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Ostrich
Fossil range: pleistocene–present
Pleistocene to Recent
Male (left) and Female (right)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Aves
Superorder: Paleognathae
Order: Struthioniformes
Family: Struthionidae
Genus: Struthio
Species: S. camelus
(Linnaeus, 1758)[2]
Binomial name
Struthio camelus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies

S. camelus australus (Gurney, 1868)[2]
Southern Ostrich

S. camelus camelus (Linnaeus, 1758)[2]
North African Ostrich

S. camelus massaicus (Neumann, 1898)[2]
Masai Ostrich

S. camelus syriacus (Rothschild, 1919)[2]
Arabian Ostrich

S. camelus molybdophanes (Reichenow, 1883)[2]
Somali Ostrich

Distribution

The Ostrich, Struthio camelus, is a large flightless bird native to Africa. It is the only living species of its family, Struthionidae and its genus, Struthio. Ostriches share the order Struthioniformes with the kiwis, Emus, and other ratites. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at maximum speeds of about 70 km/h (45 mph), the top land speed of any bird.[3] The Ostrich is the largest living species of bird and lays the largest egg of any living bird (extinct elephant birds of Madagascar and giant moa of New Zealand laid larger eggs).

The diet of the Ostrich mainly consists of plant matter, though it also eats insects. It lives in nomadic groups which contain between five and fifty birds. When threatened, the Ostrich will either hide itself by lying flat against the ground, or will run away. If cornered, it can attack with a kick from its powerful legs. Mating patterns differ by geographical region, but territorial males fight for a harem of two to seven females.

The Ostrich is farmed around the world, particularly for its feathers, which are decorative and are also used as feather dusters. Its skin is used for leather products and its meat marketed commercially.

Contents

Description

Head
Foot

Ostriches usually weigh from 63 to 130 kilograms (140–290 lb),[4][5] with exceptional male Ostriches weighing up to 155 kilograms (340 lb). The feathers of adult males are mostly black, with white primaries and a white tail. However, the tail of one subspecies is buff. Females and young males are greyish-brown and white. The head and neck of both male and female Ostriches is nearly bare, with a thin layer of down.[4][6]. The skin of the females neck and thighs is pinkish gray, while the male's is blue or gray dependent on subspecies.[6]

Claws on the wings

The long neck and legs keeps their head 1.8 to 2.75 metres (6 to 9 ft) above the ground, and their eyes are said to be the largest of any land vertebrate – 50 millimetres (2.0 in) in diameter;[7] they can therefore perceive predators at a great distance. The eyes are shaded from sun light falling from above.[8][9]

Their skin is variably coloured depending on the sub-species. The male tarsus has red horn plates, while the female's are black.[5] The strong legs of the Ostrich, like those of other birds, are scaled and unfeathered. The bird has just two toes on each foot (most birds have four), with the nail on the larger, inner toe resembling a hoof. The outer toe lacks a nail.[10] The reduced number of toes is an adaptation that appears to aid in running. The wings reach a span of about 2 metres (6 ft 7 in)[11] and are used in mating displays and to shade chicks. The feathers lack the tiny hooks that lock together the smooth external feathers of flying birds, and so are soft and fluffy and serve as insulation. They have 50-60 tail feathers, and their wings have 16 primary, four alular and 20-23 secondary feathers.[5] The Ostrich's sternum is flat, lacking the keel to which wing muscles attach in flying birds.[12] The beak is flat and broad, with a rounded tip.[4] Like all ratites, the Ostrich has no crop,[13] and it also lacks a gallbladder.[14] They have three stomachs, and the caecum is 28 inches (71 cm) long. Unlike all other living birds, the Ostrich secretes urine separately from feces and also have a urinary bladder.[citation needed] They also have unique pubic bones that are fused to hold their gut. Unlike most birds the males have a copulatory organ, which is retractable and 8 inches (20 cm) long. Their palate is different than other ratites, in that the sphenoid and palatal bones are unconnected.[5]

At sexual maturity (two to four years), male Ostriches can be from 1.8 to 2.8 metres (5 ft 11 in to 9 ft 2 in) in height,[5] while female Ostriches range from 1.7 to 2 metres (5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 7 in). During the first year of life, chicks grow about 25 centimetres (10 in) per month. At one year of age, Ostriches weigh around 45 kilograms (100 lb).

