Osmosis: Wikis

  

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.Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane.^ Third , water passes through the R/O membrane.

^ Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration .
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.purchon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salinity, the salt concentration in permeate-water for 1% salt penetration through a semi permeable membrane, is: .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .More specifically, it is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high water potential (low solute concentration) to an area of low water potential (high solute concentration).^ Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration .
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.purchon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.purchon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osmosis is the net movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane driven by a difference in solute concentrations on the two sides of the membrane.

.It is a physical process in which a solvent moves, without input of energy, across a semi-permeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.^ Two compartments are separated by a semi-permeable membrane.

^ On each side of the tubes we have a water solution separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The semipermeable membrane is permeable to the solvent, but not to the solute, resulting in a chemical potential difference across the membrane which drives the diffusion.

[2] .Osmosis releases energy, and can be made to do work[3].^ How does reverse osmosis (R.O.) work, and how does the energy transfer device (ETD) operate?
  • Sea Recovery Watermakers - Frequently Asked Questions 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.searecovery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shot of a computer simulation of the process of osmosis
.Net movement of solvent is from the less-concentrated (hypotonic) to the more-concentrated (hypertonic) solution, which tends to reduce the difference in concentrations.^ When we have a solution, the substance that has the greatest concentration is the solvent .
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement of solvent is from the less-concentrated ( hypotonic ) to the more-concentrated ( hypertonic ) solution, which tends to reduce the difference in concentration.
  • Diffusion vs Osmosis - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The movement of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated one.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This effect can be countered by increasing the pressure of the hypertonic solution, with respect to the hypotonic.^ The osmotic pressure of a solution increases with the concentration of a solution.
  • Reverse Osmosis Systems (RO Systems) Manufactured by Applied Membranes, Inc. 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.appliedmembranes.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This process can be stopped by increasing the pressure on the solution by a specific amount, called the osmotic pressure .
  • osmosis (chemical process) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If osmosis occurs, transfer of solvent is from the hypotonic solution to the hypertonic solution, which has the higher osmotic pressure.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The osmotic pressure is defined to be the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent.^ The osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure differential required to stop osmosis from occurring.
  • REVERSE OSMOSIS TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.get-inc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Where δ P is the osmotic pressure and V is the molar volume of the solvent.

^ The pressure required to stop the movement completely is called osmotic pressure .
  • MedFriendly.com: Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.medfriendly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the property depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity.^ It is dependent on the concentration of solutes as the model has shown.

^ The stronger the solution, the greater is the osmotic pressure.

^ Solute concentration dependent: .

.Osmosis is important in biological systems as many biological membranes are semipermeable.^ In biological systems, osmosis is essential since many biological membranes are semipermeable , and it leads to different physiological effects.
  • Osmosis - definition from Biology-Online.org 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top Reverse Osmosis Technology This system uses the Reverse Osmosis process where water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane, leaving unwanted pollutants and contaminants behind.

^ Many desalination systems employ reverse osmosis, which uses pressure or heat to force water through a semipermeable membrane.
  • Oasys develops energy-efficient osmosis for desalination | Cleantech Group 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cleantech.com [Source type: News]

.In general, these membranes are impermeable to organic solutes with large molecules, such as polysaccharides, while permeable to water and small, uncharged solutes.^ The plasma membrane of these cells is quite permeable to water, but relatively impermeable to salts.

^ As noted earlier some of these are hydroscopic (water attracting) and in general are large molecules.
  • Yacht Surveys - FAQ - OSMOSIS 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.yachtsurveys.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On each side of the tubes we have a water solution separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Permeability may depend on solubility properties, charge, or chemistry as well as solute size.^ The osmotic pressure does not depend on the solute type, or its molecular size, but only on its molar concentration, as the formula states.
  • Osmosis Reverse Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure what they are 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Properties such as osmotic pressure, freezing point, and boiling point, which depend on the number of particles present rather than on their size or chemical nature, are called colligative properties.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Osmosis may be described as the physical movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane based on a difference in chemical potential between two solutions separated by that semi-permeable membrane.

.Water molecules travel through the plasma cell wall, tonoplast (vacuole) or protoplast in two ways, either by diffusing across the phospholipid bilayer directly, or via aquaporins (small transmembrane proteins similar to those in facilitated diffusion and in creating ion channels).^ Facilitated Diffusion of Ions Ligand-gated ion channels.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The size of a water molecule permits it to pass through the bilayer.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The transmembrane channels that permit facilitated diffusion can be opened or closed.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

.Osmosis provides the primary means by which water is transported into and out of cells.^ Gradient pulls water into cell.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.stcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This results in no net movement of water into or out of cells.

