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This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae, known as a "teardrop fracture", is one of the conditions treated by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons.
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This image, taken in September 2006, shows extensive repair work to the right acetabulum 6 years after it was carried out (2000).
^ This image, taken in September 2006, shows extensive repair work to the right acetabulum 6 years after it was carried out (2000).
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

Further damage to the joint is visible due to the onset of arthritis.
.Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.^ A. Orthopedics is the study of the musculoskeletal system.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orthopedic Surgery, involves many choices.

^ Orthopaedics is the specialty that focuses on conditions affecting the human musculoskeletal system.

.Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and non-surgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.^ Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and non-surgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.

^ Orthopedic Supplies Orthopedic supplies can be used to treat bone and muscle injuries.
  • Orthopedic Supplies 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC medicomfort.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both surgical and non-surgical means are utilised to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital conditions.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery - 3fivetwo Healthcare 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC 3fivetwo.com [Source type: Reference]

Nicholas Andry coined the word "orthopaedics", derived from Greek words for orthos ("correct", "straight") and paideion ("child"), when he published Orthopaedia: or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children in 1741.
.In the United States orthopedics is standard, although the majority of university and residency programs, and even the AAOS, still use Andry's spelling.^ In the U.S. the spelling orthopedics is standard, although the majority of university and residency programs, and even the AAOS, still use Andry's spelling.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US the spelling orthopedics is standard, although the majority of university and residency programs[citation needed], and even the AAOS, still use Andry's spelling.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ In the United States the spelling orthopedics is standard, although the majority of university and residency programs, and even the AAOS , still use Andry's spelling.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.Elsewhere, usage is not uniform; in Canada, both spellings are common; orthopaedics usually prevails in the rest of the Commonwealth, especially in Britain.^ Elsewhere, usage is not uniform; in Canada, both spellings are common; orthopaedics usually prevails in the rest of the Commonwealth, especially in Britain.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Training

.In the United States and Canada, orthopedic surgeons have typically completed four years of undergraduate education and four years of medical school.^ A resident has completed medical school and a one- or two-year internship.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery | Boston Medical Center 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC bmc.org [Source type: General]

^ An orthopedic surgeon completes up to 14 years of formal education.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Mediniche, Inc. 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.mediniche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US the spelling orthopedics is standard In the United States and Canada, orthopedic surgeons have typically completed 4 years of undergraduate education and 4 years of medical school.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Subsequently, these medical school graduates undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery.^ Subsequently, these medical school graduates undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After graduating from Harvard Medical School, he completed his residency training in orthopedic surgery through the Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program.

^ Muscle : medical specialties: orthopedics – Surgery .
  • orthopedics - Search Results - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

.The five-year residency consists of one year of general surgery training followed by four years of training in orthopedic surgery.^ The five-year residency consists of one year of general surgery training followed by four years of training in orthopedic surgery.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program will be a minimum of four years with three years exclusively in orthopedic surgery.
  • Summa CFGH Medical Education - Orthopaedic Surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC cfghmeded.summahealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Residency in orthopaedic surgery consists of one year of general surgery training followed by four years of orthopaedic surgery training.
  • Careers in Medicine: Orthopaedic Surgery - CIM - AAMC 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.aamc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Selection for residency training in orthopedic surgery is extremely competitive--candidates for orthopedic residencies generally graduate at the top of their medical school classes.^ Selection for residency training in orthopedic surgery is extremely competitive--candidates for orthopedic residencies generally graduate at the top of their medical school classes.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Graduated in Top 5% of class.

^ Subsequently, orthopedic surgeons undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

.Approximately 650 physicians complete orthopedic residency training per year in the United States.^ Examples of orthopedic subspecialty training in the United States are: .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 650 physicians complete orthopedic residency training per year in the United States.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the latest Occupational Outlook Handbook (2009–2010) published by the United States Department of Labor , between 3–4% of all practicing physicians are orthopedic surgeons.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.About 7 percent of current orthopedic surgery residents are women; about 20 percent are members of minority groups.^ Approximately 650 physicians complete orthopedic residency training per year in the US. About 7 percent of current orthopaedic surgery residents are women; about 20 percent are members of minority groups.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Comments about orthopedic surgery .
  • orthopedic surgery Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Blogs about : Orthopedic Surgery .
  • Orthopedic Surgery — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.There are approximately 20,400 actively practicing orthopaedic surgeons and residents in the United States.^ There are approximately 20,400 actively practicing orthopaedic surgeons and residents in the United States.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the latest Occupational Outlook Handbook (2009–2010) published by the United States Department of Labor , between 3–4% of all practicing physicians are orthopedic surgeons.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 650 physicians complete orthopedic residency training per year in the US. About 7 percent of current orthopaedic surgery residents are women; about 20 percent are members of minority groups.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

