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Life on Earth
Fossil range: Archaean - Recent
These Escherichia coli cells provide an example of a prokaryotic microorganism
Scientific classification
(unranked): Life on Earth (Gaeabionta)
Domains and Kingdoms
A polypore mushroom has parasitic relationship with its host
.
In biology, an organism is any living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism).
^ An organism is a living animal or plant, which demonstrates the characteristics of life.
  • THE ORIGIN OF LIFE - Give it to me Raw 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.giveittomeraw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method of living system organism ...
  • Method of living system organism ... - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

.In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole.^ All organisms require energy for maintenance, growth, and reproduction..
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homeostasis [M0010506] The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Organism Function [T040] 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All animals, including man, and also some lower organisms, require a supply of energy-rich organic material, food-stuffs that .
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many billions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs.^ Most bacteria and single-celled organisms .
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specialization in single-celled organisms exists at the subcellular level; i.e., the basic functions that are divided among the cells, tissues, and organs of the multicellular organism are collected within one cell.
  • multicellular organism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Unicellular organisms are sometimes grouped together and classified as the kingdom Protista .
  • multicellular organism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell.^ The phrase complex organism describes any organism with more than one cell .

^ Cells with more than one nucleus.

^ Specialization in single-celled organisms exists at the subcellular level; i.e., the basic functions that are divided among the cells, tissues, and organs of the multicellular organism are collected within one cell.
  • multicellular organism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The term "organism" (Greek ὀργανισμός - organismos, from Ancient Greek ὄργανον - organon "organ, instrument, tool") first appeared in the English language in 1701 and took on its current definition by 1834 (Oxford English Dictionary).^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines an organism as "[an] individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form" This definition problematically excludes non-animal and plant multi-cellular life forms such as some fungi and protista.

^ It will be useful to discuss these phenomena in some detail, because it leads to a definition of the term organism.
  • Organisms and Evolution 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.cco.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scientific classification in biology considers organisms synonymous with life on Earth.^ I safely return these organisms, entities or energies to a place in Creation which is appropriate for them, but will no longer interfere with life forms within the Universe of Earth.

^ The Root Page of the ToL is a special kind of branch page, providing information on the characteristics of all Life on Earth and the relationships among the major lineages of organisms.
  • Tree of Life Structure 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To create a complete biological picture of any organism one must consider its entire life.

.Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into the prokaryotic and eukaryotic groups.^ There are two types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic.

^ The idea that cities are living organisms may be a foreign thought, yet the growth patterns of cities are strikingly similar to the patterns exhibited by types of fungi.

^ Two main grades may be distinguished, the prokaryotes and eukaryotes .

.The prokaryotes represent two separate domains, the Bacteria and Archaea.^ The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer to one anothe ...

^ The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer to one another than to the eukaryotes.

^ Already what were thought to be bacteria for generations have been found to compose instead two great domains of microorganisms: true bacteria and one-celled organisms the archaea, which are closer than other bacteria to the eukaryota, the group that we belong to.
  • E.O. Wilson on saving life on Earth | Video on TED.com 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]

.Eukaryotic organisms, with a membrane-bounded cell nucleus, also contain organelles, namely mitochondria and (in plants) plastids, generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria.^ Most bacteria and single-celled organisms .
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two eukaryotic organelles, namely mitochondria and chloroplasts, are generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria.

^ The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer to one anothe ...

[1] .Fungi, animals and plants are examples of species that are eukaryotes.^ All woodrats species are very good at dealing with plant chemicals that harm other animals.

^ Important model organisms 1.1 Viruses 1.2 Prokaryotes 1.3 Eukaryotes 1.3.1 Protists 1.3.2 Fungi 1.3.3 Plants 1.3.4 Animals 1.3.4.1 Invertebrates 1.3.4.2 Vertebrates 2 Model organisms used for specific research objectives 2.1 Sexual selection and sexual conflict 2.2 Hybrid zones 2.3 Ecological genomics .
  • Model organism - Catalogs - Citizendium 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The genomes of many microbes, fungi, plants, and animals have been sequenced recently and many more genomes will be sequenced in the future.
  • NIH Guide: DEVELOPING ROBUST COMPONENTS FOR MODEL ORGANISM DATABASES 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.More recently a clade, Neomura, has been proposed, which groups together the Archaea and Eukarya.^ For example, the stem-based clade Carnosauria is defined as Allosaurus and all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with Allosaurus than with "birds."
  • Dictionary 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.dinosauria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the total group Crocodylotarsi is defined as the crown clade Crocodylia and all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with the Crocodylia than the crown clade Neornithes volant adj.
  • Dictionary 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.dinosauria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Neomura is thought to have evolved from Bacteria, more specifically from Actinobacteria.[2]

Contents

Semantics

.The word "organism" may broadly be defined as an assembly of molecules that function as a more or less stable whole and has the properties of life. However, many sources propose definitions that exclude viruses and theoretically-possible man-made non-organic life forms.^ Less controversially, perhaps, it excludes viruses and theoretically-possible man-made non-organic life forms.

^ However, many sources, lexical and scientific, add conditions that are problematic to defining the word.

^ The definition emphasises life ; it allows for any life form, organic or otherwise, to be considered an organism.

[3] .Viruses are dependent on the biochemical machinery of a host cell for reproduction.^ ORIGINAL: Veritas quote: ORIGINAL: Ohioman1972 Sorry if this has been asked, I Since viruses need host cells to reproduce, they couldn't have reproduced before organisms were here.

^ Some naturally occuring viruses contain DNA that can be spliced into the chromosome of a host cell, by enzymes that the virus encodes and expresses.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORIGINAL: Ohioman1972 Sorry if this has been asked, I Since viruses need host cells to reproduce, they couldn't have reproduced before organisms were here.

Chambers Online Reference provides a broad definition: "any living structure, such as a plant, animal, fungus or bacterium, capable of growth and reproduction".[4]
.In multicellular life the word "organism" usually describes the whole hierarchical assemblage of systems (for example circulatory, digestive, or reproductive) themselves collections of organs; these are, in turn, collections of tissues, which are themselves made of cells.^ An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus The word "organism" usually describes an independent collections of systems (for example circulatory system, digestive system, reproductive system, themselves collections of organs; these are, in turn, collections of tissues, which are themselves made of cells .

^ System is paramount to the meaning of the word life.