^ In concentrated solutions, water is sucked out of the cell by osmosis and the cell shrinks.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.purchon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The turgor pressure of a cell is largely maintained by osmosis, across the cell membrane, between the cell interior and its relatively hypotonic environment.^ Water moves across membranes by osmosis.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.stcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

^ Oasys is using forward osmosis, in which a draw solution of high concentration induces a net flow of water through the membrane, also called an osmotic pressure gradient.
  • Oasys develops energy-efficient osmosis for desalination | Cleantech Group 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.cleantech.com [Source type: News]

[4]

Contents

Basic explanation

.Osmosis may occur when there is a partially-permeable membrane, such as a cell membrane.^ Diffusion and osmosis across cell membranes diffusion and osmosis across cell membranes .
  • Cell diffusion and osmosis, Cell biology, anatomy of the cell 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ Osmosis is the flow of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution until both solutions are of the same concentration.

^ Top Reverse Osmosis Technology This system uses the Reverse Osmosis process where water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane, leaving unwanted pollutants and contaminants behind.

.When a cell is submerged in water, the water molecules pass through the cell membrane from an area of low solute concentration (outside the cell) to one of high solute concentration (inside the cell), this is called osmosis.^ Third , water passes through the R/O membrane.

^ Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration .
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.purchon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The size of a water molecule permits it to pass through the bilayer.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

.The cell membrane is selectively permeable, so only necessary materials are let into the cell and waste left out.^ Only certain molecules can cross the membrane into or out of a cell.

^ Let’s put in a non-permeable membrane.
  • Osmosis Demystified — How It Works 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC alienryderflex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are membranes selectively permeable?
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.When the membrane has a volume of pure water on both sides, water molecules pass in and out in each direction at the exact same rate; there is no net flow of water through the membrane.^ Dissipate heat of water flow through the membrane .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The size of a water molecule permits it to pass through the bilayer.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

^ This results in no net movement of water into or out of cells.

.However, if there is a solution on one side, and pure water on the other, the membrane is still hit by molecules from both sides at the same rate.^ On each side of the tubes we have a water solution separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then place a salt solution in one half of the container and pure water in the other half.

^ B. Molecules on both sides are bumping into the membrane.
  • Osmosis Demystified — How It Works 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC alienryderflex.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, some of the molecules hitting the membrane from the solution side will be solute molecules, and these will not pass through the membrane.^ The water molecules on both sides of the membrane hit the membrane and pass through.

^ Osmosis is the flow of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution until both solutions are of the same concentration.

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

.So water molecules pass through the membrane from this side at a slower rate.^ The size of a water molecule permits it to pass through the bilayer.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Although water is a polar molecule, it is able to pass through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While this membrane stops most things, water can pass through it.

.This will result in a net flow of water to the side with the solution.^ Referring to the diagram, we see that water flows from the side with 0% solute to the side with 20% solute.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

^ When two aqueous solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, water passes through the membrane in the direction of the more concentrated solution as a result of osmotic pressure.

.Assuming the membrane does not break, this net flow will slow and finally stop as the pressure on the solution side becomes such that the movement in each direction is equal: dynamic equilibrium.^ This flow can be avoided if pressure is exercised from the side of the more concentrated solution.

^ Equilibrium, in this case, is the condition where the solutions on both sides of the membrane have equal concentrations of solute.
  • Osmosis@Everything2.com 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Osmosis@Everything2.com 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

.This could either be due to the water potential on both sides of the membrane being the same, or due to osmosis being inhibited by factors such as pressure potential or Osmotic pressure.^ To do this we increase the pressure on the salty side of the membrane and force the water across.
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P is the overpressure, above the osmotic pressure, that drives water flow through the membrane.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If pure water were on both sides of the membrane, the osmotic pressure difference would be zero.

.Osmosis can also be explained using the notion of entropy, from statistical mechanics.^ Explain osmosis and the mechanism by which it occurs.