[1] .According to the latest Occupational Outlook Handbook (2009–2010) published by the United States Department of Labor, between 3–4% of all practicing physicians are orthopedic surgeons.^ According to the latest Occupational Outlook Handbook (2009–2010) published by the United States Department of Labor , between 3–4% of all practicing physicians are orthopedic surgeons.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Orthopedic surgeons are physicians who have completed additional training in orthopedic surgery after the completion of medical school, either M.D. or D.O. According to the latest Occupational Outlook Handbook (2006-2007) published by the U.S. Department of Labor, between 3-4% of all practicing physicians are orthopedic surgeons.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orthopedic Surgery Jobs in all states .
  • Find Orthopedic Surgery Jobs 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.comphealth.com [Source type: News]

.Many orthopedic surgeons elect to do further training, or "fellowships", after completing their residency training.^ Our orthopedic surgeons are board certified and have fellowship training in many specialty areas: .
  • Learn About Our Orthopedic Surgery Services - The University of Kansas Hospital - Kansas City, KS 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.kumed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequently, orthopedic surgeons undergo residency training in orthopedic surgery.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ After completion of specialty residency / registrar training, an orthopedic surgeon is then eligible for board certification .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fellowship training in an orthopedic subspeciality is typically one year in duration (sometimes two) and sometimes has a research component involved with the clinical and operative training.^ Fellowship training in an orthopedic subspeciality is typically one year in duration (sometimes two) and usually has a research component involved with the clinical and operative training.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fellowship training in an orthopedic subspeciality is typically one year in duration (sometimes two) and sometimes has a research component involved with the clinical and operative training.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fellowships last for one year.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery | Boston Medical Center 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC bmc.org [Source type: General]

Examples of orthopedic subspecialty training in the United States are:
  • Hand surgery
  • Shoulder and elbow surgery
  • Total joint reconstruction (arthroplasty)
  • Pediatric orthopedics
  • Foot and ankle surgery
  • Spine surgery
  • Musculoskeletal oncology
  • Surgical sports medicine
  • Orthopedic trauma
.These specialty areas of medicine are not exclusive to Orthopedic Surgery.^ Theyhandle orthopedic trauma surgery in our Level 1 Trauma Center, and they are available to help when you need sports medicine treatment, limb restoration and more.
  • Tyler, Texas Orthopedic Surgery ETMC Hip Bone, Spine, Rotator Cuff Repair 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC emsservices.etmc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Orthopedics is the branch of medicine and medical specialty dealing with the prevention or correction of injuries or disorders of the skeletal system and associated muscles, joints, and ligaments.
  • Specialty Entry : Orthopedic Surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.aghosp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As well as learning general orthopaedic surgery, residents engage in a balanced clinical experience in the specialty areas of sports medicine, total joints, hands, foot and ankle, and spine.