^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

.In some plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, individual cells are totipotent.^ The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans .
  • Model organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.loci.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the last two decades, a nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans , has captured the hearts of developmental biologists and geneticists hoping to solve the enigma of cell development and related biological problems, such as aging.
  • Model organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.loci.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines an organism as "[an] individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form" This definition problematically excludes non-animal and plant multi-cellular life forms such as some fungi and protista.

.A superorganism is an organism consisting of many individuals working together as a single functional or social unit.^ Superorganism- An organism composed of many lesser or individual constituent organisms.

^ A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms.

^ A sea sponge is a very simple type of multicellular organism The concept of superorganism is under dispute, as many biologists maintain that in order for a social unit to be considered an organism by itself, the individuals should be in permanent physical connection to each other, and its evolution should be governed by selection to the whole society instead of individuals.

Viruses

.Viruses are not typically considered to be organisms because they are incapable of "independent" or autonomous reproduction or metabolism.^ Viruses are not typically considered to be organisms because they are not capable of independent reproduction or metabolism.

^ The virion (so called because it is not visible under the microscope), on its own, has neither metabolism, nor any replication capability, nor autonomous evolution.
  • Taxonomy 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.uniprot.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ORIGINAL: Veritas quote: ORIGINAL: Ohioman1972 Sorry if this has been asked, I Since viruses need host cells to reproduce, they couldn't have reproduced before organisms were here.

.This controversy is problematic because some cellular organisms are also incapable of independent survival (but not of independent metabolism and procreation) and live as obligatory intracellular parasites.^ This controversy is problematic, though, since some parasites and endosymbionts are incapable of independent life either.

^ To accomplish survival, a living organism requires a zone of Because actions .
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be useful to discuss these phenomena in some detail, because it leads to a definition of the term organism.
  • Organisms and Evolution 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.cco.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although viruses have a few enzymes and molecules characteristic of living organisms, they have no metabolism of their own and cannot synthesize and organize the organic compounds that form them.^ All living organisms are made up of organic compounds.

^ Although viruses do have enzymes and molecules characteristic of living organisms, they are incapable of surviving outside a host cell and most of their metabolic processes require a host and its 'genetic machinery'.

^ Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment.

.Naturally, this rules out autonomous reproduction and they can only be passively replicated by the machinery of the host cell.^ They do not code for proteins but interact with the host cell and use the host machinery for their replication.

^ ORIGINAL: Veritas quote: ORIGINAL: Ohioman1972 Sorry if this has been asked, I Since viruses need host cells to reproduce, they couldn't have reproduced before organisms were here.

^ The Qß replicase peptide must be able to recognize and bind to three other peptides found in the host, and cause them to assemble into an enzymatically active particle that carries out a reaction, RNA replication, that does not normally occur in the host cell.
  • Organisms and Evolution 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.cco.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In this sense they are similar to inanimate matter. .While viruses sustain no independent metabolism, and thus are usually not accounted organisms, they do have their own genes and they do evolve by similar mechanisms by which organisms evolve.^ Genes and chromosomes evolved along with the organisms in which they reside.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORIGINAL: Veritas quote: ORIGINAL: Ohioman1972 Sorry if this has been asked, I Since viruses need host cells to reproduce, they couldn't have reproduced before organisms were here.

^ He skillfully reviews how animal-built structures function as external organs of physiology of their builders, thus how they favor the survival and reproduction of the builders' genes.
  • The Extended Organism. The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.esf.edu [Source type: Academic]

Organizational terminology

Life Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.
.All organisms are classified by the science of alpha taxonomy into either taxa or clades.^ All organisms are classified by the science of alpha taxonomy into either taxa or clades.

^ All organisms use the same genetic code (with some extremely rare and minor deviations) to translate nucleic acid sequences into proteins.

^ All these organisms originated from water then gradually developed into more complex living creatures that moved to land.

.Taxa are ranked groups of organisms, which run from the general (domain) to the specific (species).^ Taxa are ranked groups of organisms which run from the general ( domain) to the specific ( species).

^ Multicellular organisms have specialized tissues for generating macro-forces, so it's not really fair to compare these things by weight or size alone .
  • Sexually transmitted bug is the strongest organism - life - 14 April 2008 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

^ Already what were thought to be bacteria for generations have been found to compose instead two great domains of microorganisms: true bacteria and one-celled organisms the archaea, which are closer than other bacteria to the eukaryota, the group that we belong to.
  • E.O. Wilson on saving life on Earth | Video on TED.com 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]

A broad scheme of ranks in hierarchical order is:
.To give an example, Homo sapiens is the Latin binomial equating to modern humans.^ A broad scheme of ranks in hierarchical order is: Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species To give an example, Homo sapiens is the Latin binomial equating to modern humans.

^ Due to its captivity to modern scientific rationality, faith has developed a theology that is rational—manifested, for example, in theological individualism and theological human-centrism.
  • Faith and Science for Life on Earth 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC www.waccglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All members of the species sapiens are, at least in theory, genetically able to interbreed.^ Genetically, all humans are of the same species.

^ All members of the species sapiens are, at least in theory, genetically able to interbreed.

^ Within a species, individuals may cooperate as a group in order to compete successfully against other groups, if the net result is increased reproduction of genes for all group members.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several species may belong to a genus, but the members of different species within a genus are unable to interbreed to produce fertile offspring.^ Several species may belong to a genus, but the members of different species within a genus are unable to interbreed to produce fertile offspring.

^ Within a species, individuals may cooperate as a group in order to compete successfully against other groups, if the net result is increased reproduction of genes for all group members.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ITS does provide a higher degree of resolution than the D2 region; species tend to have a greater genetic distance between each other within the same genus.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Homo, however, only has one surviving species (sapiens), Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, etc.^ Homo, however, only has one surviving species (sapiens); Homo erectus , Homo neanderthalensis , &c.

^ This makes species interpretation using only one genetic distance cutoff impossible.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one major clade of dinosaurs, Aves ("birds"), survives today directional selection n.
  • Dictionary 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.dinosauria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

having become extinct thousands of years ago. .Several genera belong to the same family and so on up the hierarchy.^ Several genera belong to the same family and so on up the hierarchy.

.Eventually, the relevant kingdom (Animalia, in the case of humans) is placed into one of the three domains depending upon certain genetic and structural characteristics.^ Eventually, the relevant kingdom ( Animalia , in the case of humans) is placed into one of the three domains depending upon certain genetic and structural characteristics.

