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An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon.
.In the social sciences, organizations are studied by researchers from several disciplines, the most common of which are sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication.^ Republicans have been consistently wrong on every major moral, political, economic, and social issue.
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

The broad area is commonly referred to as organizational studies, organizational behavior or organization analysis. Therefore, a number of different theories and perspectives exist, some of which are compatible,
  • Organization – process-related: an entity is being (re-)organized (organization as task or action).
  • Organization – functional: organization as a function of how entities like businesses or state authorities are used (organization as a permanent structure).
  • Organization – institutional: an entity is an organization (organization as an actual purposeful structure within a social context)

Contents

Organization in sociology

.In sociology "organization" is understood as planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings to construct or compile a common tangible or intangible product.^ Context menus must not, while being shown, reflect changes in the DOM; they are constructed as the default action of the show event and must remain like that until dismissed.
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This action is usually framed by formal membership and form (institutional rules). Sociology distinguishes the term organization into planned formal and unplanned informal (i.e. spontaneously formed) organizations. Sociology analyzes organizations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organization is a permanent arrangement of elements. .These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labor.^ User agents may use the language of the element to determine what spelling and grammar rules to use, or may use the user's preferred language settings.
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^ There are two attributes that determine the current task completion represented by the element.
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^ The Type , ID , Label , Hint , Icon , Access Key , Hidden State , Checked State , and Action facets of the command are determined as for a elements (see the previous section).
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.An organization is defined by the elements that are part of it (who belongs to the organization and who does not?^ On setting, if the valueAsNumber attribute does not apply, as defined for the input element's type attribute's current state, then throw an INVALID_ACCESS_ERR exception.
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^ On getting, if the valueAsDate attribute does not apply, as defined for the input element's type attribute's current state, then return null.
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^ Otherwise, if the element does not have a defined activation behavior , fire a click event at the element.
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), its communication (which elements communicate and how do they communicate?), its autonomy .(Max Weber termed autonomy in this context: Autocephaly (which changes are executed autonomously by the organization or its elements?^ When an event handler content attribute is set on an element owned by a Document that is not in a browsing context , the corresponding event handler attribute is not changed.
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^ Whenever the name attribute is set, if the object element has a nested browsing context , its name must be changed to the new value.
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), and its rules of action compared to outside events (what causes an organization to act as a collective actor?).
By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements. .Advantages of organizations are enhancement (more of the same), addition (combination of different features) and extension.^ Here are some more examples showing the same picture used in different contexts, with different appropriate alternate texts each time.
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Disadvantages can be inertness (through co-ordination) and loss of interaction.

Organization in management and organizational studies

Management is interested in organization mainly from an instrumental point of view. .For a company, organization is a means to an end to achieve its goals - which are to create value for its stakeholders (stockholders, employees, customers, suppliers, community).^ The square value means that a rectangle with the length of the line width and the width of half the line width, placed flat against the edge perpendicular to the direction of the line, must be added at the end of each line.
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^ He also mentions the benefits of more conventional channels: “in-depth communication…understanding of the company, the brand, or the direction and aspirations of the organization” and so forth.
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^ The butt value means that the end of each line has a flat edge perpendicular to the direction of the line (and that no additional line cap is added).
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Organization theories

Among the theories that are or have been most influential are:
.

Organizational structures

The study of organizations includes a focus on optimizing organizational structure. According to management science, most human organizations fall roughly into four types:

Pyramids or hierarchies

A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads leaders. This arrangement is often associated with bureaucracy. Hierarchies were satirized in The Peter Principle (1969), a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence".
.An extremely rigid, in terms of responsibilities, type of organization is exemplified by Führerprinzip.^ The semantics of the fragment identifier in terms of mapping it to a specific DOM Node is defined by the specification that defines the MIME type used by the Document (for example, the processing of fragment identifiers for XML MIME types is the responsibility of RFC3023).
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Committees or juries

