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Structure of the methane molecule: the simplest hydrocarbon compound
.Organic Chemistry is a discipline within chemistry that involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.^ A beginners' guide to the chemistry of Carbon compounds .
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction to Organic Chemistry 2 The hydrocarbons 3 Sources of the hydrocarbons.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Reviews synthesis, reactions, properties, structures, and applications of compounds, with references to original literature.
  • Selected Resources for: Chemistry, Organic | University of Minnesota Libraries 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.lib.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These compounds may contain any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon and sulfur.^ Oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and the halogens are the most common atoms that replace hydrogens.
  • A Brief Intoduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.files.chem.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It may also contain atoms of other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine.
  • A Brief Intoduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.files.chem.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The most famous compounds containing Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen are the Carbohydrates .
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2][3]
.Organic compounds are structurally diverse, and the range of application of organic compounds is enormous.^ Hydrocarbons structure and nomenclature of hydrocarbons, What Is an Organic Compound?
  • Organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ Students can use this ball-and-stick set to construct realistic scale models illustrating the molecular structures of thousands of organic compounds.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ Ideally, every organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.They form the basis of, or are important constituents of many products (plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosives, paints, to name but a few) and, with very few exceptions, they form the basis of all earthly life processes.^ The book introduces a selection of important heterocyclic compounds and the vital role that they play in life, medicine and industry.

^ This book provides a clear, concise introduction to the chemistry of organosulfur compounds, many of which are important to life.

^ In industry, many of these unsaturated hydrocarbons are obtained by the fractional distillation of products formed by cracking petroleum oil fractions.

.Organic chemistry, like all areas of science, evolves with particular waves of innovation.^ Organic chemistry: a background for the life sciences .
  • Organic chemistry: structure, mechanism, and synthesis & 1 other title - Copyright Info 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Organic Chemistry more books like this .
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ Research Interest: the interfacial area between organic chemistry and materials science, including Polymerization Methodology, Molecular Electronics, Photorefractive and Electro-Optic Polymers, Functional polymers containing metal complexes, and Supramolecular Assembly of Nanostructured Materials .
  • Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemistry.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

These innovations are motivated by practical considerations as well as theoretical innovations. .The area is, however, underpinned financially by the very large applications in polymer science, pharmaceutical chemistry, and agrochemicals.^ Research Interest: the interfacial area between organic chemistry and materials science, including Polymerization Methodology, Molecular Electronics, Photorefractive and Electro-Optic Polymers, Functional polymers containing metal complexes, and Supramolecular Assembly of Nanostructured Materials .
  • Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemistry.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Contains synthesis and characterization of new organosilicon compounds, applications in polymer and materials science, and a summary of the latest research results.

^ The organic chemistry of transition metals is then presented by class of metal complex, with many examples of applications in the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceuticals, polymers, and materials.

Contents

History

.At the beginning of the nineteenth century, chemists generally thought that compounds obtained from living organisms were too complex to be obtained synthetically.^ Reviews, discussions, books, technical reports, and conference proceedings of general interest to organic chemists are included here, as are studies of organic compounds of unknown structure.
  • Organic Sections of Chemical Abstracts 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compounds "T" to "W" are directly or indirectly involved with which two characteristics of living organisms?

^ The results is a mine of information for synthetic chemists working in industry and academia faced with the question of where the toxic phosgene can be replaced by an unproblematic compound, including the safety phosgenation.

.According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a "vital force". They named these compounds "organic" and directed their investigations toward inorganic materials that seemed more easily studied.^ Naming an organic compound .

^ Octane is used as a fuel and as a raw material for building more complex organic molecules.
  • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Physical organic studies of organometallic compounds and organic natural products are found in Section 26 and 29-34.
  • Organic Sections of Chemical Abstracts 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cas.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Over the course of the first half of the nineteenth century, it was realized that organic compounds could in fact be synthesized in the laboratory.^ That, and the fact that the addition of one atom of a different element makes an entirely new compound is the reason that there are millions of organic compounds in the world.
  • A Brief Intoduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.files.chem.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ We now know that any organic compound can be synthesized in the laboratory (although this can be extremely difficult in practice!
  • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In fact, a compound may be synthesized in a laboratory, be of a type that never, in the history of the earth, has been found associated with an organism, and still be called an organic compound.

Around 1816 Michel Chevreul started a study of soaps made from various fats and alkali. He separated the different acids that, in combination with the alkali, produced the soap. .Since these were all individual compounds, he demonstrated that it was possible to make a chemical change in various fats (which traditionally come from organic sources), producing new compounds, without "vital force". In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler produced the organic chemical urea (carbamide), a constituent of urine, from the inorganic ammonium cyanate NH4OCN, in what is now called the Wöhler synthesis.^ Organic Syntheses consists of protocols for the synthesis of useful chemical compounds.

^ These compounds are isomers and the phenomenon is called Isomerism .
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These compounds are now called alkenes .

.Although Wöhler was, at this time as well as afterwards, cautious about claiming that he had thereby destroyed the theory of vital force, historians have looked to this event as the turning point.^ The first step in the decline of the vital force theory occurred in 1828, when Friederich Wohler synthesized urea from inorganic starting materials.

^ This inevitably led to the disappearance of "vital force" from the list of theories that had any relevance to chemistry, although it did not lead to the death of the theory, which still had proponents more than 90 years later.

^ Neither Wohler nor his contemporaries claimed that his results disproved the vital force theory.

.A great next step was when in 1856 William Henry Perkin, while trying to manufacture quinine, again accidentally came to manufacture the organic dye now called Perkin's mauve, which by generating a huge amount of money greatly increased interest in organic chemistry.^ Featured Sites Sir William Henry Perkins is considered the father of the modern dye industry due to an accidental discovery while trying to synthesize the antimalaria drug quinine.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is lots of student-generated work, and we include pericyclics, physical organic, ethics, bio-organic chemistry, and a great deal more spectroscopic identification.
  • http://college.cengage.com/chemistry/resources/boc/instructors/others.html 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC college.cengage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : BIOTECHNOLOGY Currently, in developed countries, most energy sources and vast numbers of chemicals and manufactured products are derived from gas, oil, and coal.

.The crucial breakthrough for the organic chemistry was the concept of chemical structure, developed independently and simultaneously by Friedrich August Kekule and Archibald Scott Couper in 1858. Both men suggested that tetravalent carbon atoms could link to each other to form a carbon lattice, and that the detailed patterns of atomic bonding could be discerned by skillful interpretations of appropriate chemical reactions.^ The ease with which carbon atoms form bonds to other carbon atoms.

^ There are many other named reactions in organic chemistry.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words Carbon combines with other Carbon atoms.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

.The history of organic chemistry continued with the discovery of petroleum and its separation into fractions according to boiling ranges.^ "Smith's Organic Chemistry" continues to breathe new life into the organic chemistry world.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ Alkanes are separated in an oil refinery by fractional distillation and processed into many different products .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Ninth Edition of Organic Chemistry" continues Solomons-Fryhle's tradition of excellence in teaching and preparing students for success in the organic classroom and beyond.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

.The conversion of different compound types or individual compounds by various chemical processes created the petroleum chemistry leading to the birth of the petrochemical industry, which successfully manufactured artificial rubbers, the various organic adhesives, the property-modifying petroleum additives, and plastics.^ That, and the fact that the addition of one atom of a different element makes an entirely new compound is the reason that there are millions of organic compounds in the world.
  • A Brief Intoduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.files.chem.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Process development bridges the gap between the laboratory synthesis of an organic compound and its industrial manufacture on a large scale.