^ The Genetic Case for Taxonomic Reclassification of Chimpanzees A growing body of scientific evidence increasingly refutes many of the common arguments for the placement of humans into a separate genus from any other living organism.

^ Therefore, when selecting living organisms as models to work with, certain criteria are used depending upon the experimental purposes.
  • Model organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.loci.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.All living organisms known to science are given classification by this system such that the species within a particular family are more closely related and genetically similar than the species within a particular phylum.^ All living organisms known to science are given classification by this system such that the species within a particular family are more closely related and genetically similar than the species within a particular phylum.

^ Method of living system organism ...
  • Method of living system organism ... - Google Patent Search 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Genetically, all humans are of the same species.

A crab is an example of an organism.

Chemistry

.Organisms are complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival.^ Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems.

^ Organisms are complex chemical reactions, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival.

^ Chi A Rational Cosmology: Complex Self-Sustaining Physical Systems This 71st essay of "A Rational Cosmology" argues for the possibility of extremely complex physical systems capable of sustaining themselves and directing their own actions.

.The molecular phenomena of chemistry are fundamental in understanding organisms, but it is a philosophical error (reductionism) to reduce organismal biology to mere chemistry.^ The molecular phenomena of chemistry are fundamental in understanding organisms, but it is a philosophical error (reductionism) to reduce organismal biology to mere chemistry.

^ As a model of fundamental cellular processes and metabolic pathways of the human, yeast has improved our understanding and facilitated the molecular analysis of many disease genes.
  • Model & other Organisms for pharmaceutical rsearch Glossary &taxonomy 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organisms clearly owe their origin, metabolism, and many other internal functions to the phenomena at the level of chemistry, especially the chemistry of large organic molecules.

.It is generally the phenomena of entire organisms that determine their fitness to an environment and therefore the survivability of their DNA based genes.^ It is generally the phenomena of entire organisms that determine their fitness to an environment and therefore the survivability of their DNA based genes.

^ What interactions with its environment are required for the organism's survival?
  • Organisms and Evolution 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.cco.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a population of organisms produces on average one surviving offspring per parent, the population remains the same size over many generations.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organisms clearly owe their origin, metabolism, and many other internal functions to chemical phenomena, especially the chemistry of large organic molecules.^ Organisms clearly owe their origin, metabolism, and many other internal functions to the phenomena at the level of chemistry, especially the chemistry of large organic molecules.

^ The molecular phenomena of chemistry are fundamental in understanding organisms, but it is a philosophical error (reductionism) to reduce organismal biology to mere chemistry.

^ The word " organism " may broadly be defined as an assembly of molecules that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

.Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds which, through interaction with each other and the environment, play a wide variety of roles.^ What interactions with its environment are required for the organism's survival?
  • Organisms and Evolution 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.cco.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds which, through interaction with each other and the environment, play a wide variety of roles.

^ Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems.

.Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems.^ Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems.

^ Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds which, through interaction with each other and the environment, play a wide variety of roles.

.Although they are individual units of life (as the definition requires) they are not closed to the environment around them.^ Indeed, foods containing GM ingredients do not require special labeling in the United States, although some groups have continued to lobby to change this ruling.
  • genetically modified organism (GMO) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They have all, in their own way, adapted themselves to the environment as they found it around them.
  • THE ORIGIN OF LIFE - Give it to me Raw 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.giveittomeraw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To operate they constantly take in and release energy.^ The release of energy from lipids takes place much more slowly than it does.
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denver Yellow changes can absorb or release energy when they occur, and usually require an energy input to be initiated.
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The release of energy from lipids takes place much more slowly than .
  • Energy metabolism in cells 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC visionman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment.^ The Sun provides the energy and entropy to produce basic organic compounds.

^ Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment.

^ Chemotrophic autotrophs (chemoautotrophs) generally use inorganic chemicals as energy sources and as such are called chemolithoautotrophs.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Organism Function [T040] 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

.The primary chemical element in these compounds is carbon.^ The primary chemical element in these compounds is carbon .

^ A molecule is the smallest part of a substance (element or compound) that exhibits all of the chemical properties of that substance.
  • THE ORIGIN OF LIFE - Give it to me Raw 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.giveittomeraw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many chemical compounds in living organisms are known as organic compounds' which contain C, H and O. In the earlier chapter we have seen that an organism is formed primarily from six elements: C, H, O, N, P, Ca.
  • Chemistry of living organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC lisacruz2.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.The physical properties of this element such as its great affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and its small size make it capable of forming multiple bonds, make it ideal as the basis of organic life.^ The physical properties of this element such as its great affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including other carbon atoms, and its small size makes it capable of forming multiple bonds, make it ideal as the basis of organic life.

^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

^ Which are the 10 to the 18th-power -- that's a million trillion -- insects and other small creatures, and to make a plea for them.
  • E.O. Wilson on saving life on Earth | Video on TED.com 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]

.It is able to form small three-atom compounds (such as carbon dioxide), as well as large chains of many thousands of atoms that can store data (nucleic acids), hold cells together, and transmit information (protein).^ Atoms grouped together to form molecules.
  • THE ORIGIN OF LIFE - Give it to me Raw 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.giveittomeraw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmit nucleic acid component from one host cell to another .
  • Survey of representatives of the major Kingdoms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.anselm.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is able to form small compounds containing three atoms (such as carbon dioxide ) as well as large chains of many thousands of atoms which are able to store data ( nucleic acids), hold cells together and transmit information ( protein ).

Macromolecules

.Compounds that make up organisms may be divided into macromolecules and other, smaller molecules.^ The compounds which make up organisms may be divided into macromolecules and other, smaller molecules.

^ Incorporating other successful forms or organisms into the larger organism can be a very efficient method for improving mutation and accelerating adaptation.

^ The biosphere may also be divided into ecozone, which are very well defined today and primarily follow the continental borders.

.The four groups of macromolecule are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.^ The four groups of macromolecule are nucleic acids, proteins , carbohydrates and lipids .

^ All organisms use the same genetic code (with some extremely rare and minor deviations) to translate nucleic acid sequences into proteins.

^ For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins .

.Nucleic acids (specifically deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) store genetic data as a sequence of nucleotides.^ Nucleic acids (specifically deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA) store genetic data as a sequence of nucleotides.