.For example, Hand surgery is practiced by some plastic surgeons and spine surgery is practiced by most neurosurgeons.^ For example, Hand surgery is practiced by some plastic surgeons and spine surgery is practiced by most neurosurgeons.
  • Orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.ncssd.org.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Preclinical Instruction is carried out in hand surgery, adult orthopedic surgery, spine surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery, sports medicine, and physiatry.
  • Course Catalog - Stanford University School of Medicine 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC medcatalog.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Though Dr. Sanders has been a successful Orthopaedic Surgeon for over 20 years and offers the most advanced arthroscopic and arthroscopically related surgeries at his clinic, he considers surgery as a last resort.
  • Orthopedic Surgery & Sport Injury Treatment | Sports Medicine 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.sandersclinic.net [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, foot and ankle surgery is practiced by board certified Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) in the United States.^ He is board certified by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery.
  • Evan Lederman, M.D. - The Orthopedic Clinic Association in Phoenix, Arizona - TOCA 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC tocamd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Board certified, American Board of Orthopedic Surgery.
  • Expert Witnesses in Orthopedic Surgery - Expert Witness Services - ForensisGroup.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.forensisgroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She is board certified in Orthopaedic Surgery.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.unmcphysicians.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some family practice physicians practice sports medicine, however their scope of practice is non-operative.^ Some family practice physicians practice sports medicine, however their scope of practice is non-operative.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With 17 physicians specializing in several different categories: Orthopaedic & Reconstructive Surgery, Surgery for the Hand and Upper Extremity, Surgery of the Spine, and, Pediatric Orthopaedics, Mid County Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine will meet all of your family's orthopaedic needs.
  • Signature Medical Group :: Mid County Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.signaturehealth.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Graduates can look forward to an exciting career in orthopedic in-patient and out-patient hospital care, sports medicine, pediatrics, private practice, and emergency care under the direction of the physician.
  • Academics-Orhopedic Tech 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC www.griffintech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After completion of specialty residency/registrar training, an orthopedic surgeon is then eligible for board certification.^ Board Certified practicing American trained orthopedic surgeon.
  • Orthopedic Surgery Expert Witness Listings - SEAK, Inc. Expert Witness Directory 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.seakexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many orthopedic surgeons elect to do further subspecialty training, or "fellowships", after completing their residency training.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Upon completion of the program, residents will be board-eligible.
  • PCOM - Res-orthopedic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.pcom.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Certification by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery means that the orthopaedic surgeon has met the specified educational, evaluation, and examination requirements of the Board[2].^ Board certified, American Board of Orthopedic Surgery.
  • Expert Witnesses in Orthopedic Surgery - Expert Witness Services - ForensisGroup.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.forensisgroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The internship (PGY-1) conforms to American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) guidelines and requirements.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program at Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.med.wright.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Certification by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery means that the orthopaedic surgeon has met the specified educational, evaluation, and examination requirements of the Board [ 2 ] .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.The process requires successful completion of a standardized written exam followed by an oral exam focused on the surgeon's clinical and surgical performance over a 6 month period.^ The process requires successful completion of a standardized written exam followed by an oral exam focused on the surgeon's clinical and surgical performance over a 6 month period.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of our orthopaedic surgeons treat problems through same-day surgical procedures which are performed in the New England Musculoskeletal Institute.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery at the New England Musculoskeletal Institute 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC nemsi.uchc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ According to applications for board certification from 1999 to 2003, the top 25 most common procedures (in order) performed by orthopedic surgeons are as follows [ 3 ] : .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Canada, the certifying organization is the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada; in Australia and New Zealand it is the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.^ B.S. 1978, Tufts University; M.D. 1982, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
  • Weill Cornell Medical College : Faculty 11 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.med.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Krahwinkel is board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Surgeons , the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care .
  • Veterinary Specialists & Orthopedic Surgery. Knoxville, TN 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC blackfordvetsurgery.com [Source type: General]

^ B.A. 1961, Harvard University; M.D. 1965, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
  • Weill Cornell Medical College : Faculty 11 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.med.cornell.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, specialists in hand surgery and sports medicine may obtain a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) in addition to their board certification by successfully completing a separate standardized examination.^ Sullivan was also recently awarded the Certificate of Added Qualifications in Surgery of the Hand.

^ In the United States, specialists in hand surgery and sports medicine may obtain a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) in addition to their board certification by successfully completing a separate standardized examination.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, foot and ankle surgery is practiced by board certified Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.) in the United States.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is no additional certification process for the other subspecialties.^ There is no additional certification process for the other subspecialties.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certification in one of the following subspecialties requires additional training and examination.
  • Orthopedic Surgery Independent Medical Examinations, Orthopedist Independent Medical Evaluations, or IMEs nationwide. 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.jurissolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Orthopedic surgeons use tools that are similar to carpenters and metal workers tools.