^ MSDS's from Fisher Scientific : Search either the Acros Organic or Fisher Chemical Catalog for the compound; the description will include a choice for MSDS. Cornell University MSDS collection, searchable by typing in the name.
  • Organic Web Sites 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC pages.towson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pharmaceutical industry began in the last decade of the 19th century when acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly referred to as aspirin) manufacture was started in Germany by Bayer.^ The detailed coverage in this book, coupled with the many references to recent work, will ensure that it is welcomed as a reference by synthetic chemists in, for example, the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, plastic and detergent industries.

^ Over the last two decades, only soluble organic molecules derived from the gas phase have commonly been measured in cloudwater.
  • IGAC | Organic compounds in clouds: Present knowledge and future perspectives 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.igac.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, in the 19th century, German, Swedish, an Swiss chemists recognized that succinic acid was present in amber, a translucent fossil resin (or waste secretion) which comes from trees.
  • Organic Chemistry in Nature CHEM 312 Project 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC facultystaff.vwc.edu [Source type: Academic]

The first time a drug was systematically improved was with arsphenamine (Salvarsan). .Numerous derivatives of the dangerously toxic atoxyl were examined by Paul Ehrlich and his group, and the compound with best effectiveness and toxicity characteristics was selected for production.^ These "select" hydrogens are those in the carboxyl group (-COOH) The presence of one or more of these groups, therefore, causes the compound to belong to the organic acids.
  • A Brief Intoduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.files.chem.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Although early examples of organic reactions and applications were often serendipitous, the latter half of the 19th century witnessed highly systematic studies of organic compounds.^ We now know that any organic compound can be synthesized in the laboratory (although this can be extremely difficult in practice!
  • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Often it is difficult to represent an organic compound on paper for reasons other than difficulties in correctly representing bond orientations .

^ Reviews, discussions, books, technical reports, and conference proceedings of general interest to organic chemists are included here, as are studies of organic compounds of unknown structure.
  • Organic Sections of Chemical Abstracts 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Beginning in the 20th century, progress of organic chemistry allowed the synthesis of highly complex molecules via multistep procedures.^ Transition Metals in the Synthesis of Complex Organic Molecules, 2nd ed.

^ Octane is used as a fuel and as a raw material for building more complex organic molecules.
  • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This proven and well-tested laboratory manual for organic chemistry students contains procedures for both miniscale (also known as small scale) and microscale users.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

.Concurrently, polymers and enzymes were understood to be large organic molecules, and petroleum was shown to be of biological origin.^ He published more than 400 papers and was in large part responsible for the establishment of the field of organic polymers.
  • Special Lectureships in Organic Chemistry / Chemistry at Illinois 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chemistry.illinois.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The process of finding new synthesis routes for a given compound is called total synthesis.^ Contains synthesis and characterization of new organosilicon compounds, applications in polymer and materials science, and a summary of the latest research results.

^ Deals with the development of effective routes to known materials and synthesis of new materials.
  • Selected Resources for: Chemistry, Organic | University of Minnesota Libraries 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.lib.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Process development bridges the gap between the laboratory synthesis of an organic compound and its industrial manufacture on a large scale.

.Total synthesis of complex natural compounds started with urea, increased in complexity to glucose and terpineol, and in 1907, total synthesis was commercialized the first time by Gustaf Komppa with camphor.^ Total synthesis of natural products.
  • Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemistry.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To make the complex strategies more accessible, especially to the novice, each total synthesis is analyzed retrosynthetically.

^ The first step in the decline of the vital force theory occurred in 1828, when Friederich Wohler synthesized urea from inorganic starting materials.

.Pharmaceutical benefits have been substantial, for example cholesterol-related compounds have opened ways to synthesis of complex human hormones and their modified derivatives.^ The Heck reaction provides a method for coupling an aryl halide to an alkene, for example in the synthesis of the pharmaceutical naproxen : .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following compound, for example, is a derivative of pentane because the longest chain contains five carbon atoms.

^ This section includes the synthesis, purification, stabilization, and reactions of benzene and its derivatives, and of condensed carbocyclic compounds containing at least one fused benzene ring.
  • Organic Sections of Chemical Abstracts 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the start of the 20th century, complexity of total syntheses has been increasing, with examples such as lysergic acid and vitamin B12.^ Subsequent chapters demonstrate the use of sugars in chiral catalysis, their roles as convenient starting materials for complex syntheses involving multiple stereogenic centers, and syntheses for monosaccharides.
  • CRC Press Online - Book: The Organic Chemistry of Sugars 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.crcpress.com [Source type: Academic]

Today's targets feature tens of stereogenic centers that must be synthesized correctly with asymmetric synthesis.
.Biochemistry, the chemistry of living organisms, their structure and interactions in vitro and inside living systems, has only started in the 20th century, opening up a new chapter of organic chemistry with enormous scope.^ Science > Chemistry > Organic Science > Life Sciences > Biochemistry Education Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Laboratory manuals browse all subjects Our Money-Back Guarantee .
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ "Smith's Organic Chemistry" continues to breathe new life into the organic chemistry world.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ Comprehensive and up to date, graduates and researchers in a wide range of fields, particularly those in organometallic and organic chemistry and materials science, will welcome this book.

.Biochemistry, like organic chemistry, primarily focuses on compounds containing carbon as well.^ A beginners' guide to the chemistry of Carbon compounds .
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic compounds are compounds with carbon.
  • Chemistry: Organic Nomenclature | MindBites.com 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.mindbites.com [Source type: General]

^ Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only hydrogen and carbon.
  • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

Characterization

.Since organic compounds often exist as mixtures, a variety of techniques have also been developed to assess purity, especially important being chromatography techniques such as HPLC and gas chromatography.^ Over 10 Million organic Compounds exist.
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The traditionally used analytical technique for organic compound speciationsolvent extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysisfails to identify most of the water soluble organic compounds (WSOC), since this method is not aimed at analyzing very polar species.
  • IGAC | Organic compounds in clouds: Present knowledge and future perspectives 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.igac.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because organic compounds are crucial to the existence of life, and resonance is very important to understanding the chemistry of organic compounds , resonance, not surprisingly, plays important roles in biological systems.

.Traditional methods of separation include distillation, crystallization, and solvent extraction.^ Topics covered include: safety in the laboratory; environmentally responsible handling of chemicals and solvents; crystallization; distillation; chromatographic methods; extraction and work-up; structure determination by spectroscopic methods; searching the chemical literature; laboratory notebooks; writing a report; hints on the synthesis of organic compounds; disposal and destruction of dangerous materials; drying and purifying solvents.

.Organic compounds were traditionally characterized by a variety of chemical tests, called "wet methods," but such tests have been largely displaced by spectroscopic or other computer-intensive methods of analysis.^ In fact, a compound may be synthesized in a laboratory, be of a type that never, in the history of the earth, has been found associated with an organism, and still be called an organic compound.

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH, is present in a variety of common chemical substances.

^ Most useful is the multi-page table on Physical Constants of Organic Compounds, but there are also many other useful tables.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

[4] Listed in approximate order of utility, the chief analytical methods are:
.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most commonly used technique, often permitting complete assignment of atom connectivity and even stereochemistry using correlation spectroscopy.^ The TOC of each of the three fractions is determined, and organic functional group analysis is then performed on the separated fractions by means of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (PNMR).
    • IGAC | Organic compounds in clouds: Present knowledge and future perspectives 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.igac.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Featured Sites Richard Ernst (ETH, Zurich) was awarded the 1991 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy."
    • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ NMR theory can be complex, but out of that complexity rises a host of useful NMR techniques.
    • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The principle constituent atoms of organic chemistry - hydrogen and carbon - exist naturally with NMR-responsive isotopes, respectively 1H and 13C.
  • Elemental analysis: A destructive method used to determine the elemental composition of a molecule.^ H NMR analysis of hydrogen on a primary carbon vs a tertiary carbon .

    ^ Organic molecules are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen .

