The flowering stem can be basal, that is produced from the base of the tuber, like in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.^ MONOPODIAL - The form of growth in which there is a single stem that continues to grow from the apex indefinitely.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's normal for orchids such as Dendrobiums, Oncidiums and Cattleyas to produce honey on the flower stem.
  • ORCHIDS.COM : SUPPORT : FAQ 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dendrobium in many species lacks pseudobulbs, but even the long stick-like flower stems, along which the leaves grow in pairs, are qualified of storing food and moisture.

.As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like Mormodes, Ludisia, Macodes this kind of symmetry may be difficult to notice.^ The size of their flowers varies from one millimeter up to twenty centimeters, or even twice that if the calcar of some orchid flowers is included.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers normally show bilateral symmetry , with six tepals in two layers: three external sepals and three internal petals .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We specialize in 14 karat orchid flower and coin jewelry but manufacture all kinds of 14 Karat gold and gemstone jewelry.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots has two whorls of sterile elements.^ The most commonly available orchids from garden centres and flower shops for use as house plants are Phalaenopsis, Odontoglossum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum/Cypripedium, Miltonia and .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ Most orchid flower require no soil.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ The orchid flowers shown on this page are more or less the most popular because they look real good and are easy to grow and keeping.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

.The outer whorl has three sepals and the inner whorl has three petals.^ Three sepals and three petals constitute an orchid flower.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers normally show bilateral symmetry , with six tepals in two layers: three external sepals and three internal petals .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two members of the inner whorl of 3 tepals are alike and may be quite similar to the outer tepals.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.The sepals are usually very similar to the petals (and thus called tepals, 1), but may be completely distinct.^ In others, petals and sepals are very similar in size and shape.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers normally show bilateral symmetry , with six tepals in two layers: three external sepals and three internal petals .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two members of the inner whorl of 3 tepals are alike and may be quite similar to the outer tepals.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.The upper medial petal, called the labellum or lip (6),, is always modified and enlarged.^ It is , however, the third petal which is different and distinctive and is called labellum or the lip.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All bear a characteristic "slipper", the third petal or lip, modified to force unwary insects to pollenate the flowers without a reward of nectar.
  • Orchids & Orchid Growing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchidessences.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LABELLUM - A modified petal, usually quite distinct from the other two petals; the median petal; the lip.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inferior ovary (7) or the pedicel usually rotates 180 degrees, so that the labellum, goes on the lower part of the flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators.^ The fruits result from the thickening of the ovaries located at the base of the flowers, which is also usually formed by three chambers.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bees work over the flowers collecting scented droplets, thus pollinating the flowers.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The offspring belong to a HYBRID GENUS and a new name is found, usually by combining part or all of the name of each parents GENUS. Thus, Laelia X Sophronitis = Sophrolaelia [Sl.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This characteristic, called resupination occurs primitively in the family and is considered apomorphic (the torsion of the ovary is very evident from the picture). .Some orchids have secondarily lost this resupination, e.^ Greg Allikas (May 2002) "Some Orchids Found in the Lost World: A Visit to the Gran Sabana," in: Orchids 71(5): 394-405.
  • The Sobralia Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

g. Zygopetalum and Epidendrum secundum.
.The normal form of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they form a triangle.^ They are a popular form of decorative works in Hawaii and be found in countries such as Costa Rica.

.In Paphiopedilum (Venus slippers) the lower two sepals are fused together into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of a slipper.^ Some orchids, such as paphiopedilums or lady-slipper orchids, have no lip.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ POUCH - Replaces the lip in Paphiopedilum alliance plants, it's actually two petals that have fused.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, two of their petals have fused and combined to form a pouch which resembles the toe of a lady's slipper.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Masdevallia all the sepals are fused.
.Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called peloric.^ All bear a characteristic "slipper", the third petal or lip, modified to force unwary insects to pollenate the flowers without a reward of nectar.
  • Orchids & Orchid Growing 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchidessences.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three sepals and three petals constitute an orchid flower.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is , however, the third petal which is different and distinctive and is called labellum or the lip.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is environmentally influenced and may appear random.
Longitudinal section of a flower of Vanilla planifolia
.Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus Neuwiedia.^ Now that we know that it is an individual and an orchid, we need only the name of the genus and species to which it belongs to identify it.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three sepals and three petals constitute an orchid flower.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forget cut flowers that cost a fortune and last for a week if you are lucky; just buy a Moth Orchid every now and then.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

.Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a staminode.^ Orchids in subfamily Cypripedioideae have two stamens, one on each side of the column.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ The number of estamen varies among the subfamilies: Apostasioideae has two or three; Cypripedioideae has two, with the central estamen modified; in the other subfamilies just the central stamen is functional, and the two others are atrophied or absent.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most orchids have only one fertile stamen, although slipper orchids such as Phragmipedium, Paphiopedilum, Selenipedium, and Cypripedium have two fertile stamens.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria, retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes (4).^ Orchids in the largest subfamily Orchidoideae have a single terminal stamen and the anthers generally produce one or more waxy masses of pollen called pollinia.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ Visit our Orchid forum and join others in learning about these amazing plants Discuss all about blue orchids, orchid flowers, wild orchids and more.
  • Orchid Forum Orchid Care 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidgeeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Orchid Sites A great site to link up to all other orchid sites, includes vendors, societies, universities, and book sites.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column (2).^ The reproductive organs of the orchids, the stamens and pistil, are condensed and form a consolidated complex body, the column the male and female part being separated by a flap or projection of a tissue called rostellum.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids have three pistils and three stamens and they are fused into a column (gynostemium).
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their reproductive organs, ( androceu and gineceu ), are reduced and fused into a single central structure called a column, gymnostem or androstyle .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the primitive Apostasioideae this fusion is only partial, in the Vanilloideae it is more deep, while in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae it is total. .The stigma (9) is very asymmetrical as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lay on the bottom of the column.^ The stigma is two- or three-lobed and the ovary is inferior and almost always has 1 locule with very numerous, up to several million, very tiny parietal ovules.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ The stigma normally is a cavity located at the column, partially filled with the same thick liquid the rostellum produces, where the pollinia are inserted by the pollinator when it visits the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The column of this showy little species has wings that look like feathers and which attract pollinators to the stigma of the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae.^ The number of estamen varies among the subfamilies: Apostasioideae has two or three; Cypripedioideae has two, with the central estamen modified; in the other subfamilies just the central stamen is functional, and the two others are atrophied or absent.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants in most other media need a balanced food (18-18-18 etc.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like most epiphytes, Pleurothallidinae plants are very sensitive to any build-up of mineral salts in the potting medium.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the other subfamilies, that comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther (3), carries and two pollinia.^ Follow the links below to two of the major subfamilies of orchids.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ Orchids in the largest subfamily Orchidoideae have a single terminal stamen and the anthers generally produce one or more waxy masses of pollen called pollinia.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ Other Orchid Sites A great site to link up to all other orchid sites, includes vendors, societies, universities, and book sites.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

.A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic stands and mucopolysaccharides.^ Orchids in the largest subfamily Orchidoideae have a single terminal stamen and the anthers generally produce one or more waxy masses of pollen called pollinia.
  • Discover Life - Monocotyledoneae: Orchidaceae - Orchids, Orchid, Orchid Family 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.discoverlife.org [Source type: General]

^ POLLINIUM - [plural POLLINIA ] - The coherent mass of pollen grains found in the anther.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On many orchids, the pollen grains are grouped together in masses called pollinia.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each pollinium is connected to a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, like in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria or a stipe, like in Vanda. .Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators.^ The pollinia are hinged by a thin connective rod structure called a caudicle or stipe , according to its morphology, it is attached to a viscous disc called a viscidium , held in place by a thick liquid produced by the rostellum .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pollinia with or without caudicle and viscidium; soft and mealy or hard; (2, 4, 6, or 8 (12)).
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, there is the rostellum (5), a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism.^ Because the orchid pollinarium attaches to any visitor that dislodges the anther cap, the anther is empty when the insect or bird flies away.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

^ Column broadly winged and hooded with a ventral anther and stigma. There are two 2 pollina.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pollinating mechanisms are remarkably intricate, and many orchid species can be successfully pollinated only by a particular species of insect.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As aforementioned, the ovary is always inferior (located behind the flower).^ The fruits result from the thickening of the ovaries located at the base of the flowers, which is also usually formed by three chambers.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely, three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae).^ Their pseudobulbs produce one or two, rarely three, leaves.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sympodial Orchids (those that grow horizontally) can be divided by cutting the rhizome so that each division has three or more growths and one actively growing lead.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pollination

.Orchids have developed highly specialized pollination systems and thus the chances of being pollinated are often scarce.^ Some orchids have developed extraordinary systems of pollination .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insects performing the mass of irritable pollination adapt with the species and are as diverse as the ingenious contrivances by which the orchids develop them.

^ Other Thelephoroid species, in addition to those associated with the orchid, often formed ECM, which were recovered from the same soil cores; numbers of these are given in parentheses.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is why orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very long periods and why most orchids deliver pollen in a single mass; each time pollination succeeds thousands of ovules can be fertilized.^ Orchid flowers: their pollination and evolution.
  • von: Systematics and evolution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae)in the Greater Antilles 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC edoc.hu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This growth proceeds slowly, and there may be a considerable time lapse between pollination and fertilization of the ovules.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oncidium orchids grow over a meter tall, and large flowers Bloom season is usually from early winter to spring.
  • Orchid orchids dendrobium vanda cattleya cynbidium hybrids 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC orchid-all.com [Source type: General]

.Pollinators are often visually attracted by the shape and colours of the labellum.^ Of the petals, one (the labellum ) is different, it is normally responsible for attracting pollinators to the column, and it plays an active role in pollination .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flowers may produce attractive odours.^ They produce inflorescences that may consist of a few flowers to more than 100.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although absent in most species, nectar may be produced in a spur (8) of the labellum, on the point of the sepals or in the septa of the ovary, the most typical position amongst the Asparagales.^ In some cases the same virus has been known to produce more than one diseases in different species, the most common are Cymbidium mosaic virus .
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only can most species interbreed with several others to produce fertile descendants, most of the genera that belong to the same subtribe can do too.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They produce racemes of white flowers with long, slender nectar spurs.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In orchids that produce pollinia, pollination happens as some variant of the following.^ Darwin immediately predicted that some day a moth with an antenna at slightest twelve inches long would be discovered to be responsible for cross pollination of this abnormal orchid .

