Osteopathic medicine in the United States: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States, with recognition outside the US in forty-seven countries, including most Canadian provinces. Physicians and surgeons who graduate from osteopathic medical schools are known as physicians or osteopathic medical physicians and hold a professional doctorate, the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO), in contrast to the more familiar degree, the Doctor of Medicine, or MD.[1][2][3]

Frontier physician Andrew Taylor Still founded the profession as a radical rejection of the prevailing system of medical thought of the 19th century. Still's techniques relied heavily on the manipulation of joints and bones to diagnose and treat illness, and he called his practices "osteopathy." By the middle of the 20th century, the profession had moved closer to mainstream medicine, adopting modern public health and biomedical principles. "Osteopaths" became "osteopathic physicians", gradually achieving full practice rights in all 50 states, including serving in the US armed forces as physicians.[4]

In the 21st century, the training of osteopathic physicians in the United States is very similar to that of their MD counterparts.[5] Osteopathic physicians attend 4 years of medical school followed by at least 3 years of residency. They use all conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment. Though still trained in Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM)[6], the modern derivative of Still's techniques[7], a minority of osteopathic physicians use it in actual practice.[8]

Osteopathic medicine is considered by some in the United States to be both a profession and a social movement,[9][10] especially for its historically greater emphasis on primary care and holistic health. However, any distinction between the MD and the DO professions has eroded steadily; diminishing numbers of DO graduates enter primary care fields[11], fewer use OMM, holistic patient care models are increasingly taught at MD schools, and increasing numbers of DO graduates choose to train in non-osteopathic residency programs.[12][13][14]

US osteopathic medical physicians may be licensed in 47 countries, although osteopathic curricula in other countries differ from those in the United States. Osteopathic practitioners educated outside the US are known as "osteopaths" and their scope of practice excludes usual medical therapies and relies more on osteopathic manipulative medicine and other alternative medical modalities.

Discussions about the future of osteopathic medicine frequently debate the utility of maintaining a separate, distinct pathway for educating physicians in the United States.[14][15] Studies have repeatedly shown that many recent osteopathic medical graduates are either uninterested in or reluctant to embrace an identity distinct from their MD counterparts.[16] The rapid expansion in the number and size of schools has raised questions as to the quality of education at some osteopathic medical schools. Leaders within the osteopathic community have referred to the present situation as a crisis.[12][13] Other contentious topics have been for-profit medical education, which osteopathic accreditors permit,[17] and the status of LGBT osteopathic physicians.[18][19][20][21]

Contents

Demographics

Physicians entering US workforce by education, 2005[22]

From its inception, the osteopathic profession has been smaller than the older MD profession.[23] Currently, there are 25 accredited osteopathic medical schools[24] offering education in 31 locations in the United States and 126 accredited US MD medical schools.[25]

  • In 1960, there were 13,708 physicians who were graduates of the 5 osteopathic medical schools.
  • In 2002, there were 49,210 physicians from 19 osteopathic schools.
  • Between 1980 and 2005, the number of osteopathic graduates per year increased over 250 percent from about 1,000 to 2,800. This number is expected to approach 5,000 by 2015.[26]
  • In 2007, there were 25 colleges of osteopathic medicine in 31 locations.[27] One in five medical students in the United States is enrolled in an osteopathic medical school.[28]
  • By 2020, the number of osteopathic physicians will grow to 95,400, say expert predictions, according to the American Medical Association.[29]


Geographic distribution of osteopathic physicians as a percentage of all physicians, by state. Locations of osteopathic medical schools are shown in red.[30]
     <3%      3-5%      5-10%      10-15%      15-25%

Osteopathic physicians are unevenly distributed in the United States. The states with the highest concentration are Michigan and Oklahoma where osteopathic physicians comprise over 20% of the total physician workforce. The state with the greatest number of osteopathic physicians is Pennsylvania, with 6,048 DO's in active practice in 2008.[31] The states with the lowest concentrations of DO's are Louisiana, Massachusetts and Vermont where only 1-2% of physicians have an osteopathic degree.[30] Public awareness of osteopathic medicine likewise varies widely in different regions.


Osteopathic principles

A physician demonstrates an OMM technique to medical students at an osteopathic medical school.

In addition to the Hippocratic oath, Osteopathic medical students take an oath to maintain and uphold the "core principles" of osteopathic medical philosophy. Revised in 1953, and again in 2002, the core principles are:

  1. The body is a unit, and the person represents a combination of body, mind and spirit.
  2. The body is capable of self-regulation, self-healing, and health maintenance.
  3. Structure and function are reciprocally interrelated.
  4. Rational treatment is based on an understanding of these principles: body unity, self-regulation, and the interrelationship of structure and function.[32]
Advertisements

Significance

There are different opinions on the significance of these principles. Some note that the osteopathic philosophy is akin to the tenets of holistic medicine.[33] They suggest that osteopathic philosophy is a kind of social movement within the field of medicine, one that promotes a more patient-centered, holistic approach to medicine, and emphasizes the role of the primary care physician within the health care system.[9][34] Others liken the American Osteopathic Association's emphasis of the core principles to professional indoctrination, a process which glorifies osteopathic practices and beliefs while misrepresenting those of the MD community.[35] Still others point out that there is nothing in the principles that would distinguish DO from MD training in any fundamental way. One study, published in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association found a majority of MD medical school administrators and faculty saw nothing objectionable in the core principles, and some would even endorse them generally as sound medical principles.[32]

