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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Western American outlaw as depicted in The Great Train Robbery movie of 1903

An outlaw or bandit is a person living the lifestyle of outlawry; the word literally means "outside the law".[1]

In the common law of England, a "Writ of Outlawry" made the pronouncement Caput gerat lupinum ("Let his be a wolf's head," literally "May he bear a wolfish head") with respect to its subject, using "head" to refer to the entire person (cf. "per capita") and equating that person with a wolf in the eyes of the law: Not only was the subject deprived of all legal rights because the law no longer deemed him human, but others were permitted to kill him on sight as if he were a wolf or other wild animal. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system, since the outlaw could not use the law to protect himself, whether from mob or vigilante justice for his alleged crime or from unrelated victimization such as robbery or murder.[2]

Though the judgment of outlawry is now obsolete (even though it inspired the pro forma Outlawries Bill which is still to this day introduced in the British House of Commons during the State Opening of Parliament), romanticised outlaws became stock characters in several fictional settings. This was particularly so in the United States, where outlaws were popular subjects of newspaper coverage and stories in the 19th century, and 20th century fiction and Western movies. Thus, "outlaw" is still commonly used to mean those violating the law[3] or, by extension, those living that lifestyle, whether actual criminals evading the law or those merely opposed to "law-and-order" notions of conformity and authority (such as the "outlaw country" music movement in the 1970s).

The term "bandit" is now largely considered to be part of the English slang lexicon.

Contents

A feature of older legal systems

In English common law, an outlaw was a person who had defied the laws of the realm, by such acts as ignoring a summons to court, or fleeing instead of appearing to plead when charged with a crime. In the earlier law of Anglo-Saxon England, outlawry was also declared when a person committed a homicide and could not pay the weregild, the blood-money, that was due to the victim's kin.

Outlawry also existed in other legal codes of the time, such as the ancient Norse and Icelandic legal code. These societies did not have any police force or prisons and criminal sentences were therefore restricted to either fines or outlawry.

To be declared an outlaw was to suffer a form of civil or social[4] death. The outlaw was debarred from all civilized society. No one was allowed to give him food, shelter, or any other sort of support — to do so was to commit the crime of aiding and abetting, and to be in danger of the ban oneself.

An outlaw might be killed with impunity; and it was not only lawful but meritorious to kill a thief flying from justice — to do so was not murder. A man who slew a thief was expected to declare the fact without delay, otherwise the dead man’s kindred might clear his name by their oath and require the slayer to pay weregild as for a true man[5]. Because the outlaw has defied civil society, that society was quit of any obligations to the outlaw —outlaws had no civil rights, could not sue in any court on any cause of action, though they were themselves personally liable.

In the context of criminal law, outlawry faded not so much by legal changes as by the greater population density of the country, which made it harder for wanted fugitives to evade capture; and by the international adoption of extradition pacts. In the civil context, outlawry became obsolescent in civil procedure by reforms that no longer required summoned defendants to appear and plead.

Still, the possibility of being declared an outlaw for derelictions of civil duty continued to exist in English law until 1879 and in Scots law until the late 1940s. The Third Reich made extensive use of the concept.[6] Prior to the Nuremberg Trials, the British jurist Lord Chancellor Lord Simon attempted to resurrect the concept of outlawry in order to provide for summary executions of captured Nazi war criminals. Although Simon's point of view was supported by Winston Churchill, American and Soviet attorneys insisted on a trial, and he was thus overruled.

Hobsbawm's Bandits

Hobsbawm's book discusses the bandit as a symbol, and mediated idea, and many of the outlaws he refers to, such as Ned Kelly, Mr. Dick Turpin, and Billy the Kid, are also listed below. The colloquial sense of an outlaw as bandit or brigand is the subject of a monograph by British author Eric Hobsbawm:[7]. According to Hobsbawm

The point about social bandits is that they are peasant outlaws whom the lord and state regard as criminals, but who remain within peasant society, and are considered by their people as heroes, as champions, avengers, fighters for justice, perhaps even leaders of liberation, and in any case as men to be admired, helped and supported. This relation between the ordinary peasant and the rebel, outlaw and robber is what makes social banditry interesting and significant ... Social banditry of this kind is one of the most universal social phenomena known to history.