^ The size of their flowers varies from one millimeter up to twenty centimeters, or even twice that if the calcar of some orchid flowers is included.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids can be germinated in glass flasks on agar with the same sugars ordinarily produced by the fungi along with some mineral nutrients.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the pollinator enters into the flower, it touches a viscidium, which promptly sticks to its body, generally on the head or abdomen. .While leaving the flower, it pulls the pollinium out of the anther, as it is connected to the viscidium by the caudicle or stipe.^ The pollinia are hinged by a thin connective rod structure called a caudicle or stipe , according to its morphology, it is attached to a viscous disc called a viscidium , held in place by a thick liquid produced by the rostellum .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The caudicle then bends and the pollinium is moved forwards and downwards. .When the pollinator enters another flower of the same species, the pollinium has taken such position that it will stick to the stigma of the second flower, just below the rostellum, pollinating it.^ Cheaters of nonsymbiotic (i.e., nonintimate) mutualisms, such as plants and pollinators, are predicted to become specialized in some circumstances and not in others ( 1 ).
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Contrast this with M. melanopus , another common species, characterised by multiple flowers on a thin inflorescence which flowers only once.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some rare exceptions when hybrids result from two closely related species, and still can be pollinated by the same pollinators of parent species.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The possessors of orchids may be able to reproduce the process with a pencil, small paintbrush, or other similar device.^ Worldwide Orchids, Inc No portions of this website may be reproduced without the express written permission of Worldwide Orchids,Inc.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ When there are several societies in other cities nearby, they may have orchid shows open to the public and organize championships of culture and rarity.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PROPAGATION Orchids like other Horticultural crops, may be propagated either sexually or Asexually.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ophrys apifera is about to self-pollinate
.Some orchids mainly or totally rely on self-pollination, especially in colder regions where pollinators are particularly rare.^ J & L Orchids A catalog representing specialization in growing rare species, particularly Pleurothallis, Masdevallias and Draculas and genera such as Dendrobium, Aerangis and Angraecum.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Darwin immediately predicted that some day a moth with an antenna at slightest twelve inches long would be discovered to be responsible for cross pollination of this abnormal orchid .

^ Some orchids have developed extraordinary systems of pollination .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The caudicles may dry up if the flower hasn't been visited by any pollinator and the pollina then fall directly on the stigma.^ The stigma normally is a cavity located at the column, partially filled with the same thick liquid the rostellum produces, where the pollinia are inserted by the pollinator when it visits the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The column of this showy little species has wings that look like feathers and which attract pollinators to the stigma of the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Directly below the anthers, separated from them by a thin membrane, is a part of the female portion of the flower, the stigma.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otherwise the anther may rotate and then enter the stigma cavity of the flower (as in Holcoglossum amesianum).^ The stigma normally is a cavity located at the column, partially filled with the same thick liquid the rostellum produces, where the pollinia are inserted by the pollinator when it visits the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Directly below the anthers, separated from them by a thin membrane, is a part of the female portion of the flower, the stigma.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The labellum of the Cypripedioideae is poke-shaped and has the function to trap visiting insects.^ The trapped insect must squeeze through a slim tunnel between the column and tip of the labellum to escape, consequently attaching pollinia to its body.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main function of all the attention getting shapes, colors, and scents of orchids is to attract insects and other animals capable of fertilizing the flowers.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only exit leads to the anthers that deposit pollen on the visitor.^ They are adapted so perfectly that only the right visitor fits the flower mechanics; other visitors will not take the pollen away.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some extremely specialized orchids, like the Eurasian genus Ophrys, the labellum is adapted to have a colour, shape and odour which attracts male insects via mimicry of a receptive female.^ Some orchid species are comparatively huge.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids classified under the European genus Orchis show the labellum color and format, ornamented by bristles in such a way that exactly reproduce the females of a particular species of bee, moreover they produce the same pheromone she does, thus the male bees are attracted to a copula, taking then the pollinia with them, which will be delivered to the next visited flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that we know that it is an individual and an orchid, we need only the name of the genus and species to which it belongs to identify it.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pollination happens as the insect attempts to mate with flowers.^ The Lady's Slipper , for instance, traps insects and forces them to pollinate the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The males are tricked and attempt to mate with or steal away the "female insect" and thus flies away with pollinia and/or has deposited pollinia onto the stigma from another flower.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She has provided the flower with all the charm and pull of a fairy princess to win insect vassals to execute the sacrament of annoyed pollination.

.Many neotropical orchids are pollinated by male orchid bees, which visit the flowers to gather volatile chemicals they require to synthesize pheromonal attractants.^ Orchid flowers: their pollination and evolution.
  • von: Systematics and evolution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae)in the Greater Antilles 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC edoc.hu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Orchids classified under the European genus Orchis show the labellum color and format, ornamented by bristles in such a way that exactly reproduce the females of a particular species of bee, moreover they produce the same pheromone she does, thus the male bees are attracted to a copula, taking then the pollinia with them, which will be delivered to the next visited flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visit our Orchid forum and join others in learning about these amazing plants Discuss all about blue orchids, orchid flowers, wild orchids and more.
  • Orchid Forum Orchid Care 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidgeeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each type of orchid places the pollinia on a different body part of a different species of bee, so as to enforce proper cross-pollination.^ Darwin immediately predicted that some day a moth with an antenna at slightest twelve inches long would be discovered to be responsible for cross pollination of this abnormal orchid .

^ However, if two DIFFERENT species of orchid are mated (crossed is the term used), the offspring are known as hybrid plants.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many different species of yellow orchid, choosing one that is right for your environment is important.

