Oromo people: Wikis

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Oromo
Oromo people.jpg (left to right): Haile Selassie IBalcha Safo
Ras MäkonnenTilahun Gessesse
Total population
over 31 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Ethiopia 25,489,000 [1]
 Kenya 965,000
 United States 150,563
 Somalia 60,968
 Yemen 59,500
 Great Britain 45,000
 Djibouti 25,664
 Canada 17,580 [2]
 Australia 12,000
Languages

Oromo[3]

Religion

Sunni Islam 47%, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity 30%, Protestant 17.7%, Traditional 3.3%

Related ethnic groups

AfarAgawBejaBilenSidamaSahoSomali

The Oromo (Oromo: Oromoo, "The Powerful"; Ge'ez: ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group found in Ethiopia, in northern Kenya, and to a lesser extent in parts of Somalia.[4] With over 31 million members, they constitute the single largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and approximately 34.49% of the population according to the 2007 census.[1][5] Their native language is Oromo (also called Afaan Oromoo and Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

Contents

Origins

The Oromo are one of the Cushitic-speaking groups of people living in north-eastern and eastern Africa. Cushitic speakers have inhabited parts of north-eastern and eastern Africa for as long as recorded history. Oromos are found predominantly in Ethiopia (99%), but are spread from as far as northern Ethiopia (southern Tigray Region) to northern Kenya, even as far south as Lamu Island. The Oromo represent one of the largest Cushitic-speaking groups inhabiting the Horn of Africa. Their physical features, culture, language and other evidences unequivocally point to the fact that they are indigenous to this part of Africa. Available information indicates that the Oromo existed as a community of people for thousands of years in East Africa (Prouty et al., 1981). Bates (1979) contends that the Oromo "were a very ancient race, the indigenous stock, perhaps, on which most other peoples in this part of eastern Africa have been grafted".

While further research is needed to precisely comprehend the origins of the Oromo, it is well known that they were originally a pastoralist/nomadic group and/or semi-agriculturalist group. It is likely that they have existed for a longer period of time side by side with their northern Semitic-speaking neighbors. There is a wealth of oral history that describe interactions between the two group dating back as early as the 6th century.[citation needed].

Recent history

Historically, the Afaan Oromo speaking people used the indigenous Gadaa system of governance. Many Oromo communities - most notably Gibe Kingdoms, around Jimma - gradually adopted monarchy and other forms of governance in the later centuries of 2nd Millennium. Such changes occurred due to the growing influence of Islam from the east and Orthodox Christianity from the north as well as power struggles between opposing Oromo communities.

Historically, both peaceful and violent competition and integration between Oromos and other neighboring ethnicities such as the Amhara, Sidama and the Somali had an impact on politics within the Oromo community. The northern expansion of the Oromos such as the Yejju and, in particular the Arsi, to ethnic Somali and Sidama territories mirrored the southern expansion of Amharas, and helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.[6] Also the great Somali expansion from the Ogaden plains west towards the Juba river led to conflicts with the Oromo.[7]

In some cases, Oromos and Somalis were in competition for good lands and water resources historically. In addition, Eastern Oromos who were converted to Islam ruled over most of Ethiopia together with Afars and Somalis when Horn of African Muslims who were united and led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi conquered a majority of Christian Ethiopian highlands.[7]

Historian Pankhurst stated that before the coming of European powers and the creation of centralized Ethiopia, the area presently known as Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia:

Constituted a galaxy of states and polities, each moving in its own orbit, but significantly affecting, and affected by, the other entities in the constellation. Each ruler kept a watchful eye on his neighbors but would often exchange gifts and courtesies with them unless actually at war. Dynastic marriages were made whenever practicable, though these only occasionally crossed barriers of religion. Commerce, on the other hand, made little distinction between faith, and trade routes linked traditionalist, Christian and Muslim localities. Ethnic and linguistic communities remained largely distinct, but there was much cross-fertilization of cultures. This was true not only off the Ethiopian highlands and the Red Sea coastlands, but also further south along the Somali-Oromo frontier where later nineteenth century travelers reported the existence of bilingual trading communities.[7]