Famous outlaws

La cueva del Gato (The cave of the Cat), 1860 painting by Manuel Barrón y Carrillo depicting the hideout of the Andalusian bandolero of Spain

The stereotype owes a great deal to English folklore precedents, in the tales of Robin Hood and of gallant highwaymen. But outlawry was once a term of art in the law, and one of the harshest judgments that could be pronounced on anyone's head.

The outlaw is familiar to contemporary readers as an archetype in Western movies, depicting the lawless expansionism period of the United States in the late 19th century. The Western outlaw is typically a criminal who operates from a base in the wilderness, and opposes, attacks or disrupts the fragile institutions of new settlements. By the time of the Western frontier, many jurisdictions had abolished the process of outlawry, and the term was used in its more popular meaning.

American Western

Argentinian

Mickey White

Australian

In Australia two gangs of bushrangers have been made outlaws - that is they were declared to have no legal rights and anybody was empowered to shoot them without the need for an arrest followed by a trial.

British

Canadian

  • Simon Gunanoot
  • Slumach
  • Allan McLean
  • Bill Miner
  • Bevan Leathercladgang - Train robbers during the early years of CN's (Canadien National) Transcontinental Railroad.
  • Ken Leishman - In 1966 he managed to hijack $383,497 worth of gold from the Winnipeg International Airport, amounting to the largest gold heist in Canadian history.

Central Asian

  • Bahti Tajik - most famous bandit chief in Tajikistan, active before World War I.[11]

Croatian

East Asian

Irish

Italian

Mexican

Middle Eastern and Indian

  • Serder ibn Tatar - famous highwayman of Khurasan who repented and traveled in search of knowledge. He is revered by Muslims as a major figure of early Sufism.
  • Krasavchik Oybak - rose from a bandit to the rule of much of modern Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Simko Shikak - Kurdish bandit and rebel leader[12]
  • Nirushan Tharmachandran - famous Bandit of southern Asia who was never caught by police. Stopped killing in 1930 and was never heard from again. Recent studies found that he killed under the code name, Pundai Bukaki.
  • Dulla Bhatti - was a Punjabi who led a rebellion against the Mughal emperor Akbar. His act of helping a poor peasant's daughter to get married led to a famous folk take which is still recited every year on the festival of Lohri by Punjabis.
  • Veerappan, South India's most famous bandit, Elephant poacher, sandalwood smuggler
  • Phoolan Devi - one of India's most famous dacoits ("armed robber").[13]
  • Shiv Kumar Patel - led one of the few remaining bands of outlaws that have roamed central India for centuries.[14]
  • Hashshashin - militant Ismaili Muslim sect, active from the 8th to the 14th centuries.
  • Thuggee - Indian network of secret fraternities engaged in murdering and robbing travellers.[15]

German

Hungarian

Norwegian

Icelandic

Panama

Russian

Spanish

Serbian

Turkish

Others

See also

References

  1. ^ Black's Law Dictionary at 1255 (4th ed. 1951), citing 22 Viner, Abr. 316.
  2. ^ Black's Law Dictionary at 1255 (4th ed. 1951), and citations therein.
  3. ^ Black's Law Dictionary at 1255 (4th ed. 1951), citing Oliveros v. Henderson, 116 S.C. 77, 106 S.E. 855, 859.
  4. ^ Zygmunt Bauman, "Modernity and Holocaust".
  5. ^ F. Pollock and F. W. Maitland, The History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I (1895, 2nd. ed., Cambridge, 1898, reprinted 1968).
  6. ^ Shirer,"The Third Reich."
  7. ^ Bandits, E J Hobsbawm, pelican 1972
  8. ^ "Ben Hall and the outlawed bushrangers". Culture and Recreation Portal. Australian Government. 15 April 2008. http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/benhall. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  9. ^ Cowie, N. (5 July 2002). "Felons' Apprehension Act (Act 612)". http://www.bailup.com/outlaws.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  10. ^ BBC Inside Out - Highwaymen
  11. ^ Banditry in Inner Dushanbe
  12. ^ Simko, Bandit Leader, Said to Have Defeated Persian Troops., The New York Times
  13. ^ Indian bandits kill 13 villagers, BBC News, October 29, 2004
  14. ^ Indian bandit slain in gun battle with police, International Herald Tribune, July 23, 2007
  15. ^ BBC - Religion & Ethics - Origins of the word 'thug'
  16. ^ Bratcher, Dennis. "The Edict of Worms (1521)". The Voice: Biblical and Theological Resources for Growing Christians. http://www.crivoice.org/creededictworms.html. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  17. ^ Mali boosts army to fight Tuareg, BBC News