^ A number of theories explaining osmotic pressure by analogy to gases have been devised, but most have been discarded in favor of thermodynamic interpretations using such concepts as the entropy of dilution.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Hydrotech® Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water System combines mechanical filtration with reverse osmosis technology for effective water treatment in point-of-use applications.
  • Hydrotech 50 GPD Reverse Osmosis 4 Vessel Smartap® High Quality Push Button Monitored Systems - 4VTFC50G-PB 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.aquascience.net [Source type: Reference]

.As above, suppose a permeable membrane separates equal amounts of pure solvent and a solution.^ On each side of the tubes we have a water solution separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osmosis is the flow of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution until both solutions are of the same concentration.

^ Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side.

.Since a solution possesses more entropy than pure solvent, the second law of thermodynamics states that solvent molecules will flow into the solution until the entropy of the combined system is maximized.^ Osmosis is the flow of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution until both solutions are of the same concentration.

^ It works by using pressure to force a solution through a membrane, retaining the solute on one side and allowing the pure solvent to pass to the other side.

^ Reverse Osmosis (RO): RO is exactly what the name implies, the reverse of the natural process of osmosis, a process by which a solvent of lower concentration solution will spontaneously pass through the membrane into a more concentrated solution until the two have equal concentrations.
  • Ultrafiltration; Microfiltration and Reverse Osmosis Technology 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.frost.com [Source type: Academic]

.Notice that, as this happens, the solvent loses entropy while the solution gains entropy.^ When red blood cells are placed in a 0.9% salt solution, they neither gain nor lose water by osmosis.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet our experiments will disclose that a potato cores loses water to a 0.2 M solution of NaCl but it gains water from a 0.2 M solution of sucrose.

Equilibrium, hence maximum entropy, is achieved when the entropy gradient becomes zero, and dissolution takes place.
.Pure water is more ordered than water in a solution; thus, from an entropic standpoint it takes some net energy to move water molecule from a disordered solution and "pack it in" with pure water.^ What's more fresh than pure, crystal clear water.
  • Water Filter Purification Equipment, Water Filter, Reverse Osmosis Home System 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.allaboutrowater.com [Source type: General]

^ Water is more precious than oil.
  • Water Filter Purification Equipment, Water Filter, Reverse Osmosis Home System 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.allaboutrowater.com [Source type: General]

^ Some more than others.
  • PlumbingSupply.com - Reverse Osmosis filtration products 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the same explanation as to why the disordered air does not spontaneously separate and order into oxygen and nitrogen, it would take energy for this to happen.^ I used to be rebellious of systems as though they would take away all my creativity and spontaneity.
  • reverse osmosis - The Truth About Reverse Osmosis Water 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.ideamarketers.com [Source type: General]

^ Osmosis will occur if a vessel is separated into two compartments by a semipermeable membrane, both compartments are filled to the same level with a solvent, and solute is added to one side.
  • Osmosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you were to insert a hollow tube of a certain diameter into a beaker of water, the water would rise inside the tube and reach the same level as the water outside it.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, particle size has no bearing on osmotic pressure, as this is the fundamental postulate of colligative properties.^ Properties such as osmotic pressure, freezing point, and boiling point, which depend on the number of particles present rather than on their size or chemical nature, are called colligative properties.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Osmosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there is no exit for the salt it will accumulate within the module and steadily increase the osmotic pressure.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A point is reached at which the applied pressure is no longer able to overcome the osmotic pressure and no further flow of product water occurs.

[5]

Examples of osmosis

Effect of different solutions on blood cells
Plant cell under different environments
.Osmotic pressure is the main cause of support in many plants.^ The pressure must be high enough to exceed the osmotic pressure to cause reverse osmotic flow of water.

^ Osmosis - body, used, water, process, Earth, plants, methods, animals, cells, cause, substance, plant, principle, Osmotic pressure, Osmosis in living organisms Powered by JRank Science Clarified .
  • Osmosis - body, used, water, process, Earth, plants, methods, animals, cells, cause, substance, plant, principle, Osmotic pressure, Osmosis in living organisms 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The membrane sleeve is supported from its inside with a porous spacer that prevents sleeve collapse by the osmotic pressure.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.The osmotic entry of water raises the turgor pressure exerted against the cell wall, until it equals the osmotic pressure, creating a steady state.^ When the turgor pressure equals the osmotic pressure, osmosis ceases.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of equal osmotic pressure.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water pressure rises as the height of the column of salty water rises, until it is equal to the osmotic pressure.
  • HowStuffWorks "How does reverse osmosis work?" 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water in the cells moves to an area higher in solute concentration and the cell shrinks, and in doing so, becomes flaccid.^ Osmosis is the movement of water from a area of low solute concentration to that of lower concentration.
  • OSMOSIS - Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats - I Can Has Cheezburger? 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In hypertonic solutions, water diffuses out of the cell due to osmosis and the cell shrinks.