In the first decades of the nineteenth century, three Oromo monarchies, Enarya, Goma and Guma, rose to prominence.[7] In the general view of Oromo people's role in Ethiopia, Ras Gobana Dacche is a famous Oromo figure who led the development of modern Ethiopia and the political and miliatary incorporation of more territories into Ethiopian borders.[8][9] Gobana under the authority of Menelik II incorporated several Oromo territories into a centralized Ethiopian state. Some contemporary ethno-nationalist Oromo political groups refer to Gobana in a negative light. Though, before military integration; present day Ethiopia, Eritrea, and parts of Somalia were previously and extensively linked commercially by local, long-distance and trans-frontier trade routes. These commercial routes connected Bonga, Jimma, Seqa, Assandabo, Gojjam, Begemder, Maramma, Massawa, Soddo, Shewa, Harar, Zeila and Berbera.[7] Some Oromo writers believe that the Oromo Ras Gobena and the Amhara Menelik II were the first two people in Ethiopia with the concept of national boundary that brought various different ethno-linguistic communities under a politically and militarily centralized rule.[10]

"The two most important historical figures who signify the introduction of the concepts of national boundary and sovereignty in Ethiopia are Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobana Dachi, who used guns manufactured in Europe to bring a large swath of Biyas (regions/nations) under a centralized rule."

Ethnically mixed Ethiopians with Oromo background made up a high percentage of Ethiopian generals and leaders.[11] The Wollo Oromo (particularly the Raya Oromo and Yejju Oromo) were early Oromo holders of power among the increasingly mixed Ethiopian state. The later north-to-south movement of central power in Ethiopia led to Oromos in Shewa holding power in Ethiopia together with the Shewan Amhara.[12]

"In terms of descent, the group that became politically dominant in Shewa - and Subsequently in Ethiopia - was a mixture of Amhara and Oromo; in terms of language, religion and cultural practices, it was Amhara."[13]

Nonetheless, in many cases Oromo became part of the Ethiopian nobility without losing their identity.[14] Both ethnically mixed Oromos and those with full Oromo descent held high leadership positions in Ethiopia. Notably Iyasu V was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–1916) while Haile Selassie I was the crowned and generally aknowledged Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. Both these Ethiopian Emperors are ethnically mixed, with Oromo parents and lineages. During the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes" of Ethiopia, Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.[15][16] By the 1880s, Sahle Selassie, king of Shewa (the later Emperor Menelik II) allied with Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia to expand his kingdom to the South and East, expanding into areas that hadn't been held together since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn.[17] Another famous leader of Ethiopia with Oromo descent was Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa, the governor of Harar who served as the top general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa. He is the father of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I.[18]

In 1973, Oromo discontent with their position led to the formation of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), which began political agitation in the Oromo areas. Also in 1973 there was a catastrophic famine in which over one quarter of a million people died from starvation before the government recognised the disaster and permitted relief measures. The majority who died were Oromos from Wollo, Afars and Tigrayans. There were strikes and demonstrations in Addis Ababa in 1974; and in February of that year, Haile Selassie’s government was replaced by the Derg, a military junta lead by Mengistu Hailemariam; but the Council was still Amhara-dominated, with only 25 non-Amhara members out of 125. In 1975 the government declared all rural land State-owned, and announced the end of the tenancy system. However, much of the benefit of this reform was counteracted by compulsive collectivization, State farms and forced resettlement programmes.

In December 2009, a 96-page report titled Human Rights in Ethiopia: Through the Eyes of the Oromo Diaspora, compiled by the Advocates for Human Rights, documented human rights violations against the Oromo in Ethiopia under three successive regimes: the Abyssinian Empire under Haile Selassie, the Marxist Derg and the current Ethiopian government of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), dominated by members of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) and which was accused to have arrested approximately 20,000 suspected OLF members, to have driven most OLF leadership into exile, and to have effectively neutralized the OLF as a political force in Ethiopia.

According to OHCHR, the Oromia Support Group (OSG) recorded 594 extra-judicial killings of Oromos by Ethiopian government security forces and 43 disappearances in custody between 2005 and August 2008.[19]

Demographics

The Oromo people are the largest ethnic grouping in Ethiopia, which has a total of 74 ethnically diverse language groups. About 95% are settled agriculturalists and nomadic pastoralists, practising archaic farming methods and living at subsistence level. A few live in the urban centres.

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Subgroups

Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Oromia Region

The Oromo are divided into two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east, these subgroups are:

The Borana which include:

  • The Macha Oromo, living between Didessa River and the Omo River, and south into the Gibe region;
  • The Tulama Oromo, who live in the Oromia Region around Addis Ababa;
  • The Guji Oromo, who are the southern part subgroup of the Oromo, inhabiting neighboring the Garri (Gharri) and Borana Oromo.
  • The Borana Oromo who live in the Borena Zone, which includes Moyale. They also live in Kenya and parts of Somalia.
  • The Gabra Oromo, who live in north Kenya along the Moyale border region

There are also many further subdivisions.