These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group, perhaps by voting. .The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are usually assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision.^ The difference between setDragImage() and addElement() is that the latter automatically generates the image based on the current rendering of the elements added, whereas the former uses the exact specified image.
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^ [HTML4] [DOM2HTML] A separate document has been published by the W3C HTML working group to provide a more detailed reference of the differences between this specification and the language described in the HTML4 specification.
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In common law countries legal juries render decisions of guilt, liability and quantify damages; juries are also used in athletic contests, book awards and similar activities. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. .In the Middle Ages juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus amongst local notables.^ The actual HTTP headers and other metadata, not the headers as mutated or implied by the algorithms given in this specification, are the ones that must be used when determining the character encoding according to the rules given in the above specifications.
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Committees are often the most reliable way to make decisions. .Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice, then adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote (however correctness is defined).^ They would had added at least a few explosions and more than one action scene.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I seem to recall hearing that sets were rebuilt to make them lighter and more mutant characters were added to increase the possibility of future spin-offs.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duplicates are not prevented; a range may be added more than once in which case it appears in the list more than once, which (for example) will cause stringification to return the range's text twice.
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The problem is that if the average member is worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better: Staffing is crucial.
Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions.

Staff organization or cross-functional team

A staff helps an expert get all his work done. .To this end, a "chief of staff" decides whether an assignment is routine or not.^ When the selection is not empty, this specification does not define the caret position; user agents should follow platform conventions in deciding whether the caret is at the start of the selection, the end of the selection, or somewhere else.
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If it's routine, he assigns it to a staff member, who is a sort of junior expert. The chief of staff schedules the routine problems, and checks that they are completed.
If a problem is not routine, the chief of staff notices. He passes it to the expert, who solves the problem, and educates the staff – converting the problem into a routine problem.
In a "cross functional team", like an executive committee, the boss has to be a non-expert, because so many kinds of expertise are required.

Organization: Cyclical structure

A theory put forth by renowned scholar Stephen John has asserted that throughout the cyclical nature of one’s life organizational patterns are key to success. .Through various social and political constraints within society one must realize that organizational skills are paramount to success.^ I am one of those who can model YOU in 3d, who can create the next big thing on the market tomorrow or who can do you a logo that will REALLY make you successful.
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^ In addition, exactly one property with the name about must be present within each item with the type work , giving the URL of the work.
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^ Exactly one property with the name fn must be present within each item with the type vcard .
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.Stephen John suggests that emphasis needs to be put on areas such as individual/ group processes, functionality, and overall structures of institutions in order to maintain a proper organization.^ End : For each tfoot element in the list of pending tfoot elements , in tree order, run the algorithm for processing row groups .
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^ (In the other cases, such as explicit seeks, relevant events get fired as part of the overall process of changing the current playback position.
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Furthermore, the individual's overall organizational skills are pre-determined by the processes undertaken.:

Matrix organization

This organizational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. .One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organization is well-trained, and measured by a boss who is super-expert in the same field.^ Let them worry about the next designer who comes along promising to do the same shitty work one hour faster for one dollar less.
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^ Exactly one property with the name organization-name must be present within the item that forms the value of an org property of an item with the type vcard .
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^ Biden is an expert on BS who has developed a lackluster career trading in the same.
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

.The other direction is "executive" and tries to get projects completed using the experts.^ I’ll certainly continue to use 99Designs while my project budgets warrant it as will countless others.
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Projects might be organized by regions, customer types, or some other schema. matrix management

Ecologies

This organization has intense competition. Bad parts of the organization starve. .Good ones get more work.^ There are more- but one is good for execution...
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Local minimal wage is around 300$, mine is quite good one (bit more than 1300$).
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^ However, with other alternative text, this might not work, and putting all the alternative text into one image in each case might make more sense: .
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.Everybody is paid for what they actually do, and runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired.^ Pros PRICE the way they do because of the COSTS of running their business, not because they’re pompous or entitled or feel special.
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.Companies who utilize this organization type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology.^ Exactly one property with the name organization-name must be present within the item that forms the value of an org property of an item with the type vcard .
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^ One thing I know is that I have a lot more respect for a ‘dropout’ with a considered, unbiased opinion, than a non-dropout who goes around insulting dropouts.
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It is also the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not in general compete with one another in any way, but are very autonomous.
.The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organization in this external article from The Guardian.^ I actually just had a conversation about these types of companies last week with some industry folks.
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"Chaordic" organizations

.The chaordic model of organizing human endeavors emerged in the 1990s, based on a blending of chaos and order (hence "chaordic"), comes out of the work of Dee Hock and the creation of the VISA financial network.^ So here's to hoping they can all stop being dicks and work something out like human beings.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Blending democracy, complex system, consensus decision making, co-operation and competition, the chaordic approach attempts to encourage organizations to evolve from the increasingly nonviable hierarchical, command-and-control models.
Similarly, emergent organizations, and the principle of self-organization. See also group entity for an anarchist perspective on human organizations.

