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Military William Order
Militaire Willems-Orde
Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Knight's Cross (3rd class) of the Military William Order
Awarded by Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of the Netherlands
Type Chivalric order with four degrees
Motto VOOR MOED, BELEID EN TROUW (For Bravery, Leadership and Loyalty)
Awarded for Performing acts of excellent Bravery, Leadership and Loyalty in battle.
Status Currently constituted
Sovereign Her Majesty Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands
Chancellor Lieutenant General J.H. de Kleyn
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight Grand Cross
Knight Commander
Knight 3rd class
Knight 4th class
Orange Lanyard (unit award)
Statistics
Established 30 April 1815
First induction Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange
Last induction Captain Marco Kroon
Total inductees 5,875
Precedence
Next (higher) None (highest)
Next (lower) Cross for Courage and Fidelity
Neth odrwilliam rib.png
Ribbon bar of the Military William Order

The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William (Dutch: Militaire Willems-Orde, abbreviation: MWO), is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Order's motto is Voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw (For Bravery, Leadership and Loyalty). The chivalric order was established on 30 April 1815 by King William I and was presented for feats of excellent bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration to senior military officers. Comparable with the French Légion d’Honneur but far less awarded, the Military William Order is a chivalry order of merit open to everyone regardless of rank and nobility, and not only to Dutch military but also foreigners. To date the Order is extremely rarely awarded and only for excellent bravery in battle. In the spring of 1940 it was decided that civilians would receive the Military Order of William for heroic acts in the resistance. The chancellor of the order and the government seem to have been unaware that the first civilian was awarded this order in 1815. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, several men and one woman from the resistance were awarded the Military Order of William.

Contents

History

King William II as a Knight Grand Cross

Most knighthoods of the Military Order of William were awarded in 1815 and shortly afterwards to military of the Allies that fought Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, in total over 1,000 knightohood were awarded at this time. The Grand Cross was awarded to Prince William of Orange, the Duke of Wellington, Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt, Graf von Bülow-Dennewitz and Graf von Gneisenau.

During the 19th century the Military William Order was awarded to military serving in the campaign against the Belgian Revolution and military serving in the Netherlands East Indies, mostly in the Aceh War. Until 1940, a total of 5,874 persons had been awarded the Military Order of William. In 1940, the Order was awarded to soldiers who had served with extreme valour in the defence of Netherlands from the May 10 attack by Nazi-Germany. In 1944 and 1945, with the liberation of the Netherlands from German occupation, the Military William Order was again awarded, this time to Netherlands citizens as well as members of the Allied Forces for deeds of gallantry. Of the 3,500 servicemen who served in the Netherlands United Nations Detachment in Korea, three servicemen - two posthumously - were admitted to the Order. Since 1940, 199 names have been added to the register of the Military Order of William. The latest conflict that has been cause for the honour to be awarded is the ongoing war in Afghanistan.

Grades

By 1945, the following classes of the Military William Order were in existence.

  • Knight 1st Class or Grand Cross - wears the badge on a sash on the right shoulder, plus the star on the left chest;
  • Knight 2nd Class or Commander - wears the badge on a necklet, plus an identical breast cross on the left chest;
  • Knight 3rd Class - wears the badge on a ribbon with rosette on the left chest;
  • Knight 4th Class - wears the badge on a ribbon on the left chest.

The Grand Cross could also be awarded as an exceptional presentation to heads of state which had displayed feats of loyalty to The Netherlands during wartime. Only US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the British King George VI and Queen Wilhelmina of The Netherlands were conferred such an honour. In the 19th century, the Grand Cross was often conferred on foreign monarchs as a mere mark of respect.

The 4th Class could also be awarded as a unit presentation to military commands which had displayed feats of gallantry during wartime.

Knight Grand Cross
(badge with sash)
Knight Grand Cross
(accompanying star)
Knight Commander
(badge with necklet and breast cross)
Knight 3rd Class
(badge with ribbon)
Knight 4th Class
(Badge with ribbon)
Grootlint van de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Ster van de Militaire Willemsorde.jpg
Commandeur in de Militaire Willems-Orde beter lint.jpg
Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Ridder in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Ribbon Bar
Baton Grootkruis in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Baton van een Commandeur in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Baton van een Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg
Baton van een Ridder in de Militaire Willems-Orde.jpg


Insignia

The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the 4th Class and in gilt for higher classes; a green enamelled Burgundy Cross appears between the arms of the Maltese Cross. The obverse bears a golden firesteel at the centre, and the motto Voor Moed - Beleid - Trouw (For Bravery - Leadership - Loyalty) on the arms of the Maltese Cross. The reverse central disc bears a crowned monogram "W" (for King William I) surrounded by a laurel wreath. The badge is topped by a crown.