The Barento/Barentuma which include:

  • The Wallo Oromo, who are the northernmost group, and live predominantly in the Oromia Zone of the Amhara Region, as far north as Lake Ashenge, with whom the Raya Oromo and the Yejju Oromo are often grouped;
  • The Ittu Oromo, who live in the Oromia Region from the Awash River east to a line drawn south of Dire Dawa;
  • The Karayu Oromo, who live along the Awash valley in east Shawa as well as West Hararge
  • The Aniya Oromo, who live south of the Ittu and west of the Erer River;
  • The Afran Qallo which refers to the 4 decedents of Qallo, who are:[20]
    • Ala Oromo, living west of the city of Harar and the Erer River
    • Oborra Oromo, living between Ituu and Ala Oromo
    • Babille Oromo, living east of the Erer River in the Oromia Region
    • Dagaa Oromo (Nole and Jarso):
      • Nole Oromo who live east of Dire Dawa and north of Harar;
      • Jarso who live in the northeastern corner of the Oromia Region;
  • The Arsi Oromo, who primarily live in the Arsi Zone of the Oromia Region (which is named for them) as well as the Bale Zone; and
  • The Qallu, who live between the Awash River and Dire Dawa.

There are also many further subdivisions.

Nomenclature

The Oromo were formerly called Galla by non-Oromo Ethiopians, and one may encounter this name in older texts, but it is considered a pejorative term. Historically, some people among the northern Amhara community used the label "Galla" derogatorily to label Oromos as well as to label Shewan or southern Amharas who were mostly mixed with Oromo.[21]

However, when Charles Tutschek, writing in the mid 19th century, researched the Oromo, "his informants, according to their published letters, used Galla as a term of self-reference."[22]

During the years of Italian rule on the Horn of Africa (a colony in Eritrea was set by Rome in 1870 and the whole of Ethiopia was conquered by 1936), Italian geographers accurately mapped the population of their colony and eventually referred to the Oromos preferably as Gallas in all the official maps as well as in a guide-book still available nowadays called "Guida all Africa Orientale Italiana" ("A Guide-Book to Italian Eastern Africa"). The books stated the term Oromo was simply an alternative to Galla.

Often in the past, some Oromo communities used Galla to label themselves, as was exemplified by western Oromo leaders who established the "Western Galla Confederation" in the 1930s.[23] The name has fallen into disfavor and is now considered to be pejorative, possibly because of a folk etymology for "Galla" (that it came from Qal la or "قال لا," pronounced similar to Gal la, Arabic for "he said no") that implies they refused Muhammad's offer to convert to Islam. In the Somali language, the word gaal means "non-Muslim" or "stranger", a possible reference to the Oromo and their old pagan religion.[24]

Society and culture

Oromo society was traditionally structured in accordance with gadaa, a social stratification system partially based on an eight-year cycle of age sets. However, over the centuries the age sets grew out-of-alignment with the actual ages of their members, and some time in the 1800s another age set system was instituted. Under gadaa, every eight years the Oromo would hold a popular assembly called the Gumi Gayo, at which laws were established for the following eight years. A democratically elected leader, the Abba Gada, presided over the system for an eight-year term. Gadaa is no longer in wide practice but remains influential.

In a short article, Geoffrey W. Arnott described an Oromo rite of passage in which young men run over the backs of bulls surrounded by the village community.[25] Bruce Parry filmed the same practice among the Hamar people for his BBC television series "Tribe" transmitted in July 2006. Arnott's interest lay in making a comparison with bull-leaping at Knossos in the Aegean Bronze Age.

Religion

Religions of the Oromo
religion percent
Islam
  
47%
Orthodox Christianity
  
30%
Protestant Christianity
  
17.7%
Traditional Faiths
  
3.3%

Waaq (also Waq or Waaqa) is the name of God in the traditional Oromo religion.