    ^ (Hydrogen lunges for the organic molecule.
    • Sizzling Organic Chemistry Dramas 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.heptune.com [Source type: Original source]

    .See also mass spectrometry, below.
  • Mass spectrometry indicates the molecular weight of a compound and, from the fragmentation patterns, its structure.^ A suffix indicating a molecular fragment or group; e.
    • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Predict the name, draw the structural formula, and calculate the molar mass of the compound formed by the addition of benzene to ethene.

    ^ Courses/BiochemMols/FcnlGrps/FcnlGrps.html There are many patterns and similarities in molecular structures, all controlled by the basic ideas of VSEPR theory.
    • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .High resolution mass spectrometry can usually identify the exact formula of a compound and is used in lieu of elemental analysis.^ Predict the name, draw the structural formula, and calculate the molar mass of the compound formed by the addition of benzene to ethene.

    ^ Organic solvents are high on the list of toxic compounds due to the problems in containing volatile compounds and the sheer large volume of them used in industry.
    • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Use the fact that carbon is usually tetravalent to predict the formula of ethane, the alkane that contains two carbon atoms.

    .In former times, mass spectrometry was restricted to neutral molecules exhibiting some volatility, but advanced ionization techniques allows one to obtain the "mass spec" of virtually any organic compound.
  • Crystallography is an unambiguous method for determining molecular geometry, the proviso being that single crystals of the material must be available and the crystal must be representative of the sample.^ An organic compound with molecules containing one or more double bonds.
    • General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Introduction to organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ International agreements provide descriptive, unambiguous, unique, systematic "IUPAC" names that are reasonably convenient for most organic molecules of modest molecular weight.
    • Organic Chemistry | Yale Video Course 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.academicearth.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chemistry is the science that studies molecules, crystals, metals, and non-metals and it is concerned with the composition, transformations and interactions of all materials found in everyday life.
    • Chemistry Help - Topix 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

    Highly automated software allowing a structure to be determined within hours of obtaining a suitable crystal.
.Traditional spectroscopic methods such as infrared spectroscopy, optical rotation, UV/VIS spectroscopy provide relatively nonspecific structural information but remain in use for specific classes of compounds.^ Christian Reichardt provides reliable information on the subject, allowing chemists to understand and effectively use these phenomena.

^ Then in 1921 Adams launched the plan of publishing an annual volume of methods for preparing useful organic compounds with Volume 1 of Organic Syntheses.
  • Special Lectureships in Organic Chemistry / Chemistry at Illinois 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chemistry.illinois.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This process uses existing chemical information on structures and reactions to provide a model for creating new chemicals and procedures.

Additional methods are described in the article on analytical chemistry.

Properties

.Physical properties of organic compounds typically of interest include both quantitative and qualitative features.^ The book provides a thorough, organized treatment of modern stereochemistry as applied to organic compounds, covering both basic principles and practical aspects.

^ Features: • Spectral data and physical constants for over 29,000 compounds • Complete text/keyword search • Searches for compounds on spectral peaks, physical properties, synonyms, molecular formula, or CAS® registry number .

^ A picture of the relationship of structure to physical properties, as well as spectral features, is provided.

.Quantitative information include melting point, boiling point, and index of refraction.^ Includes chemical name, Wiswesser notation, melting point, and boiling point.
  • Selected Resources for: Chemistry, Organic | University of Minnesota Libraries 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.lib.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is one significant difference between boiling points and melting points.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The melting points of the alkanes follow a similar trend to boiling points for the same reason as outlined above.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Qualitative properties include odor, solubility, and color.^ Includes health and safety data; optical, thermodynamic and electrochemical properties; solubility; density; viscosity; surface tension.
  • Selected Resources for: Chemistry, Organic | University of Minnesota Libraries 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.lib.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

Melting and boiling properties

.In contrast to many inorganic materials, organic compounds typically melt and many boil.^ Most useful is the multi-page table on Physical Constants of Organic Compounds, but there are also many other useful tables.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of many different classes of polyfunctional organic compounds in clouds with a wide range of molecular weights opens new scenarios in cloud chemistry.
  • IGAC | Organic compounds in clouds: Present knowledge and future perspectives 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.igac.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many failures may, however, be avoided by understanding the structure-reactivity relationship of organic compounds.

In earlier times, the melting point (m.p.) and boiling point (b.p.) provided crucial information on the purity and identity of organic compounds. .The melting and boiling points correlate with the polarity of the molecules and their molecular weight.^ As the boiling point of alkanes is primarily determined by weight, it should not be a surprise that the boiling point has almost a linear relationship with the size ( molecular weight ) of the molecule.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, cycloalkanes tend to have higher boiling points than their linear counterparts due to the locked conformations of the molecules, which give a plane of intermolecular contact.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the higher melting points of these alkanes can cause problems at low temperatures and in polar regions, where the fuel becomes too thick to flow correctly.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some organic compounds, especially symmetrical ones, sublime, that is they evaporate without melting.^ In organic chemistry , an alkene , olefin , or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon -to- carbon double bond .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What are some general rules for organic cmpds solubility...like how do you determine what functional groups a compound contains based on its solubility ....
  • solubility rules for organic chemistry... | Study Question Q&A | Student Doctor Network 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC forums.studentdoctor.net [Source type: General]

^ In fact, a lot of the organic compounds had been known and had names long before some of the other compounds.
  • Chemistry: Organic Nomenclature | MindBites.com 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.mindbites.com [Source type: General]

.A well known example of a sublimable organic compound is para-dichlorobenzene, the odiferous constituent of mothballs.^ There is also an older naming system for organic compounds known as common nomenclature , which is often used for simple, well-known compounds, and also for complex compounds whose IUPAC names are too complex for everyday use.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This book covers inorganic and organic compounds as well as polymers, solid-state materials, medicinal aspects and theoretical studies.

^ "Advanced Organic Chemistry … the well-known textbook for graduate students – has now appeared in a 5th edition.
  • Amazon.com: Advanced organic chemistry (9780306250033): Francis A Carey: Books 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Organic compounds are usually not very stable at temperatures above 300 °C, although some exceptions exist.^ Over 10 Million organic Compounds exist.
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because organic compounds are crucial to the existence of life, and resonance is very important to understanding the chemistry of organic compounds , resonance, not surprisingly, plays important roles in biological systems.

^ In fact, a lot of the organic compounds had been known and had names long before some of the other compounds.
  • Chemistry: Organic Nomenclature | MindBites.com 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.mindbites.com [Source type: General]

Solubility

.Neutral organic compounds tend to be hydrophobic, that is they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents.^ Organic solvents are high on the list of toxic compounds due to the problems in containing volatile compounds and the sheer large volume of them used in industry.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For this reason they do not form hydrogen bonds and are insoluble in polar solvents such as water.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Often it is difficult to represent an organic compound on paper for reasons other than difficulties in correctly representing bond orientations .

.Exceptions include organic compounds that contain ionizable groups as well as low molecular weight alcohols, amines, and carboxylic acids where hydrogen bonding occurs.^ Organic molecules are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen .

^ Groups containing C=C double bonds .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ International agreements provide descriptive, unambiguous, unique, systematic "IUPAC" names that are reasonably convenient for most organic molecules of modest molecular weight.
  • Organic Chemistry | Yale Video Course 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.academicearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Organic compounds tend to dissolve in organic solvents.^ Presents important information about more than 550 organic compounds that are used as solvents.

^ Solvent properties are critical in efficient isolation of pure organic compounds from biological materials.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic solvents are high on the list of toxic compounds due to the problems in containing volatile compounds and the sheer large volume of them used in industry.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Solvents can be either pure substances like ether or ethyl alcohol, or mixtures, such as the paraffinic solvents such as the various petroleum ethers and white spirits, or the range of pure or mixed aromatic solvents obtained from petroleum or tar fractions by physical separation or by chemical conversion.^ Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols .
  • Curriki - FHSSTChemistryCourse 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC prod.att.curriki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In industry, large quantities of alkenes are obtained via the catalytic cracking of petroleum oil fractions.