^ The concentration of solute in the solution can be equal to the concentration of solute in the cells.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(This means the cell has become plasmolysed - the cell membrane has completely left the cell wall due to lack of water pressure on it; the opposite of turgid.^ The walls of living cells are natural membranes.
  • What is Reverse Osmosis? 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.wholly-water.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that water will flow from the right side of the membrane to the left side.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pressure on the cell wall is not enough to break the wall.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.Also, osmosis is responsible for the ability of plant roots to draw water from the soil.^ This happens, for example, when plant roots take up water from the soil.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants depend on osmosis to move water from their roots to their leaves.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is drawn from the soil into the roots of a plant by osmosis.

.Since there are many fine roots, they have a large surface area, and water enters the roots by osmosis.^ Water enters the cell by osmosis.
  • Transport Across Cell Membranes 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Water enters the black vessel, passes through a carbon block filter, then goes to the reverse osmosis membrane (white horizontal vessel), then another carbon block filter (white vertical vessel).
  • Countertop Reverse Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pwgazette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reverse Osmosis uses large amounts of water.
  • Whole House Water Filters, Home Water Filters - Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Filter, Shower Home Water Filter 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC purewaterexpress.com [Source type: General]

.Osmosis can also be seen when potato slices are added to a high concentration of salt solution.^ That is what happened to the slice of potato in the salt water.

^ Osmosis is the flow of a solvent through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated to a more concentrated solution until both solutions are of the same concentration.

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

.The water from inside the potato moves to the salt solution, causing the potato to shrink and to lose its 'turgor pressure'. The more concentrated the salt solution, the bigger the difference in size and weight of the potato slice.^ The operation involves pressurizing seawater and depressurizing concentrated salt water.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That is what happened to the slice of potato in the salt water.

^ P pump is the pump pressure, P sea is the osmotic pressure of seawater and P s is the osmotic pressure of the concentrated salt water.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.In unusual environments, osmosis can be very harmful to organisms.^ "The important thing for a (biologist) to know about osmosis and osmotic pressure is how particles dissolved in fluid environments affect (organisms) in those environments.

.For example, freshwater and saltwater aquarium fish placed in water of a different salinity than that they are adapted to will die quickly, and in the case of saltwater fish, dramatically.^ (Seawater has a higher salinity than freshwater).

^ The different salinities of freshwater and seawater present different challenges to the organisms that live in these habitats.

^ In practical systems, with lower energy recovery, the desalination energy will be higher than the table values, and the difference will increase as the water recovery ratio decreases.
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another example of a harmful osmotic effect is the use of table salt to kill leeches and slugs.^ Another method that survives is the use of sugar — which can be just as effective as salt for keeping out bacteria — to preserve fruit in jam.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Suppose an animal or a plant cell is placed in a solution of sugar or salt in water.
  1. If the medium is hypotonic — a dilute solution, with a higher water concentration than the cell — the cell will gain water through osmosis.
  2. If the medium is isotonic — a solution with exactly the same water concentration as the cell — there will be no net movement of water across the cell membrane.
  3. If the medium is hypertonic — a concentrated solution, with a lower water concentration than the cell — the cell will lose water by osmosis.
.Essentially, this means that if a cell is put in a solution which is has a solute concentration higher than its own, then it will shrivel up, and if it is put in a solution with a lesser solute concentration than its own, the cell will expand and burst.^ The concentration of solute in the solution can be equal to the concentration of solute in the cells.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concentration of solute in the solution can be greater than the concentration of solute in the cells.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an hypotonic solution, the cell will swell, but will not burst because of the rigid cell wall.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chemical gardens demonstrate the effect of osmosis in inorganic chemistry.^ Reverse osmosis is a filtering system that removes inorganic chemicals, such as minerals, metals and salts from water.
  • Tag: Osmosis - Explore content tagged Osmosis on eHow.com 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Two illustrations involving salt water demonstrate how osmosis can produce disastrous effects in living things.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Factors

Osmotic pressure

.As mentioned before, osmosis may be opposed by increasing the pressure in the region of high solute concentration with respect to that in the low solute concentration region.^ Osmosis is the movement of water from a area of low solute concentration to that of lower concentration.
  • OSMOSIS - Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats - I Can Has Cheezburger? 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osmosis Osmosis: the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration .
  • Cell diffusion and osmosis, Cell biology, anatomy of the cell 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