^ The ancestry of living organisms has traditionally been reconstructed from morphology, but is increasingly supplemented with phylogenetics - the reconstructiion of phylogenies by the comparison of genetic (usually DNA) sequence.

^ For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins .

.The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate the many characteristics that constitute the organism.^ The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides ( adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate the many characteristics which constitute the organism.

^ DNA is composed of nucleotides with bases: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each digital organism has different randomly chosen nucleotides assigned to it.
  • Evolutionary Informatics 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC marksmannet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sequence is divided up into codons, each of which is a particular sequence of three nucleotides and corresponds to a particular amino acid.^ The sequence is divided up into codons , each of which is a particular sequence of three nucleotides and corresponds to a particular amino acid.

^ The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides ( adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate the many characteristics which constitute the organism.

^ It is also thought that the concussion caused by meteorites could have converted the amino acids into elementary proteins.
  • THE ORIGIN OF LIFE - Give it to me Raw 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.giveittomeraw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus a sequence of DNA codes for a particular protein which, due to the chemical properties of the amino acids of which it is made, folds in a particular manner and so performs a particular function.^ Thus a a sequence of DNA codes for a particular protein which, due to the chemical properties of the amino acids of which it is made, folds in a particular manner and so performs a particular function.

^ Each protein, determined by a particular gene, has a particular function in the cell; for instance hemoglobin carries oxygen.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal is for each module to perform a database function in a generic manner that can be adopted by other databases.
  • NIH Guide: DEVELOPING ROBUST COMPONENTS FOR MODEL ORGANISM DATABASES 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The following functions of protein have been recognized:
  1. Enzymes, which catalyze all of the reactions of metabolism;
  2. Structural proteins, such as tubulin, or collagen;
  3. Regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors or cyclins that regulate the cell cycle;
  4. Signaling molecules or their receptors such as some hormones and their receptors;
  5. Defensive proteins, which can include everything from antibodies of the immune system, to toxins (e.g., dendrotoxins of snakes), to proteins that include unusual amino acids like canavanine.
.Lipids make up the membrane of cells that constitutes a barrier, containing everything within the cell and preventing compounds from freely passing into, and out of, the cell.^ Lipids make up the membrane of cells which constitutes a barrier, containing everything within the cell and preventing compounds from freely passing into, and out of, the cell.

^ Cell contents are contained within a cell surface membrane that contains proteins and a lipid bilayera.

^ Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are the carbon-containing compounds that evaporate into the air (with a few exceptions).

.In some multicellular organisms they serve to store energy and mediate communication between cells.^ In some multi-cellular organisms they serve to store energy and mediate communication between cells.

^ And… An organism is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function in some way as a stable whole.

^ They serve their individual users and then pass them on to the next cell.
  • ALU breathes life into LTE cellular 'organism' 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC telephonyonline.com [Source type: General]

.Carbohydrates also store and transport energy in some organisms, but are more easily broken down than lipids.^ Carbohydrates also store and transport energy in some organisms, but are more easily broken down than lipids.

^ Moreover, by studying organisms unrelated to humans, insight into scientific concepts can sometimes be more easily achieved.
  • Model organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.loci.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Organism X has genes that mutate or adapt more quickly than organism Y .

Structure

.All organisms consist of monomeric units called cells; some contain a single cell (unicellular) and others contain many units (multicellular).^ A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms.

^ All organisms consist of monomeric units called cells ; some contain a single cell ( unicellular) and others contain many units ( multicellular).

^ The digital organism contains a Hamming oracl e that compares the computed output (what we get) to the desired target (what we want) and tells us how many of the bit pairs do not match.
  • Evolutionary Informatics 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC marksmannet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multicellular organisms are able to specialize cells to perform specific functions, a group of such cells is tissue the four basic types of which are epithelium, nervous tissue, muscle tissue and connective tissue.^ Multicellular organisms are able to specialise cells to perform specific functions, a group of such cells is tissue the four basic types of which are epithelium, nervous tissue, muscle tissue and connective tissue.

^ The particular sequence of the four different types of nucleotides ( adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) dictate the many characteristics which constitute the organism.

^ Multicellular organisms have specialized tissues for generating macro-forces, so it's not really fair to compare these things by weight or size alone .
  • Sexually transmitted bug is the strongest organism - life - 14 April 2008 - New Scientist 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

.Several types of tissue work together in the form of an organ to produce a particular function (such as the pumping of the blood by the heart, or as a barrier to the environment as the skin).^ Several types of tissue work together in the form of an organ to produce a particular function (such as the pumping of the blood by the heart, or as a barrier to the environment as the skin).

^ Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment.

^ This pattern continues to a higher level with several organs functioning as an organ system to allow for reproduction, digestion, &c.

.This pattern continues to a higher level with several organs functioning as an organ system to allow for reproduction, digestion, etc.^ This pattern continues to a higher level with several organs functioning as an organ system to allow for reproduction, digestion, &c.

^ An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus The word "organism" usually describes an independent collections of systems (for example circulatory system, digestive system, reproductive system, themselves collections of organs; these are, in turn, collections of tissues, which are themselves made of cells .

^ And… An organism is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function in some way as a stable whole.

.Many multicelled organisms consist of several organ systems, which coordinate to allow for life.^ A superorganism is an organism consisting of many organisms.

^ Many multicelled organisms comprise of several organ systems which coordinate to allow for life.

^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

The cell

.The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; all vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.^ The phrase complex organism describes any organism with more than one cell .

^ The chromosomes contain the genetic blueprint for the organism to develop and function.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; all vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

.There are two types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic.^ There are two types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic.

^ Two main grades may be distinguished, the prokaryotes and eukaryotes .

^ Two main grades may be distinguished, the prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

.Prokaryotic cells are usually singletons, while eukaryotic cells are usually found in multi-cellular organisms.^ Prokaryotic cells are usually singletons, while eukaryotic cells are usually found in multi-cellular organisms.

^ Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism Skip to main content Country/region [ select ] All of dW .
  • Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Oxford English Dictionary defines an organism as "[an] individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form" This definition problematically excludes non-animal and plant multi-cellular life forms such as some fungi and protista.

.Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclear membrane so DNA is unbound within the cell, eukaryotic cells have nuclear membranes.^ Prokaryotic cells lack a nuclear membrane so DNA is unbound within the cell, eukaryotic cells have nuclear membranes.

^ Prokaryotic cells are usually singletons, while eukaryotic cells are usually found in multi-cellular organisms.