^ The use of the term "paraffin" is a general term and often does not distinguish between a pure compounds and mixtures of isomers with the same chemical formula (i.e., like a chemical anagram ), e.g., pentane and isopentane .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Solubility in the different solvents depends upon the solvent type and on the functional groups if present.^ Difference between substituent and functional group???

^ What i noticed immediately was that the quality of the production varied tremendously depending upon the group, lighting and editing skills.

^ Although this is divided by reaction type, you can find a number of functional groups by looking in the index under the group name.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

Solid state properties

.Various specialized properties are of interest depending on applications, e.g.^ The role of transition metals in various biological systems is of great interest to chemists; the specific properties of these metals often define the biological function of the proteins and systems these metals are found in.

^ Contains a complete overview of the numerous and varied applications of free radicals within organic chemistry with special attention to reaction mechanisms and novel responses.

thermo-mechanical and electro-mechanical such as piezoelectricity, electrical conductivity (see organic metals), and electro-optical (e.g. non-linear optics) properties. .For historical reasons, such properties are mainly the subjects of the areas of polymer science and materials science.^ Research Interest: the interfacial area between organic chemistry and materials science, including Polymerization Methodology, Molecular Electronics, Photorefractive and Electro-Optic Polymers, Functional polymers containing metal complexes, and Supramolecular Assembly of Nanostructured Materials .
  • Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemistry.gsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As such, it now forms an important part of both mainstream chemistry and material science degrees.

^ Contains synthesis and characterization of new organosilicon compounds, applications in polymer and materials science, and a summary of the latest research results.

Nomenclature

Various names and depictions for one organic compound.‎
.The names of organic compounds is either systematic, following logically from a set of rules, or nonsystematic, following various traditions.^ Naming an organic compound .

^ Students can use this ball-and-stick set to construct realistic scale models illustrating the molecular structures of thousands of organic compounds.
  • Alibris: Chemistry Organic 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.alibris.com [Source type: General]

^ Ideally, every organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Systematic nomenclature is stipulated by recommendations from IUPAC.^ IUPAC nomenclature a systematic method for naming molecules based on a series of rules developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
  • Tools & Resources: Organic Chemistry I Glossary - CliffsNotes 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AutoNom (Automatic Nomenclature), available on a PC at the Chemistry Library, is a program for the generation of IUPAC systematic nomenclature directly from the structure diagrams of organic compounds.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Systematic nomenclature starts with the name for a parent structure within the molecule of interest.^ Draw structures for molecules mentioned by name.
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IUPAC nomenclature a systematic method for naming molecules based on a series of rules developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
  • Tools & Resources: Organic Chemistry I Glossary - CliffsNotes 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.cliffsnotes.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chemical Nomenclature Organic Nomenclature Page [1 of 2] With at least the beginnings of a systematic way of naming compounds in place for molecules, you’d think that when we start to talk about organic molecules, organic molecules would just, in general, be molecules containing carbon, that we could use the same set of rules.
  • Chemistry: Organic Nomenclature | MindBites.com 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.mindbites.com [Source type: General]

.This parent name is then modified by prefixes, suffixes, and numbers to unambiguously convey the structure.^ To facilitate the naming of hydrocarbon derivatives , carbons in compounds are often sequentally numbered (or named, depending on how long the structure has been known).

^ If there are multiple functional groups of the same type, either prefixed or suffixed, the position numbers are ordered numerically (thus ethane-1,2-diol, not ethane-2,1-diol.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (CC) Image: Bob Mellish Alkenes are named for their parent alkane chain with the suffix "-ene" and an infixed number indicating the position of the double-bonded carbon in the chain: CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 3 is but-1-ene.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Given that millions of organic compounds are known, rigorous use of systematic names can be cumbersome.^ Over 10 Million organic Compounds exist.
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Naming an organic compound .

^ International agreements provide descriptive, unambiguous, unique, systematic "IUPAC" names that are reasonably convenient for most organic molecules of modest molecular weight.
  • Organic Chemistry | Yale Video Course 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.academicearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, IUPAC recommendations are more closely followed for simple compounds, but not complex molecules.^ This lecture begins by applying the united-atom "plum-pudding" view of molecular orbitals, introduced in the previous lecture, to more complex molecules.
  • Organic Chemistry | Yale Video Course 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.academicearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For ordinary communication, to spare a tedious description, the official IUPAC naming recommendations are not always followed in practice except when it is necessary to give a concise definition to a compound, or when the IUPAC name is simpler (viz.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.To use the systematic naming, one must know the structures and names of the parent structures.^ Structural formulae that represent the bonds as being at right angles to one another, while both common and useful, do not correspond with the reality.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For common carboxylic acids some traditional names such as acetic acid are in such widespread use they are considered retained IUPAC names , although "systematic" names such as ethanoic acid are also acceptable.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Tests in the Beilstein Institute and use during the production of the Handbook show that AutoNom generates correct names for over 86% of all structures reported in the original literature.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

Parent structures include unsubstituted hydrocarbons, heterocycles, and monofunctionalized derivatives thereof.
Nonsystematic nomenclature is simpler and unambiguous, at least to organic chemists. .Nonsystematic names do not indicate the structure of the compound.^ To facilitate the naming of hydrocarbon derivatives , carbons in compounds are often sequentally numbered (or named, depending on how long the structure has been known).

^ Predict the name, draw the structural formula, and calculate the molar mass of the compound formed by the addition of benzene to ethene.

^ Ideally, every organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be drawn.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Nonsystematic names are common for complex molecules, which includes most natural products.^ There is also an older naming system for organic compounds known as common nomenclature , which is often used for simple, well-known compounds, and also for complex compounds whose IUPAC names are too complex for everyday use.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The wide range of examples includes natural products and pharmaceuticals, with the final chapter exploring some new developments and providing an introduction to current research.

^ This innovative reference work includes 250 organic reactions and their strategic use in the synthesis of complex natural and unnatural products.

Thus, the informally named lysergic acid diethylamide is systematically named (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo-[4,3-fg] quinoline-9-carboxamide.
.With the increased use of computing, other naming methods have evolved that are intended to be interpreted by machines.^ Name three physical methods used to separate mixtures.

^ State one other method of destroying the vectors of malarial parasites ( Plasmodium ), apart from using either pheromones or other insecticides (e.g., malathion).

Two popular formats are SMILES and InChI.

Structural drawings

.Organic molecules are described more commonly by drawings or structural formulas, combinations of drawings and chemical symbols.^ Draw the structural formula of each isomer.

^ Draw the structural formula of this addition product.

^ Draw the full structural formulae of 1-bromobutane and 2-bromobutane.

The line-angle formula is simple and unambiguous. .In this system, the endpoints and intersections of each line represent one carbon, and hydrogen atoms can either be notated explicitly or assumed to be present as implied by tetravalent carbon.^ Each carbon atom must have 4 bonds (either C-H or C-C bonds), and each hydrogen atom must be joined to a carbon atom (H-C bonds).
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, in terms of functional groups and in order of increasing degrees of oxidation (indicated, to a degree, as the ratio of hydrogen, H, to carbon, C, atoms in the example molecule), there are: .

^ One way of thinking of hydrocarbon derivatives is as hydrocarbon "backbones" to which groups consisting of atoms other than carbon are bound.

.The depiction of organic compounds with drawings is greatly simplified by the fact that carbon in almost all organic compounds has four bonds, oxygen two, hydrogen one, and nitrogen three.^ This is necessary because carbon has a maximum of 4 bonds and hydrogen can have only one.

^ Organic molecules are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen .

^ An ether is an oxygen bridge between two organic compounds .

Classification of organic compounds

Functional groups

.
The family of carboxylic acids contains a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group.
^ For example, COOH is a carboxyl group.