History

A new movement within medicine

Andrew Taylor Still, founder Osteopathic medicine

Frontier physician Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, founded the American School of Osteopathy (now the A.T. Still University-Kirksville (Mo.) College of Osteopathic Medicine) in Kirksville, MO, in 1892 as a radical protest against the turn-of-the-century medical system. A.T. Still believed that the conventional medical system lacked credible efficacy, was morally corrupt, and treated effects rather than causes of disease.[36] He founded osteopathic medicine in rural Missouri at a time when medications, surgery, and other traditional therapeutic regimens often caused more harm than good. Some of the medicines commonly given to patients during this time were arsenic, caster oil, whiskey, and opium. In addition, unsanitary surgical practices often resulted in more deaths than cures.[37]

"To find health should be the object of the doctor.
Anyone can find disease."

He intended his new system of medicine to be a reformation of the existing 19th century medical practices he knew and imagined that someday "rational medical therapy" would consist of manipulation of the musculoskeletal system, surgery, and very sparingly used drugs. He invented the name "osteopathy" by blending two Greek roots osteon- for bone and -pathos for suffering in order to communicate his theory that disease and physiologic dysfunction were etiologically grounded in a disordered musculoskeletal system. Thus, by diagnosing and treating the musculoskeletal system, he believed that physicians could treat a variety of diseases and spare patients the negative side-effects of drugs.

Mark Twain was a vocal supporter of the early osteopathic movement.

The new profession faced stiff opposition from the medical establishment at the time. The relationship of the osteopathic and medical professions was often "bitterly contentious"[22] and involved "strong efforts" by medical organizations to discredit osteopathic medicine.[38] Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, the policy of the American Medical Association labeled osteopathic medicine as a cult and osteopaths were seen as "cultist." The AMA code of ethics declared it unethical for a medical physician to voluntarily associate with an osteopath.[9][39]

To ask a doctor's opinion of osteopathy is equivalent to going to Satan for information about Christianity."
Mark Twain, 1901

One notable advocate for the fledgling movement was Mark Twain. Manipulative treatments had purportedly alleviated the symptoms of his daughter Jean's epilepsy as well as Twain's own chronic bronchitis. In 1909, he spoke before the New York State Assembly at a hearing regarding the practice of osteopathy in the state. "I don't know as I cared much about these osteopaths until I heard you were going to drive them out of the state, but since I heard that I haven't been able to sleep." Philosophically opposed to the American Medical Association's stance that its own type of medical practice was the only legitimate one, he spoke in favor of licensing for osteopaths. Physicians from the New York County Medical Society responded with a vigorous attack on Twain, who retorted with "[t]he physicians think they are moved by regard for the best interests of the public. Isn't there a little touch of self-interest back of it all?" "... The objection is, people are curing people without a license and you are afraid it will bust up business."[40]

Evolution of osteopathic medicine's mission and identity[4]
Years Identity & Mission
1892 to 1950 Manual medicine
1951 to 1970 Family practice / manual therapy
1971 to present Full service care / multispeciality orientation

1916-1966, Federal recognition

Recognition by the US federal government was a key goal of the osteopathic medical profession in its effort to establish equivalency with its MD counterparts. Between 1916 and 1966, the profession engaged in a "long and tortuous struggle" for the right to serve as physicians and surgeons in the US Military Medical Corps. On May 3, 1966 Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara authorized the acceptance of DO's into all the medical military services on the same basis as MD's. The first DO to take the oath of office to serve as a military physician was Harry J. Walter. The acceptance of osteopathic physicians was further solidified in 1996 when Ronald Blanck, DO was appointed to serve as Surgeon General of the Army, the first osteopathic physician to hold the post.[39]

1962, California

In the 1960s in California, the American Medical Association (AMA), sensing increased competition from osteopathic medicine, spent nearly $8 million to end the practice of osteopathic medicine in the state. In 1962, Proposition 22, a statewide ballot initiative in California, eliminated the practice of osteopathic medicine in the state. The California Medical Association (CMA) issued MD degrees to all DOs in the state of California for a nominal fee. "By attending a short seminar and paying $65, a doctor of osteopathy (DO) could obtain an MD degree; 86 percent of the DO's in the state (out of a total of about 2000) chose to do so."[35] Immediately following, the AMA re-accredited the formerly-osteopathic University of California at Irvine College of Osteopathic Medicine as University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, an MD medical school. It also placed a ban on issuing physician licenses to DO's moving to California from other states.[41] However, the decision proved to be controversial. In 1974, after protest and lobbying by influential and prominent DO's, the California Supreme Court ruled in Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons of California v. California Medical Association, that licensing of DO's in that state must be resumed.