A female ostrich can determine her own eggs amongst others in a communal nest.[citation needed]

Taxonomy

The Ostrich was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae under its current binomial name.[15] Its scientific name is derived from Latin, struthio meaning "Ostrich" and camelus meaning "camel", alluding to its dry habitat.[16]

The Ostrich belongs to the Struthioniformes order of ratites. Other members include rheas, emu, cassowaries, and the largest bird ever, the now-extinct Elephant Bird (Aepyornis). However, the classification of the ratites as a single order has always been questioned, with the alternative classification restricting the Struthioniformes to the Ostrich lineage and elevating the other groups. Presently, molecular evidence is equivocal[citation needed] while paleobiogeographical and paleontological considerations are slightly in favor of the multi-order arrangement.

Subspecies

Five subspecies are recognized:

  • S. c. australis in Southern Africa, called the Southern Ostrich. It is found south of the Zambezi and Cunene rivers. It was once farmed for its feathers in the Little Karoo area of Cape Province.[17]
  • S. c. camelus in North Africa, sometimes called the North African Ostrich or Red-necked Ostrich. It is the most widespread subspecies, ranging from Ethiopia and Sudan in the east throughout the Sahel and the Sudan[18] to Senegal and Mauritania in the west, and at least in earlier times north to Egypt and southern Morocco, respectively. It is the largest subspecies, at 2.74 m (9 ft) 154 kilograms (340 lb).[19] The neck is red, the plumage of males is black and white, and the plumage of females is grey.[19]
  • S. c. massaicus in East Africa, sometimes called the Masai Ostrich. It has some small feathers on its head, and its neck and thighs are bright orange. During the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become brighter. Their range is essentially limited to southern Kenya and eastern Tanzania[18] and Ethiopia and parts of Southern Somalia.[19]
  • S. c. syriacus in the Middle East, sometimes called the Arabian Ostrich or Middle Eastern Ostrich, was a subspecies formerly very common in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria,[18] and Iraq; it became extinct around 1966.
  • S. c. molybdophanes in southern Ethiopia, northeastern Kenya, and Somalia,[18] is called the Somali Ostrich. The neck and thighs are grey-blue, and during the mating season, the male's neck and thighs become bright blue. The females are more brown than those of other subspecies.[19] It generally lives in pairs or alone, rather than in flocks. Its range overlaps with S. c. massaicus in northeastern Kenya.[19]
Mounted skull and neck.

Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species, but there is not consensus among experts about this. The Tree of Life project, Avibase and IOC recognize it as a different species, but the Birdlife do not. As of 2008 Birdlife.com is reviewing the proposed split.[20] mtDNA haplotype comparisons suggest that it diverged from the other Ostriches not quite 4 mya due to formation of the Great Rift Valley. Hybridization with the subspecies that evolved southwestwards of its range, S. c. massaicus, has apparently been prevented from occurring on a significant scale by ecological separation, the Somali Ostrich preferring bushland where it browses middle-height vegetation for food while the Masai Ostrich is, like the other subspecies, a grazing bird of the open savanna and miombo habitat.[21]

The population from Río de Oro was once separated as Struthio camelus spatzi because its eggshell pores were shaped like a teardrop and not round, but as there is considerable variation of this character and there were no other differences between these birds and adjacent populations of S. c. camelus, it is no longer considered valid.[22] This population disappeared in the latter half of the 20th century. There were 19th century reports of the existence of small Ostriches in North Africa; these are referred to as Levaillant's Ostrich (Struthio bidactylus) but remain a hypothetical form not supported by material evidence.[23]