^ Lipids make up the membrane of cells which constitutes a barrier, containing everything within the cell and preventing compounds from freely passing into, and out of, the cell.

.All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have a membrane, which envelops the cell, separates its interior from its environment, regulates what moves in and out, and maintains the electric potential of the cell.^ Manipulating midges and winter web weavers, like all life, shape and regulate the environment in accordance with the laws of nature."
  • The Extended Organism. The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.esf.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Inside the membrane, a salty cytoplasm takes up most of the cell volume.^ Inside the membrane, a salty cytoplasm takes up most of the cell volume.

^ Lipids make up the membrane of cells which constitutes a barrier, containing everything within the cell and preventing compounds from freely passing into, and out of, the cell.

.All cells possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary machinery.^ The sequence of information in the DNA constitutes genes .
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All cells possess DNA , the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary machinery.

^ The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Schleiden and Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells; all cells come from preexisting cells; all vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

.There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells.^ There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells.

^ If there are no other cells on the puzzle board, any cell is okay.
  • Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All cells share several abilities:[5]
.
  • Reproduction by cell division (binary fission, mitosis or meiosis).
  • Use of enzymes and other proteins coded for by DNA genes and made via messenger RNA intermediates and ribosomes.
  • Metabolism, including taking in raw materials, building cell components, converting energy, molecules and releasing by-products.^ Use of enzymes and other proteins coded for by DNA genes and made via messenger RNA intermediates and ribosomes.

    ^ All cells share several abilities: Reproduction by cell division ( binary fission, mitosis or meiosis).

    ^ Metabolism, including taking in raw materials, building cell components, converting energy , molecules and releasing by-products.

    .The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules.^ The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules.

    ^ Autotrophs produce usable energy (in the form of organic compounds) using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment.

    ^ It metabolizes their energy by using the thought processing, memory storage and communication ability of their minds to propagate its control over the resources in its environment.

    This energy is derived from metabolic pathways.
  • Response to external and internal stimuli such as changes in temperature, pH or nutrient levels.
  • Cell contents are contained within a cell surface membrane that contains proteins and a lipid bilayer.

Life span

.One of the basic parameters of organism is its life span.^ One of the basic parameters of organism is its life span.

^ Aging is important when determining life span of most organisms, bacterium, a virus or even a prion .

^ To create a complete biological picture of any organism one must consider its entire life.

.Some organisms live as short as one day, while some plants can live thousands of years.^ Some animals live as short as one day, while some plants can live thousands of years.

^ And… An organism is a living complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function in some way as a stable whole.

^ One might expect, then, to find in biology some generally agreed description of what an organism is.
  • Offprint 1 From Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 2, Behavioural Design, edited by N. S. Thompson. 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aging is important when determining life span of most organisms, bacterium, a virus or even a prion.^ Aging is important when determining life span of most organisms, bacterium, a virus or even a prion .

^ The complete life cycle and purpose of the urban organism is one of the most important parts of this paper.

^ One of the basic parameters of organism is its life span.

[citation needed]

Evolution

.In biology, the theory of universal common descent proposes that all organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool.^ In biology, the theory of universal common descent proposes that all organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool.

^ Evidence for common descent may be found in traits shared between all living organisms.

^ Organisms may be classified based on genetic relatedness, or the time since two species diverged from a common ancestor.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Evidence for common descent may be found in traits shared between all living organisms.^ Evidence for common descent may be found in traits shared between all living organisms.

^ In Darwin's day, the evidence of shared traits was based solely on visible observation of morphologic similarities, such as the fact that all birds have wings, even those which do not fly.

^ The Genetic Case for Taxonomic Reclassification of Chimpanzees A growing body of scientific evidence increasingly refutes many of the common arguments for the placement of humans into a separate genus from any other living organism.

.In Darwin's day, the evidence of shared traits was based solely on visible observation of morphologic similarities, such as the fact that all birds have wings, even those that do not fly.^ In Darwin's day, the evidence of shared traits was based solely on visible observation of morphologic similarities, such as the fact that all birds have wings, even those which do not fly.

^ Evidence for common descent may be found in traits shared between all living organisms.

^ However, all existing organisms share certain traits, including cellular structure and genetic code .

.Today, there is debate over whether or not all organisms descended from a common ancestor, or a "last universal ancestor" (LUA), also called the "last universal common ancestor" (LUCA).^ Today, there is strong evidence from genetics that all organisms have a common ancestor.

^ Most scientists interpret this to mean all existing organisms share a common ancestor, which had already developed the most fundamental cellular processes, but there is no scientific consensus on the relationship of the three domains of life ( Archaea, Bacteria , Eukaryota) or the origin of life.

^ In biology, the theory of universal common descent proposes that all organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool.

.The universality of genetic coding suggests common ancestry.^ The universality of these traits strongly suggests common ancestry, because the selection of many of these traits seems arbitrary.

.For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins, although exceptions to the basic twenty amino acids have been found.^ For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the building blocks for proteins .

^ There are twenty essential amino acids.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants need nitrogen, but can’t just pull it from the atmosphere and start using it to make amino acids.
  • One-Organism Ecosystem Discovered in African Gold Mine | Wired Science | Wired.com 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.However, throughout history groupings based on appearance or function of species have sometimes been polyphyletic due to convergent evolution.^ The two species may evolve superficially similar adaptations; hence the term convergent evolution .
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, one can measure the time of evolution by counting the number of base-pair differences between the genes of two species.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bacteria Archaea Eucaryota Aquifex Thermotoga Cytophaga Bacteroides Bacteroides-Cytophaga Planctomyces Cyanobacteria Proteobacteria Spirochetes Gram-positive bacteria Green filantous bacteria Pyrodicticum Thermoproteus Thermococcus celer Methanococcus Methanobacterium Methanosarcina Halophiles Entamoebae Slime mold Animal Fungus Plant Ciliate Flagellate Trichomonad Microsporidia Diplomonad
.
A hypothetical phylogenetic tree of all extant organisms, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, showing the evolutionary history of the three domains of life, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
^ The prokaryotes are generally considered to represent two separate domains, called the Bacteria and Archaea, which are not closer to one anothe ...