1969, AMA House of Delegates approval

Total number of DO's in residency programs, by year.      DO residents in ACGME (MD) programs[42]      DO residents in AOA (DO) programs.[43]

In 1969, the American Medical Association (AMA) approved a measure allowing qualified osteopathic physicians as full and active members of the Association. The measure also allowed osteopathic physicians to participate in AMA-approved intern and residency programs. However, the American Osteopathic Association rejected this measure, claiming it was an attempt to eliminate the distinctiveness of osteopathic medicine. In 1970, AMA President Dwight L. Wilbur, MD sponsored a measure in the AMA's House of Delegates permitting the AMA Board of Trustees' plan for the merger of DO and MD professions. Today, a majority of osteopathic physicians are trained alongside MDs, in residency programs governed by the ACGME, an independent board of the AMA.[44]

Non-discrimination policies

Recent years have seen a professional rapprochement between the two groups. DO's have been admitted to full active membership in the American Medical Association since 1969. The AMA has invited a representative of the American Osteopathic Association to sit as a voting member in the AMA legislative body, the house of delegates.[45]

2006, American Medical Student Association

In 2006, during the presidency of an osteopathic medical student, the American Medical Student Association (AMSA) adopted a policy regarding the membership rights of osteopathic medical students in their main policy document, the "Preamble, Purposes and Principles."

AMSA RECOGNIZES the equality of osteopathic and allopathic medical degrees within the organization and the healthcare community as a whole. As such, DO students shall be entitled to the same opportunities and membership rights as allopathic students.

PPP, AMSA[46]

2007, AMA

In recent years, the largest MD organization in the US, the American Medical Association, adopted a fee non-discrimination policy discouraging differential pricing based on attendance of an MD or DO medical school.[47]

In 2006, calls for an investigation into the existence of differential fees charged for visiting osteopathic and MD medical students at American medical schools were brought to the American Medical Association. After an internal investigation into the fee structure for visiting DO and MD medical students at MD medical schools, it was found that one institution of the 102 surveyed charged different fees for DO and MD students.[48] The house of delegates of the American Medical Association adopted resolution 809, I-05 in 2007.

Our AMA, in collaboration with the American Osteopathic Association, discourages discrimination against medical students by institutions and programs based on osteopathic or allopathic training.

AMA policy H-295.876[47]

Years in which states passed laws granting DO's medical practice rights equal to MDs
     1901-1930      1931-1966      1967-1989

State licensing of practice rights

In the United States, laws regulating physician licenses are governed by the states. Between 1901 to 1989, osteopathic physicians lobbied state legislatures to pass laws giving those with a DO degree the same legal privilege to practice medicine as those with an MD degree. In many states, the debate was long and protracted. Both the AOA and the AMA were heavily involved in influencing the legislative process. The first state to pass such a law was California in 1901, the last was Nebraska in 1989.[41]


Current status

Osteopathic medical schools
Region School Website
Midwest
& Plains
AT Still Kirksville [4]
Des Moines COM [5]
Kansas City COM [6]
Michigan State [7]
Midwestern Chicago [8]
Ohio COM [9]
Oklahoma State [10]
Northeast Lake Erie COM [11]
New England COM [12]
New York COM [13]
Philadelphia COM [14]
Touro Harlem [15]
UMDNJ-SOM [16]
Southeast Lake Erie COM Bradenton [17]
Lincoln Memorial [18]
North Texas COM [19]
Nova Southeastern [20]
Philadelphia COM Georgia [21]
Pikeville SOM [22]
Virginia COM [23]
West Virginia SOM [24]
William Carey COM [25]
West AT Still Arizona [26]
Midwestern Arizona [27]
Pacific Northwest [28]
Rocky Vista [29]
Touro California [30]
Touro Nevada [31]
Western [32]

Education and training

Founded in 1899, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine is one of the oldest and largest osteopathic medical schools.

According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, "the training, practice, credentialing, licensure, and reimbursement of osteopathic physicians is virtually indistinguishable from those of allopathic MD physicians, with 4 years of osteopathic medical school followed by specialty and subspecialty training and [board] certification."[5]

DO-granting US medical schools have curricula identical for the most part to those of MD-granting schools. Generally, the first two years are classroom-based, while the third and fourth years consist of clinical rotations through the major specialties of medicine.

Graduate medical education

Sources of the 24,012 medical school graduates entering US physician training programs in 2004.[49]

Upon graduation, most osteopathic medical physician pursue residency training programs. Depending on state licensing laws, osteopathic medical physicians may also complete a one-year rotating internship at a hospital approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA).

Osteopathic physicians may apply to residency programs accredited by either the AOA or the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Currently, osteopathic physicians participate in more ACGME programs than in programs approved by the American Osteopathic Association (AOA).[44]

Manipulative therapy

Within the osteopathic medical curriculum, manipulative treatment is taught as an adjunctive measure to other biomedical interventions for a number of disorders and diseases. However, a 2001 survey of osteopathic physicians found that more than 50% of the respondents used OMT on less than 5% of their patients. The survey follows many indicators that osteopathic physicians have become more like MD physicians in every respect — few perform OMT, and most prescribe drugs or suggest surgery as a first line of treatment.[50]