Evolution

Wild birds at the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

The earliest fossil of Ostrich-like birds is the Palaeotis living near the Asiatic steppes,[5] from the Middle Eocene, a middle-sized flightless bird that was originally believed to be a bustard. Apart from this enigmatic bird, the fossil record of the Ostriches continues with several species of the modern genus Struthio which are known from the Early Miocene onwards. While the relationship of the African species is comparatively straightforward, a large number of Asian species of Ostrich have been described from fragmentary remains, and their interrelationships and how they relate to the African Ostriches is confusing. In China, Ostriches are known to have become extinct only around or even after the end of the last ice age; images of Ostriches have been found there on prehistoric pottery and petroglyphs. There are also records of Ostriches being sighted on islands of the Indian Ocean and when discovered on the island of Madagascar the sailors of the 18th century referred to them as Sea Ostriches, although this has never been confirmed.

Several of these fossil forms are ichnotaxa (that is, classified according to the organism's footprints or other trace rather than its body) and their association with those described from distinctive bones is contentious and in need of revision pending more good material.[24]

  • Struthio coppensi (Early Miocene of Elizabethfeld, Namibia)
  • Struthio linxiaensis (Liushu Late Miocene of Yangwapuzijifang, China)
  • Struthio orlovi (Late Miocene of Moldavia)
  • Struthio karingarabensis (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of SW and CE Africa) - oospecies(?)
  • Struthio kakesiensis (Laetolil Early Pliocene of Laetoli, Tanzania) - oospecies
  • Struthio wimani (Early Pliocene of China and Mongolia)
  • Struthio daberasensis (Early - Middle Pliocene of Namibia) - oospecies
  • Struthio brachydactylus (Pliocene of Ukraine)
  • Struthio chersonensis (Pliocene of SE Europe to WC Asia) - oospecies
  • Asian Ostrich, Struthio asiaticus (Early Pliocene - Late Pleistocene of Central Asia to China ?and Morocco)
  • Struthio dmanisensis (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi, Georgia)
  • Struthio oldawayi (Early Pleistocene of Tanzania) - probably subspecies of S. camelus
  • Struthio anderssoni - oospecies(?)

Distribution and habitat

Ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of the rain forest belt, and much of Asia Minor.[5] Today Ostriches prefer open land and are native to the savannas and Sahel of Africa, both north and south of the equatorial forest zone.[11] In Southwest Africa they inhabit the semidesert or true desert. They rarely go above 100 metres (330 ft).[5] The Arabian Ostriches in the Near and Middle East were hunted to extinction by the middle of the 20th century.

Behaviour

Social and seasonal behaviour

Pair "dancing".

Ostriches normally spend the winter months in pairs or alone. Only 16 percent of Ostrich sightings were of more than two birds.[5] During breeding season and sometimes during extreme rainless periods Ostriches live in nomadic groups of five to 50 birds (led by a top hen) that often travel together with other grazing animals, such as zebras or antelopes.[11] Ostriches are diurnal, but may be active on moonlit nights. They are most active early and late in the day.[5] The male ostrich territory is between 2 and 20 km2 (0.77 and 7.7 sq mi).[6]

With their acute eyesight and hearing, Ostriches can sense predators such as lions from far away. When being pursued by a predator, they have been known to reach speeds in excess of 70 km/h (45 mph),[5] and can maintain a steady speed of 50 km/h (30 mph), which makes the Ostrich the world's fastest two-legged animal.[25] When lying down and hiding from predators, the birds lay their heads and necks flat on the ground, making them appear as a mound of earth from a distance. This even works for the males, as they hold their wings and tail low so that the heat haze of the hot, dry air that often occurs in their habitat aids in making them appear as a nondescript dark lump.