The star of the Grand Cross is a silver, 8-pointed star with straight rays; the obverse of the badge of the Order, minus the crown, appears at its centre.

The breast cross of the Commander is completely identical to the obverse of the badge of the Order.

The ribbon of the Order is orange (Royal House of Orange) with blue (Nassau-blue) stripes near the border.

Unit award

Orange Lanyard
Military William Order awarded to the Polish 1st Independent Parachute Brigade, 31 May 2006

To be awarded the Military William Order a military unit must distinguish itself in battle to such a degree as would warrant the personal presentation of the Military William Order. The unit's Regimental Colour are decorated with the badge of the 4th Class itself, which hangs from the finial of the pike. The version of the Military William Order for unit members is known as the Orange Lanyard. Only those who served in a military unit at the particular time of action are entitled to wear the Orange Lanyard.

The Orange Lanyard is worn as a cord around the right shoulder and can be worn simultaneously with the French or Belgian Fourragère of the Croix de guerre. The Orange Lanyard is considered a permanent decoration and is worn for the duration of a military member's career.

Six elements of the Netherlands armed forces were decorated as a consequence of their actions during the Second World War: the Naval Air Arm of the Royal Netherlands Navy; the Submarine Service of the Royal Netherlands Navy; the Marine Corps of the Royal Netherlands Navy; the Royal Netherlands 'Prinses Irene' Brigade, whose traditions are continued by the 'Prinses Irene' Fusilier Guards Regiment; the Military Air Arm in the Netherlands and the Military Air Arm of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army, whose traditions both are continued by the Royal Netherlands Air Force. Since 1972, the Military Order of William has been part of the colours of the 'Van Heutz' Regiment of the Royal Netherlands Army. This regiment continues the traditions of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army KNIL. Three KNIL units, namely the 7th Field Battalion, the 3rd Field Battalion and the Marechaussee Corps of Aceh and Dependencies were awarded the Military William Order in 1849, 1877 and 1930 respectively.

Two foreign military units have received the Military William Order:

Current living members of the Order

Below a list of the names of the still living knights, in chronologic order and with between brackets the date when they were allowed to the order:

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Dutch knights

  • Frits Jan Willem den Ouden (12 February 1942)
  • Albert Hoeben (28 May 1947)
  • Cornelis Pieter van den Hoek (30 Augustus 1948)
  • Hendrik Geert de Jonge (30 Augustus 1948)
  • Pierre Louis, Baron d’Aulnis de Bourouill (7 January 1950)
  • Mrs. Jos Gemmeke (8 July 1950)
  • Giovanni Narcis Hakkenberg (6 March 1951)
  • Tivadar Emile Spier (14 May 1955)
  • Marco Kroon (29 May 2009)

Canadian knights

  • Charly Forbes (8 December 1945)

American knight

  • Edward Simons Fulmer (17 October 1946)

The Military William Order in the 21st century

Knight 4th class medal (post 2000 model)

Currently (2009) only eleven Knights of the Military William Order are still alive and ten of them are over 75 years of age. The last ceremony the Knights met was on 29 May 2009 at the Binnenhof in The Hague when Her Majesty Queen Beatrix awarded Marco Kroon, Platoon Commander with the Korps Commandotroepen, Knight in the Military William Order 4th class for conspicuous bravery, leadership and devotion to duty. [1] He is being honoured for service in Afghanistan from March until August 2006.

Privileges

Members of the Military William Order are awarded certain privileges:

  • When wearing the decorations, a member must be saluted by all Dutch military personnel regardless of rank or branch.
  • Once a year all members of the Order are invited to the palace by the monarch on the so-called Ridderdag (Knights day).
  • Individual members of the Order are granted an annual pension by the Dutch state
  • Members of the Order are granted VIP seats during military ceremonies, the annual address of parliament by the monarch and during state funerals.

External links

See also

References


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