The American Osteopathic Association has made an effort in recent years to support scientific inquiry into the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulation as well as to encourage DO's to consistently offer manipulative treatments to their patients. However, the number of DO's who report consistently prescribing and performing manipulative treatment has been falling steadily. Medical historian and sociologist Norman Gevitz[9] cites poor educational quarters and few full-time OMM instructors as major factors for the decreasing interest of medical students in OMM. He describes problems with "the quality, breadth, nature, and orientation of OMM instruction," and he claims that the teaching of osteopathic medicine has not changed sufficiently over the years to meet the intellectual and practical needs of students.[32]

In their assigned readings, students learn what certain prominent DO's have to say about various somatic dysfunctions. There is often a theory or model presented that provides conjectures and putative explanations about why somatic dysfunction exists and what its significance is. Instructors spend the bulk of their time demonstrating osteopathic manipulative (OM) techniques without providing evidence that the techniques are significant and efficacious. Even worse, faculty members rarely provide instrument-based objective evidence that somatic dysfunction is present in the first place.[32]

At the same time, recent studies show an increasingly positive attitude of patients and physicians (MD and DO) towards the use of manual therapy as a valid, safe and effective treatment modality.[51] One survey, published in the Journal of Continuing Medical Education, found that a majority of physicians (81%) and patients (76%) felt that manual manipulation (MM) was safe, and over half (56% of physicians and 59% of patients) felt that manipulation should be available in the primary care setting. Although less than half (40%) of the physicians reported any educational exposure to MM and less than one-quarter (20%) have administered MM in their practice, most (71%) respondents endorsed desiring more instruction in MM.[52] Another small study examined the interest and ability of MD residents in learning osteopathic principles and skills, including OMM. It showed that after a 1-month elective rotation, the MD residents responded favorably to the experience.[53]

Professional attitudes and criticism

Recent years have seen an increasingly cooperative climate between the DO and MD professions. In 1998, a New York Times article described the increasing numbers, public awareness, and mainstreaming of osteopathic physicians, but said that "some aspects of osteopathic practice can still raise eyebrows among conventional doctors." "Leaders of conventional medicine may no longer use the word quack, but many still look askance at the osteopathic system of medical thought, which they feel lacks the intellectual rigor and the scientific underpinnings of their own practice."[9] Some of the criticism is also related to the fact that DO's are not required to take the same licensing exam series as MD's in order to practice medicine (DO's must pass the COMLEX whereas MD's must pass the USMLE). Many believe that the USMLE is a more rigorous examination series[54] with some studies suggesting that the average COMLEX score would score well below the average USMLE score [55] [56]Some DO's do choose to sit for the USMLE in order to obtain competitive MD residency programs achieving an overall pass rate of 69%-73% on Step 1 (compared with a 91% pass rate for MD's)[57],; since it presumed that more competitive DOs sit for the exam, the actual pass rate may be lower.

In 2005, during his tenure as president of the American Association of Medical Colleges, Jordan Cohen described a climate of cooperation between DO and MD practitioners.

We now find ourselves living at a time when osteopathic and allopathic graduates are both sought after by many of the same residency programs; are in most instances both licensed by the same licensing boards; are both privileged by many of the same hospitals; and are found in appreciable numbers on the faculties of each other's medical schools.[22]

Elsewhere, he has remarked that osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) can be an aid to the physician in fostering a relationship with the patient, while also a source of skepticism to MDs. In particular, he noted that suggestions that OMM could be used to treat diseases other than back problems, "reinforces lingering feelings among proponents of conventional medicine that osteopathy is simply a less intellectual field all around."[9]

International practice rights

International practice rights of US trained DO's      Practice rights generally recognized as equal to U.S.-M.D.s      Unlimited practice rights granted, but difficult to obtain      Limited to manipulation-only      Unknown or previously denied

Each country has different requirements and procedures for licensing or registering osteopathic physicians and osteopaths. The only osteopathic practitioners that the US Department of Education recognizes as physicians are graduates of osteopathic medical colleges in the United States.[58] Therefore, osteopaths who have trained outside the United States are not eligible for medical licensure in the United States. On the other hand, US-trained DO's are currently able to practice in 45 countries with full medical rights and in several others with restricted rights.

The Bureau on International Osteopathic Medical Education and Affairs (BIOMEA) is an independent board of the American Osteopathic Association. The BIOMEA monitors the licensing and registration practices of physicians in countries outside of the United States and advances the recognition of American-trained DO's. Towards this end, the BIOMEA works with international health organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) as well as other groups.[59]

The procedure by which international countries consider granting physician licensure to foreigners varies widely. For US trained physicians, the ability to qualify for "unlimited practice rights" also varies according to one's degree, MD or DO[60] Many countries recognize US-trained MDs as applicants for licensure, granting successful applicants "unlimited" practice rights. The American Osteopathic Association has lobbied the governments of other countries to recognize US-trained DO's similarly to their MD counterparts, with some success.