When threatened, Ostriches run away, but they can cause serious injury and death with kicks from their powerful legs.[11] Their legs can only kick forward.[26] Contrary to popular belief, Ostriches do not bury their heads in sand.[27] This myth likely began with Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79), who wrote that Ostriches "imagine, when they have thrust their head and neck into a bush, that the whole of their body is concealed."[28]

Feeding

They mainly feed on seeds, shrubs, grass, fruit and flowers;[5][6] occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking teeth, they swallow pebbles that act as gastroliths to grind food in the gizzard. An adult Ostrich carries about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of stones in its stomach. When eating, they will fill their gullet with food, which is in turn passed down their esophagus in the form of a ball called a bolus. The bolus may be as much as 210 ml (7.1 US fl oz). After passing through the neck (there is no crop) the food enters the gizzard and is worked on by the aforementioned pebbles. The gizzard can hold as much as 1,300 g (46 oz).[6] Ostriches can go without drinking for several days, using metabolic water and moisture in ingested plants,[29] but they enjoy liquid water and frequently take baths where it is available.[11]

Ostriches can tolerate a wide range of temperatures. In much of their habitat, temperatures vary as much as 40 °C (104 °F) between night and day. Their temperature control mechanism relies on action by the bird, which uses its wings to cover the naked skin of the upper legs and flanks to conserve heat, or leaves these areas bare to release heat.

Reproduction

A nest

Ostriches become sexually mature when they are 2 to 4 years old; females mature about six months earlier than males. The species is iteroparous, with the mating season beginning in March or April and ending sometime before September. The mating process differs in different geographical regions. Territorial males typically hiss and use other sounds to claim victory over a harem of two to seven hens.[4] The successful male will then be allowed to breed with all the females in an area, but will only form a pair bond with the dominant female.

The cock performs with his wings, alternating wing beats, until he attracts a mate. They will go to the mating area and he will maintain privacy by driving away all intruders. They graze until their behaviour is synchronized, then the feeding becomes secondary and the process takes on a ritualistic appearance. The cock will then excitedly flap alternate wings again, and start poking on the ground with his bill. He will then violently flap his wings to symbolically clear out a nest in the dirt. Then, while the hen runs circle around him with lowered wings, he will wind his head in a spiral motion. She will drop to the ground and he will mount for copulation.[5]

An Ostrich egg.
Ostrich hen with chicks.

Ostriches are oviparous. The females will lay their fertilized eggs in a single communal nest, a simple pit, 30 to 60 centimetres (12–24 in) deep and 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide,[30] scraped in the ground by the male. The dominant female lays her eggs first, and when it is time to cover them for incubation she discards extra eggs from the weaker females, leaving about 20 in most cases.[5] Ostrich eggs are the largest of all eggs (and by extension, the yolk is the largest single cell),[citation needed] though they are actually the smallest eggs relative to the size of the adult bird.[31] – on average they are 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, 13 centimetres (5.1 in) wide, and weigh 1.4 kilograms (3.1 lb), over 20 times the weight of a chicken egg. They are glossy cream-coloured, with thick shells marked by small pits.[12] The eggs are incubated by the females by day and by the males by night.[32] This uses the colouration of the two sexes to escape detection of the nest, as the drab female blends in with the sand, while the black male is nearly undetectable in the night.[12] The incubation period is 35 to 45 days. Typically, the male defends the hatchlings and teaches them to feed, although males and females cooperate in rearing chicks. The survival rate is low for the hatchlings, with an average of one per nest surviving to adulthood. Predators include hyenas, jackals, various birds of prey, and vultures.[5]

Ostriches reared entirely by humans may not direct their courtship behaviour at other Ostriches, but toward their human keepers.[33]

Ostriches and people

Hunter-gatherers

Hunter-gatherers in the Kalahari use ostrich eggshells as water containers in which they puncture a hole to enable them to be used as canteens. The presence of such eggshells with engraved hatched symbols dating from the Howiesons Poort period of the Middle Stone Age at Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa suggests ostriches were an important part of human life at early as 60,000 BP.[34]