Practice

According to applications for board certification from 1999 to 2003, the top 25 most common procedures (in order) performed by orthopedic surgeons are as follows[3]:
  1. Knee arthroscopy and meniscectomy
  2. Shoulder arthroscopy and decompression
  3. Carpal tunnel release
  4. Knee arthroscopy and chondroplasty
  5. Removal of support implant
  6. Knee arthroscopy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
  7. Knee replacement
  8. Repair of femoral neck fracture
  9. Repair of trochanteric fracture
  10. Debridement of skin/muscle/bone/fracture
  11. Knee arthroscopy repair of both menisci
  12. Hip replacement
  13. Shoulder arthroscopy/distal clavicle excision
  14. Repair of rotator cuff tendon
  15. Repair fracture of radius (bone)/ulna
  16. Laminectomy
  17. Repair of ankle fracture (bimalleolar type)
  18. Shoulder arthroscopy and debridement
  19. Lumbar spinal fusion
  20. Repair fracture of the distal part of radius
  21. Low back intervertebral disc surgery
  22. Incise finger tendon sheath
  23. Repair of ankle fracture (fibula)
  24. Repair of femoral shaft fracture
  25. Repair of trochanteric fracture
.A typical schedule for a practicing orthopedic surgeon involves 50–55 hours of work per week divided among clinic, surgery, various administrative duties and possibly teaching and/or research if in an academic setting.^ General orthopedics: 54.8% Spine surgery: 11.3% Sports medicine: 10.8% Hands and upper extremity: 8.7% Adult reconstructive: 3.9% Pediatric orthopedics: 3.4% Foot and ankle: 3.1% Trauma: 2.6% Musculoskeletal oncology: 1.3% A typical schedule for a practicing orthopedic surgeon involves 50-55 hours of work per week divided among clinic, surgery, various administrative duties and possibly teaching and/or research if in an academic setting.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orthopedic Surgery, involves many choices.

^ Choosing a Orthopedic Surgery surgeon .

In 2009, the median salary for an orthopedic surgeon in the United States was $406,847.[4]

History

.
Orthopedic implants to repair fractures to the radius and ulna.
^ Orthopedic implants to repair fractures to the radius and ulna.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Others go into small animal orthopedic surgery and work with: *Surgical repair of fractures *Joint replacements *Any bone related surgical condition.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Note the visible break in the ulna.^ Note the visible break in the ulna.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

(right forearm)
.Jean-Andre Venel established the first orthopedic institute in 1780, which was the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities.^ Orthopedics began in the 18th century with the pioneering efforts of Jean André Venel, who established an institute in Switzerland for the treatment of crippled children’s skeletal deformities.
  • orthopedics (medicine) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jean-Andre Venel established the first orthopedic institute in 1780, which was the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ French physician Nicholas Andry coined the term "orthopedia" in his 1741 book on the prevention and correction of muscular and skeletal deformities in children.
  • Orthopedics - History of orthopedics, Modern developments in orthopedics 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He is considered by some to be the father of orthopedics or the first true orthopedist in consideration of the establishment of his hospital and for his published methods.^ He is considered by some to be the father of orthopedics or the first true orthopedist in consideration of the establishment of his hospital and for his published methods.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jean-Andre Venel established the first orthopedic institute in 1780, which was the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the first considerations in the effective science education of individuals with motor/orthopedic impairments is a brief understanding of his/her impairment and the degree of educational limitation it causes.
  • Strategies for Teaching Students with Motor/OrthopedicImpairments 20 September 2009 18:37 UTC www.as.wvu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Antonius Mathysen, a Dutch military surgeon, invented the plaster of Paris cast in 1851. Many developments in orthopedic surgery resulted from experiences during wartime.^ Orthopedic Surgery, involves many choices.

^ Antonius Mathysen, a Dutch military surgeon, invented the plaster of Paris cast in 1851.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Choosing a Orthopedic Surgery surgeon .

.On the battlefields of the Middle Ages the injured were treated with bandages soaked in horses' blood which dried to form a stiff, but unsanitary, splint.^ On the battlefields of the Middle Ages the injured were treated with bandages soaked in horses' blood which dried to form a stiff, but unsanitary, splint.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (JRA) - a form of arthritis in children ages 16 or younger that causes inflammation and stiffness of joints for more than six weeks.