^ Determining Appropriate Test DNA Sequencing FunITS Libraries Results Analysis Identification Request Form Results Reporting RiboPrinting Sample Shipment Determining Appropriate Test How does 16S rRNA sequence based identification compare to RiboPrinting?
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They could be the same strain, but 16S rRNA gene sequences are highly conserved at the species level and are generally not useful for strain level differentiation.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Originally proposed by Carl Woese.
.
The "last universal ancestor" (LUA), or "last universal common ancestor" (LUCA), is the name given to the hypothetical single cellular organism or single cell that gave rise to all life on Earth 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago[6]; however, this hypothesis has since been refuted on many grounds.
^ In this exercise the age of the Earth (~4.5 billion years) is represented by one hypothetical year.

^ After all, if humans are the organism that has achieved the greatest speed and adaptive ability through evolution, then it seems to follow that humans must give rise to the new medium for replication.

^ Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism Skip to main content Country/region [ select ] All of dW .
  • Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, it was once thought that the genetic code was universal (see: universal genetic code), but many variations have been discovered[7] including various alternative mitochondrial codes.^ Genetic traits carried on the mitochondrial chromosome—including some defects leading to disease—are passed on only by mothers , to all of the mother=s children.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may see these objects and technologies as universally human, but in time many will become dated and change.

^ Genetic code: U = universal; S= standard mitochondria with UGA coding for Trp, rather than termination; Y= yeast codon usage, with AUA coding for Met, not Ile, CUN = Thr, not Leu, and UGA is Trp, not Ter; C = Chlorophycean mitochondrial code with UAG being Leu, not Ter .
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Back in the early 1970s, evolutionary biologists thought that a given piece of DNA specified the same protein subunit in every living thing, and that the genetic code was thus universal.^ At the heart of biology's winning formula for adaptive speed is the replicating gene or genetic code, stored in the DNA .

^ It is higher on the food chain than we are and because of its formidable skill at manipulating the Power Equation, it affects every living thing on the planet.

.This was interpreted as evidence that every organism had inherited its genetic code from a single common ancestor, aka, an LUCA. In 1979, however, exceptions to the code were found in mitochondria, the tiny energy factories inside cells.^ The Genetic Case for Taxonomic Reclassification of Chimpanzees A growing body of scientific evidence increasingly refutes many of the common arguments for the placement of humans into a separate genus from any other living organism.

^ The traditional outlook in physiology has been inward-looking, trying to understand how an organism's internal physiology - the collective actions of its internal organs, cells and molecules - organizes matter and energy.
  • The Extended Organism. The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.esf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism Skip to main content Country/region [ select ] All of dW .
  • Cultured Perl: Genetic algorithms simulate a multi-celled organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researchers studying human mitochondrial genes discovered that they used an alternative code, and many slight variants have been discovered since,[9] including various alternative mitochondrial codes,[10] as well as small variants such as Mycoplasma translating the codon UGA as tryptophan.^ They could be the same strain, but 16S rRNA gene sequences are highly conserved at the species level and are generally not useful for strain level differentiation.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most genes are encoded on the same strand and the order of genes within fungal mitochondrial genomes varies widely, a likely consequence of the high rate of mtDNA recombination.
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The stop codon UGA is translated as tryptophan in many Ascomycetes, whereas some lower fungi translate the stop codon UAG as leucine (Paquin et al.
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Biologists subsequently found exceptions in bacteria and in the nuclei of algae and single-celled animals.^ Everywhere else biologists have studied life on our planet, they’ve found communities of life, but today, biologists announced they have discovered an ecosystem that contains just a single species of bacteria.
  • One-Organism Ecosystem Discovered in African Gold Mine | Wired Science | Wired.com 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.For example, certain proteins may use alternative initiation (start) codons not normally used by that species.^ Microaerophiles are organisms that may use oxygen, but only at low concentrations (low micromolar range); their growth is inhibited by normal oxygen concentrations (approximately 200 micromolar).

[11] .In certain proteins, non-standard amino acids are substituted for standard stop codons, depending upon associated signal sequences in the messenger RNA: UGA can code for selenocysteine and UAG can code for pyrrolysine.^ After a messenger RNA molecule is transcribed from DNA, its sequence of bases (A, C, G, U—uracil replacing thymine) is translated by ribosomes into protein code: three DNA bases per amino acid of the protein.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetic code: U = universal; S= standard mitochondria with UGA coding for Trp, rather than termination; Y= yeast codon usage, with AUA coding for Met, not Ile, CUN = Thr, not Leu, and UGA is Trp, not Ter; C = Chlorophycean mitochondrial code with UAG being Leu, not Ter .
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But most RNA molecules are messenger RNA , each of which directs ribosomes to make a particular protein .
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Selenocysteine is now viewed as the 21st amino acid, and pyrrolysine is viewed as the 22nd. A detailed description of variations in the genetic code can be found at the NCBI web site.
.It is now clear that the genetic code is not the same in all living things and this provides credence that all living things did not evolve on a firmly-rooted tree of life from a single LUCA. Further support that there is no LUCA has been provided over the years by horizontal/lateral gene transfer in both prokaryote and eukaryote single cell organisms.^ There is no use of a digital organism.
  • Evolutionary Informatics 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC marksmannet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genetically, all humans are of the same species.

^ Because they too are living, all Memetic Superorganisms will likewise be found to behave as biological organisms with regard to the Power Equation.

.This is why phylogenetic trees cannot be rooted; why almost all phylogenetic trees have different branching structures, particularly near the base of the tree; and why many organisms have been found with codons and sections of their DNA sequence that are sometimes unrelated to other species.^ However, from this species all organisms in our family tree originate.

^ Top DNA Sequencing Results Analysis If two organisms have the same 16S sequence, are they the same strain?
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they too are living, all Memetic Superorganisms will likewise be found to behave as biological organisms with regard to the Power Equation.

[12]
.Information about the early development of life includes input from many different fields, including geology and planetary science.^ This paper is about observing and exploring life from a different perspective.

^ See About ToL Treehouses for more information, and Learning with the Tree of Life to get an overview of ToL learning resources.
  • Tree of Life Treehouses 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Life cycle of Acetabularia acetabulum ,showing the different stages of morphogenesis including the production of the transient verticils (whorls of laterals).
  • Offprint 1 From Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 2, Behavioural Design, edited by N. S. Thompson. 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.These sciences provide information about the history of the Earth and the changes produced by life.^ See About ToL Treehouses for more information, and Learning with the Tree of Life to get an overview of ToL learning resources.
  • Tree of Life Treehouses 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Domestic Guinea Pig, Cavia porcellus Hilary Noad, a student at McMaster University, provides information about these popular pet animals.
  • Tree of Life Treehouses 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These 3-D models are presented as a way to help us understand the complex genetic connections between Life on Earth.
  • Tree of Life Treehouses 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a great deal of information about the early Earth has been destroyed by geological processes over the course of time.^ With time, highly unstable processes which mark the introduction of the urban organism, like disease, war, and integration will run their course and stabilise.