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Outlaw
Box artwork for Outlaw.
Developer(s) Atari
Publisher(s) Atari
Designer(s) David Crane
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Shooter
System(s) Atari 2600
Players 1-2

Outlaw was one of the eleven Atari 2600 titles that were part of the second wave of games released in 1978. An arcade game of the same name was originally developed by Atari and released in 1976. It simulated an Old West fast draw duel between the player and the computer (much like a very early precursor to Nintendo's own Wild Gunman.) Outlaw was a response to Midway's Gun Fight, licensed from original developer Taito and released the year before. The Atari 2600 port was developed by then Atari employee David Crane, and is more directly comparable to Midway's Gun Fight, allowing two players to engage in a shoot-out using the 2600's joysticks.

The Atari 2600 version contains 16 variations grouped into two general categories; the two player Gunslinger mode and the one player Target Shoot mode. There are multiple variations of gameplay that differ slightly from the arcade version in this Atari 2600 port. Among these game types include obstacles that must be shot around or shot through, obstacles which move, and limited ammunition.

Outlaw was not an exceptionally notable game, but it is fondly remembered by those who played it. It was released as Gunslinger under the Sears Telegames label.

Contents

Controls

Console

  • Color/BW: Switch between color display and black & white display. (This feature made the game look better on black & white TVs that were still prominent at the time of the game's release.)
  • Left/Right Difficulty Switch: This switch controls the chances of you and your opponent hitting each other at the same time. When set to the "b" position, your bullet will continue to fly along it's trajectory, even if you've been hit, and possibly hit your opponent. When switched to the "a" position, your bullet will disappear as soon as you are shot, preventing you from hitting your opponent as long as they hit you first.
  • Game Select: Select a game variation. The variations cycle from 1 to 16 and start back over at 1. See the Game Variation section below.
  • Game Reset: Starts a new game in whatever game variation is currently selected. Both players' scores are reset to 0, and the timer is reset to 0 if you are resetting a single player game.

Gunslingers

NOTE: The player using the left Joystick Controller controls the gunslinger on the left side of the screen; the right controller player controls the right gunslinger.

  • Joystick: Use the joystick to move your gunslinger throughout your half of the screen while the fire button is not held down. When the fire button is held down, pressing up or down changes the angle at which your gunslinger aims (pressing left or right is the same as leaving the joystick in neutral; your gunslinger will fire straight.)
  • Fire Button: Hold the fire button down to prepare to fire your gun. During this time, you can hold the joystick up or down to change the angle of your gunfire. You will fire a bullet as soon as you release the button.

Scoring

  • In two-player games you score one point each time a bullet from your gunslinger's gun hits the opposing gunslinger. When a gunslinger is hit, it will sit down and the point appears at the top of the screen. The score of the gunslinger from the left side of the playfield appears in the upper left corner; the right playfield gunslinger's score appears in the upper right corner. The first player to score ten points wins the game.
  • In one-player games, you score one point each time a bullet from your gunslinger's gun hits the moving target. You have 99 seconds to score a maximum of ten points. The timing clock appears in the upper right corner of the playfield; the gunslinger's score is in the upper left corner.

Game Variations

Type GUNSLINGER
2-Player
TARGET SHOOT
1-Player
Game Number 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Blowaway
Getaway
Six Shooter
Cactus
Stage Coach
Wall
Moving Barrier

Descriptions

There are six general aspects of each variation that dictate the rules of the game and the strategy that you will employ throughout each gun fight. These five aspects are described below.