.Traction and splinting developed during World War I.^ Traction and splinting developed during World War I .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Traction and splinting developed during World War I. The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia was pioneered by Dr. Kunchner of Germany.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia was pioneered by Gerhard Küntscher of Germany.^ Traction and splinting developed during World War I. The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia was pioneered by Dr. Kunchner of Germany.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia was pioneered by Gerhard Küntscher of Germany .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.This made a noticeable difference to the speed of recovery of injured German soldiers during World War II and led to more widespread adoption of intramedullary fixation of fractures in the rest of the world.^ This made a noticeable difference to the speed of recovery of injured German soldiers during World War II and led to more widespread adoption of intramedullary fixation of fractures in the rest of the world.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ External fixation of fractures was refined by American surgeons during the Vietnam War but a major contribution was made by Gavril Abrmovich Ilizarov in the USSR. He was sent, without much orthopedic training, to look after injured Russian soldiers in Siberia in the1950s.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The efforts of Sir Robert Jones and the massive casualties of World War I led to the founding of many orthopedic training centres in the early 20th century.
  • orthopedics (medicine) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, traction was the standard method of treating thigh bone fractures until the late 1970s when the Harborview Medical Center in Seattle group popularized intramedullary fixation without opening up the fracture.^ However, traction was the standard method of treating thigh bone fractures until the late 1970s when the Seattle Haborview group popularized intramedullary fixation without opening up the fracture.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, traction was the standard method of treating thigh bone fractures until the late 1970s when the Harborview Medical Center in Seattle group popularized intramedullary fixation without opening up the fracture.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibia was pioneered by Gerhard Küntscher of Germany .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.External fixation of fractures was refined by American surgeons during the Vietnam War but a major contribution was made by Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov in the USSR.^ External fixation of fractures was refined by American surgeons during the Vietnam War but a major contribution was made by Gavril Abrmovich Ilizarov in the USSR. He was sent, without much orthopedic training, to look after injured Russian soldiers in Siberia in the1950s.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ External fixation of fractures was refined by American surgeons during the Vietnam War but a major contribution was made by Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov in the USSR .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This made a noticeable difference to the speed of recovery of injured German soldiers during World War II and led to more widespread adoption of intramedullary fixation of fractures in the rest of the world.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.He was sent, without much orthopedic training, to look after injured Russian soldiers in Siberia in the 1950s.^ He was sent, without much orthopedic training, to look after injured Russian soldiers in Siberia in the 1950s.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ External fixation of fractures was refined by American surgeons during the Vietnam War but a major contribution was made by Gavril Abrmovich Ilizarov in the USSR. He was sent, without much orthopedic training, to look after injured Russian soldiers in Siberia in the1950s.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking for a Fellowship-train BC/BE Total Joint Orthopedic Surgeon for a Major Metro Area of Alabama Permanent Seeking Total Joint Fellowship Trained Orthopedic Surgeon in Beautiful Major Metro area of Alabama.
  • Find Orthopedic Surgery Jobs 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.comphealth.com [Source type: News]

.With no equipment he was confronted with crippling conditions of unhealed, infected, and malaligned fractures.^ With no equipment he was confronted with crippling conditions of unhealed, infected, and mal aligned fractures.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With no equipment he was confronted with crippling conditions of unhealed, infected, and malaligned fractures.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.With the help of the local bicycle shop he devised ring external fixators tensioned like the spokes of a bicycle.^ With the help of the local bicycle shop he devised ring external fixators tensioned like the spokes of a bicycle.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.With this equipment he achieved healing, realignment and lengthening to a degree unheard of elsewhere.^ With this equipment he achieved healing, realignment and lengthening to a degree unheard of elsewhere.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.His Ilizarov apparatus is still used today as one of the distraction osteogenesis methods.^ His Ilizarov apparatus is still used today as one of the distraction osteogenesis methods.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Appointment: 1984 In 1985, Dr. Aronson performed the first leg lengthening procedure in North America using the Ilizarov method.
  • UAMS Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.uams.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, he is recognized worldwide as the leading researcher in this distraction osteogenesis technique of bone lengthening which was first developed in Russia.
  • UAMS Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.uams.edu [Source type: Academic]

.David L. MacIntosh pioneered the first successful surgery for the management of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee.^ David L. MacIntosh pioneered the first successful surgery for the management of the torn anterior cruciate ligament of the knee.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ David L. MacIntosh pioneered the first successful surgery for the management of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Postoperative recovery rates have diminished over the years, with some major procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and rotator cuff surgery, now being performed as day-op procedures.

