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The Orient is a term which means "the East". It is a traditional designation for anything belonging to the Eastern world or the Far East. In English it is a metonym describing Eastern Asia. It was also used to indicate the eastern direction in historical astronomy as the adjective Oriental.

Contents

Derivation

The term "Orient" is derived from the Latin word oriens meaning "east" (lit. "rising" < orior "rise"). The use of the word for "rising" to refer to the east (where the sun rises) has analogs from many languages: compare the terms "Levant" (< French levant "rising"), "Anatolia" (< Greek anatole), "mizrahi" in Hebrew ("zriha" meaning sunrise), "sharq" Arabic: شرق‎ (< Arabic yashruq Arabic: يشرق "rise", shurooq Arabic: شروق "rising"), "shygys" Kazakh: шығыс (< Kazakh shygu Kazakh: шығу "come out") and "The Land of the Rising Sun" to refer to Japan. Also, many ancient temples, such as the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, and also many pagan temples as well, were built with their main entrances facing the East. To situate them in such a manner was to "orient" them in the proper direction. When something was facing the correct direction, it was said to be in the proper "orientation".

The opposite term "Occident" is derived from the Latin word occidens meaning "west" (lit. "setting" < "occido" "fall/set"). This term was once used to describe the West (where the sun sets) but is falling into disuse in English.

Usage of term

In time, the common understanding of 'the Orient' has continually shifted eastwards; as Europe learned of countries farther East, the defined limit of 'the Orient' shifted eastwards, until it reached the Pacific Ocean, in what Westerners came to call 'the Far East'.

The term Orient particularly included regions that used to be known as Persia, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Egypt.[citation needed] As awareness of other Asian countries grew in European consciousness, the term often came to mean South Asia, Southeast Asia or East Asia. By the late 19th century, the term usually referred to China, Japan, Korea and surrounding nations while the British colonists frequently used it when speaking of India. Remnants of the older conception of the Orient still exist in the English language in such collocations as Oriental studies (now largely replaced by Asian studies), Oriental rug and Oriental harem. It has taken on a specific usage since the publication of Edward Said's influential book, "Orientalism" (1978).

The adjectival term Oriental has been used by the West as a term to describe cultures, peoples, countries, and goods from the Orient. "Oriental" means generally "eastern". It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Orient or "East" (for Asia), and especially of its Eastern culture. It was also used to indicate the eastern direction in historical astronomy, often abbreviated "Ori".[1] Oriental is also used as an adjective akin to "eastern", especially in the Spanish-speaking world. For example, the Philippine islands of Mindoro and Negros are each divided into two provinces whose titles include the words "oriental" and "occidental" respectively. The official name of Uruguay is the República Oriental del Uruguay or Oriental Republic of Uruguay because it is east of the Uruguay River[2].

Perceptions and connotations

An important factor in the usage of 'Oriental', regardless of perceptions of pejorativeness, is that it collectively refers to cultural, ethnic and national groupings of people who do not necessarily identify themselves as associated, and hence can lead to inaccurate assumptions about similarity.

American English

While a small number of reference works used in the United States describe Oriental as pejorative, antiquated but not necessarily offensive, the American Heritage Book of English Usage notes that

It is worth remembering, though, that Oriental is not an ethnic slur to be avoided in all situations. It is most objectionable in contemporary contexts and when used as a noun, as in the appointment of an Oriental to head the commission. But in certain historical contexts, or when its exotic connotations are integral to the topic, Oriental remains a useful term.[3]

Random House's Guide to Sensitive Language states "Other words (e.g., Oriental, colored) are outdated or inaccurate." This Guide to Sensitive Language suggests the use of "Asian or more specific designation such as Pacific Islander, Chinese American, [or] Korean." [4] Merriam-Webster describes the term as "sometimes offensive,"[5] Encarta states when the term is used as a noun it is considered "a highly offensive term for somebody from East Asia." [6]

British English

In British English, the term Oriental is usually used to describe Eastern Asian people of Chinese/Japanese/Korean descent and some Southeastern Asian groups such as Vietnamese, whereas the term Asian generally describes the people or descendants of people from the Indian Subcontinent and its surrounding countries[7]. (These latter people are called South Asians in the United States.) Oriental is not usually considered an offensive term in Britain.

Australian English

In Australian English, the term "Asian" is generally used in reference to people of Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese ethnicity. However, the term is sometimes expanded to include South Asians and other Asians of darker skin tone, also. Usage of the term is chiefly regional and often varies according to personal preference.

For example: Australians generally refer to people of: Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese or Chinese descent as Asian(s) and persons of Indian or Sri Lankan descent by their respective demonym(s).

The word Oriental, in place of Asian, is seldom used in colloquial conversation in Australia.[citation needed]

Canadian English

In Canadian English, like Australian English, the term "Asian" is used most often to refer to people of eastern Asian descent and other similar southeastern groups. It can be expanded, however, such as in colonial times, to include the more southern Asian countries such as India and Sri Lanka , which is quite common, especially in use by South Asians themselves. In modern Canadian usage, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, the term "Oriental" is considered offensive when applied to a person of East Asian ancestry.[8]

German

In German Orient is usually used synonymous with the Arabic World and Persia. The term Asiaten is used to describe the people of East Asia and Southeast Asia.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hooke, Robert. 1666. Drawing of Saturn in Philosophical Transactions (Royal Society publication) Volume 1
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Uruguay
  3. ^ Asian, The American Heritage Book of English Usage
  4. ^ Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin Sensitive Language, Random House
  5. ^ Oriental Merriam-Webster
  6. ^ Oriental, Encarta. Archived 2009-11-01.
  7. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/asiannetwork/
  8. ^ Barber, K. (ed.) (2004). The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, Second Edition. Oxford University Press Canada.

References and further reading


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative forms

  • oriental (not all senses, and some other ones)

Etymology

Recorded in Middle English from circa 1391 (noun only from 1701), from Old French oriental, from Latin orientalis "of the east", from oriens 'east', the present participle of orire 'to rise, originate'

Adjective

Oriental (comparative more Oriental, superlative most Oriental)

Positive
Oriental

Comparative
more Oriental

Superlative
most Oriental

  1. in, of or otherwise related to the Orient
  2. or, like or otherwise relatng to the Oriental people and culture
  3. of or relating to the biogeographic part of Asia south of the Himalayas, including part of the Malay archipelago

Derived terms

  • Orientalism
  • Orientalist
  • Orientalize
  • Oriental carpet
  • Oriental poppy
  • Oriental rug

Related terms

Noun

Singular
Oriental

Plural
Orientals

Oriental (plural Orientals)

  1. A member or descendant of the peoples and cultures of the Orient
  2. A lily cultivar of a widely varied group, with strong scent

Translations

(person)

Anagrams


Dutch

Noun

Oriental m. (plural Orientals, diminutive Orientalje, diminutive plural Orientaljes)

  1. An Oriental lily







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