In the 2007 Ethiopian census in the 88% Oromo region of Oromia, 47% were Islamic, 30% Orthodox Christians, 17.7% Protestant Christian, 3.3% Traditional, and the remaining 1.6% constitute other religious groups.[26] Protestant Christianity is the fastest growing religion inside the Oromo community. In urban areas of Oromia, Othodox Christianity constitute 67.8% of the population, followed by Islam 24% and Protestants 7%.[27] But adherence to traditional practices and rituals is still common among many Oromo people regardless of religious background.[28]

Calendar

It is believed that the Oromo developed their own calendar around 300 BC. The Oromo calendar is a lunar-stellar calendrical system, relying on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Borana Months (Stars/Lunar Phases) are Bittottessa (iangulum), Camsa (Pleiades), Bufa (Aldebarran), Waxabajjii (Belletrix), Obora Gudda (Central Orion-Saiph), Obora Dikka (Sirius), Birra (full moon), Cikawa (gibbous moon), Sadasaa (quarter moon), Abrasa (large crescent), Ammaji (medium crescent), and Gurrandala (small crescent).[29]

Current

Most Oromos do not have political unity today due to their historical roles in the Ethiopian state and the region, the spread out movement of different Oromo clans, and the differing religions inside the Oromo nation.[30] Accordingly, Oromos played major roles in all three main political movements in Ethiopia (centralist, federalist and secessionist) during the 19th and 20th century. In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in Tigray played a major role in the revolt inside the Tigray regional state, known as "Weyane" revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I's rule in the 1940s.[31] Simultaneously, both federalist and secessionist political forces developed inside the Oromo community.

Presently, a number of ethnic based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Organization, founded in January 1963, but was disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November, 1966.[32] Later groups include the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), the United Liberation Forces of Oromia (ULFO), the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia (IFLO), the Oromia Liberation Council (OLC), the Oromo National Congress (ONC, recently changed to OPC) and others. Another group, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), is one of the four parties that form the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. However, these Oromo groups do not act in unity: the ONC, for example, was part of the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces coalition that challenged the EPRDF in the Ethiopian general elections of 2005.

A number of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force. Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in the unity of the country which has 80 different ethnicities. But most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country. Progress has been very slow with the Oromia International Bank just recently established in 2008 though Oromo owned Awash International Bank started early in the 1990s and with the first private Afaan Oromoo newspaper in Ethiopia, Jimma Times, also known as Yeroo, recently established. Though the Jimma Times - Yeroo newspaper has faced a lot of harassment and persecution from the Ethiopian government since its beginning.[33][34][35][36][37] Abuse of Oromo media is widespread in Ethiopia and reflective of the general oppression Oromos face in the country.[38] University departments in Ethiopia did not establish curriculum in Afaan Oromo until the late 1990s.

Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades. In 2008, OFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia.[39]