.An underground orchid in Australia, Rhizanthella slateri, never sees the light of day and depends on ants and other terrestrial insects to pollinate it.^ An Australian orchid thrives underground and is pollinated by ants.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main function of all the attention getting shapes, colors, and scents of orchids is to attract insects and other animals capable of fertilizing the flowers.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The insects performing the mass of irritable pollination adapt with the species and are as diverse as the ingenious contrivances by which the orchids develop them.

.Catasetum, a genus discussed briefly by Darwin actually launches its viscid pollinia with explosive force when an insect touches a seta, knocking the pollinator off the flower.^ The Lady's Slipper , for instance, traps insects and forces them to pollinate the flower.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers of genus Catasetum may be male, female or hermaphrodite .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She has provided the flower with all the charm and pull of a fairy princess to win insect vassals to execute the sacrament of annoyed pollination.

After pollination the sepals and petals fade and wilt, but they usually remain attached to the ovary.

Asexual reproduction

.Some species, as some Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium and Vanda, produce offshoots or plantlets formed from one of the nodes along the stem, through the accumulation of growth hormones at that point.^ Many of these kinds, such as Phalaenopsis species and hybrids, produce offshoots called, keikis, at nodes along the inflorescence axis.
  • Orchidaceae - Orchid | Botany.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.botany.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some temperate terrestrial species have extensive underground stems, rhizomes that store large amounts of starch for the next years growth [16] .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids like Aerides, Arachnis, Epidendrum, Renanthera, Phalaenopsis, Vanda and Dendrobium can be propagated by cutting.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These shoots are known as keiki.

Fruits and seeds

Cross-section of an orchid capsule, the longitudinal slits
.The ovary typically develops into a capsule that is dehiscent by 3 or 6 longitudinal slits, while remaining closed at both ends.^ The orchid family varies typically in territory, ranging throughout the tropics, over the calm zones of both hemispheres, and even feat into the fringes of the Arctic.

^ OVARY - The part of the flower which develops into the fruit.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ripening of a capsule can take 2 to 18 months.
.The seeds are generally almost microscopic and very numerous, in some species over a million per capsule.^ Seeds : Almost all orchids have tiny, light seeds, often with a single seed coat of numerous cells derived from the integuments.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Australian species of the subtribus Caladeniinae have almost no roots, only a small ovoid tuber.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As many as 1,300 to 4,00,000 seeds per capsules are produced.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After ripening they blow off like dust particles or spores.^ They are exceedingly small and dust like and are produced in very large numbers.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They lack endosperm and must enter symbiotic relationship with various mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous fungi that provide them the necessary nutrients to germinate, so that all orchid species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and reliant upon fungi to complete their lifecycle.^ Unlike most plants, which generally produce endosperm that nourishes the embryo during its initial development, orchids use a symbiotic relationship with a fungal mycorrhiza, which supplies the nutrients necessary to nourish the developing seedling.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All epiphytic orchids are myco-heterotrophic during their germination and seedling periods and many adult plants continue to obtain nutrients from their mycorrhizal fungi.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet both orchids retained the internal mycorrhizal structure typical of photosynthetic orchids that do not associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As the chance for a seed to meet a fitting fungus is very small, only a minute fraction of all the seeds released grow into an adult plant.^ Be sure you understand what type of orchid you want before you buy orchids or orchid seeds and the specific growing terms associated with the plant you've chosen.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Description:  Plants perennial; small to very small (3 to 6 cm.
  • Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.peripatus.gen.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orchids range in size from plants only an inch high with very tiny flowers to vines up to 50 feet long with flowers a foot across.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cultivation, germination typically takes weeks, while there is a report of one paphiopedilum that took fifteen years.^ There were only four successful companies in Britain, one of them being Sanders, who continued to grow in the orchid market for many years afterwards.

^ Breeding of Orchids It takes on an average, 3-4 years from germination of seeds to first flowering.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many terrestrial orchids in tropical areas too, and in contrast to the ones from temperate regions, many of them grow almost constantly during most of the year.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Horticultural techniques have been devised for germinating seeds on a nutrient-containing gel, eliminating the requirement of the fungus for germination, greatly aiding the propagation of ornamental orchids.^ Since the tiny seed has so little food reserve, propagation of orchids by seed is a risky matter.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seeds sown in the nursery beds required long period of germination and any disturbance to the soil or physical environment destroyed the whole population.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ S Symbiotic seed germination Under natural conditions, the orchid seeds germinate after being infected by fungus, the orchid mycorrhiza which term was coined by Frank in 1885.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The main component for the sowing of orchids in artificial conditions is the agar agar. The substance is put together with some type of carbohydrate (actually, some kind of glucose) which provides qualitative organic feed. Such substance may be banana, pineapple, peach or even tomato puree or coconut milk. After the cooking of the agar agar (it has to be cooked in sterile conditions) the mix is poured into test tubes or jars where the substance begins to jelly. The seeds have to be put in the dish above boiling water, in the steam because that secures sterile conditions. The test tubes are put diagonally after that.

Evolution

.A study in the scientific journal Nature [6] has hypothesized that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected.^ Jean Linden was instrumental in increasing our knowledge of orchids , when in 1845 he travelled to South and Central America to study the orchids natural environment.

^ These orchids are much more commonplace than many of the others.