Osteopathic medicine & Osteopathy
Osteopathy in Australia & New Zealand
Osteopathy in Canada · Osteopathic medicine in Canada
Osteopathy in Europe · Osteopathic medicine in the UK
Osteopathy in Israel
Osteopathic medicine in the United States

In 44 countries, US-trained DO's have unlimited practice rights. In 2005, after one year of deliberations, the General Medical Council of Great Britain announced that US-trained DO's will be accepted for full medical practice rights in the United Kingdom. According to Josh Kerr of the AOA, "some countries don’t understand the differences in training between an osteopathic physician and an osteopath."[61] The American Medical Student Association strongly advocates for US-trained DO international practice rights "equal to that" of MD qualified physicians.[46]

Osteopathic medicine and primary care

Trends in primary care as a career choice of osteopathic medical students[62]
     4th year students      1st year students



Osteopathic physicians have historically entered primary care fields at a higher rate than their MD counterparts. Some osteopathic organizations make claims to a greater emphasis on the importance of primary care within osteopathic medicine. However, the proportion of osteopathic students choosing primary care fields, like that of their MD peers, is declining.[63] Currently, only one in five osteopathic medical students enters a family medicine residency (the largest primary care field).[64] In 2004, only 32% of osteopathic seniors planned careers in any primary care field; this percentage was down from a peak in 1996 of more than 50%.[62]

Criticism and internal debate

OMM

Traditional osteopathic medicine, specifically OMM, has been criticized for many techniques such as cranial and cranio-sacral manipulation. A recent study questions the therapeutic utility of osteopathic manipulative treatment modalities.[65] A website cites numerous studies demonstrating that there are some ailments for which the benefit of manipulative therapy has "firmly established" scientific support.[33] Also, New York University health information website claims that "it is difficult to properly ascertain the effectiveness of a hands-on therapy like OM."[66]

Research emphasis

Another area of criticism has been the relative lack of research and lesser emphasis on scientific inquiry at DO schools in comparison with MD schools.[67][68] [69]

The inability to institutionalize research, particularly clinical research, at osteopathic institutions has, over the years, weakened the acculturation, socialization, and distinctive beliefs and practices of osteopathic students and graduates.[67]

Identity crisis

There is currently a debate within the osteopathic community over the feasibility of maintaining osteopathic medicine as a distinct entity within US health care.[4][10][32][70][71][72][73][74][75] JD Howell, author of The Paradox of Osteopathy,[35] notes claims of a "fundamental yet ineffable difference" between MD and DO qualified physicians are based on practices such as "preventive medicine and seeing patients in a sociological context" that are "widely encountered not only in osteopathic medicine but also in allopathic medicine."[76] Studies have confirmed the lack of any "philosophic concept or resultant practice behavior" that would distinguish a DO from an MD[77][78] Howell summarizes the questions framing the debate over the future of osteopathic distinctiveness thus:

First-year enrollment at osteopathic medical schools, 1968-2007
If osteopathy has become the functional equivalent of allopathy [meaning the MD profession], what is the justification for its continued existence? And if there is value in therapy that is uniquely osteopathic, why should its use be limited to osteopaths?[35]

Rapid expansion

As the number of osteopathic schools has increased, the debate over distinctiveness has often seen the leadership of the American Osteopathic Association at odds with the community of osteopathic physicians.

within the osteopathic community, the growth is drawing attention to the identity crisis faced by [the profession]. While osteopathic leaders emphasize osteopaths' unique identity, many osteopaths would rather not draw attention to their uniqueness.[45]

The rapid expansion has raised concerns about the number of available faculty at osteopathic schools and the role those faculty play in maintaining the itegrity of the academic program of the schools. Norman Gevitz, author of the leading text on the history of ostoepathic medicine, recently published,

DO schools are currently expanding their class sizes much more quickly than are their MD counterparts. Unlike MD colleges, where it is widely known that academic faculty members—fearing dilution of quality as well as the prospect of an increased teaching workload—constitute a powerful inhibiting force to expand class size, osteopathic faculty at private osteopathic schools have traditionally had little or no input on such matters. Instead, these decisions are almost exclusively the responsibility of college administrators and their boards of trustees, who look at such expansion from an entrepreneurial as well as an educational perspective. Osteopathic medical schools can keep the cost of student body expansion relatively low compared with that of MD institutions. Although the standards of the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation ensure that there will be enough desks and lab spaces to accommodate all new students, they do not mandate that an osteopathic college must bear the expense of maintaining a high full-time-faculty:student ratio.[13]

The president of the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine commented on the current climate of crisis within the profession.

The simultaneous movement away from osteopathic medicine’s traditionally separate training and practice systems, when coupled with its rapid growth, has created a sense of crisis as to its future. The rapid rate of growth has raised questions as to the availability of clinical and basic science faculty and clinical resources to accommodate the increasing load of students.[12]

For-profit medical education

The accreditation of RVUCOM generated some controversy before the school held its first class. Like all osteopathic medical schools, RVUCOM is accredited by a board of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA). Unlike the other 28 osteopathic and 126 MD medical colleges in the US, RVUCOM is organized as a for-profit corporation.[17] Critics claimed the AOA's approval of a for-profit school "erodes creditability" of osteopathic medical schools, especially in comparison to their MD counterparts.[79] The Liaison Committee on Medical Education, which accredits the MD-granting US medical schools, has banned for-profit schools.[80] School officials insist the for-profit status of the school will not compromise the integrity of its educational mission.[81] 2007-2008 AOA president and orthopedic surgeon Peter Ajluni, D.O. responded, "there are many socially minded for-profit companies that contribute time, resources, and profits to their communities" and "for-profit institutions like RVUCOM can further the cause of osteopathic medicine in the United States."[82]