.The force per unit area, or pressure, required to prevent the passage of water through a selectively-permeable membrane and into a solution of greater concentration is equivalent to the osmotic pressure of the solution, or turgor.^ Salinity, the salt concentration in permeate-water for 1% salt penetration through a semi permeable membrane, is: .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diffusion of a solvent (such as water) through a selectively permeable membrane (one which only allows the passage of certain dissolved substances) into a more concentrated solution.
  • osmosis Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Osmosis is the movement of water from a area of low solute concentration to that of lower concentration.
  • OSMOSIS - Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats - I Can Has Cheezburger? 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the property depends on the concentration of the solute but not on its identity.^ Solute concentration dependent: .

^ Osmotic pressure is a colligative property in that for a dilute ideal solution it depends only on the mole fraction of the solute.

^ When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure - hence the term “Reverse Osmosis”.

.Increasing the pressure increases the chemical potential of the system in proportion to the molar volume (δμ = δPV).^ A volume of water is recirculated on the high pressure side of the system with a cleaning agent (for hardness or organic plugging) for an hour or so then the membrane is flushed to drain and returned to service.
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically raising a system 10 meters will increase its water potential energy by 0.1 MPa, water will then tend to move down from there.
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The osmotic pressure at the system exit for any water recovery ratio α(α = output volume of permeate water / input volume of seawater) is P s = P sea / (1 - α), and the corresponding work of desalination is: .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

Therefore, osmosis stops when the increase in potential due to pressure equals the potential decrease from
N/A Correction need to be affected on given incorrect equations

Osmotic gradient

.The osmotic gradient is the difference in concentration between two solutions on either side of a semipermeable membrane, and is used to tell the difference in percentages of the concentration of a specific particle dissolved in a solution.^ The concentration of solute in the two solutions must be unequal; i.e.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concentration: the amount of stuff dissolved in solution.

^ The greater the difference in concentration of a solute between one end of the gradient system and its concentration at the other end, the faster it will dissolve.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually the osmotic gradient is used while comparing solutions that have a semipermeable membrane between them allowing water to diffuse between the two solutions, toward the hypertonic solution(the solution with the higher concentration).^ Osmosis osmosis is the diffusion of water down its concentration gradient .
  • Cell diffusion and osmosis, Cell biology, anatomy of the cell 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ According to this idea, water diffuses into a hypertonic solution because it is diffusing down its concentration gradient.

^ The concentration of solute in the two solutions must be unequal; i.e.
  • osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC faculty.nl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, the force of the column of water on the hypertonic side of the semipermeable membrane will equal the force of diffusion on the hypotonic (the side with a lesser concentration) side, creating equilibrium.^ Diffusion and osmosis omosis is diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane.
  • Cell diffusion and osmosis, Cell biology, anatomy of the cell 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ To do this we increase the pressure on the salty side of the membrane and force the water across.
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top Reverse Osmosis Technology This system uses the Reverse Osmosis process where water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane, leaving unwanted pollutants and contaminants behind.

.When equilibrium is reached, water continues to flow, but it flows both ways in equal amounts as well as force, therefore stabilizing the solution.^ At equilibrium water potentials will be equal: .
  • Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC plantphys.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, water tends to flow into cells with what can be a considerable force.

^ Will water flow continuously around this loop?
  • http://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/osmosis.htm 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.lhup.edu [Source type: Original source]

Variation

Reverse osmosis

.Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side.^ Osmosis, on the other hand, can be reversed.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to use reverse osmosis as a water purification process, the feed water is pressurized on one side of a semi permeable membrane.

^ Commonly used to make salt water drinkable, reverse osmosis uses pressurized force to separate solvents found in water (such as...
  • Tag: Osmosis - Explore content tagged Osmosis on eHow.com 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.^ Reverse osmosis is a process which forces a solution to flow opposite the way it would normally flow in through a membrane by applying pressure to the solution with a higher concentration of...
  • Tag: Osmosis - Explore content tagged Osmosis on eHow.com 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The flow of solvent can be prevented by applying an opposing hydrostatic pressure to the concentrated solution.