^ The watering routine is exactly the same as above; they do not flower as long as the Moth Orchids – but still far longer than any cut flower I have come across.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

.An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found trapped in Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago.^ However, the most active evolution of orchids seems to have occured after this separation, when the several tropical areas where already well established, about 55 million years ago.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This family is comprised of about 1,000 genera and more than 15,000 species.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However the exact appearence of the flower is just implied, as only their pollinia were found, attached to the back of a bee trapped in amber .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings.^ This genus possibly is one of the most closely related to the extinct Meliorchis caribea , which is the only orchid fossil ever found.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This find is the first evidence of fossilised orchids to date.^ The first time you shot to pot a tree orchid in osmunda you will find manually with the slightest popular lexis in your vocabulary.

^ I decided to play a game with them and to give them more incentive, I offered an orchid from my collection to the first person who was able to find an orchid other than Encyclia tampensis.

^ In Europe we can find evidence that the Greeks, in the pre-Roman period, knew about and studied wild orchids.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.The extinct orchid M. caribea has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae).^ We have investigated the mycorrhizal associations of two nonphotosynthetic orchids from distant tribes within the Orchidaceae.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This genus possibly is one of the most closely related to the extinct Meliorchis caribea , which is the only orchid fossil ever found.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the largest subfamily, formed by several tribes and subtribes, more than five hundred genera and about twenty thousand species, distributed along the same areas of Orchidoideae.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This indicates that orchids may have an ancient origin and have arisen 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous.^ The artificial production of orchid hybrids began more than a hundred years ago.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the most active evolution of orchids seems to have occured after this separation, when the several tropical areas where already well established, about 55 million years ago.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until recently, it was far from clear when orchids diverged from the ancestrals they share with the other Asparagales , however since the discovery of an early fossil in the Dominican Republic in 2007, it seems that this probably occurred about 84 million years ago.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, they may have co-existed with dinosaurs.^ When there are several societies in other cities nearby, they may have orchid shows open to the public and organize championships of culture and rarity.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It shows also that at that time insects were active pollinators of orchids.^ The insects performing the mass of irritable pollination adapt with the species and are as diverse as the ingenious contrivances by which the orchids develop them.

^ Some are perfumed just at certain times of the days when the right insects are active.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pollinating mechanisms are remarkably intricate, and many orchid species can be successfully pollinated only by a particular species of insect.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to M.W. Chase et al. (2001) the overall biogeography and phylogenetic patterns of Orchidaceae show that they are even older and may go back roughly 100 million years [7]
.Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family.^ Later, this name was applied not only to one genus, Orchis, but also to the entire family (even though the majority of orchids do not have this kind of root).
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vanilla, the only widely used commercial product of the orchid family, was first discovered by the ancient Aztecs in Mexico.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major developments in cultivation of orchids in the world have been due to modern scientific technology which has been suitably used in case of orchid seed germination and meristem culture.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family.^ The evolution of orchid culture from hobbyist to commercial grower was very slow as most of the orchids collected from different regions did not adapt to local conditions and died.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such high specialization has insured the purity of species that has manifest the evolve of the orchid family .

^ Orchids, being plants that live from so sparse resources, need to be very economical, and they have evolved other techniques of attraction.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since this genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70 million years).^ Owing to a remarkable range of highly specialised adaptations to suit very different climates and very different pollinator species, orchids naturally occur in almost all regions of the planet, except in Antarctica [2] The number of orchid genera on each continent cannot be given exactly because taxonomists disagree about details of their classification, but Eurasia has about 50 genera; North America, about 25; Latin America and Caribbean, between 300 and 350; tropical Asia, between 250 and 300; tropical Africa, about 250; and Oceania, about 60.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The artificial production of orchid hybrids began more than a hundred years ago.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States it is estimated that, in 2003, the market for potted plants was worth about $121 million.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Uses

Vanilla fruits drying
.One orchid genus, Vanilla, is commercially important, used as a flavouring.^ Later, this name was applied not only to one genus, Orchis, but also to the entire family (even though the majority of orchids do not have this kind of root).
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This genus possibly is one of the most closely related to the extinct Meliorchis caribea , which is the only orchid fossil ever found.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (CC) Photo: Dalton Holland Baptista Vanilla chamissonis Some orchids of genus Vanilla are among the few orchids grown for their uses, in this case for flavoring.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The underground tubers of terrestrial orchids (mainly Orchis mascula (Early Purple Orchid)) are ground to a powder and used for cooking, such as in the hot beverage salep or in the Turkish ice-cream (Dondurma - salepli dondurma).^ Orchis mascula - Early-purple Orchid .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ In Turkey , the tubers of Anacamptis morio are a component of an ice cream called salep .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the epiphytic orchids, there are also grounds orchids or terrestrial orchids which grow like ordinary plants with their roots in soil.
  • ORCHIDS-INTRODUCTION 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidsasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has been claimed that the name salep comes from the Arabic expression ḥasyu al-tha`lab "fox testicles",however, it appears more likely that the Turkish name salep comes directly from the Arabic name saḥlab‎. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being considered an aphrodisiac.
The dried leaves of Jumellea fragrans are used to flavour rum on Reunion Island.
The scent of orchids is frequently analysed by perfumists (using Gas-liquid chromatography) to identify potential fragrance chemicals.
.The other important use of orchids is their cultivation for the enjoyment of the flowers.^ Visit our Orchid forum and join others in learning about these amazing plants Discuss all about blue orchids, orchid flowers, wild orchids and more.
  • Orchid Forum Orchid Care 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidgeeks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other important areas with considerable orchid diversity are the mountains of Mesoamerica , the peaks south of Himalaya in India and China , and the southeast of Africa , particularly Madagascar.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most commonly available orchids from garden centres and flower shops for use as house plants are Phalaenopsis, Odontoglossum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum/Cypripedium, Miltonia and .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