.This common and serious injury in skiers, field athletes, and dancers invariably brought an end to their athletics due to permanent joint instability.^ This common and serious injury in skiers, field athletes, and dancers invariably brought an end to their athletics due to permanent joint instability.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Results from this focus on proper athletic development have returned a reduced rate of injury in as much as 75% for athletes in a specifically designed program.
  • Orthopedic Surgery | Beyond Better 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC sportsmedsouth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the advent of Title IX legislation and the rise in opportunities for female athletic participation, a whole new number of athletes have become at risk of injury.
  • Orthopedic Surgery | Beyond Better 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC sportsmedsouth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Working with injured football players, Dr MacIntosh devised a way to re-route viable ligament from adjacent structures to preserve the strong and complex mechanics of the knee joint and restore stability.^ Working with injured football players, Dr MacIntosh devised a way to re-route viable ligament from adjacent structures to preserve the strong and complex mechanics of the knee joint and restore stability.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The foot is one of the most complex parts of the body, consisting of 26 bones connected by numerous joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica medicine also called orthopedic surgery medical specialty concerned with the preservation and restoration of function of the skeletal system and its associated structures, i.e., spinal and other bones, joints, and muscles.
  • orthopedics (medicine) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.The subsequent development of ACL reconstruction surgery has allowed numerous athletes to return to the demands of sports at all levels.^ The subsequent development of ACL reconstruction surgery has allowed numerous athletes to return to the demands of sports at all levels.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With 17 physicians specializing in several different categories: Orthopaedic & Reconstructive Surgery, Surgery for the Hand and Upper Extremity, Surgery of the Spine, and, Pediatric Orthopaedics, Mid County Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine will meet all of your family's orthopaedic needs.
  • Signature Medical Group :: Mid County Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.signaturehealth.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Current projects include studies in various facets of the immune system, scoliosis surgery, knee and shoulder repairs for sports injuries and numerous projects in fracture treatment.

.Modern orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal research has sought to make surgery less invasive and to make implanted components better and more durable.^ Modern orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal research has sought to make surgery less invasive and to make implanted components better and more durable.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Very experienced doctors that have done more than 5000 orthopedic surgeries The implants used are top quality: exactly what you would get in the US. The personal care of the doctors and nurses will exceed your expectations.
  • Orthopedics Surgery Abroad | Medical Tourism Cost & Information | World Med Assist 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.worldmedassist.com [Source type: General]

^ For some this could mean total joint replacement and for others something less invasive will be a better choice.
  • Thailand Orthopedic Surgery at Bangkok Orthopedic Hospital Center by Thai Orthopedic Surgeons 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC thailand-orthopedic.com [Source type: General]

Arthroscopy

.The use of arthroscopic techniques has been particularly important for injured patients.^ The use of arthroscopics tools has been particularly important for injured patients.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Damaged articular cartilage in the knee is repaired using cartilage cells harvested arthroscopically from the patient.

^ We pride ourselves in using state-of-the-art techniques and equipment, and specialize in arthroscopic repair of sports-related injuries.
  • Physicians Assistants for Orthopaedic Surgery (PAOS) - Job Opportunities 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.paos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arthroscopy was pioneered in the early 1950's by Dr. Masaki Watanabe of Japan to perform minimally invasive cartilage surgery and reconstructions of torn ligaments. .Arthroscopy helped patients recover from the surgery in a matter of days, rather than the weeks to months required by conventional, 'open' surgery.^ Arthroscopy helped patients recover from the surgery in a matter of days, rather than the weeks to months required by conventional, 'open' surgery.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Arthroscopy is easier to recover from than an open joint surgery.

^ The program supports and enforces adherence to the AOA policy on resident work hours and, for this reason, residents work no more than 80 hours per week, are on call no more than every third night (usually less frequently), no more than two weekends in the month and are required to leave no later than noon on their post-call day.
  • Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC rcrmc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Knee arthroscopy is one of the most common operations performed by orthopedic surgeons today and is often combined with meniscectomy or chondroplasty.^ Knee arthroscopy is one of the most common operations performed by orthopedic surgeons today and is often combined with meniscectomy or chondroplasty.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Knee arthroscopy is one of the most common operations performed by orthopedic surgeons today and is often combined with meniscectomy or chondroplasty--both of which are removal of a torn cartilage.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark Adickes, M.D. is an orthopedic surgeon and sports medicine doctor in Houston, TX specializing in arthroscopic sport surgery of the hip, shoulder and knee .