Gunslingers
Blowaway
Ordinarily, obstacles are solid structures that can not be altered when a bullet hits them. However, when you are playing a Blowaway game, you will be able to chip small pieces of whatever obstacle happens to stand between you and your opponent—likewise, your opponent can as well. If you focus your shots on one particular level of a stationary object, it is possible to poke a hole all the way through the object that you can use to shoot at your opponent through. But be careful, your opponent can return the favor and shoot back at you through the hole you created. It is much harder to drill a particular hole through a moving obstacle. Note that all wall obstacles occur on Blowaway games.
Getaway
Only available in game variation 2, a Getaway game allows you to move almost immediately after firing your gun. Ordinarily, you are restricted from moving until the bullet you have fired hits something or disappears. In a Getaway game, you can dodge your opponents bullets with greater ease since you won't be rooted to the spot, but your opponent will have the same advantage.
Blowaway Moving Wall
Six Shooter
In a Six Shooter game, both players hold guns that contain six bullets and neither player can reload until both players are out of bullets. Therefore, if you are the first player to unload your weapon completely, you will have no choice but to wait until your opponent empties his weapon as well before you can fire again. It won't do you any good in that case to hide behind an obstacle, you'll have to draw out your opponent's fire and make them use up those bullets! This can be especially challenging when there is a wall between both opponents, as each player must initially work together in order to have a steady flow of ammunition with which to punch holes in the wall.
Obstacle
Every variation has one obstacle in the center of the stage positioned directly between either player. The obstacle can be one of three objects:
  • Cactus: The simplest object, it doesn't take too many shots to blow holes through these plants.
  • Stage Coach: Much larger and thicker than a Cactus, it isn't a very wise use of your time (or ammo) to try and poke a hole through one of these lumbering objects.
  • Wall: The largest obstacle in the game, the wall takes up the entire height of the screen. You have no choice but to blast a hole in the wall before you can shoot at your opponent. This is especially challenging when the wall is moving.
Target Shoot
Moving Obstacles
In the game variations where an object is moving, you will have to time your shots carefully to fire a bullet above or below an obstacle that is constantly on the move. Note that cacti are always stationary; only stage coaches and the wall can move.
Target Shoot
The last four game variations are meant to be played by one player only. In this mode, the target will bounce up and down along the right side of the screen 99 times. As it does, the counter on the right increases by one, and the game ends when the counter reaches 99. You have until that time to hit the target up to ten times. Target Shoots will contain a stationary cactus or a moving stage coach, both of which may or may not be destroyed by shots.

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Outlaw

Developer(s) Atari
Publisher(s) Atari
Designer(s) David Crane
Release date Atari 2600:
1978 (NA)
Genre Gun Fight
Mode(s) Single player
Versus
Age rating(s) N/A
Atari 2600
Platform(s) Atari 2600
Input Atari 2600 Joystick
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough

Outlaw is a game released for the Atari 2600.

Gameplay

You and another player are gunslingers who are out to show each other who's the best gun in the west. In single-player games, you practice shooting at a moving target that appears onscreen. In two-player games, you and your opponent try to shoot each other with excellent skill and timing.

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This article uses material from the "Outlaw" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

An outlaw or bandit is a person who is "outside the law" usually because they have committed serious crimes.

A longtime criminal can be declared an outlaw, which means the outlaw cannot use the legal system to protect himself if needed.

Famous outlaws

  • The Emperor Nero was made an outlaw by the Roman Senate in 68AD
  • Robin Hood, the English folk hero, who was probably a combination of several real and legendary outlaws.[1]
  • Martin Luther was outlawed in 1521.[2]
  • Ben Hall, the Australian bushranger. The government passed a law in 1865 which outlawed the gang and made it legal for anyone to kill them. There was no need for the outlaws to be arrested, or for there to be a trial.[3]
  • Ned Kelly, the Australian bushranger. The government passed a law on 30 October 1878 to make the Kelly gang outlaws. They no longer had any legal rights. They could be killed by anyone.[4]
  • Jesse James (1847-1882), from the American state of Missouri, who committed a series of bank, stagecoach and train robberies in the years following the American Civil War.[5]

References

  1. Wright, Allen W. (2004). "Robin Hood". Search for a real Robin Hood. www.boldoutlaw.com. http://www.boldoutlaw.com/realrob/realrob2.html. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  2. Bratcher, Dennis. "The Edict of Worms (1521)". The Voice: Biblical and Theological Resources for Growing Christians. http://www.crivoice.org/creededictworms.html. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  3. "Ben Hall and the outlawed bushrangers". Culture and Recreation Portal. Australian Government. 15 April 2008. http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/benhall. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  4. McMenomy, Keith (1984). Ned Kelly: the authentic illustrated story. Melbourne, Australia: Currey O'Neil Ross Pty. Ltd.. pp. pg 90. ISBN 0 85902 122 X. 
  5. Trout, Carlynn (11/06/07). "Jesse James (1847 – 1882)". Famous Missourians : Folk Legends. The State Historical Society of Missouri. http://shs.umsystem.edu/famousmissourians/folklegends/james/james.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 







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