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Karnataka is an Indian state. Several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka. One derivative is from Sanskrit where 'Karna' means ear, and 'atati' means wander, together giving a meaning for 'Karnata' as where ones ears would want to wander, since this is the birth place of the popular Carnatic music. The region was popularly referred to as 'Karnata desha' in Indian history. However, historically, the names Karnatak or Carnatic have been misapplied to refer to the regions in or beyond the Western Ghats (Kodagu and Kerala) as well as to a region in present day Andhra Pradesh (Telangana).[1]. The other accepted derivative comes from the Kannada words karu and nādu meaning elevated land. During the British Raj, the words Carnatic or Karnatak were used to describe this part of the region in general. Another etymological derivative of the name comes from lear or black—a reference to the black cotton soil of the region.[2] Mysore state was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Contents

References from Hindu texts

Part of a series on the
History of Karnataka
 Political history of medieval Karnataka 
GBerunda.JPG
Origin of Karnataka's name
Kadambas and Gangas
Chalukya Empire
Rashtrakuta Empire
Western Chalukya Empire
Southern Kalachuri
Hoysala Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
Bahmani Sultanate
Bijapur Sultanate
Kingdom of Mysore
Unification of Karnataka

Societies    Economies
Architectures    Forts

The earliest known references to Karnataka are found in the Sabha Parva and the Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata, an ancient Indian epic[3][4]. The Matsya Purana, Skanda Purana, Markandeya Purana and the Bhagavata Purana also make references to the name Karnata.

In Canto 5 - Chapter 6 of the Bhagavata Purana, Karnata is mentioned while narrating the life of Rishabhadeva. It is said in the Bhagavata that the Lord in Rishabhadeva's form ended his avatara in the Kutakachala hill in Karnata province. Kutakchala is a hill in present day Karnataka near Kollur in the Western Ghats.[5][6] ISKCON has also built an ashrama at the spot.

Historical references

Scholars Pāṇini ( 520–460 BCE), Mrichchakatika and Kathasaritsagara make references to Karnataka in their ancient works. Later, in the 5th century CE, the term Karnataka was used by the astrologer Varaha Mihira in his work Brihatkatha and the Birur plates of Kadamba Vishnuvarma call Shantivarma The master of the entire Karnataka region.[7] In the 7th century CE, Rashtrakuta inscriptions refer to the armies of Chalukyas of Badami as Karnatakabala.[citation needed] The Tamil classic Silappatikaram of the same time period calls the people of present day Karnataka region as Karunatakars.[citation needed] In the 9th century CE, the Kannada classic Kavirajamarga hails the entire region between the rivers Kaveri and Godavari as Karnata.[8] In the 13th century CE, Kannada poet Andayya's works use the same terminology. In the late 16th century, a Telugu work Vasucharitamu refers to Tirumala Deva Raya (1570 CE), the first of the Aravidu (Aravithi) line of rulers of the late Vijayanagar Empire as the reviver of the Karnata Empire.[9] All this clearly shows that the name Karnataka has been in usage consistently since ancient times.[10]

References

  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 9, page 302 - Imperial Gazetteer of India - Digital South Asia Library
  2. ^ Carnatic - LoveToKnow 1911
  3. ^ "Article from The Hindu national newspaper of India". http://www.hindu.com/2006/10/31/stories/2006103108870500.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  4. ^ "'Antiquity of Karnataka' - article from OurKarnataka.com Portal". http://www.ourkarnataka.com/states/history/historyofkarnataka6.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  5. ^ SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM: CANTO 5- CHAPTER 6
  6. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 5 Chapter 6
  7. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, Concise history of Karnataka, 2001, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002)
  8. ^ Prof. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, Arthikaje, History of Karnataka
  9. ^ Prof. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India,Archaeological Survey of India, Telugu Inscriptions from Vijayanagar Empire [1], vol.16
  10. ^ Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, Concise history of Karnataka, 2001, MCC, Bengalooru (Reprinted 2002)

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