^ As pressure is increased more water passes through the membrane.
  • Commercial Water Filter Solutions - Industrial Reverse Osmosis Water Systems, Commercial Reverse Osmosis Water Purification 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.raindancewatersystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forward osmosis

.Osmosis may be used directly to achieve separation of water from a "feed" solution containing unwanted solutes.^ Q. Can I use an reverse osmosis to recycle water?
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It refers to a style of reverse osmosis unit that produces directly into a container and does not have the pressurized storage tank used on undersink reverse osmosis units.
  • Countertop Reverse Osmosis 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.pwgazette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Reverse Osmosis unit will use between 2-3 gallons of water to make 1 gallon of "RO" water.
  • Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Systems - Clean Drinking Water :: Ohio Pure Water 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.ohiopurewaterco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A "draw" solution of higher osmotic pressure than the feed solution is used to induce a net flow of water through a semi-permeable membrane, such that the feed solution becomes concentrated as the draw solution becomes dilute.^ Salinity, the salt concentration in permeate-water for 1% salt penetration through a semi permeable membrane, is: .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of higher osmotic pressure.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dissipate heat of water flow through the membrane .
  • Optimizing the Efficiency of Reverse Osmosis Seawater Desalination 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC urila.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

.The diluted draw solution may then be used directly (as with an ingestible solute like glucose), or sent to a secondary separation process for the removal of the draw solute.^ Reverse osmosis is a membrane separation process for removing solvent from a solution.

^ When a semi permeable membrane separates a dilute solution from a concentrated solution, solvent crosses from the dilute to the concentrated side of the membrane in an attempt to equalize concentrations.

^ Short of some highly complicated undertaking — for instance, using ultrasonic sound waves — it would be impossible to separate solute and solvent.
  • Osmosis – FREE Osmosis information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Osmosis research 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This secondary separation can be more efficient than a reverse osmosis process would be alone, depending on the draw solute used and the feedwater treated.^ Q. Can I use an reverse osmosis to recycle water?
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reverse osmosis is a filtration process that is often used for water.

^ Q. How would an reverse osmosis be used to recycle water?
  • QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT REVERSE OSMOSIS, WATER PURIFICATION AND FILTRATION 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.remco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Forward osmosis is an area of ongoing research, focusing on applications in desalination, water purification, water treatment, food processing, etc.^ Saline water conversion--Reverse osmosis process , Water--Research .
  • Osmosis: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Reverse Osmosis Process is the removal of up to 99.9% of undesirable water contaminants by forcing untreated water through a semi-permeable membrane.
  • Reverse Osmosis Filters Systems- Undersink Model 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC www.yourwaterneeds.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Aquatech Systems Engaged in manufacturing and exporting of reverse osmosis equipments, water treatment reverse osmosis equipments along with water treatment plant, effluent treatment plant, drinking water treatment plant and mineral water treatment plant.
  • Reverse Osmosis Equipment - Reverse Osmosis Equipment Manufacturers,Reverse Osmosis Equipment Suppliers & Exporters 25 January 2010 9:09 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

See also

References

  1. ^ Haynie, Donald T. (2001). Biological Thermodynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–136. ISBN 0521795494.  
  2. ^ "Osmosis". http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/e22/22c.htm.  
  3. ^ "Statkraft to build the world's first prototype osmotic power plant". http://www.statkraft.com/pro/press/Press_releases/2007/Statkraft_to_build_world_s_first_osmotic_power_plant.asp.  
  4. ^ a b Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, David LaHart, Maryanna Quon Warner, Jill D. Wright (1997). Cells Building Blocks of Life. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 66–67.  
  5. ^ Borg, Frank (2003). "What is osmosis? Explanation and understanding of a physical phenomenon". Jyväskylä University, Chydenius Institute, Karleby, Finland. pp. 1–39. http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0305011v1.  

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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^ However, they also trap many other contaminants that are too large to pass through the semi-permeable membrane.
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Simple English

Osmosis is the movement of a liquid through a membrane.[1] This movement is caused by a difference in the concentration of the liquid on either side of the semi-permeable membrane. When osmosis happens, liquid will move from the side of the membrane with a lower amount of osmotic pressure to the side of the membrane with the higher amount. An important example of osmosis is in the movement of liquid in the cell membrane. Osmosis is passive transport. Osmosis, although having multiple biological and even mechanical applications and usages, usually talks about cells.

Hypertonic, Isotonic, and Hypotonic

Hypertonic is when the there is more salt outside the cell than in the cell. This makes the cell lose water. An Isotonic solution happens when the concentration is equal both inside and outside of the cell. Hypotonic is when there is less salt outside the cell than in the cell. This means the cell will gain water.

References

  1. http://physioweb.med.uvm.edu/bodyfluids/osmosis.htm University of Vermont, Department of Physiology



Citable sentences

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