History

Ostriches have inspired cultures and civilizations for 5,000 years in Mesopotamia and Egypt. A statue of Arsinoe II of Egypt riding an Ostrich was found in a tomb in Egypt.[35] The Kalahari still use their eggs as water jugs.[5][36]

Hunting and farming

An 1820s hat decorated with Ostrich plumes

In Roman times, there was a demand for Ostriches to use in venatio games or cooking. They have been hunted and farmed for their feathers, which at various times have been popular for ornamentation in fashionable clothing (such as hats during the 19th century). Their skins are valued for their leather. In the 18th century they were almost hunted to extinction; farming for feathers began in the 19th century. The market for feathers collapsed after World War I, but commercial farming for feathers and later for skins became widespread during the 1970s.

It is claimed that Ostriches produce the strongest commercial leather.[37] Ostrich meat tastes similar to lean beef and is low in fat and cholesterol, as well as high in calcium, protein and iron.[38] Uncooked, it is dark red or cherry red, a little darker than beef.[38]

Racing

A Jacksonville, Florida, man with an Ostrich-drawn cart, circa 1911

In some countries, people race each other on the back of Ostriches. The practice is common in Africa[39] and is relatively unusual elsewhere.[40] The Ostriches are ridden in the same way as horses with special saddles, reins, and bits. However, they are harder to manage than horses.[41]

The racing is also a part of modern South African culture.[42] Within the United States, a tourist attraction in Jacksonville, Florida called 'The Ostrich Farm' opened up in 1892; it and its races became one of the most famous early attractions in the history of Florida.[43] In the U.S. today, the Phoenix, Arizona area hosts an annual 'Ostrich Festival' every Spring in which residents race.[44]

Racing has also occurred at many other locations such as Virginia City in Nevada, Canterbury Park in Minnesota,[45] Prairie Meadows in Iowa,[46] and Ellis Park in Kentucky.[47]

Conservation

Pack of male and female ostriches in Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve, Israel. In this reserve ostriches are kept, reproduce and then released into the wild.

The wild Ostrich population has declined drastically in the last 200 years, with most surviving birds in game parks or on farms;[5] however, they have a conservation status of Least Concern,[1] with an occurrence range of 12,000,000 km2 (4,600,000 sq mi).[48]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b IUCN 2009
  2. ^ a b c d e f Brands, S. (2008)
  3. ^ Doherty (1974)
  4. ^ a b c d Gilman (1903).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003)
  6. ^ a b c d e S. J. J. F. Davies & B. C. R. Bertram (2003)
  7. ^ Brown, L.H., et. al (1982)
  8. ^ Martin, G.R. and Katzir, G (2000)
  9. ^ Martin, G.R., Ashash, U. and Katzir (2001)
  10. ^ Fleming (1822).
  11. ^ a b c d e Donegan (2002).
  12. ^ a b c Nell (2003).
  13. ^ Bels (2006).
  14. ^ Marshall (1960).
  15. ^ Linnaeus (1758)
  16. ^ Gotch, A.F. (1995)
  17. ^ Scott (2006)
  18. ^ a b c d Clements, J (2007)
  19. ^ a b c d e Roots (2006)
  20. ^ Birdlife International
  21. ^ Freitag & Robinson (1993)
  22. ^ Bezuidenhout (1999)
  23. ^ Fuller, (2000)
  24. ^ Bibi et al. (2006)
  25. ^ Mountain View Conservation and Breeding Centre
  26. ^ Halcombe (1872)
  27. ^ The Canadian Museum of Nature, Ostrich, Struthio camelus
  28. ^ Karl Kruszelnicki, Ostrich Head in Sand, ABC Science: In Depth
  29. ^ Maclean(1996)
  30. ^ Harrison, C. (1993)
  31. ^ Trails.com
  32. ^ Gilman
  33. ^ BBC News (2003)
  34. ^ Texier PJ, Porraz G, Parkington J, Rigaud JP, Poggenpoel C, Miller C, Tribolo C, Cartwright C, Coudenneau A, Klein R, Steele T, Verna C. (2010). "A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa". Proceedings of the National Acadademy of Science U S A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0913047107 PMID 20194764
  35. ^ Thompson, Dorothy Burr (1955)
  36. ^ Laufer, B. (1926
  37. ^ Best (2003)
  38. ^ a b Clark
  39. ^ Bradley, John H. (2009)
  40. ^ Palosaari, Ben (2008)
  41. ^ Mechanix Illustrated (1929)
  42. ^ Pyke, M. (1985)
  43. ^ Clark, J.C. (2000)
  44. ^ Hedding, J.
  45. ^ Fluker, M. (2007)
  46. ^ Johnson, B. (2009)
  47. ^ Ethridge, Tim (2009)
  48. ^ BirdLife International (2008)(a)

