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Orders of magnitude (mass): Wikis

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Iron weights up to 50 kilograms depicted in Dictionnaire encyclopédique de l'épicerie et des industries annexes.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36kg and 1053 kg.

Contents

10-25 kg or less

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−36 1.783 × 10−36 kg One eV/c², the mass equivalent of one electronvolt of energy.
3.6 × 10−36 kg Electron neutrino, upper limit on mass (2 eV/c²)
10−35    
10−34    
10−33    
10−32    
10−31 9.11 × 10−31 kg Electron (511 keV/c²), the lightest elementary particle with a measured nonzero rest mass.
10−30    
10−29    
10−28 1.9 × 10−28 kg Muon (106 MeV/c²)
10−27
yoctogram (yg)
1.661 × 10−27 kg Atomic mass unit (u) or dalton (Da)
1.673 × 10−27 kg Proton (938.3 MeV/c²)
1.674 × 10−27 kg Hydrogen atom, the lightest atom
1.675 × 10−27 kg Neutron (939.6 MeV/c²)
10−26 1.15 × 10−26 kg Lithium atom (6.941 u)
2.99 × 10−26 kg Water molecule (18.015 u)
7.95 × 10−26 kg Titanium atom (47.867 u)
10−25 1.79 × 10−25 kg Silver atom (107.8682 u)
1.6 × 10−25 kg Z boson (91.2 GeV/c²)
3.1 × 10−25 kg Top quark (173 GeV/c²), the heaviest known elementary particle
3.2 × 10−25 kg Caffeine molecule (194 u)
3.45 × 10−25 kg Lead-208 atom, the heaviest stable isotope known

10-25 to 10-19 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−24
zeptogram (zg)
1.2 × 10−24 kg Buckyball molecule (720 u)
10−23    
10−22 1.1 × 10−22 kg Haemoglobin A molecule in blood
10−21
attogram (ag)
   
10−20 10−20 kg A small virus
10−19    

10-18 to 10-13 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−18
femtogram (fg)
   
10−17 1.1 × 10−17 kg Mass equivalent of one joule
4.6 × 10−17 kg Mass equivalent of a calorie
10−16 7 × 10−16 kg Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium
10−15
picogram (pg)
   
10−14    
10−13    

10-12 to 10-7 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−12
nanogram (ng)
10−12 kg Average human cell (1 nanogram)
10−11    
10−10 3.5 × 10−10 kg Small grain of sand (0.063 mm diameter, 350 nanograms)
10−9
microgram (µg)
2 × 10−9 kg Mass of human ovum; uncertainty in the mass of the prototype kilogram (2 micrograms)
10−8 2.2 × 10−8 kg Planck mass
10−7    

10-6 to one kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
10−6
milligram (mg)
1–2 × 10−6 kg Typical mass of a mosquito (1–2 milligrams)
10−5
centigram (cg)
1.1 × 10−5 kg Large grain of sand (2 mm diameter, 11 milligrams)
0.8–2.0 × 10−5 kg Mass of a house fly (Musca domestica, 8–20 milligrams)
10−4
decigram (dg)
1.5 × 10−4 kg Typical amount of caffeine in one cup of coffee (150 milligrams)
2 × 10−4 kg Metric carat (200 milligrams)
10−3
gram (g)
10−3 kg One cubic centimeter of water (1 gram)
8 × 10−3 kg Typical coins: euro (7.5 grams) and U.S. dollar (8.1 grams)
10−2
decagram (dag)
1.2–4 × 10−2 kg Adult mouse (Mus musculus, 12–40 grams)
2.4 × 10−2 kg Amount of ethanol in one drink (24 grams)
2.8 × 10−2 kg Ounce (avoirdupois) (28.35 grams)
10−1
hectogram   (hg)
0.15 kg Human kidney (150 grams)
0.454 kg Pound (avoirdupois) (454 grams)