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH, is present in a variety of common chemical substances.

^ Fatty acids have a long hydrocarbon (carbon and hydrogen) chain with a carboxyl (acid) group.

Acetic acid is an example.
.The concept of functional groups is central in organic chemistry, both as a means to classify structures and for predicting properties.^ The manipulation of functional groups by oxidative or reductive processes is central to organic chemistry.

^ Functional groups are critical to the structure and function of all biological molecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH, is present in a variety of common chemical substances.

.A functional group is a molecular module, and the reactivity of that functional group is assumed, within limits, to be the same in a variety of molecules.^ First, the heteroatom-containing cycloadducts may be transformed into a variety of other functionalized organic molecules, whether cyclic or acyclic.

^ Alkanes can be viewed as a molecular scaffold upon which can be hung the interesting biologically-active/reactive portions (functional groups) of the molecule.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first chapter describes some of the general principles that affect the reactivity of functional groups.

.Functional groups can have decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds.^ Physical properties for organometallic compounds.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stereochemistry/Baeyer/strain.html Conformation is now widely recognized as having significant influence on the chemical, physical and biological properties of organic compounds.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Featured Sites Intermolecular interactions control many of the physical and biological properties of organic compounds.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Molecules are classified on the basis of their functional groups.^ In the above examples, each molecule has a single functional group.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional groups are critical to the structure and function of all biological molecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this example, the two molecules have different functional groups.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

Alcohols, for example, all have the subunit C-O-H. All alcohols tend to be somewhat hydrophilic, usually form esters, and usually can be converted to the corresponding halides. .Most functional groups feature heteroatoms (atoms other than C and H).^ A R group is a portion of a molecule other than a given functional group .

^ A functional group is a group of atoms of a particular arrangement that gives the entire molecule certain characteristics.

^ The simplest acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups , form a homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H 2n .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, etc.^ Functional groups are named according to the composition of the group.

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : ALCOHOLS All alcohols contain the hydroxyl functional group, -O-H, and many belong to an homologous series which has the general formula C n H 2n+1 OH; this first Table shows some data for five straight-chain homologues.

^ This simple ChemSketch shows the linking of nucleotides in DNA via phosphate ester groups: Phosphate esters are created when phosphoric acid and an alcohol combine.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aliphatic compounds

The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of homologous series according to their state of saturation:
  • paraffins, which are alkanes without any double or triple bonds,
  • olefins or alkenes which contain one or more double bonds, i.e di-olefins (dienes) or poly-olefins.
  • alkynes, which have one or more triple bonds.
.The rest of the group is classed according to the functional groups present.^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH, is present in a variety of common chemical substances.

.Such compounds can be "straight-chain," branched-chain or cyclic.^ Branched alkanes are named as a straight-chain alkane with attached alkyl groups.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This example of an insect 'pheromone' is a 2-methyl branched-chain alkane with a molecular formula of C 18 H 38 ; the straight-chain isomer does not elicit a response.

^ Petrol is a blended mixture of several branched- and straight-chain alkanes, including heptane [C 7 H 16 (l)], octane, and nonane [C 9 H 20 (l)].

.The degree of branching affects characteristics, such as the octane number or cetane number in petroleum chemistry.^ Essentially, short and branched ethers (used in gasoline) have a good octane number but poor cetane number, while those ethers used in diesel are linear and have a comparatively long chain (ideally 9 or more carbons).
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both saturated (alicyclic compounds and unsaturated compounds exist as cyclic derivatives.^ This term is often used to describe compounds both derived from and not-derived from living organisms, but historically the first carbon and hydrogen compounds described were indeed derived from living organisms.

.The most stable rings contain five or six carbon atoms, but large rings (macrocycles) and smaller rings are common.^ Each ring contains an Oxygen atom.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certainly, the extraordinary diversity of living organisms is directly attributable to the facility of carbon atoms to form large and complex structures, as exemplified by chlorophyll-a and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - two of the most important molecules in the biosphere.

^ Ethanol Notice that both compounds contain 2 Carbon atoms, 6 Hydrogen atoms and 1 Oxygen atom.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

The smallest cycloalkane family is the three-membered cyclopropane ((CH2)3). .Saturated cyclic compounds contain single bonds only, whereas aromatic rings have an alternating (or conjugated) double bond.^ Groups containing C=C double bonds .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In reality, its alternate double and single bonds are "spread around" the ring so that the molecule is symetrical.
  • KryssTal : An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.krysstal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ IUPAC recognizes two names for hydrocarbon groups containing carbon-carbon double bonds, the vinyl group and the allyl group.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

Cycloalkanes do not contain multiple bonds, whereas the cycloalkenes and the cycloalkynes do.

Aromatic compounds

Benzene is one of the best-known aromatic compounds as it is one of the simplest aromatics.
.Aromatic hydrocarbons contain conjugated double bonds.^ Groups containing C=C double bonds .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ IUPAC recognizes two names for hydrocarbon groups containing carbon-carbon double bonds, the vinyl group and the allyl group.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In organic chemistry , an alkene , olefin , or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon -to- carbon double bond .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The most important example is benzene, the structure of which was formulated by Kekulé who first proposed the delocalization or resonance principle for explaining its structure.^ Kekulé and the Structure of Benzene .
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

For "conventional" cyclic compounds, aromaticity is conferred by the presence of 4n + 2 delocalized pi electrons, where n is an integer. Particular instability (antiaromaticity) is conferred by the presence of 4n conjugated pi electrons.

Heterocyclic compounds

The characteristics of the cyclic hydrocarbons are again altered if heteroatoms are present, which can exist as either substituents attached externally to the ring (exocyclic) or as a member of the ring itself (endocyclic). In the case of the latter, the ring is termed a heterocycle. .Pyridine and furan are examples of aromatic heterocycles while piperidine and tetrahydrofuran are the corresponding alicyclic heterocycles.^ Chapters deal with experimental techniques, and spectroscopic methods, as well as specific aliphatic, aromatic, alicyclic, heterocyclic, and organic compounds.

.The heteroatom of heterocyclic molecules is generally oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen, with the latter being particularly common in biochemical systems.^ The oxygen or nitrogen atoms of the peptide bond are capable of hydrogen- bonding with hydrogen atoms elsewhere on the molecule.

.Examples of groups among the heterocyclics are the aniline dyes, the great majority of the compounds discussed in biochemistry such as alkaloids, many compounds related to vitamins, steroids, nucleic acids (e.g.^ It is also possible to form copper and silver alkynes, from this group of compounds silver acetylide is an often used example.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The reaction is quite general and many functional groups are tolerated, even esters, as in this example: [20] .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many other organic reactions have recently been catalyzed by CsF-Celite, such as the reactions to synthesize carboxylic esters, γ-lactones, N-alkylation of anilines, or carboxamides.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

DNA, RNA) and also numerous medicines. .Heterocyclics with relatively simple structures are pyrrole (5-membered) and indole (6-membered carbon ring).^ The text contains six chapters arranged according to the complexity of the heterocyclic compounds discussed, ranging from five to seven membered rings and from single to multiple fused rings.

^ The primary topics include three- and four-membered heterocycles, five-membered heterocycles including indoles, furans, thiophenes, and oxazoles, six-membered heterocycles including quinolines, isoquinolines, and pyrimidines, and other heterocycles.

Rings can fuse with other rings on an edge to give polycyclic compounds. The purine nucleoside bases are notable polycyclic aromatic heterocycles. .Rings can also fuse on a "corner" such that one atom (almost always carbon) has two bonds going to one ring and two to another.^ The carbon atoms would be able to rotate from one orientation to another if the bond were a single bond.