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

OSTRICH (0. Eng. estridge; Fr. autruche; Span. avestruz; Lat. avis struthio; Gr. crrpov0LWV or o .47as a-rpov06s); the Struthio camelus of Linnaeus, and the largest of living birds, an adult male standing nearly 8 ft. high and weighing 300 lb.

The genus Struthio forms the type of the group of Ratite birds, characterized chiefly by large size, breast-bone without a keel, strong running legs, rudimentary wings and simple feathers (see Bird). The most obvious distinctive character presented by the ostrich is the presence of two toes only, the third and fourth, on each foot - a character absolutely peculiar to the genus Struthio. In South America another large Ratite bird, the rhea, is called ostrich; it can be distinguished at once from the true ostrich by its possession of three toes.

XX.12a From British Museum, Catalogue of Fossil Fishes, by permission of the Trustees.

FIG. 3. - Pteraspis rostrata, from the Lower Old Red Sandstone of Herefordshire, restored by Dr A. S. Woodward; about one-third nat. size.

members of the group. The Ostracoderms are, indeed, known only by the hard armature of the skin, but this sometimes bears impressions of certain internal soft parts which have perished B From the Monogr. Palaeont. Soc. FIG. 4. - Pterichthys milleri, from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, restored by Dr R. H. Traquair; upper (A), lower (B), and left-side view (C), about one-half nat. size.

ag., Angular. m.occ., Median occipital.

a.d.l., Anterior dorso-lateral. m.v., Median ventral.

a.m.d., Anterior median dorsal. mx., Maxilla.

Anterior ventro-lateral. o., Ocular.

p.d.l., Posterior dorso-lateral. p.m., Pre-median. p.m.d.,Posterior median dorsal.

p.v.l., Posterior ventro-lateral. pt.m., Post-median.

s.l., Semilunar.

t., Terminal.

v.a., Ventral anconeal. v.ar., Ventral articular.

during fossilization. They agree with fishes in the possession of median fins, and resemble the large majority of early fishes in their unequal-lobed (heterocercal) tail, but they have no ordinary a.v.l., c., Central.

d.a., Dorsal anconeal.

d.ar., Dorsal articular.

e.l., Extra lateral.

e.m., External marginal.

i.m., Internal marginal.

1., Lateral.

l.occ., Lateral occipital.

m., Median.

m.m., Marginals of lower limb.

C The wild ostrich' is disappearing before the persecution of man, and there are many districts, some of wide extent, frequented by the ostrich in the 19th century - especially towards the extremities of its African range - in which it no longer occurs, while in Asia there is evidence, more or less trustworthy, of its former existence in most parts of the south-western deserttracts, in few of which it is now to be found. Xenophon's notice of its abundance in Assyria (Anabasis, i. 5) is well known. It is probable that it still lingers in the wastes of Kirwan in eastern Persia, whence examples may occasionally stray northward to those of Turkestan, 2 even near the Lower Oxus; but the assertion, often repeated, as to its former occurrence in Baluchistan or Sind seems to rest on testimony too slender for acceptance. Apparently the most northerly limit of the ostrich's ordinary range at the present day is that portion of the Syrian Desert lying directly eastward of Damascus; and, within the limits of what may be called Palestine, H. B. Tristram (Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 139) regards it as but a straggler from central Arabia, though we have little information as to its distribution in that country.