.The majority of orthopaedic procedures are now performed arthroscopically.^ Postoperative recovery rates have diminished over the years, with some major procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and rotator cuff surgery, now being performed as day-op procedures.

^ Recovery and rehabilitation is related to the type of surgery performed inside the shoulder, rather than whether there was an arthroscopic or open surgical procedure.
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Shoulder Surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We perform over 2500 orthopaedic procedures at Spire Bristol Hospital every year .
  • Orthopaedic surgery, knee surgery, hip replacement, shoulder surgery, ankle surgery, Spire Bristol Hospital, The Glen 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.spirehealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

Joint replacement

.The modern total hip replacement was pioneered by Sir John Charnley in England in the 1960s.^ The modern total hip replacement was pioneered by Sir John Charnley in England in the 1960s.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The modern total hip replacement was pioneered by Sir John Charnley in England in the 1960s .
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total Hip Replacement is an operation designed to replace the damaged hip joint.

[5] .He found that joint surfaces could be replaced by metal or high density polyethylene implants cemented to the bone with methyl methacrylate bone cement.^ Bone will attach to a metal implant if the surface of the metal has a certain "topography".

^ He found that joint surfaces could be replaced by metal or high density polyethylene implants cemented to the bone with methyl methacrylate bone cement .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He found that joint surfaces could be replaced by metal or high density polyethylene implants cemented to the bone with methyl methacrylate cement.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since Charnley, there have been continuous improvements in the design and technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty) with many contributors, including W. H. Harris, the son of R. I. Harris, whose team at Harvard pioneered uncemented arthroplasty techniques with the bone bonding directly to the implant.^ Since Charnley, there have been continuous improvements in the design and technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty) with many contributors, including W. H. Harris, the son of R. I. Harris, whose team at Harvard pioneered uncemented arthroplasty techniques with the bone bonding directly to the implant.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Total Knee Replacement Total Hip Replacement Hip Resurfacing / Surface Replacement Arthroplasty Shoulder Replacement Minimal Access Spine surgery Unicondylar Knee Replacement Neck & Elbow Replacement Arthroscopic surgery: Key hole surgery for disorders of knee and shoulder Paediatric Bone & Joint Surgeries Osteoporosis .
  • India Orthopedic, Ortho Surgery In India, Hip/Shoulder/Joint Replacement Surgery, Total Knee Replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medaccessindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include procedures for shoulder disorders, joint replacement surgery particularly of the hip and knee, foot surgery, procedures for realignment of long bones for relief of pressure on joints and joint fusions.

.Knee replacements using similar technology were started by McIntosh in rheumatoid arthritis patients and later by Gunston and Marmor for osteoarthritis in the 1970's developed by Dr John Insall in New York utilizing a fixed bearing system, and by Dr Frederick Buechel and Dr Michael Pappas utilizing a mobile bearing system.^ Knee replacements using similar technology were started by McIntosh in rheumatoid arthritis patients and later by Gunston and Marmor for osteoarthritis in the 1970's developed by Dr John Insall in New York utilizing a fixed bearing system, and by Dr Frederick Buechel and Dr Michael Pappas utilizing a mobile bearing system.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Knee replacements using similar technology were started by McIntosh in rheumatoid arthritis patients and later by Gunston and Marmor for osteoarthritis in the 1970's.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The history of mobile-bearing total knee replacement systems" .
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Uni-compartmental knee replacement, in which only one weight-bearing surface of an arthritic knee is replaced, is a smaller operation and has become popular recently.^ Uni-compartment knee replacement, in which only one side of an arthritic knee is replaced, is a smaller operation and has become popular recently.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uni-compartmental knee replacement, in which only one weight-bearing surface of an arthritic knee is replaced, is a smaller operation and has become popular recently.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Knee replacement operation .
  • Orthopaedic surgery at Spire Cambridge Lea Hospital - Hip Replacement, Knee Replacement and Arthroscopic surgery 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.spirehealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Orthopaedic surgery, knee surgery, hip replacement, shoulder surgery, ankle surgery, Spire Bristol Hospital, The Glen 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.spirehealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

.Joint replacements are available for other joints on a limited basis, most notably shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, and fingers.^ Joint replacements are available for other joints on a limited basis, most notably shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, and fingers.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Joint replacements are available for other joints on a limited basis, most notably shoulder, elbow, wrist and ankle.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body.
  • Orthopedic Surgery | Beyond Better 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC sportsmedsouth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, surface replacement of joints, in particular the hip joint, have become more popular amongst younger and more active patients.^ Younger joint replacement patients may require an additional joint replacement in their lifetime.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Mediniche, Inc. 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.mediniche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years, surface replacement of joints, in particular the hip joint, have become more popular amongst younger and more active patients.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Orthopedic Surgery have become more popular over the years.