The organization of the artist

.The organization of the artist is a term first used by architect Frank Gehry to denote the organizational set-up he enforces in order to ensure that the architect/artist is in control of design through construction.^ Uses of that term are marked up like this or like this .
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^ Submittable elements Denotes elements that can be used for constructing the form data set when a form element is submitted .
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^ The term "tabbing" refers to moving forward through the focusable elements that can be reached using sequential focus navigation.
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.The organization of the artist deliberately eliminates the influence of politicians and business people on design.^ Remember, there is no guarantee that people submitting designs, aren’t criminals, child molesters, professional con-artists, rapists, pirates, gangsters or murderers.
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.The purpose of the organization of the artist is to ensure that it is the design of the architect/artist that is actually implemented and not some compromise decided by political and business interests.^ I’m not a graphic designer – I have a techie day job – but I can produce some quality designs (and I know that because of feedback I’ve received from successful designers and artists).
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^ How can something really be produced with the client’s business in mind when the actual interaction between the designer and the client is so limited?
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^ Some of the most skilled artists are completely self-taught, and completely unaware of the ‘proper’ design process.
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Gehry initially developed the concept of the organization of the artist as a reaction against what he calls the "marginalization of the architect/artist." Gehry explains:
."There's a tendency to marginalize and treat the creative people like women are treated, 'sweetie, us big business guys know how to do this, just give us the design and we'll take it from there.'^ I am one of the big designers our there.
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^ How much is he earning from big business like Cheney is earning from Haliburton.
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Just like how some designers on the site.
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That is the worst thing that can happen. .It requires the organization of the artist to prevail so that the end product is as close as possible to the object of desire [the design] that both the client and architect have come to agree on."^ It is possible for a media element to have both ended playback and paused for user interaction at the same time.
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^ There are three buttons: one to submit the form, which requires both fields to be filled in; one to save the form so that the user can come back and fill it in later; and one to cancel the form altogether.
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^ The JavaScript specification requires that the this keyword in the global scope return the global object, but this is not compatible with the security design prevalent in implementations as specified herein.
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(Flyvbjerg 2005, 53).
.Gehry argues that the organization of the artist, in addition to making possible artistic integrity, also helps keep his buildings on time and budget, which is rare for the type of innovative and complex designs that Gehry is known for.^ Their target market is ‘savvy’ clients that don’t see the value in the additional cost of professional design vs. Wouldn’t that, by definition, make them not savvy clients?
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^ K+ budget for any type of branding, ad campaign or web design/dev, so it has no effect at all on upper echelon of business that we rely on to keep our firms open.
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The organization of the artist thus serves the dual purpose of artistic freedom and economic prudence.

Leadership in organizations

Leadership in formal organizations

An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. .Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure.^ A more positive utilization of it would be to break a job up amongst qualified individuals (i.e.
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^ How does it make the designers feel when the client middleman themselves and marks up your work for an unknown amount?
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Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. .The higher his position in the hierarchy, the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization.^ Of course I have to compete with a bunch of fucks from Indonesia who can’t get work in their own country, and have had to lower my prices beyond belief.
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^ The optimum attribute gives the position that is "optimum"; if that is higher than the "high" value then this indicates that the higher the value, the better; if it's lower than the "low" mark then it indicates that lower values are better, and naturally if it is in between then it indicates that neither high nor low values are good.
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.It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position.^ Go soak your head, apologize to the commander and chief and then and only them put your knee pads on and go see Obama for your cabinet position.
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Leadership in informal organizations