^ However, it is sufficient to say that over time, this process is exactly what has happened to countless species in varying environments and habitats within the biosphere.


History of life

.The chemical evolution from self-catalytic chemical reactions to life (see Origin of life) is not a part of biological evolution, but it is unclear at which point such increasingly complex sets of reactions became what we would consider, today, to be living organisms.^ Living or biological: of or relating to a living thing or organism or part thereof.

^ The original organism is the most primitive organism that ever lived.

^ ORGANISM: Encyclopedia - Organism In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a complex adaptive system of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life.

Precambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. .In 2002, William Schopf of UCLA published a controversial paper in the journal Nature arguing that formations such as this possess 3.5 billion year old fossilized algae microbes.^ Fossil fuel is any hydrocarbon deposit that can be burned for heat or power such as coal, oil or natural gas.

^ William Jefferson Fossils of Embryos fossils By Pratanu Banerjee   |  Published 8/28/2006 More topics: Fossils .

^ Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life.

If true, they would be the earliest known life on earth.
Not much is known about the earliest developments in life. .However, all existing organisms share certain traits, including cellular structure and genetic code.^ Genetic traits carried on the mitochondrial chromosome—including some defects leading to disease—are passed on only by mothers , to all of the mother=s children.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genes are structural information that mutate and are passed on, or communicated to successive generations (passing on the improved information of the genetic code) .

^ Put another way, organisms exist in a family tree, sharing a common ancestor who had no ancestors of its own.

.Most scientists interpret this to mean all existing organisms share a common ancestor, which had already developed the most fundamental cellular processes, but there is no scientific consensus on the relationship of the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota) or the origin of life.^ There is no use of a digital organism.
  • Evolutionary Informatics 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC marksmannet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A systemic definition of life connects the origin of life with the origin of the Universe because ultimately anything that exists is part of a system in motion.

^ However, it seems unlikely that all currently known viruses have a common ancestor and viruses have probably arisen numerous times in the past by one or more mechanisms .

.Attempts to shed light on the earliest history of life generally focus on the behavior of macromolecules, particularly RNA, and the behavior of complex systems.^ There exists inherent physical complexity to terms like “system” and “motion.” According to the systemic definition of life, within all physical matter there exists life.

^ Matter = gravity = motion = imbalance = time I expect that some will argue that the above definition (life = systems in motion) is too simplistic and general.

^ They are self- generating wholes, complex systems that obey principles of dynamic order described by field equations.
  • Offprint 1 From Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 2, Behavioural Design, edited by N. S. Thompson. 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

.The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis (around 3 billion years ago) and the subsequent emergence of an oxygen-rich, non-reducing atmosphere can be traced through the formation of banded iron deposits, and later red beds of iron oxides.^ Nitrogen oxides are typically created during combustion, combustion processes, and are major contributors to smog formation and acid deposition.

^ Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the atmosphere and are usually measured in parts per million by volume (ppmv), parts per billion by volume (ppbv) or parts per trillion (million million) by volume (pptv).

^ Photosynthesis by microbes (and later by plants) produced all the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere, and fixed most of the carbon dioxide as complex organic components of living organisms.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was a necessary prerequisite for the development of aerobic cellular respiration, believed to have emerged around 2 billion years ago.^ Again, referring to the Chinese comparison: Indeed the growth in China is impressive, but recall that the nature of economic development in China is akin to development experienced in western cities 100 years ago.

.In the last billion years, simple multicellular plants and animals began to appear in the oceans.^ Formation of the supercontinent Rodinia 1.3 billion years ago - First plants.
  • timeline 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC math.ucr.edu [Source type: General]

^ Carbon cycles between CO 2 in the atmosphere, the body parts of plants and animals, and carbonates in the oceans.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans, like most multicellular animals and plants, have two copies of each chromosome in each of our body cells: one set from the mother, and one from the father.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soon after the emergence of the first animals, the Cambrian explosion (a period of unrivaled and remarkable, but brief, organismal diversity documented in the fossils found at the Burgess Shale) saw the creation of all the major body plans, or phyla, of modern animals. This event is now believed to have been triggered by the development of the Hox genes. .About 500 million years ago, plants and fungi colonized the land, and were soon followed by arthropods and other animals, leading to the development of today's land ecosystems.^ Evolution of the Australopithecines Paul Szpak, a student at McMaster University, explores the morphology, taxonomy and evolution of australopithecines, a diverse group of fossil hominids that lived in Africa until about 1.4 million years ago.
  • Tree of Life Treehouses 12 September 2009 12:17 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fossil fuels are the fuels formed eons ago from decayed plants and animals.

^ Protected area is any area of land that has legal measures limiting human use of the plants and animals within that area; it includes national parks, game reserves, biosphere reserves, etc.

.The evolutionary process may be exceedingly slow.^ Through analysis of the evolutionary process, any activity of all organisms may be shown to be strictly a function of the Power Equation.

.Fossil evidence indicates that the diversity and complexity of modern life has developed over much of the history of the earth.^ This development constructs a new medium where upon life continues its slow and steady progress toward inevitably more complex forms.

.Geological evidence indicates that the Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old.^ In this exercise the age of the Earth (~4.5 billion years) is represented by one hypothetical year.

.Studies on guppies by David Reznick at the University of California, Riverside, however, have shown that the rate of evolution through natural selection can proceed 10 thousand to 10 million times faster than what is indicated in the fossil record.^ The rate of decrease may be faster or slower than the previous rate of increase.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my essay The Evolution of Evolvability (Dawkins 1989), I have suggested that natural selection has not only favoured genes that make organisms good at surviving and reproducing.
  • Offprint 1 From Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 2, Behavioural Design, edited by N. S. Thompson. 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.fortunecity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Memetic Superorganism was born when evolution reached a point at which the information exchange through ideas became more efficient than through biology alone.

[13]. .Such comparative studies however are invariably biased by disparities in the time scales over which evolutionary change is measured in the laboratory, field experiments, and the fossil record.^ However, that is one variable and measuring such variables might constitute an insurmountable task.