References

  1. ^ Gevitz, N (Mar 1997). "'Visible and recognized': osteopathic invisibility syndrome and the two percent solution". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 97 (3): 168–70. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 9107129.   edit
  2. ^ Clark, RC (1 January 2000). "Increased awareness of osteopathic medicine is essential to the profession's survival" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 100 (1): 6–8. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 10693310. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10693310.   edit
  3. ^ Oths, Kathryn S.; Servando Z. Hinojosa. (2004). "Divergences in the evolution of Osteopathy". Healing by Hand: Manual Medicine and Bonesetting in Global Perspective. Rowman Altamira. pp. 67–68. ISBN 0759103933. http://books.google.com/books?id=hMsKph2uQnsC&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68&dq=%E2%80%9Costeopathic+invisibility&source=web&ots=ldygK2WclK&sig=FnXMm8wHaWyCrfa1OJdNTfgrAfQ#PPA68,M1.  
  4. ^ a b c Meyer, CT; Price (1 April 1993). "Osteopathic medicine: a call for reform" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 93 (4): 473–85. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 8267703. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8267703.   edit
  5. ^ a b Dennis L. Kasper, Eugene Braunwald, Anthony S. Fauci, Stephen L. Hauser, Dan L. Longo, J. Larry Jameson, and Kurt J. Isselbacher, Eds. Chapter 10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Ed. 2005. McGraw Hill.
  6. ^ Lesho, EP (Nov 1999). "An overview of osteopathic medicine" (Free full text). Archives of family medicine 8 (6): 477–84. doi:10.1001/archfami.8.6.477. ISSN 1063-3987. PMID 10575385. http://archfami.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10575385.   edit
  7. ^ Osteopathic medicine. Intelihealth.com. accessed Dec 2007.
  8. ^ Johnson, SM; Kurtz; Kurtz (Feb 1997). "Variables influencing the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment in family practice" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 97 (2): 80–7. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 9059002. http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=9059002.   edit
  9. ^ a b c d e f Zuger A. Scorned No More, Osteopathy Is on the Rise. New York Times. 17 Feb 1998.
  10. ^ a b Gevitz, N (1 April 1994). "'Parallel and distinctive': the philosophic pathway for reform in osteopathic medical education" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 94 (4): 328–32. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 8027001. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8027001.   edit
  11. ^ Lloyd, Janice. Doctor shortage looms as primary care loses its pull. USA Today. 18 Aug 2009. Accessed 08 Sept 2009.
  12. ^ a b c Shannon, S.; Teitelbaum, H. (Jun 2009). "The status and future of osteopathic medical education in the United States". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 84 (6): 707–711. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a43be8. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 19474542.   edit
  13. ^ a b c Gevitz, N. (Jun 2009). "The transformation of osteopathic medical education". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 84 (6): 701–706. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a4049e. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 19474540.   edit
  14. ^ a b Cohen, J. (Jun 2009). "The separate osteopathic medical education pathway: isn't it time we got our acts together? Counterpoint". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 84 (6): 696. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a3ddaa. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 19474536.   edit
  15. ^ Chen, C.; Mullan, F. (Jun 2009). "The separate osteopathic medical education pathway: uniquely addressing national needs. Point". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 84 (6): 695. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a3dd28. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 19474535.   edit
  16. ^ "Bates, B et al.The DO Difference: An Analysis of Causal Relationships Affecting the Degree-Change Debate" Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Vol 109. No 7. July 2009. 359-369
  17. ^ a b Croasdale, Myrle. First for-profit med school nears approval. American Medical News. 1 Oct 2007.
  18. ^ Johnson, Brooke. Out but Not Loud: Even as acceptance grows, gay DOs, students remain wary. The DO Magazine. May 2008.
  19. ^ Johnson, Brooke. Life in transition: Transgender DO provides safe haven for patients. The DO magazine. May 2008.
  20. ^ Miskowicz-Retz, Konrad C. Federal, state and local laws protect DOs, students from discrimination. The DO magazine. Oct 2009.
  21. ^ SF City Ordinance 061278 Resolution urging Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine to reconsider their directive to revoke the charter of the Touro University Gay-Straight Alliance.
  22. ^ a b c Cohen, Jordan. A Word from the President: "Filling the Workforce Gap." AAMC Reporter: April 2005.
  23. ^ Morzinski, J.; Henley, C.; Society Of Teachers Of Family, M. (Mar 2006). "Aligning the interests of osteopathic and allopathic teachers of family medicine" (Free full text). Annals of family medicine 4 (2): 182–184. doi:10.1370/afm.533. ISSN 1544-1709. PMID 16569724. PMC 1467017. http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16569724.   edit
  24. ^ "Member Colleges". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. http://www.aacom.org/people/colleges/Pages/default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  
  25. ^ "AAMC Medical Schools". Association of American Medical Colleges. http://www.aamc.org/medicalschools.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-13.  
