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Oryol (English)
Орёл (Russian)
—  Inhabited locality  —
View of Oryol city.JPG
View of Oryol city from the Ferris wheel
Map of Russia - Oryol Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Oryol Oblast on the map of Russia
Oryol is located in Oryol Oblast
Location of Oryol on the map of Oryol Oblast
Coordinates: 52°58′N 36°04′E / 52.967°N 36.067°E / 52.967; 36.067Coordinates: 52°58′N 36°04′E / 52.967°N 36.067°E / 52.967; 36.067
Coat of Arms of Oryol (Oryol oblast) (1781).png
Coat of arms
Flag of Oryol.jpg
Holiday August 5[citation needed]
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Oryol Oblast
Administrative center of Oryol Oblast[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal Status Urban okrug
Mayor[citation needed] Vasily Yeryomin[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Area 111 km2 (42.9 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2002 Census) 319,160 inhabitants[1]
Rank 54
- Density 2,875 /km2 (7,400/sq mi)[2]
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Founded 1566[citation needed]
Postal code(s) 302000–302999[citation needed]
Dialing code(s) +7 4862[citation needed]
Official website

Oryol or Orel (Russian: Орёл, Russian pronunciation: [ɐˈrʲol]) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Oryol Oblast. It is located on the Oka River, approximately 360 kilometers (224 mi) south-south-west of Moscow. Population: 333,310 (2002 Census).[1] It is served by Orel Yuzhny Airport.



While there are no historical records, archaeological evidence proves that a fortress settlement existed between the Oka and Orlik Rivers as early as the 12th century, when the land was a part of the Grand Principality of Chernigov. The name of the fortress is unknown; it may not have been called Oryol at the time. In the 13th century the fortress became a part of the Zvenigorod district of the Karachev Principality. In the early 15th century, the territory was conquered by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The city was soon abandoned by its population, after being sacked either by Lithuanians or the Golden Horde. The territory then became a part of Muscovy in the 16th century.

Ivan the Terrible decreed that a new fortress be built on the spot in 1566, for the purpose of defending the southern borders of Muscovy. The fortress was built very speedily, work starting in the summer of 1566 and ending in the spring of 1567. The location chosen was less than ideal strategically, as the fortress was located on a seasonally flooded low ground easily targeted from the neighboring high ground. Both the speed and location are of course due to the new fortress built upon the ruins of the old one.

False Dmitry I and his army passed through town in 1605; Ivan Bolotnikov in 1606; False Dmitry II camped in Oryol for the winter of 1607–1608. Polish intervention sacked the town in 1611 and 1615; the population abandoned the town after the second sacking and moved to Mtsensk. Oryol district nonetheless continued to exist on paper.

Oryol was rebuilt in 1636. The question of moving the fortress to the more advantageous high ground was in the air up until the 1670s, but the move was never made. The fortress was deemed unnecessary and taken apart in the early 18th century.

In the mid-18th century Oryol became one of the major centers of grain production, with the Oka River being the major trade route until 1860s when it was replaced by a railroad.

In 1708, Oryol was included as a part of Kiev Governorate; in 1719, Oryol Province was created within Kiev Governorate. The Province was transferred to the newly created Belgorod Governorate in 1727. On March 11 (February 28 old style), 1778 Oryol namestnichestvo (vice-royalty) was created from parts of Voronezh and Belgorod Governorates. In 1779, the city was almost entirely rebuilt based on a new plan; and the Oryol River was renamed to Orlik (lit: "little eagle").

After the October Revolution of 1917, the city was in communist hands, except for a brief period between October 13 and October 20 of 1919 when it was controlled by Denikin’s White Army.

Oryol was once again moved between different oblasts in the 1920s and 1930s, finally becoming the administrative center of its own Oryol Oblast on September 27, 1937. Christian Rakovsky, Maria Spiridonova, Olga Kameneva and 160 other prominent political prisoners were shot on September 11, 1941 on Stalin's orders in the Medvedev forest outside Oryol.

During World War II, Oryol was occupied by the Wehrmacht on October 3, 1941, and liberated on 5 August 1943, after the Battle of Kursk. The city was almost completely destroyed.


  • 1991–1997: Alexander Kislyakov
  • 1997–2002: Yefim Velkovsky
  • 2002–2006: Vasily Uvarov
  • 2006–2009: Alexander Kasyanov

International relations


Twin towns/sister cities

Oryol is twinned with:

Notable natives and residents


  1. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  3. ^ Sister cities
  4. ^ David Lodge, After Bakhtin: Essays on Fiction and Criticism, London & New York: Routledge, 1990, p. 1

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel


Oryol is a city in the Chernozemye region of the Russian Federation. This regional capital is a destination for its clean air, old churches, and extensive literary and dramatic history.

Get in

Oryol is located 368 km to the South from Moscow, on the way to Ukraine and Crimea. It is just a 5-hour drive from Moscow, the road is a 4-lane highway until Tula, often bumpy though, and then 2-3 lanes of a moderate quality. Alternatively, you can take an express commuter train from Kursky railway station in Moscow. It starts at 6:00 p.m. and arrives at Oryol at 10:40 p.m. There is also an overnight 'sleeping' train starting at 11 p.m. and arriving before 6 a.m. Generally, there are a LOT of trains passing Oryol from Moscow on their way to Ukraine. The fare is US$10-20-40 depending on the carriage class.

Get around

The central part of the city is pleasant and walkable. To travel around, locals choose between public buses, trolley-buses, trams and numerous minibus-taxies. Fares vary from a fixed US$0.33 (buses, trolley-buses and trams) to US$0.50 (minibus-taxies); however, you may prefer to move around by a private taxi (US$3-7 for trips within the city).

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



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Alternative spellings


From Russian орёл (orjól), literally eagle.

Proper noun




  1. A city in Russia, administrative centre of Oryol oblast.


Related terms


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