Horizontal gene transfer, and the history of life

.The ancestry of living organisms has traditionally been reconstructed from morphology, but is increasingly supplemented with phylogenetics - the reconstruction of phylogenies by the comparison of genetic (DNA) sequence.^ By using the structure of encoding genetic information in the DNA of the organism, and allowing for communication of that information across generations, the force of nature is employing a feedback loop.

^ Thus, to reconstruct an entire chromosome of an extinct organism would require "piecing together" many short overlapping sequences.
  • Reproduction of Living Organisms 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC biology.kenyon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Sequence comparisons suggest recent horizontal transfer of many genes among diverse species including across the boundaries of phylogenetic 'domains'. Thus determining the phylogenetic history of a species can not be done conclusively by determining evolutionary trees for single genes."[14]
.Biologist Gogarten suggests "the original metaphor of a tree no longer fits the data from recent genome research", therefore "biologists [should] use the metaphor of a mosaic to describe the different histories combined in individual genomes and use [the] metaphor of a net to visualize the rich exchange and cooperative effects of HGT among microbes."^ Using the data from the distance matrix, the algorithm then determines the tree topology that best represents the pairwise distances between all combinations.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most important factors to consider is that the GenBank database is not curated, or quality controlled, so any individual can submit a 16S sequence to GenBank, with no assurance that the data is correct.
  • Information Center | FAQs 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC www.accugenix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the ‘Meta-Perspective’ point of view, ideological life is not much different; therefore Memetic Superorganisms may be observed using the same methodologies that we employ to observe biology.

[15]

Future of life (cloning and synthetic organisms)

.In modern terms, the category of organism cloning refers to the procedure of creating a new multicellular organism, genetically identical to another.^ A transgenic or genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is a living organism that has been created artificially by manipulating their genes.

.However, cloning also has the potential of creating entirely new species of organisms.^ To create a complete biological picture of any organism one must consider its entire life.

^ However, because C. pneumoniae and Legionella species are intracellular organisms and M. pneumoniae lacks a cell wall, beta-lactams are not effective.
  • Atypical Pathogens and Challenges in Community-Acquired Pneumonia - April 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the advent of the meme, the stage has been set for a new type of organism or species.

Organism cloning is the subject of much ethical debate (see Bioethics, Ethics of cloning, and Designer baby articles).
.The J. Craig Venter Institute has recently assembled a synthetic yeast genome, Mycoplasma genitalium, by recombination of 25 overlapping DNA fragments in a single step.^ Fungal mt genomes commonly map as single, circular DNA molecules; however, both linear mt genomes and segmented mtDNAs have been identified.
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

."The use of yeast recombination greatly simplifies the assembly of large DNA molecules from both synthetic and natural fragments."^ Structural analysis of mitochondrial DNA molecules from fungi and plants using moving pictures and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungal mt genomes commonly map as single, circular DNA molecules; however, both linear mt genomes and segmented mtDNAs have been identified.
  • Organism 11 January 2010 4:37 UTC pages.slu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Other companies, such as Synthetic Genomics, have already been formed to take advantage of the many commercial uses of custom designed genomes.^ Inorganic waste is waste consisting of materials other than plant or animal matter, such as sand, glass, or any other synthetics.

Notes

  1. ^ T.Cavalier-Smith (1987) The origin of eukaryote and archaebacterial cells, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503, 17–54
  2. ^ T. Cavalier-Smith (2002) The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52, 7–76
  3. ^ "organism". Oxford English Dictionary (online ed.). 2004. 
  4. ^ "organism". Chambers 21st Century Dictionary (online ed.). 1999. 
  5. ^ The Universal Features of Cells on Earth in Chapter 1 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
  6. ^ Doolittle, W. Ford (February, 2000). Uprooting the tree of life. Scientific American 282 (6): 90–95.
  7. ^ NCBI: "The Genetic Codes", Compiled by Andrzej (Anjay) Elzanowski and Jim Ostell
  8. ^ Jukes TH, Osawa S, The genetic code in mitochondria and chloroplasts., Experientia. 1990 Dec 1;46(11-12):1117-26.
  9. ^ NCBI: "The Genetic Codes", Compiled by Andrzej (Anjay) Elzanowski and Jim Ostell
  10. ^ Jukes TH, Osawa S, The genetic code in mitochondria and chloroplasts., Experientia. 1990 Dec 1;46(11-12):1117-26.
  11. ^ Genetic Code page in the NCBI Taxonomy section (Downloaded 27 April 2007.)
  12. ^ Syoso Osawa (1995). Evolution of the Genetic Code. Oxford University Press. pp. 232. ISBN 978-0198547815. 
  13. ^ Evaluation of the Rate of Evolution in Natural Populations of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) "[1]"
  14. ^ Oklahoma State - Horizontal Gene Transfer
  15. ^ esalenctr.org
  16. ^ Gibsona, Daniel G., Gwynedd A. Benders, Kevin C. Axelroda, Jayshree Zaveria, Mikkel A. Algirea, Monzia Moodiea, Michael G. Montaguea, J. Craig Ventera, Hamilton O. Smith, and Clyde A. Hutchison III (2008). "One-step assembly in yeast of 25 overlapping DNA fragments to form a complete synthetic Mycoplasma genitalium genome". PNAS 105 (51): 20404–20409. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811011106. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/51/20404.full.pdf. 

External links

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Simple English

Life on Earth
Fossil range: Late Hadean - Recent
File:EscherichiaColi
These Escherichia coli cells provide an example of a prokaryotic microorganism
Scientific classification
(unranked) Life on Earth (Gaeabionta)
Domains and Kingdoms

An organism is a living thing. Animals and plants are organisms. Organisms are a biotic, or living, part of the environment. Rocks and sunshine are a part of the abiotic, or non-living, environment.

Organisms have five basic needs. They need air, water, nutrients (food), energy and a place to live. Animals and plants are organisms.

Some organisms are made up of millions of cells. They are called multicellular organisms. Some examples are dogs, trees, and humans. Most multicellular organisms can be seen without using a microscope.

Some organisms are so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. You need a microscope to see them. They are called microorganisms. Organisms can be made up of just one cell. They are called unicellular organisms or single celled organisms. Examples include bacteria, amoeba and protozoa such as the paramecium.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Organism, which are similar to those in the above article.








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