.This type of operation delays the need for the more traditional and less bone-conserving total hip replacement, but carries significant risks of early failure from fracture and bone death.^ Total Hip Replacement is an operation designed to replace the damaged hip joint.

^ Hip Abrasion Arthroplasty is an alternative to traditional total hip replacement surgery.

^ This type of operation delays the need for the more traditional and less bone-conserving total hip replacement, but carries significant risks of early failure from fracture and bone death.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.One of the main problems with joint replacements is wear of the bearing surfaces of components.^ One of the main problems with joint replacements is wear of the bearing surfaces of components.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to conventional wisdom, total hip replacements fail just as much, if not more so, from implant dislocation or infection than from the wearing out of the bearing surface, according to recent research.

^ Bearing Materials Used in Joint Replacement Durability is dependent on the components used (materials, type and preparation of the surfaces, as well as the design of the components), technique and the quality of fixation, activity level of the patient, and the biological tissue reactivity which varies among individuals.

.This can lead to damage to surrounding bone and contribute to eventual failure of the implant.^ This can lead to damage to surrounding bone and contribute to eventual failure of the implant.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Damage to the growth plate can lead to significant problems with later bone growth, and at-risk fractures have to be monitored with care.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recording Surgery - Synthetic Bone May Assist Implant Surgery - Metal-Particle Inflammation Causes Joint-Implant Failure .

.Use of alternative bearing surfaces has increased in recent years, particularly in younger patients, in an attempt to improve the wear characteristics of joint replacement components.^ Use of alternative bearing surfaces has increased in recent years, particularly in younger patients, in an attempt to improve the wear characteristics of joint replacement components.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Younger joint replacement patients may require an additional joint replacement in their lifetime.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Mediniche, Inc. 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.mediniche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years, surface replacement of joints, in particular the hip joint, have become more popular amongst younger and more active patients.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

.These include ceramics and all-metal implants (as opposed to the original metal-on-plastic).^ These include ceramics and all-metal implants (as opposed to the original metal-on-plastic).
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In an arthritic hip, the damaged ball (the upper end of the femur) is replaced by a metal ball attached to a metal stem fitted into the femur, and a plastic socket is implanted into the pelvis, replacing the damaged socket.
  • Orthopedic Surgery - Mediniche, Inc. 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.mediniche.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bearings also produce low wear similar to that of metal-on-metal bearings with substantial reductions over plastic bearings.

.The plastic (actually ultra high-molecular-weight polyethylene) can also be altered in ways that may improve wear characteristics.^ The plastic (actually ultra high-molecular-weight polyethylene) can also be altered in ways that may improve wear characteristics.
  • Orthopedic surgery Information & Orthopedic surgery Links at HealthHaven.com 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The plastic (actually ultra high molecular weight polyethylene) can also been altered in ways that may improve wear characteristics.
  • Low cost international orthopedic surgery, discounts, prices, costs, knee, hip replacement 23 January 2010 3:55 UTC www.medicaldiscounts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the known deleterious effects of wear debris, research has begun in an effort to minimize the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

See also

References

  1. ^ American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  2. ^ American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  3. ^ *Garrett, WE, et al. American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Practice of the Orthopedic Surgeon: Part-II, Certification Examination. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American). 2006;88:660-667.
  4. ^ Average Orthopedic Surgeon Salary. Orthopedic Surgeon Job, Career Education & Unemployment Help from Salary.com
  5. ^ Wroblewski, B.M. (2002). "Professor Sir John Charnley (1911–1982)". Rheumatology (The British Society for Rheumatology via Oxford Journals) 41 (7): 824–825. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/41.7.824. PMID 12096235. http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/41/7/824. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 
  6. ^ Hamelynck, K.J. (2006). "The history of mobile-bearing total knee replacement systems". Orthopedics 29 (9 Suppl): S7–12. PMID 17002140. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002140. Retrieved 2008-04-28. 

External links


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