Notable Oromo

  • Ali Birra, Singer, composer and songwriter
  • Engineer Ayana Birru, created the Amharic typewriter
  • Tadesse Birru, General of Haile Selasse I "Fatno-Derash" para-military, trained Mandela, key Macha-Tullama leader[40]
  • Girma Wolde-Giorgis- President of Ethiopia under Meles Zenawi
  • Sultan Abba Jifar II, ruled Jimma and surrounding areas
  • Ras Ali II of Yejju, Enderase or Regent of the Ethiopian Emperor during the reigns of Sahle Dengel and Yohannes III who was also his step-father. Driven from power by Emperor Tewodros II, Father of Empress Tirunesh Ali, first consort of Emperor Tewodros II.
  • Empress Menen Liben Amede, wife and consort of Emperor Yohannes III, mother of the Enderase Ras Ali II of Yejju (by an earlier marriage) and a significant political and military figure in her own right.
  • Empress Wubit of Yejju (also known as Welete Bersabe) wife of Emperor Iyasu II and mother of Emperor Iyoas I, rival of her mother-in-law Empress Mentewab with whom she struggled for power during the reign of her son Iyoas.
  • Empress Tirunesh Ali Daughter of Ras Ali II of Yejju and granddaughter of Empress Menen Liben Amede, much loved first wife of Emperor Tewodros II
  • Bulcha Demeksa, Chairman of Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM)
  • Dawud Ibsa Ayana, ex-chairman of the Oromo Liberation Front
  • Ahmad Buna - led & helped to unite MTWA and Bale resistance, co-founded OLF[41]
  • Dejazmach Ali AbaJiffar- leader of Wollo Oromo, maternal-side Grandfather of Haile Selassie I
  • Dejazmach Balcha Safo (also known as "Balcha Abba Nefso" (pictured at the head of this page) Nobleman and leading military and conservative political figure during the reigns of Emperor Menelik II, Empress Zewditu and Emperor Haile Selassie veteran of the Battle of Adwa (1896) and a resistance leader against the Fascist occupation of Ethiopia (1936–1941).
  • Dejazmach Gebre Igziabiher Moreda (born Kumsa Moreda) Last King of the Oromo Kingdom of Leqa Lekempt, Dejazmatch under Menelik, then leader of the separatist "Western Galla Confederation" in 1936[42]
  • Dejazmach Kassa Wolde Mariam Heir to the Oromo Kingdom of Leqa Qallam, grandson-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I, served as senior secretary to the Emperor, President of Haile Selassie I University, and governor-general of Wellega.
  • Dejazmatch Fikre Selassie Habte Mariam Heir to the Oromo Kingdom of Leqa Lekempt, grandson of Dejazmatch Gebre Igziabiher Moreda, grandson-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I, and son-in-law of Emperor in Exile Amha Selassie I, governor-general of Wellega.
  • Iyasu V of Ethiopia (1913–1916), designated Emperor of Ethiopia, grandson and designated heir of Emperor Menelik II and son of King Mikael of Wollo
  • Haile Selassie I (1930–1974), Emperor of Ethiopia
  • Ras Makonnen - Father of Haile Selassie I, Abegaz(commander in Chief) of the Battle of Amba Alage(December 7, 1895), Commanding General of the 1st Battle of Mekelle, Commander of the Armies of Harer at Battle of Adwa, and cousin of Emperor Menelik II
  • Ras Gobana Dacche, famous and controversial 1800s Oromo figure and leading advisor and military supporter of Emperor Menelik II
  • Judge Birtukan Mideksa - Chairwoman of Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ - Andenet) party
  • Sheikh Mohammed Rashad Abdulle, scholar; translated the Qur'an into the Oromo language
  • Negasso Gidada, former Ethiopian president
  • Debela Dinsa Member of the Derg which deposed Emperor Haile Selassie and the person who read out the act of depostion to the Emperor, served as Derg era governor of the Shewa Administrative Region.
  • Reverend Gudina Tumsaa, Former Chairperson of the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus
  • Baaroo Tumsaa, Founder of the OLF
  • Lencho Leta, co-founder of the OLF
  • Abadula Gemeda, President of Oromia Regional State, Chairman of OPDO
  • King (Negus) Mikael of Wollo, Michael Ali of Wollo (born Mohammed Ali)
  • Dr. Merera Gudina, chairman of the Oromo People's Congress, formerly ONC, part of UEDF and MEDREK
  • Alemayehu Gemeda, founder of the famous EthioTube -Broadcast Ethiopia (Ethiopia's Youtube site)
  • Liben Eabisa, Founder and Editors of Tadias Magazine[43]
  • Onesimos Nesib, evangelist and translator of English Bible into Afaan Oromo[44]
  • Merdekios, Founder of Yeroo, the first Qubee private Oromo newspaper[45]
  • Dirribi Demissie incumbent president of Macha and Tulama Association (MTA)
  • Teferi Benti, former Ethiopian president
  • Haile Mariam Gamada, instrumental in the founding of the Macha-Tuullama Welfare Association (MTWA)[46]
  • Tilahun Gessesse, singer
  • Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, poet, playwright
  • General Waqo Gutu, leader of the Bale revolt founding the first Oromo separatist movement.
  • General Jaagamaa Keello/Jagama Kello, Oromo-Ethiopian general, defeated the Bale rebellion, also fought Italians [47]
  • Fitawrari Woldemikael Guddessa, Grandfather of Emperor Haile Selasie I and commander of Ethiopian armed forces
  • Ahmad Taqi, early nationalist
  • Beka Yahya, One of the first Oromo actors in the United States. Well known in the Oromo community
  • B/General Kemal Gelchu, incumbent chairman of OLF faction
  • General Hailu Gonfa, incumbent commander of the Oromo Liberation Army, the military wing of the OLF
  • Galasa Dilbo, co-founder and ex-chairman of OLF, incumbent leader of "transitional" OLF faction
  • Lij Yilma Deressa, long time Finance Minister of Ethiopia under Emperor Haile Selassie I
  • Haile Fida founder of MEISON Ethiopian political party