one kg to 105 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1 kg
kilogram (kg)
1 kg One litre of water, approx.
3 kg Newborn human baby; smallest breed of dog (Yorkshire terrier)
4.0 kg Women's shot put
5–7 kg Housecat
7.26 kg Men's shot put
101 10–30 kg A CRT computer monitor or television set
15–20 kg Medium-sized dog
70 kg Adult human; large dog
102 180–250 kg Mature lion, female (180 kg) and male (250 kg)
480 kg Grand piano
700 kg Dairy cow
907.18474 kg 1 short ton (2000 pounds - U.S.)
103
megagram (Mg)
1000 kg Metric ton/tonne; one cubic metre of water
1016.0469088 kg Ton (British) / 1 long ton (2240 pounds - U.S.)
800–1600 kg Typical passenger cars
3000–7000 kg Adult elephant
5000 kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of white dwarf material (5 tonne)
104 1.1 × 104 kg Hubble Space Telescope (11 tonnes)
1.2 × 104 kg Largest elephant on record (12 tonnes)
1.4 × 104 kg Big Ben (Bell) (14 tonnes)
4.4 × 104 kg Usual maximum gross mass (truck + load combined) of a Semi-trailer truck (44 tonnes)
6.0 × 104 kg Largest Meteorite, Hoba West Meteorite (60 tonnes)
7.3 × 104 kg Largest dinosaur, Argentinosaurus (73 tonnes)[1]
105 1.8 × 105 kg Largest animal, the blue whale (180 tonnes)
1.87 × 105 kg International Space Station (187 tonnes)
6 × 105 kg Antonov An-225 (the world's heaviest aircraft) maximum take-off mass (600 tonnes); payload: 250 tonnes

106 to 1011 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
106
gigagram (Gg)
1.25 × 106 kg Trunk of the Giant Sequoia tree named General Sherman (1250 tonnes)
1.5 × 106 kg Individual gate of the Thames Barrier
2.041 × 106 kg Launch mass of the Space Shuttle (2041 tonnes)
6 × 106 kg Largest clonal colony, the quaking aspen named Pando (largest living organism) (6000 tonnes)
107 1.1 × 107 kg Annual production of Darjeeling tea (11,000 tonnes)
2.6 × 107 kg RMS Titanic (26,000 tonnes)
9.97 × 107 kg Heaviest train ever (99,700 tonnes): Australia's BHP Iron Ore, 2001 record
108 6.5 × 108 kg Largest ship, Knock Nevis, when fully loaded (650,000 tonnes)
109
teragram (Tg)
4.3 × 109 kg Amount of matter converted into energy by the Sun each second
6 × 109 kg Great Pyramid of Giza
1010
6 × 1010 kg Amount of concrete in the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest concrete structure
1011 2 × 1011 kg Amount of water stored in London storage reservoirs (0.2 km³)
3 × 1011 kg Total mass of the human world population
5 × 1011 kg Total biomass of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), thought to be the most plentiful creature on the planet

1012 to 1017 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1012
petagram (Pg)
3.91 × 1012 kg World oil production in 2001
5.5 × 1012 kg A teaspoon (5 ml) of neutron star material (5000 million tonne)
~1 × 1012 kg The mass of a primordial black hole with an evaporation time equal to the age of the universe
1013    
1014 2–3 × 1014 kg Amount of rock that exploded in the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption in 1815
1015
exagram (Eg)
1 × 1015 kg Estimated total world coal reserves economically accessible using current mining technology
1016 1 × 1016 kg 951 Gaspra, the first asteroid ever to be closely approached by a spacecraft
1017 1.6 × 1017 kg Prometheus, a shepherd satellite for the inner edge of Saturn's F Ring

1018 to 1023 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1018
zettagram (Zg)
5 × 1018 kg Earth's atmosphere
5.7 × 1018 kg Hyperion, a moon of Saturn
1019 3 × 1019 kg 3 Juno, the fifth largest asteroid in the main Asteroid Belt
3 × 1019 kg The entire mass of all of the material in the Rings of Saturn
1020 8.7 × 1020 kg Ceres, dwarf planet within the Asteroid Belt
1021
yottagram (Yg)
1.35 × 1021 kg Earth's oceans
1.6 × 1021 kg Charon, the largest moon of Pluto
2.3 × 1021 kg Total mass of the Asteroid Belt
1022 1.3 × 1022 kg Pluto
1.5 × 1022 kg Triton, largest moon of Neptune
7.35 × 1022 kg Earth's Moon
1023 1.3 × 1023 kg Titan, largest moon of Saturn
1.5 × 1023 kg Ganymede, largest moon of Jupiter
3.2 × 1023 kg Mercury
6.4 × 1023 kg Mars