.Most cultivated orchids are tropical or subtropical, but quite a few which grow in colder climates can be found on the market.^ Establishing a date when man first found and cultivated wild orchids is difficult but it is widely believed that the Japanese and Chinese were the first to grow them, around three thousand years ago.
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ Few orchids will thrive on this, as most are epiphytes, and need their roots to be dry again soon after having been watered.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since there are many thousands of names assigned to orchids, we will just cover some of the basic (most used) nomenlature, citing a few examples.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Temperate species available at nurseries include Ophrys apifera (Bee Orchid), Gymnadenia conopsea (Fragrant Orchid), Anacamptis pyramidalis (Pyramidal Orchid) and Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Common Spotted Orchid).^ Ophrys cretica - Cretan Bee Orchid .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ Dactylorhiza maculata - Heath Spotted-orchid .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

^ Anacamptis pyramidalis - Pyramidal Orchid (white) .
  • Caring for Orchids as House Plants 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.first-nature.com [Source type: General]

.Orchids of all types have also often been sought by collectors of both species and hybrids.^ The Orchid Zone (OZ), CA - wholesale prducer of some of the finest orchids in the world Orchidaceae, Inc., WA - orchids for the serious collector & casual fancier from species to the latest hybrids.
  • The Orchid Mall - Plant Sources 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Seeds : Almost all orchids have tiny, light seeds, often with a single seed coat of numerous cells derived from the integuments.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TS Orchids - Select phals, lots of updates and specials, always adding new exciting hybrids Marni Turkel Orchid Sales, CA - Mostly species, featuring cool to intermediate growers, especially minatures from all over the world.
  • The Orchid Mall - Plant Sources 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidmall.com [Source type: General]

As such many hundreds of societies and clubs worldwide have been established. .These can be small local clubs like Sutherland Shire Orchid Society or larger national organisations like American Orchid Society.^ You can find local and state orchid societies using The Orchid Mall as well.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, the 14 Thelephoroid fungi associated with Cephalanthera and the 18 Russuloid fungi associated with Corallorhiza are small fractions of the hundreds of North American species in each of these families.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ West Palm Beach, FL: American Orchid Society, 1992-1993(?

.Both serve to encourage cultivation and collection of orchids, but some go further by concentrating on conservation or research.^ National collections and conservation of orchids.
  • Orchid Literature 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.mu [Source type: Academic]

^ The inflorescence of some orchid species grow down, so when these are cultivated, they appear through the holes at the bottom of the pot.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The soil was then washed, and both orchid and tree roots were collected using sieves, with a final screen opening size of 0.5 mm.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The term botanical orchid loosely denotes those small flowered tropical orchids belonging to several genera (not necessarily related to each other) that don't fit into the "Florist" orchid category.^ The main function of all the attention getting shapes, colors, and scents of orchids is to attract insects and other animals capable of fertilizing the flowers.
  • phals.com • Riverbend Orchids • Biloxi, MS 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC phals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H Hawaii Orchid Lady We offer both potted and cut orchids and a large selection of cut Hawaiian tropical flowers and foliage.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Näu Wale Nü Gardening resource with recipes and orchids, flowers, vegetables, tropicals, tropical flowers, organic gardening information, forums and discussion.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.A few of these genera contain enormous numbers of species.^ A good example is comparing the number of genera published since 2002 to classify species before subordinated to genus Dendrobium , about thirty, [22] and the number of these which are accepted by the database of the Royal Botanic Garden , three or four.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Thelephoroid species, in addition to those associated with the orchid, often formed ECM, which were recovered from the same soil cores; numbers of these are given in parentheses.
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many genera contain just one species, while some huge genera have more than a thousand.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, such as Pleurothallis and Bulbophyllum, contain approximately 1700 and 2000 species, respectively, and are often extremely vegetatively diverse.^ J & L Orchids A catalog representing specialization in growing rare species, particularly Pleurothallis, Masdevallias and Draculas and genera such as Dendrobium, Aerangis and Angraecum.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, Pseudotsuga menziesii is estimated to associate with 2000 of the approximately 6000 worldwide species of ECM fungi ( 46 ).
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cheaters of nonsymbiotic (i.e., nonintimate) mutualisms, such as plants and pollinators, are predicted to become specialized in some circumstances and not in others ( 1 ).
  • PNAS -- Taylor and Bruns 94 (9):4510 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC plantbio.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The primary use of the term is among orchid hobbyists wishing to describe unusual species they grow, though it is also used to distinguish naturally occurring orchid species from horticulturally created hybrids.^ Specializing in species, Paphs, and unusual hybrids!
  • The Orchid Mall - Plant Sources 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidmall.com [Source type: General]

^ J & L Orchids A catalog representing specialization in growing rare species, particularly Pleurothallis, Masdevallias and Draculas and genera such as Dendrobium, Aerangis and Angraecum.
  • Orchids Information | Business.com 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Blue Moon Exotics, FL - Warm growing orchid species seed grown not collected.
  • The Orchid Mall - Plant Sources 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidmall.com [Source type: General]