Notable Oromo Athletes

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Central Statistical Agency (2008), "TABEL [sic] 5: POPULATION SIZE OF REGIONS BY NATIONS/NATIONALITIES (ETHNIC GROUP) AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE: 2007" (PDF), Census 2007, Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency, p. 66, http://www.csa.gov.et/pdf/Cen2007_firstdraft.pdf 
  2. ^ Statistics Canada - Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census
  3. ^ Oromo people
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Inc, Frederick C. Mish, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, (Merriam-Webster: 2003), p.876
  5. ^ The CSA estimates a population growth of 7.6% between the time the census was conducted and the date of its approval: "Ethiopia population soars to near 77 million: census". Google News. AFP. 4 December 2008. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i-WtiPcdGx83wuVl-kZ8ZT8tQGRg. Retrieved 5 December 2008. "'We carried out a census in May 2007 and it shows that there were 73,918,505 people at that time,' Central Statistics Agency chief Samya Zakarya told AFP.'But based on a projection of an annual growth rate of 7.6 percent, Ethiopia's population up to this month is 76,947,760.'" 
  6. ^ Oromo and Amhara rule in Ethiopia
  7. ^ a b c d e W.A. Degu, "Chapter 7 Political Development in the Pre-colonial Horn of Africa", The state, the crisis of state institutions and refugee migration in the Horn of Africa: the cases of Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia, Thela Thesis (Amsterdam, 2002)
  8. ^ Ras Gobena victory against Gurage militia
  9. ^ Donald Levine, Greater Ethiopia, the Evolution of a multicultural society (University of Chicago Press: 1974)
  10. ^ Gobana Dache’s Participation in Building Ethiopia
  11. ^ Union of Amhara and Oromo in royal families
  12. ^ Oromo in Ethiopian leadership
  13. ^ Background and consequence of Oromos in Ethiopian leadership
  14. ^ Ethiopian Oroo nobility
  15. ^ Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles, (London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
  16. ^ 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar
  17. ^ Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897-1910: Competition for Empire Edward C. Keefer, International Journal of African Studies Vol. 6 No. 3 (1973) page 470
  18. ^ Haile Selassie I, My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Sellassie I, translated from Amharic by Edward Ullendorff. (New York: Frontline Books, 1999), vol. 1 p. 13
  19. ^ human rights abuses under EPRDF
  20. ^ S. Waldron, "The political economy of Harari-Oromo relationships (1554-1975)", p. 7 (Forced migration Online website, accessed 3 July 2009)
  21. ^ northern Amhara regarded the Shewans as "Galla"
  22. ^ Baxter, P.T.W.; Hultin, Jan; Triulzi, Alessandro. Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. (United States:Red Sea Press, Inc.: 1996), p.107.
  23. ^ Oromos seek recognition for "Western Galla Confederation" ~1936
  24. ^ Paul Trevor William Baxter et al., Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, (Nordic Africa Institute: 1996), p.109
  25. ^ Arnott, "Bull Leaping as Inititation Ritual," Liverpool Classical Monthly 18 (1993), pp. 114-116
  26. ^ 2007 Census http://www.jimmatimes.com//downloads/Cen2007.pdf
  27. ^ House of People's Representatives. "The State of Oromia". House of People's Representatives. http://www.ethiopar.net/type/English/basinfo/infoormy.htm. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  28. ^ People of Africa reference
  29. ^ Lawrence R. Doyle, The Borana Calendar REINTERPRETED
  30. ^ Migrations profoundly affected the Oromo unity
  31. ^ Raya Oromos inside the Weyane revolt of Tigray
  32. ^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991, 2nd edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), pp. 261f.
  33. ^ Govt. continues rejecting license for Jimma Times Afaan Oromoo newspaper
  34. ^ Ethiopia’s "government" attacks Macha-Tulama, Jimma Times media & Oromo opposition party
  35. ^ Yeroo newspaper struggles to survive
  36. ^ CJFE award nominee
  37. ^ CJEE Jimma Times profile
  38. ^ Ethiopia’s Largest Ethnicity Group Deprived of Linguistic and Cultural Sensitive Media Outlets
  39. ^ OFDM Press Release: The Massacre of May, 2008
  40. ^ Tadesse Birru
  41. ^ Baale Resistance Movement
  42. ^ Independence Movement of 1936
  43. ^ Tadias Magazine
  44. ^ Onesimos Nesib, translator & missionary
  45. ^ Oromo Ethiopian Newspaper
  46. ^ [1]
  47. ^ Jaagamaa Keello Oromo Ethiopian general

External links

Further reading


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