^ IUPAC recognizes two names for hydrocarbon groups containing carbon-carbon double bonds, the vinyl group and the allyl group.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Such compounds are termed spiro and are important in a number of natural products.^ Such syntheses are extremely important in natural products research, the fine chemicals industry, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Polymers

This swimming board is made of polystyrene, an example of a polymer
.One important property of carbon is that it readily forms chain or even networks linked by carbon-carbon bonds.^ New protocols for functional group transformations and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions Organic transformations are the heart of synthetic organic chemistry.

^ It contains both functional group transformations and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, as well as a chapter devoted exclusively to difunctional compounds.

^ (Hydrogen grabs one of the electron pairs shared by Secondary and Primary Carbons, and after a brief struggle, Secondary lets go, leaving Hydrogen bonded to Primary.
  • Sizzling Organic Chemistry Dramas 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.heptune.com [Source type: Original source]

.The linking process is called polymerization, and the chains or networks polymers, while the source compound is a monomer.^ In contrast to addition polymerization, condensation polymerization is an endothermic reaction; so, in principle, condensation polymers should be readily hydrolyzed to their respective monomers.

.Two main groups of polymers exist: those artificially manufactured are referred to as industrial polymers[5] or synthetic polymers and those naturally occurring as biopolymers.^ Recalling that naturally occurring chlorine consists of two isotopes, (Cl-35 and Cl-37), complete these structural formulae to show the four isotopic variants of 1,2-dichloropropane.

^ This second Table provides some information on four of the main naturally occurring, long-chain, saturated carboxylic acids (commonly referred to as fatty acids because they were first isolated from fats).

^ Lists most naturally occurring compounds and gives structures and properties plus references.
  • USEFUL SOURCES FOR ORGANIC CHEMI 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC library.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

Since the invention of the first artificial polymer, bakelite, the family has quickly grown with the invention of others. .Common synthetic organic polymers are polyethylene (polythene), polypropylene, nylon, teflon (PTFE), polystyrene, polyesters, polymethylmethacrylate (called perspex and plexiglas), and polyvinylchloride (PVC).^ By contrast, nearly all synthetic addition polymers are thermoplastic; the most notable exception is poly(tetrafluoroethene), popularly known as Teflon, which is thermosetting.

^ Carbohydrates _________________________________________________________ [2] Proteins ______________________________________________________________ [2] Fats __________________________________________________________________ [3] (d) Most synthetic condensation polymers, including polyesters such as Terylene, are thermosetting: but a few, including polyamides such as Nylon, are thermoplastic (i.e., they soften on heating and harden again on cooling).

^ Polymerization of alkenes is an economically important reaction which yields polymers of high industrial value, such as the plastics polyethylene and polypropylene .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

Both synthetic and natural rubber are polymers.
.The examples are generic terms, and many varieties of each of these may exist, with their physical characteristics fine tuned for a specific use.^ One general comment: use a specific reaction of a specific compound that you find in the article.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The paper also displays a variety of intermediary or alternative pathways the the substrates can take to generate different, but useful products.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Changing the conditions of polymerisation changes the chemical composition of the product by altering chain length, or branching, or the tacticity.^ Chain Branching in Free-Radical Polymerization .
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

With a single monomer as a start the product is a homopolymer. Further, secondary component(s) may be added to create a heteropolymer (co-polymer) and the degree of clustering of the different components can also be controlled. Physical characteristics, such as hardness, density, mechanical or tensile strength, abrasion resistance, heat resistance, transparency, colour, etc. will depend on the final composition.

Biomolecules

Maitotoxin, a complex organic biological toxin.
.Biomolecular chemistry is a major category within organic chemistry which is frequently studied by biochemists.^ The focus is on the core of organic chemistry, but the information provided forms the foundation for future study and research in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, biological chemistry and physical properties of organic compounds.

^ Featured Sites The study of molecular orbitals is critical to modern organic chemistry.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some study tips for Organic Chemistry are as follows:- .
  • Organic Chemistry Tutor | Online Tutoring, Help Synthesis i, ii, MCAT, DAT Exams 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemtopper.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many complex multi-functional group molecules are important in living organisms.^ Practice identifying functional groups in some important biomolecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Functional groups are critical to the structure and function of all biological molecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Transition metals and their complexes represent one of the most important groups of catalysts for organic reactions.

Some are long-chain biopolymers, and these include peptides, DNA, RNA and the polysaccharides such as starches in animals and celluloses in plants. .The other main classes are amino acids (monomer building blocks of peptides and proteins), carbohydrates (which includes the polysaccharides), the nucleic acids (which include DNA and RNA as polymers), and the lipids.^ Techniques presented include protocols for chemical ligation, the synthesis of cyclic and phosphotyrosine-containing peptides, lipoamino acid- and sugar-conjugated peptides, and peptide purification and analyses.

^ Examine the concepts in section 27.6 in more depth by exploring this collection of interactive, three-dimensional amino acid and protein structures.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is composed of nucleic acids, which are made up of ribofuranoside units strung together by phosphate esters.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, animal biochemistry contains many small molecule intermediates which assist in energy production through the Krebs cycle, and produces isoprene, the most common hydrocarbon in animals.^ Besides their importance as reactive intermediates, many biologically active compounds also contain these three-membered rings.

^ Animals Alkanes are found in animal products, although they are less important than unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The reagents are considered in alphabetical order by common usage names Thousands of entries abstract the most important information on commonly used reagents from 1966 through 1984.

.Isoprenes in animals form the important steroid structural (cholesterol) and steroid hormone compounds; and in plants form terpenes, terpenoids, some alkaloids, and a unique set of hydrocarbons called biopolymer polyisoprenoids present in latex sap, which is the basis for making rubber.^ These carbon-hydrogen-plus other elements compounds are called hydrocarbon derivatives (reflecting, of course, that, at least theoretically i.e., conceptually if not operationally hydrocarbon derivatives may be derived from hydrocarbons ).

^ Animals Alkanes are found in animal products, although they are less important than unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Methane is also present in what is called biogas , produced by animals and decaying matter, which is a possible renewable energy source .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

Peptide Syntheis
See also peptide synthesis
Oligonucleotide Synthesis
See also Oligonucleotide synthesis
Carbohydrate Synthesis
See also Carbohydrate synthesis

Small molecules

.In pharmacology, an important group of organic compounds is small molecules, also referred to as 'small organic compounds'. In this context, a small molecule is a small organic compound that is biologically active, but is not a polymer.^ Featured Sites Intermolecular interactions control many of the physical and biological properties of organic compounds.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This major reference critically reviews methods for the catalytic preparation of chiral organic compounds.

^ Stereochemistry/Baeyer/strain.html Conformation is now widely recognized as having significant influence on the chemical, physical and biological properties of organic compounds.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

In practice, small molecules have a molar mass less than approximately 1000 g/mol.
Molecular models of caffeine

Fullerenes

.Fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, carbon compounds with spheroidal and tubual structures, have stimulated much research into the related field of materials science.^ It is the first comprehensive review of this important field in 30 years, since Eliel's original groundbreaking work, Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds, was published.

^ The 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Linus Pauling for "his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances."
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Contains synthesis and characterization of new organosilicon compounds, applications in polymer and materials science, and a summary of the latest research results.

Others

.Organic compounds containing bonds of carbon to nitrogen, oxygen and the halogens are not normally grouped separately.^ Groups containing C=C double bonds .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But all carbon compounds are not organic!
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Rather atypically for organic compounds, these three alcohols are miscible with water in all proportions; their solubility is partially attributable to 'hydrogen bonding' [i.e., the weak electrostatic attraction between the nucleus of a bonded hydrogen atom and a 'lone-pair' of electrons of a bonded non-hydrogen atom (typically, nitrogen or oxygen)].

.Others are sometimes put into major groups within organic chemistry and discussed under titles such as organosulfur chemistry, organometallic chemistry, organophosphorus chemistry and organosilicon chemistry.^ Organic Chemistry Forum for Graduate Students and Professionals This is a forum for organic graduate students and professionals to ask and answer each other's questions.

