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Orthographic projection (or orthogonal projection) is a means of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions. It is a form of parallel projection, where the view direction is orthogonal to the projection plane,[1] resulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface. It is further divided into multiview orthographic projections and axonometric pictorials.

The term orthographic is also sometimes reserved specifically for depictions of objects where the axis or plane of the object is also parallel with the projection plane,[1] as in multiview orthographic projections.

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Multiview orthographic projections

With multiview orthographic projections, up to six pictures of an object are produced, with each projection plane parallel to one of the coordinate axis of the object. The views are positioned relative to each other according to either of two schemes: first-angle or third-angle projection. In each, the appearances of views may be thought of as being projected onto planes that form a 6-sided box around the object. Although 6 different sides can be drawn 3 sides of a drawing give enough information to make a 3D object. These views are known as front view, top view and right side view.

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Simple English


Orthographic projection is a way of showing a 3D object in 2D. It is a form of parallel projection, where the view direction is orthogonal to the projection plane.

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