Africa is still, as in ancient days, the continent in which the ostrich chiefly flourishes. There it appears to inhabit every waste sufficiently extensive to afford it the solitude it loves. Yet even there it has to contend with the many species of carnivora which prey upon its eggs and young - the latter especially; and H. Lichtenstein long ago remarked' that if it 1 A good summary of the present distribution is contained in the Ostriches and Ostrich Farming of De Mosenthal and Harting, from which the accompanying figure is, with permission, taken. Von Heuglin, in his Ornithologie Nordost-Afrikas (pp. 925-935), and A. Reichenow in Die Vogel Afrikas, have given more particular details of the ostrich's distribution in Africa.

2 Drs Finsch and Hartlaub quote a passage from Remusat's Remarques sur l'extension de l'empire chinoise, stating that in about the 7th century of our era a live "camel-bird" was sent as a present with an embassy from Turkestan to China.

3 H. Lichtenstein, Reise im sildlichen Africa, ii. 42-45 (Berlin, 1812).

were not for its numerous enemies "the multiplication of ostriches would be quite unexampled." Though sometimes assembling in troops of from thirty to fifty, and then generally associating with zebras or with some of the larger antelopes, ostriches commonly, and especially in the breeding season, live in companies of not more than four or five, one of which is a cock and the rest are hens. The latter lay their eggs in one and the same nest, a shallow pit scraped out by their feet, with the earth heaped around to form a kind of wall against which the outermost circle of eggs rest. As soon as ten or a dozen eggs are laid, the cock begins to brood, always taking his place on them at nightfall surrounded by the hens, while by day they relieve one another, more it would seem to guard their common treasure from jackals and small beasts of prey than directly to forward the process of hatching, for that is often left wholly to the sun.' Some thirty eggs are laid in the nest, and round it are scattered perhaps as many more. These last are said to be broken by the old birds to serve as nourishment for the newly-hatched chicks, whose stomachs cannot bear the hard food on which their parents thrive. The greatest care is taken to place the nest where it may not be discovered, and the birds avoid being seen when going to or from it, while they display, great solicitude for their young. C. J. Andersson in his Lake N'gami (pp. 2 5326 9) has given a lively account of the pursuit by himself and Francis Galton of a brood of ostriches, in the course of which the male bird feigned being wounded to distract their attention from his offspring. Though the ostrich ordinarily inhabits the most arid districts, it requires water to drink; more than that, it will frequently bathe, and sometimes even, according to Von Heuglin, in the sea.

The question whether to recognize more than one species of ostrich has been continually discussed without leading to a satisfactory solution. While eggs from North Africa present a perfectly smooth surface, those from South Africa are pitted. Moreover northern birds have the skin of the parts not covered with feathers flesh-coloured, while this skin is bluish in southern birds, and hence the latter have been thought to need specific designation as S. australis. Examples from the Somali country have been described as forming a distinct species under the name of S. molybdophanes from the leaden colour of their naked parts.

The great mercantile value of ostrich-feathers, and the increasing difficulty, due to the causes already mentioned, of procuring them from wild birds, has led to the formation in Cape Colony, Egypt, the French Riviera and elsewhere of numerous "ostrichfarms," on which these birds are kept in confinement, and at regular intervals deprived of their plumes. In favourable localities and with judicious management these establishments yield very considerable profit (see Feather).