^ There are many other named reactions in organic chemistry.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : CARBOXYLIC ACIDS The carboxylic acid functional group, -COOH, is present in a variety of common chemical substances.

Organic synthesis

A synthesis designed by E.J. Corey for oseltamivir (Tamiflu). This synthesis has 11 distinct reactions.
.Synthetic organic chemistry is an applied science as it borders engineering, the "design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes". Organic synthesis of a novel compound is a problem solving task, where a synthesis is designed for a target molecule by selecting optimal reactions from optimal starting materials.^ Reaction synthesis Practice .

^ Covers the basic principles of cyclization chemistry, emphasizing practical applications • Summarizes various methodologies used in cyclization reactions • Extensive use of equations, schemes, tables, and figures enables quick understanding of the material • Convenient selection of reactions and conditions in synthesis • More than 2,600 structures illustrate key concepts Cyclization Reactions provides a quick update of the latest advances in cyclization reactions.

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : INTRODUCTION - REACTION TYPES The biological and industrial importance of organic compounds, together with their structural diversity, has resulted in the development of hundreds of synthetic methods.

Complex compounds can have tens of reaction steps that sequentially build the desired molecule. .The synthesis proceeds by utilizing the reactivity of the functional groups in the molecule.^ Functional groups are critical to the structure and function of all biological molecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Students are encouraged to consider the reactivity of functional groups in terms of their regions of electron deficiency and excess, and hence to identify the sites at which nucleophiles and electrophiles might react.

^ Retrosynthetic analysis--a method of identifying simple starting materials for a synthesis--is introduced with emphasis on the importance of bond polarity and functional group interconversions.

.For example, a carbonyl compound can be used as a nucleophile by converting it into an enolate, or as an electrophile; the combination of the two is called the aldol reaction.^ An example is the Prins reaction where the electrophile is a carbonyl group.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also possible to form copper and silver alkynes, from this group of compounds silver acetylide is an often used example.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The general topics covered include: reactions of carbonyl compounds, aldol reactions, additions to C-C double bonds, oxidation and reduction, rearrangements, and enzyme catalysed hydrolysis.

.Designing practically useful syntheses always requires conducting the actual synthesis in the laboratory.^ Discusses a variety of new selective organic syntheses that are now available using modified/designed reagents.

^ This book shows the diversity of structural problems and synthesis solution as well as the practical aspects and methodologies required for large-scale syntheses.

^ Designed for the practical organic chemist, this book presents selected aspects of syntheses methods and procedures using sulfur reagents as synthons.

.The scientific practice of creating novel synthetic routes for complex molecules is called total synthesis.^ Transition Metals in the Synthesis of Complex Organic Molecules, 2nd ed.

^ The reader can review and select the best methods of performing a synthetic conversion to create or modify a molecule containing an acetylene, allene or cumulene functionality.

^ This book provides a comprehensive, current reference for the synthesis of complex molecules based on cycloaddition reactions.

There are several strategies to design a synthesis. .The modern method of retrosynthesis, developed by E.J. Corey, starts with the target molecule and splices it to pieces according to known reactions.^ Metal catalysis plays an increasingly important role in these reactions, often allowing several stereocenters to be selectively created and integrated in the target molecules.

^ ORGANIC CHEMISTRY : INTRODUCTION - REACTION TYPES The biological and industrial importance of organic compounds, together with their structural diversity, has resulted in the development of hundreds of synthetic methods.

^ The first chapter reviews the basic principles, common nomenclature, and analytical methods, while the remainder of the book is organized according to reaction type.

The pieces, or the proposed precursors, receive the same treatment, until available and ideally inexpensive starting materials are reached. Then, the retrosynthesis is written in the opposite direction to give the synthesis. .A "synthetic tree" can be constructed, because each compound and also each precursor has multiple syntheses.^ Multiple syntheses of the same compound are presented in chronological order.

Organic reactions

.Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.^ Alkynes are involved in many organic reactions .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In organic chemistry , an alkene , olefin , or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon -to- carbon double bond .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A functional group is an atom or group of atoms bonded to the carbon skeleton, and its reactions will often determine the chemical properties of the whole compound.

.While pure hydrocarbons undergo certain limited classes of reactions, many more reactions which organic compounds undergo are largely determined by functional groups.^ Alkynes are involved in many organic reactions .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Organic/CSF_Brochure.html Read more about pericyclic reactions.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It also contains 1,212 examples of reactions for preparing difunctional compounds within various functional groups, and adds forty-one pertinent reviews, long a feature of this series, in various sections.

.The general theory of these reactions involves careful analysis of such properties as the electron affinity of key atoms, bond strengths and steric hindrance.^ Other couplings, such as the Stille , Suzuki and Negishi involve the reaction of an alkenyl, allyl or aryl halide (or triflate ) with an alkenyl, alkyl (not for Stille) or aryl derivative of a metal or metalloid .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Terminal alkynes have a hydrogen atom bonded to at least one of the sp hybridized carbons (those involved in the triple bond.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The majority of the reactions of alkenes involve the rupture of this pi bond, forming new single bonds .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.These issues can determine the relative stability of short-lived reactive intermediates, which usually directly determine the path of the reaction.^ Alkenes are relatively stable compounds, but are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of a carbon-carbon pi-bond.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In general, alkanes show a relatively low reactivity, because their C bonds are relatively stable and cannot be easily broken.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Free-radicals are the reactive species that participate in the reaction, which usually leads to a mixture of products.
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The basic reaction types are: addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions and redox reactions.^ This volume includes such mechanisms as addition and elimination reactions, nucleophilic and electophilic aromatic substitutions and molecular rearrangements.

^ The general topics covered include: reactions of carbonyl compounds, aldol reactions, additions to C-C double bonds, oxidation and reduction, rearrangements, and enzyme catalysed hydrolysis.

^ Besides olefin metathesis (described above ), a large number of pericyclic reactions can be used such as the ene reaction and the Cope rearrangement .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

An example of a common reaction is a substitution reaction written as:
Nu + C-X → C-Nu + X
where .X is some functional group and Nu is a nucleophile.^ Practice identifying functional groups in some important biomolecules.
  • Web Site List: Brown and Foote 3/e 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.chem.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first chapter describes some of the general principles that affect the reactivity of functional groups.

^ Students are encouraged to consider the reactivity of functional groups in terms of their regions of electron deficiency and excess, and hence to identify the sites at which nucleophiles and electrophiles might react.

The number of possible organic reactions is basically infinite. .However, certain general patterns are observed that can be used to describe many common or useful reactions.^ Part B emphasizes the most general and useful synthetic reactions.

^ One general comment: use a specific reaction of a specific compound that you find in the article.
  • Organic Chemistry II 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chem242.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides olefin metathesis (described above ), a large number of pericyclic reactions can be used such as the ene reaction and the Cope rearrangement .
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.Each reaction has a stepwise reaction mechanism that explains how it happens in sequence—although the detailed description of steps is not always clear from a list of reactants alone.^ Each section includes a description of the functional group transformation, the historical perspective, mechanisms, variations and improvements on the reaction, synthetic utilities and applications for the reaction, experimental details, and references to the primary literature.

^ The treatment emphasizes unifying principles, showing how common mechanisms link seemingly disparate reactions.

^ Readers are guided on planning and execution of multi-step synthetic reactions, with detailed descriptions of all the reactions.

.The stepwise course of any given reaction mechanism can be represented using arrow pushing techniques in which curved arrows are used to track the movement of electrons as starting materials transition through intermediates to final products.^ Subsequent chapters demonstrate the use of sugars in chiral catalysis, their roles as convenient starting materials for complex syntheses involving multiple stereogenic centers, and syntheses for monosaccharides.
  • CRC Press Online - Book: The Organic Chemistry of Sugars 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.crcpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These Matter and Material chapters are to be used in grades 10 through 12.
  • Curriki - FHSSTChemistryCourse 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC prod.att.curriki.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The organic chemistry of transition metals is then presented by class of metal complex, with many examples of applications in the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceuticals, polymers, and materials.