A few of the most common orchids found in "casual" culture are:
.The National Orchid Garden in the Singapore Botanic Gardens is considered by some to be among the finest collections of orchids in cultivation open to the public.^ Before the introduction of exotic species in Europe, orchids were cultivated as garden plants for a long time.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When there are several societies in other cities nearby, they may have orchid shows open to the public and organize championships of culture and rarity.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inflorescence of some orchid species grow down, so when these are cultivated, they appear through the holes at the bottom of the pot.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Orchids, like tulips, have become a major market throughout the world.^ As mentioned above, orchid culture conditions vary throughout the world, both because different genera are adapted to different environments, and because of the different climatic environments under which they are cultured at present.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buyers now bid hundreds of dollars on new hybrids or improved ones.^ When two genera are used, a new genus name is created with parts of each original ones, for instance, the hybrid of a Laelia and a Cattleya is a Laeliocattleya .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sandstone Orchids, OK - Bulbophyllums, unusual species and new hybrids Santa Barbara Orchid Estate, CA - Home to one of the world's foremost collections of orchid species and hybrids.
  • The Orchid Mall - Plant Sources 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC www.orchidmall.com [Source type: General]

.Because of their apparent ease in hybridization, they are now becoming one of the most popular cut-flowers on the market.^ Most rare species are not on lists of endangered species because they have no commercial value and otherwise receive little attention because of their tiny flowers or difficulties with their culture.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The true value of orchids today comes from cut flower production, mostly hybrids of the genera Phalaenopsis , Cattleya , Dendrobium , Paphiopedilum and Cymbidium .
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capacity of orchids to interbreed is one of their characteristics most valued by growers because it enables them to obtain endless combinations of new colors and patterns.
  • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Genera

The following are amongst the most notable genera of the orchid family:

Gallery

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Number of orchids
  2. ^ Orchid Fact File, Royal Botanic gardens, Kew
  3. ^ CLASSIFICATION OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE AGE OF DNA DATA
  4. ^ Taxonomic exaggeration and its effects on orchid conservation
  5. ^ Leake JR. 2005. Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the ‘saprophytic’ plant myth. Mycologist 19: 113–122. (abstract)).
  6. ^ a b Santiago R. Ramírez, Barbara Gravendeel, Rodrigo B. Singer, Charles R. Marshall & Naomi E. Pierce (30 August 2007). "Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator". Nature 448: 1042–1042. doi:10.1038/nature06039. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v448/n7157/abs/nature06039.html. 
  7. ^ The origin and biogeography of Orchidaceae .In Pridgeon , A.M. , Cribb, PJ ., Chase,MW, and Rasmussen , F.eds .Genera orchidacearum .Vol. 2 . pp. 1-5 Oxford University Press , Oxford

References

.
  • Arditti, J. 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology.^ Joseph Arditti (1992) Fundamentals of Orchid Biology.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fundamentals of orchid biology.
    • von: Systematics and evolution of the genus Pleurothallis R. Br. (Orchidaceae)in the Greater Antilles 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC edoc.hu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives IV. Edited by J. Arditti.

    .John Wiley and Sons, New York.^ John Wiley & Sons.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0471549061.
  • Batygina, T. B., Bragina, E. A., and Vasilyeva, E. 2003. The reproductive system and germination in orchids. Acta Biol. Cracov. ser. Bot. 45: 21–34.
  • Berg Pana, H. 2005. Handbuch der Orchideen-Namen. Dictionary of Orchid Names. Dizionario dei nomi delle orchidee. .Ulmer, Stuttgart.
  • Judd, Walter S., Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, Michael J. Donoghue: Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Sinauer Associates Inc.^ Simpson, Michael G. Plant Systematics.

    2007. ISBN 0878934073.
  • Kreutz, C. A. J. 2004. Kompendium der Europaischen Orchideen. Catalogue of European Orchids. Kreutz Publishers, Landgraaf, Netherlands
  • Ramírez, S., et al. .Nature 448, 1042–1045 (2007).
  • D. Lee Taylor and Thomas D. Bruns: Ectomycorrhizal mutualism by two nonphotosynthetic orchids; Proc.^ Nature 448:1042-5 ↑ Brieger FG (1969) Patterns of evolutionary and geographical distribution in neotropical orchids.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Robert L. Dressler and Diego Bogarin C. (September 2007) "Two attractive new species of Sobralia from Panama," in: Orchids magazine of the Amer.
    • The Sobralia Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ By L. Lee Scott   |  Published 9/14/2007 More topics: Orchid .

    Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
    ; Vol. 94, pp. 4510–4515, April 1997 (on line).
  • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. .Version 7, May 2006 [and more or less continuously updated since].^ Rudolf Jenny and Lorenz Jenny (continuously updated) Litbul Version 8 , the Orchid Bibliography on CD. The current version references more than 75,000 documents.
    • The Sobralia Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some species grow continuously, more or less constantly all year, while some others have seasonal periods of growth and rest.
    • Orchid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 22 January 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Mobot.org. .http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.^ Link to abstract: http://www.botany.org/ajb/00029122_di001875.html .
    • The Stanhopea Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Link to abstract: http://www.botany.org/ajb/00029122_di001875.html [ Stanhopea oculata, wardii ] .
    • The Stanhopea Pages; The Literature; edited August 2009 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC autrevie.com [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2009-12-07
    .
     
  • Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, Schimper: Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen. 4. Auflage, Gustav Fischer, Jena 1900, p. 459.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

From orchid

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Orchidaceae
  1. a taxonomic family, within order Asparagales - the orchids.
Wikispecies-logo.svg
Wikispecies has information on:

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

The 74th plate from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur of 1904, showing various types of orchids.

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Name

Orchidaceae Juss. (1789)

References

.
  • Chase, M.W. 2009: A new name for the single species of Nohawilliamsia and corrections in Gomesa (Orchidaceae).^ A new name in Habenaria (Orchidaceae).
    • Orchid Literature 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.mu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Two new species of Orchidaceae from the Philippines.
    • Mark Clements - CPBR Staff 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.anbg.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New species of Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) from Ecuador.
    • Orchid Literature 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.orchids.mu [Source type: Academic]

    Phytotaxa, 1: 57–59.
  • Christenhusz, M.J.M. 2009: Index to new taxa and nomenclatural acts in Phytotaxa 1. Phytotaxa, 1: 60. PDF

Vernacular names

العربية: أوركيد
Aragonés: Orquidias
Bahasa Indonesia: Anggrek
Bahasa Melayu: Pokok Bunga Anggerik
Български: Орхидеи
Català: Orquídia
Česky: Vstavačovité
Dansk: Gøgeurt-familien
Deutsch: Orchideen
Eesti: käpalised, orhideelised
English: Orchids
Español: Orquídeas
Esperanto: Orkidacoj
Français: Orchidacées
Galego: Orquídea
Hrvatski: Orhideje
Italiano: Orchidacee
עברית: סחלביי
ქართული: ჯადვარისებრნი
Kreyòl ayisyen: Òkide
Lëtzebuergesch: Orchideeën
Lietuvių: Gegužraibiniai
Magyar: Kosborfélék
Malagasy: Orkide
မြန်မာဘာသာ: သစ္‌ခ္ဝ
Nederlands: Orchideeënfamilie
日本語: ラン科
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Orkidéfamilien
Polski: Storczykowate
Português: Orquídea
Română: Orhidee
Русский: Орхидные
Slovenčina: Vstavačovité
Suomi: Kämmekkäkasvit
Svenska: Orkidéer
ไทย: กล้วยไม้
Tiếng Việt: Hoa phong lan
Українська: Орхідні
中文: 蘭科
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Orchidaceae on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Orchidaceae
Fossil range:
 
Late Cretaceous - Recent
File:Haeckel
Color plate from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Juss.
Subfamilies

Orchidaceae (orchids) is a large flower-family which grows nearly all over the world. It has about 1,000 genera and more than 15,000 species. They are thought to be herbs. This is because they do not produce wood. Orchids can be found in almost every country in the world except for Antarctica.[1]

People have grown orchids for a great number of years. They grow orchids for show, for science, or for food (for example, vanilla).

Some orchids have very special ways of pollination. For example, the Lady's Slipper can trap insects and make them pollinate the flower. Another instance is the Austrian orchid, which grows underground and is pollinated by ants.

Distribution

Columbia and Ecuador have many different species. The Brazilian Atlantic forest has over 1005 hundred species.[2] Other places with great variety are the mountains in the south of the Himalayas in India and China. The mountains of Central America and southeastern Africa also have various species, especially the island of Madagascar.

Ecuador has 3459 species, the greatest number recorded.[3] After Ecuador is Columbia, which has 2723.[3] After Columbia is New Guinea, 2717, and Brazil, which has 2590 species in all.[3]

In warm places, where there is much grass, or in places where there is dry savanna and rocky fields, orchids are usually terrestrial (ground) plants.[4] They have firm underground roots, and sometimes have tubers to help protect themselves against cold or snow.[4] The tubers also help protect them against long drought or fire.[4] The cold would freeze the roots if they were not protected to store the nutrients they need for blooming in the spring.

It is thought that some species are becoming extinct in the wild. This is mainly because people cut too many forests for agriculture.[5] But most of the species thought to be almost extinct are some of the most commonly grown and sold orchids.[6] Most of the rarer species are not recorded as in danger because people are not interested in them. Because they are not costly, the government does not usually study wild orchids. Only academics find time to study them.[7]

References

  1. Dressler RL (1981). The Orchids: Natural History and Classification. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-87525-7.
  2. Guido Pabst & Fritz Dungs (1975) Orchidaceae Brasilienses vol. 1, Brucke-Verlag Kurt Schmersow, Hildesheim. ISBN 3871050106
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 R. Govaerts, M.A. Campacci (Brazil, 2005), D. Holland Baptista (Brazil, 2005), P.Cribb (K, 2003), Alex George (K, 2003), K.Kreuz (2004, Europe), J.Wood (K, 2003, Europe) World Checklist of Orchidaceae. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Checklists by region and Botanical countries. Accessed on 26 December 2008.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Karsten H. K. Wodrich e A. A. Balkema. (1997). Growing South African Indigenous Orchids. ISBN 978-90-5410-650-0.
  5. Leonid Averyanov, Phillip Cribb, Phan Le Loc, e Nguyen Tien Hiep. (2003). Slipper Orchids of Vietnam. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. ISBN 0-88192-592-6.
  6. Eric Hansen (2000). Orchid Fever. Methuen. ISBN 0-413-74750-6.
  7. Chan, C.L. (1994). The species concept, pp. 27 in Orchids Of Borneo. The Sabah Society and Kew: Bentham-Moxon Trust, Volume 1. ISBN 967-99947-3-2

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Orchidaceae, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message