1024 to 1029 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1024 4.9 × 1024 kg Venus
6.0 × 1024 kg The Earth
1025 3 × 1025 kg Oort cloud[2]
8.7 × 1025 kg Uranus
1026 1.0 × 1026 kg Neptune
5.7 × 1026 kg Saturn
1027 1.9 × 1027 kg Jupiter
1028 1–17 × 1028 kg Brown dwarf stars
1029 3.4 × 1029 kg Barnard's Star, a nearby red dwarf star

1030 to 1035 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1030 2 × 1030 kg Sun (one solar mass or M = 1.98892 × 1030 kg)
2.9 × 1030 kg Chandrasekhar limit (1.44 M)
1031 4 × 1031 kg Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star (20 M)[3]
1032 2 × 1032 kg to 3 × 1032 kg Pistol Star, one of the most massive known stars (100[4] to 150[5] M)
6 × 1032 kg to 8 × 1032 kg Hyades star cluster (300 to 400 M)[6]
1033 1.6 × 1033 kg Pleiades star cluster (800 M)
1034 2 × 1034 kg lower mass range of a Giant molecular cloud;
tens of thousands to millions of solar masses
1035 7.3 × 1035 kg Jeans mass of a Giant molecular cloud at 100K and density 30 atoms per cc;[7]
possible example: Orion Molecular Cloud Complex

1036 to 1041 kg

Factor (kg) Value Item
1036 2.4 × 1036 kg The Gould Belt of stars, including the Sun (1.2 × 106 M)[8]
7.4±0.4 × 1036 kg The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, associated with the radio source Sagittarius A* (3.7±0.2 × 106 M)[9]
1037    
1038   Typical mass of a globular cluster
1039    
1040 3.6 × 1040 kg Mass of OJ287, the largest measured supermassive black hole
1041 3.6 × 1041 kg Visible mass of the Milky Way galaxy

1042 kg and greater

Factor (kg) Value Item
1042 1.2 × 1042 kg Milky Way galaxy (5.8 × 1011 M)[10]
2.57 × 1042 kg Local Group of galaxies, including the Milky Way (1.29±0.14 × 1012 M)[10]
1043    
1044    
1045 2 × 1045 kg Local or Virgo Supercluster of galaxies, including the Local Group (1 × 1015 M)[11]
1046    
1047    
1048    
1049    
1050    
1051    
1052 3 × 1052 kg Mass of the observable universe

This series on orders of magnitude does not have a range of larger masses

Orders of magnitude
area angular velocity charge currency data density energy
force frequency length magnetic field mass numbers power
pressure specific energy density specific heat capacity speed temperature time volume
Conversion of units
physical unit SI SI base unit SI derived unit SI prefix Planck units

Notes

  1. ^ Mazzetta, Gerardo V.; Christiansen, Per; Fariña, Richard A. (2004). "Giants and Bizarres: Body Size of Some Southern South American Cretaceous Dinosaurs" (PDF). Historical Biology 65: 1–13. doi:10.1080/08912960410001715132. http://www.miketaylor.org.uk/tmp/papers/Mazzetta-et-al_04_SA-dino-body-size.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-23.  
  2. ^ Weissman, Paul R. (1983). "The mass of the Oort cloud". Astronomy and Astrophysics 118(1): 90–94. Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  3. ^ Kaler, Jim. "Betelgeuse" (2008). Stars. University of Illinois. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  4. ^ Dejoie, Joyce; Truelove, Elizabeth (May 2000). "What's the biggest star we know?" StarChild. NASA. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  5. ^ "Hubble identifies what may be the most luminous star known" (1997). HubbleSite. Retrieved on 2009-02-08.
  6. ^ The Astrophysics Spectator: Open Star Clusters. Retrieved 2008-09-15
  7. ^ The Astrophysics Spectator: Molecular Clouds. Retrieved 2008-09-15
  8. ^ Olano, C. A. (August 1982). "On a model of local gas related to Gould's belt" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics 112(2): 195–208.
  9. ^ Ghez, A. M.; Salim, S.; Hornstein, S. D.; Tanner, A.; Lu, J. R.; Morris, M.; Becklin, E. E.; Duchêne, G. (2005). "Stellar orbits around the galactic center black hole". The Astrophysical Journal 620: 744–757, doi:10.1086/427175.
  10. ^ a b Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics 49(1): 3–18. doi:10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6.
  11. ^ Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Einasto, J.; Tago, E.; Martínez, V. J.; Starck, J.-L.; Müller, V.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Gramann, M.; Hütsi, G. (December 2007). "The richest superclusters: I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics 476(2): 697–711. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078037.

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