See also

References

  1. ^ Robert T. Morrison, Robert N. Boyd, and Robert K. Boyd, Organic Chemistry, 6th edition (Benjamin Cummings, 1992, ISBN 0-13-643669-2) - this is "Morrison and Boyd", a classic textbook
  2. ^ John D. Roberts, Marjorie C. Caserio, Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry,(W. A. Benjamin, Inc. ,1964) - another classic textbook
  3. ^ Richard F. and Sally J. Daley, Organic Chemistry, Online organic chemistry textbook. Ochem4free.info
  4. ^ "The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds" R.L. Shriner, C.K.F. Hermann, T.C. Morrill, D.Y. Curtin, and R.C. Fuson John Wiley & Sons, 1997 0-471-59748-1
  5. ^ "industrial polymers, chemistry of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

< Wikiversity < Wikiversity:School of Chemistry
< Wikiversity < Wikiversity:School of Medicine
.
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing molecules.
^ Organic molecules are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen .

^ Organic compounds are molecules that, minimally, contain both carbon and hydrogen.

^ Organic chemistry in chemistry, an organic compound is one containing Carbon atoms.
  • Organic chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

.This includes their interactions, including bonding, with other carbon atoms, carbon ions (called carbocations or carbanions), molecules (called organic molecules), and other inorganic atoms, molecules, and catalysts.^ The ease with which carbon atoms form bonds to other carbon atoms.

^ Organic molecules are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen .

^ But carbon can bond to other carbon atoms in addition to hydrogen, as illustrated in the molecule ethane below: .


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wikibooks

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(Redirected to Organic Chemistry article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Infobox/Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry/Print version
Wikibook Development Stages
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Ethane3D.png
Welcome page Development stage: 100% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
Foreword Development stage: 100% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
To-Do List
  1. Foundations of Organic Chemistry Development stage: 100% (as of April 28, 2006)
  2. Alkanes Development stage: 75% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
  3. Stereochemistry Development stage: 75% (as of May 3, 2006)
  4. Cycloalkanes Development stage: 25% (as of Nov 11, 2006)
  5. Overview of Functional Groups Development stage: 25% (as of Nov 11, 2006)
  6. Haloalkanes Development stage: 25% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
  7. Alkenes Development stage: 50% (as of May 8, 2006)
  8. Alkynes Development stage: 50% (as of May 25, 2006)
  9. Alcohols Development stage: 50% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
  10. Ethers Development stage: 25% (as of Oct 8, 2007)
  11. AminesDevelopment stage: 75% (as of May 8, 2006)
  12. Dienes Development stage: 75% (as of June 30, 2006)
  13. Aromatics Development stage: 50% (as of Jul 13, 2006)
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  18. Analytical techniques Development stage: 25% (as of Jan 12, 2005)
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.Note: Any time you click on the following icon, you will be brought back to this contents page.^ These can be downloaded by clicking on the following icons:   .
  • Web-sters Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC chemconnections.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note : Any time you click on the following icon, you will be brought back to this contents page.
  • Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Double-click the speaker icon in the lower right-hand corner of the slide to follow the audio narration.
  • Demystifying Organic Chemistry 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC www.wiziq.com [Source type: General]

Go To Organic Chemistry Contents .png
.Help organize the book structure.^ Glossary Periodic table Short periodic table Other online resources Page element templates Help organize the book structure .
  • Organic Chemistry - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inside the Book Organic Chemistry helps students understand the structure of organic molecules by helping them understand the how and why of organic chemistry.
  • Organic Chemistry | W. W. Norton & Company 12 January 2010 2:16 UTC books.wwnorton.com [Source type: General]

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Simple English

Organic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds that contain carbon. Carbon has the ability to form a chemical bond with a wide variety of chemical elements and other carbon atoms. This allows a nearly unlimited number of combinations. The subject of carbon compounds is called organic chemistry because almost all organisms, or living things, are made up of water and carbon compounds. Organic chemistry largely involves the synthesis, or formation, of organic products by chemical reaction using different reactants and reagents, the substances used up during a reaction. Several different areas of chemistry expand on the concepts and principles of organic chemistry, including biochemistry, microbiology, and medicine.

Contents

History

The term organic originates from Jons Jacob Berzelius, a nineteenth-century Swedish scientist, who used the term to refer to substances present in living systems. During Berzelius’ time, the vital force theory was popular. This theory stated that a life force was needed to produce the organic compounds found in living things. The vital force theory began losing support after an 1828 experiment conducted by Friedrich Wöhler. His work showed that urea, an organic compound, could be created from ammonium cyanate, an inorganic compound.

Hydrocarbons

The study of hydrocarbons is a very large part of organic chemistry. Hydrocarbons are molecules containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen in the form of chains. Hydrocarbons can be classified into two categories based on the presence of a benzene ring, a circular type of hydrocarbon. Aliphatic hydrocarbons do not contain a benzene ring and aromatic hydrocarbons do.[1]

Common reaction mechanisms

A reaction mechanism is a series of smaller reactions that form an overall reaction. Substitutions and elimination reactions are very important in the study of organic chemistry mechanisms.[2]

Unimolecular substitution (SN1)

A unimolecular substitution mechanism occurs in steps. First, an atom called the leaving group breaks away from a molecule, leaving the molecule with a positive electric charge. This intermediate is called a carbocation. Second, a nucleophile forms a chemical bond with the carbocation. If the nucleophile has a neutral charge, a third step is required. The third step uses a reagent to remove the positive charge. The shorthand symbol for unimolecular substitution is SN1.

Bimolecular substitution (SN2)

In a bimolecular substitution, a nucleophile, which is a reagent that forms a chemical bond, replaces another atom attached to a molecule. The original atom is called the leaving group because it leaves the molecule. The bonding of the nucleophile and the departure of the leaving group are concerted and happen at the same time instead of one at a time. The shorthand symbol for a bimolecular substitution is SN2.

Unimolecular elimination (E1)

The first step of a unimolecular elimination reaction is an atom, the leaving group, breaks away from a molecule. The loss of this atom forms an intermediate carbocation. Then a basic reagent attacks a hydrogen atom and forces a double bond. The reagent in an elimination reaction is a base. These are the same steps as in a bimolecular elimination, but they are not concerted and occur one at a time. The shorthand symbol for unimolecular elimination is E1.

Bimolecular elimination (E2)

The reagent in an elimination reaction is a base. The base takes a proton from the leaving group, forcing electrons to form a double chemical bond and break the bond to the leaving group. Like bimolecular substitution, this is a concerted step. The shorthand symbol for bimolecular elimination is E2.

Stereochemistry

Stereochemistry is the study of molecules in space. It looks into the arrangement of atoms inside of molecules in space relative to one another and how they will interact. Molecules that have the same chemical make up but are arranged differently are called isomers. Famous chemist Louis Pasteur was an early researcher of stereochemistry.

A central part of the study of sterochemistry is chirality. Put simply, chirality looks at the symmetry in chemical molecules. If an object cannot be superimposed onto its mirror image, then it is a chiral object. If it can, it is called achiral.

Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interactions between light energy and matter. We are able to see colors because of energy absorption by organic and inorganic compounds. When a plant undergoes photosynthesis, it traps energy from the sun, and this is an example of an interaction between energy and organic compounds.

Spectroscopy is used to identify organic molecules in unknown compounds. There are many types of spectroscopy, but most important to organic chemistry are infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

References

  1. Georgia State University, Hydrocarbons, http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/hydrocarbon.html
  2. Organic Chemistry Mechanisms, Organic Chemistry Help. http://www.chemhelper.com/mechanisms.html

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