  26. ^ Salsberg, E; Grover (Sep 2006). "Physician workforce shortages: implications and issues for academic health centers and policymakers". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 81 (9): 782–7. doi:10.1097/00001888-200609000-00003. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 16936479.   edit
  27. ^ Geographic Map of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. AACOM.
  28. ^ About the AOA. American Osteopathic Association. Accessed March 2008.
  29. ^ Myrle Croasdale. Can-DO strategy: Osteopathic medicine survives, and thrives. American Medical News. 16 Jun 2003.
  30. ^ a b 2006 Annual Statistical Report on Osteopathic Medical Education American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Feb 2007.
  31. ^ Osteopathic Medical Profession Report American Osteopathic Association. August 2008.
  32. ^ a b c d e Gevitz, N (Mar 2006). "Center or periphery? The future of osteopathic principles and practices" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 106 (3): 121–9. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16585378. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16585378.   edit
  33. ^ a b Osteopathic medicine. Intelihealth.com.
  34. ^ About Osteopathic Medicine. American Osteopathic Association. Accessed 30 Aug 2007. [1]
  35. ^ a b c d Howell, JD (Nov 1999). "The paradox of osteopathy". The New England journal of medicine 341 (19): 1465–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199911043411910. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 10547412.   edit
  36. ^ Still AT. The Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of Osteopathy. Kansas City, Mo: Hudson-Kimberly Pub Co; 1902:9–20,185,210,270. Version 2.0. Inter Linea Web site. Accessed January 23, 2006.
  37. ^ Hansen, GP (1 March 2006). "Beyond OMT: time for a new chapter in osteopathic medicine?" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 106 (3): 114–6. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16585374. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16585374.   edit]
  38. ^ Chapter 34: Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Goldman: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 22nd ed. Saunders. 2004.
  39. ^ a b Gevitz, N (1 May 1998). "The sword and the scalpel--the osteopathic 'war' to enter the Military Medical Corps: 1916-1966" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 98 (5): 279–86. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 9615560. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9615560.   edit
  40. ^ Ober, KP (15 January 1997). "The pre-Flexnerian reports: Mark Twain's criticism of medicine in the United States" (Free full text). Annals of internal medicine 126 (2): 157–63. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-126-2-199701150-00012. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 9005751. http://www.annals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9005751.   edit
  41. ^ a b Gevitz N. The DO's: osteopathic medicine in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.
  42. ^ Brotherton, S.; Rockey, P.; Etzel, S. (Sep 2005). "US graduate medical education, 2004-2005: trends in primary care specialties". JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 294 (9): 1075–1082. doi:10.1001/jama.294.9.1075. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 16145028.   edit
  43. ^ Stephen C. Shannon. The Impact of Osteopathic Medicine’s Growth on Physician Workforce. AAMC
  44. ^ a b Tulgan, H; Demarco; Pugnaire; Buser (1 May 2004). "Joint clinical clerkships for osteopathic and allopathic medical students: New England's experience" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104 (5): 212–4. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 15176520. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15176520.   edit
  45. ^ a b Wilson, Jennifer Fisher. Osteopathic medicine's growing pains. American College of Physicians Observer. November 1997.
  46. ^ a b Principles Regarding Osteopathic Medicine. Preamble, Purposes and Principles. American Medical Student Association.
  47. ^ a b AMA policy H-295.876
  48. ^ Thomas MK (presenter). Recommendation on Equal Fees for Osteopathic and Allopathic Medical Students. Council on Medical Education, American Medical Association. Report 6-A-07.
  49. ^ Shannon, Stephen C. The Impact of Osteopathic Medicine’s Growth on Physician Workforce in the US AACOM. accessed Feb 2007.
  50. ^ Johnson, SM; Kurtz (Aug 2001). "Diminished use of osteopathic manipulative treatment and its impact on the uniqueness of the osteopathic profession". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 76 (8): 821–8. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 11500286.   edit
  51. ^ Licciardone, J; Gamber; Cardarelli (1 January 2002). "Patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes associated with osteopathic manipulative treatment" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 102 (1): 13–20. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 11837337. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11837337.   edit
  52. ^ Stoll, S.; Russo, D.; Atchison, J. (Winter 2003). "Physicians' and patients' attitudes toward manual medicine: implications for continuing medical education". The Journal of continuing education in the health professions 23 (1): 13–20. doi:10.1002/chp.1340230104. ISSN 0894-1912. PMID 12739255.   edit
  53. ^ Leiber, JD (Nov 2005). "Allopathic family medicine residents can learn osteopathic manipulation techniques in a 1-month elective" (Free full text). Family medicine 37 (10): 693–5. ISSN 0742-3225. PMID 16273444. http://www.stfm.org/fmhub/fm2005/November-December/James693.pdf.   edit
  54. ^ Le T, Bushan V, Vasan N. First aid for USMLE Step 1. December 2009, 623 pgs
  55. ^ Chick DA, Friedman HP, Young VB, Solomon DJ. COMLEX-USMLE score correlation: Are they comparable? Academic Internal Medicine Insight. 2008;6(4):16-17,19.