.In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure.^ Any number of properties with the name organization-unit may be present within the item that forms the value of the org property of an item with the type vcard .
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The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life — the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves.[1]
In prehistoric times, man was preoccupied with his personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now man spends a major portion of his waking hours working for organizations. .His need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times.^ And the reputation of The Iron Giant only continues to grow over time, in part due to the missionary efforts of members of the online film community.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders.[2]
Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. .Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures.^ Any other character Follow these substeps: .
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^ To add to the factors not considered when offering a design in these competitions: 1-information architecture and its impact on design 2-Targeting user-demands 3-Building for scale 4-Accessibility and usablity testing .
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^ User agents should prevent the user from selecting files that are not accepted by one (or more) of these tokens.
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.Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power.^ Go soak your head, apologize to the commander and chief and then and only them put your knee pads on and go see Obama for your cabinet position.
  • The Crypt: Biden: Bush's comments were 'bullshit' - Politico.com 6 February 2010 10:36 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: General]

Influence is the ability of a person to gain cooperation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment.[2]

Leader in organizations

An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his position. .However, he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority, because authority is only potentially available to him.^ The tBodies attribute must return an HTMLCollection rooted at the table node, whose filter matches only tbody elements that are children of the table element.
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^ If the name attribute is present and has a value that is a case-sensitive match for the string " _charset_ ", then the element's value attribute must be omitted.
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^ There must never be two or more attributes on the same start tag whose names are an ASCII case-insensitive match for each other.
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.In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead.^ Gives the role, occupation, or business category of the person or organization.
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^ When an image is included in a private communication (such as an HTML e-mail) aimed at a specific person who is known to be able to view images, the alt attribute may be omitted.
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^ Gives the contact information of another person who will act on behalf of the person or organization.
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However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority.[2]

Hybrid organizations

A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. .As a result the hybrid organization becomes a mixture of both a part of government and a private corporation.^ Apply the IDNA ToASCII algorithm the host part of the origin tuple, with both the AllowUnassigned and UseSTD3ASCIIRules flags set, and append the results result .
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See also

Related lists

Notes

  1. ^ a b Cecil A Gibb (1970). Leadership (Handbook of Social Psychology). Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. pp. 884–89. ISBN 0140805176 9780140805178. OCLC 174777513. 
  2. ^ a b c Henry P. Knowles; Borje O. Saxberg (1971). Personality and Leadership Behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. pp. 884–89. ISBN 0140805176 9780140805178. OCLC 118832. 

References

  • Richard Scott. Organizations. ISBN 0-13-266354-6
  • Richard Scott. Organizations and Institutions
  • Charles Handy.Understanding Organizations
  • Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull. The Peter Principle Pan Books 1970 ISBN 0-330-02519-8
  • Ronald Coase (1937). "The Nature of the Firm" Economica, 4(16), pp. 386–405.
  • Julie Morgenstern (1998). Organizing from the Inside Out. Owl Books ISBN 0-8050-5649-1
  • Henry Mintzberg (1981). ."Organization Design: Fashion or Fit" Harvard Business Review (January February),
  • Thomas Marshak (1987).^ Justin wrote the following on Friday February 20, 2009 Support your local designers and business clients.
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    "organization theory," The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics, v. 3, pp. 757–60.
  • Bent Flyvbjerg (2005). "Design by Deception: The Politics of Megaproject Approval." Harvard Design Magazine, no. 22, Spring/Summer issue, pp. 50-59.
  • Daniel Katz; Robert Louis Kahn (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley. OCLC 255184. 
  • Daniel Katz; Robert Louis Kahn (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley. OCLC 255184. 
  • Richard Arvid Johnson (1976). Management, systems, and society : an introduction. Pacific Palisades, Calif.: Goodyear Pub. Co.. ISBN 0876205406 9780876205402. OCLC 2299496. 
  • Virginia Satir (1967). Conjoint family therapy; a guide to theory and technique. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books. OCLC 187068. 
  • James G March; Herbert A Simon (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471567930 9780471567936. OCLC 1329335. 
  • Carl R Rogers; Fritz Jules Roethlisberger (1990). Barriers and gateways to communication. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Review. OCLC 154085959. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

See also


Simple English

Organization (British English: Organisation) is the idea of putting things together in a logical order.

An organization is a group of people who are doing something together in an organized way.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Organization, which are similar to those in the above article.








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