See, besides the works mentioned, E. D'Alton, Die Skelete der Straussartigen Vogel abgebildet and beschrieben (Bonn, 1827): P. L. Sclater, "On the Struthious Birds living in the Zoological Society's Menagerie," Transactions, iv. p. 353, containing a fine representation (pl. 67), by J. Wolf, of the male Struthio camelus; J. Forest, L'Autruche (Paris, 1894); A. Douglass, Ostrich Farming in South Africa (London, 1881); modern anatomical work on the group is referred to in the article BIRDS. (A. N.)


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From BibleWiki

(Lam 4:3), the rendering of Hebrew pl. enim; so called from its greediness and gluttony. The allusion here is to the habit of the ostrich with reference to its eggs, which is thus described: "The outer layer of eggs is generally so ill covered that they are destroyed in quantities by jackals, wild-cats, etc., and that the natives carry them away, only taking care not to leave the marks of their footsteps, since, when the ostrich comes and finds that her nest is discovered, she crushes the whole brood, and builds a nest elsewhere." In Job 39:13 this word in the Authorized Version is the rendering of a Hebrew word (notsah) which means "feathers," as in the Revised Version. In the same verse the word "peacocks" of the Authorized Version is the rendering of the Hebrew pl. renanim, properly meaning "ostriches," as in the Revised Version. (See also Owl.)

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

Ostrich
File:Strauss m
Male Masai Ostrich
(Struthio camelus massaicus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Struthioniformes
Family: Struthionidae
Vigors, 1825
Genus: Struthio
Linnaeus, 1758
Species: S. camelus
Binomial name
Struthio camelus
Linnaeus, 1758
File:Struthio camelus
The present-day distribution of Ostriches.

The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large bird that lives in Africa. Ostriches are the largest living bird species. They have the biggest eggs of all the birds in the world. Ostriches can not fly so they run fast instead. They are the fastest bird at running. They are part of the order Struthioniformes.

Contents

Appearance

Ostriches have long legs and a neck, and a small head. Male ostriches have black feathers and female ostriches have gray-brown feathers. Both males and females have white feathers on their wings and tails. Male ostriches can be 1.8 - 2.7 metres / 6 - 9 feet tall, while female ostriches are 1.7 - 2 m / 5.5 - 6.5 ft tall. They can run with a speed of about 65 kmh /40 mph.

Life

In the wild the female takes care of the eggs during the day and the male takes care of the eggs during the night. Ostriches live 30 to 40 years on average.

The egg is 15-20 cm long and weighs 1.7 kg (3 lb 12 oz). An adult human can stand on the egg without breaking it.

Habitat

Ostriches only live in Africa. They live in open grassland called savannas in the Sahel. Some Ostriches live in areas of the Sahara desert. There used to be Ostriches in Middle East in the 20th Century. Humans hunted and ate the Ostriches. They are now extinct in this area.

Ostriches and humans

Ostriches used to be farmed for their nice feathers. Today they are also farmed for their skin, which is used to make leather. Ostriches are also farmed for their meat and eggs.

It is sometimes said that ostriches will hide their heads in the ground when they are scared, but this is not true.

Diet

Ostriches mainly eat plant matter, but they also eats insects. The plant matter consists of seeds, shrubs, grass, fruits and flowers while the insects they eat including locusts. Ostriches do not have teeth, therefore they swallow pebbles. An adult Ostrich carries about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of stones in its stomach. When eating, their gullet is filled with food. After that, the food is passed down their esophagus in the form of a ball called a bolus. The bolus may be as much as 210 ml (7.1 US fl oz). Ostriches can live without drinking for several days.

Reproduction

Ostriches become sexually mature when they are 2 to 4 years old; females mature about six months earlier than males. The mating season of ostriches begins in March or April and ends before September. The mating process are different in different regions. Males typically hiss and use other sounds to claim victory over a harem of 2 to 7 hens. The successful male will then be allowed to breed with all the females in an area.

Gallery

Look up Struthio camelus in Wikispecies, a directory of species
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pcd:Oetriche









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