  56. ^ JAOA • Vol 106 • No 9 • September 2006 • 568-569
  57. ^ http://www.usmle.org/Scores_Transcripts/performance/2004.html
  58. ^ Notices. Federal Register. Vol. 70, No. 190. 3 Oct 2005.
  59. ^ International. American Osteopathic Association. DO-online.org
  60. ^ AOA International License Summary. American Osteopathic Association. Council on International Osteopathic Medical Education and Affairs.[2]
  61. ^ DO's around the World. American Osteopathic Association.[3]
  62. ^ a b Singer, Allen M. Debt, Plans and Opinions of Osteopathic Medical Students in 2004. American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine.
  63. ^ Cummings, M; Dobbs (Jul 2005). "The irony of osteopathic medicine and primary care". Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 80 (7): 702–5. doi:10.1097/00001888-200507000-00017. ISSN 1040-2446. PMID 15980090.   edit
  64. ^ Graham, Center (Aug 2005). "Osteopathic physicians and the family medicine workforce" (Free full text). American family physician 72 (4): 583. ISSN 0002-838X. PMID 16127950. http://www.aafp.org/link_out?pmid=16127950.   edit
  65. ^ Heath D, Gevitz N. The research status of somatic dysfunction. In: Ward RC, ed. Foundations for Osteopathic Medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003:1188–1193.
  66. ^ What Is the Scientific Evidence for Osteopathic Manipulation? NYU Medical Center.
  67. ^ a b Gevitz, N (Mar 2001). "Researched and demonstrated: inquiry and infrastructure at osteopathic institutions" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 101 (3): 174–9. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 11329813. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11329813.   edit
  68. ^ Kelso A, Townsend A. The status and future of osteopathic research. In: Northup G, ed. Osteopathic Research: Growth and Development. Chicago, Ill: American Osteopathic Association; 1987.
  69. ^ Licciardone, John C. (2007). "Osteopathic research: elephants, enigmas, and evidence" (PDF). Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care 2007, 1:7. http://www.osteopath-help.co.uk/osteopaths/cranial-osteopathy/downloads/osteopathic_research_-_elephants,_enigmas_and_evidence.pdf.  
  70. ^ Teitelbaum HS, Bunn WE, Brown SA, Burchett AW. Osteopathic Medical Education: Renaissance or Rhetoric? J Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol 103;No 10 October 2003.
  71. ^ Tatum, William O, IV. AOA Needs to Reach Out More. J Am Osteopath Assoc. Vol 106 No 8 p442-443. August 2006.
  72. ^ Mychaskiw G, 2nd (May 2006). "Will the last DO turn off the lights?" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 106 (5): 252–3, 302; discussion 302–3. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16717365. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16717365.   edit
  73. ^ Steier, KJ (1 May 2006). "Time to accept allopathic physicians into AOA-approved residencies?" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 106 (5): 250–2. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16717364. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16717364.   edit
  74. ^ Tosca, M (Jun 2006). "Future of osteopathic medicine depends on investing in graduate medical education" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 106 (6): 319. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16790537. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16790537.   edit
  75. ^ Shannon, Stephen C. What Does the Future Hold? Inside Osteopathic Medical Education. Vol 2 No 1 February 2008. p1.
  76. ^ Howell, J D Correspondence. New Engl J Med. Volume 342:817-820 Number 11. 16 March 2000.
  77. ^ Johnson, SM; Kurtz (Dec 2002). "Perceptions of philosophic and practice differences between US osteopathic physicians and their allopathic counterparts". Social science & medicine (1982) 55 (12): 2141–8. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00357-4. ISSN 0277-9536. PMID 12409127.   edit
  78. ^ Licciardone, J. (Jan 2007). "A comparison of patient visits to osteopathic and allopathic general and family medicine physicians: results from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2003-2004" (Free full text). Osteopathic medicine and primary care 1: 2. doi:10.1186/1750-4732-1-2. PMID 17371578. PMC 1805772. http://www.om-pc.com/content/1//2.   edit
  79. ^ Mychaskiw G, 2nd (Jul 2007). "COM Accreditation: the Flexner Report revisited" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 107 (7): 246–7; 277. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 17682109. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17682109.   edit
  80. ^ Mychaskiw G. Future of DO. powerpoint presentation. accessed 7 Nov 2007.
  81. ^ Martin RB. RVUCOM: Striving to Meet the Needs of the Osteopathic Medical Profession J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007 Oct;107(10):426-8. PMID 17956994
  82. ^ Ajluni, PB (Oct 2007). "Nonprofit and for-profit COMs: investing in the future of osteopathic medicine" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 107 (10): 425–6. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 17956993. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17956993.   edit

Further reading

  • The DO's: Osteopathic Medicine in America, Norman Gevitz, 2004 (2nd Edition), paperback, 264 pages, The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7834-9 (An excellent review of the history and development of ostepathic medicine and medical education in the United States)
  • Science in the Art of Osteopathy: Osteopathic Principles and Models, Caroline Stone, Nelson Thornes, 1999, paperback, 384 pages, ISBN 0-7487-3328-0
  • An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment , Eileen DiGiovanna, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004, hardback, 600 pages, ISBN 0-7817-4293-5

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message