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Philosophy is an ongoing discussion about knowledge; it is a broad field of inquiry in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, spans the nature of the universe and human nature (of the mind and the body), the relationships between these, and between people. It explores what and how people come to know, including existence itself, and how that knowledge is reliably and usefully represented, and communicated between and among humans, whether in thought, by language, or with mathematics. Philosophy is the predecessor and complement of science, and its foundation. It develops notions about the issues which underlie science, and ponders the nature of thought itself. In science, the scientific method, which involves repeated observations of the results of controlled experiments, is an available and highly successful philosophical methodology. Within fields of study that are concerned directly with humans (economics, psychology, sociology and so forth), in which experimental methodologies are not generally available, subdisciplines of philosophy may be developed to provide a rational basis of study in the respective fields.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the extensive field of philosophy.

Contents

Essence of philosophy

Subdivision

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Branch

Area or subdiscipline

Movement

Philosophical movement of the ancient world

Philosophical movement of the modern world

Doctrine, principle, and theory

Metaphysics

atheism
atomism
determinism
essentialism
existentialism
externalism
fideism
foundationalism
idealism
materialism
mysticism
naturalism
nihilism
monism
monotheism
objectivism (metaphysics)
panentheism
pantheism
physicalism
polytheism
realism
reductionism
relativism
solipsism
subjectivism
taoism
theism
theology
transcendentalism

Epistemology, logic, & philosophy of mind

absolute knowledge
agnosticism
functionalism (philosophy of mind)
formalism
dualism
dogmatism
empiricism
conceptualism
constructivism
deconstructionism
intuitionism
internalism
instrumentalism
logical positivism
logicism
mentalism
nominalism
non-cognitivism
perspectivism
phenomenalism
pluralism
positivism (related: logical empiricism; logical positivism)
pragmatism
probability
psychologism
rationalism
representationalism
scholasticism
scientism
skepticism
vitalism
voluntarism

Ethics, social & political philosophy

altruism
anarchism
anthropomorphism
asceticism
behaviorism
Buddhism
capitalism
communitarianism
Confucianism
consequentialism
deontology
dialectical materialism
egalitarianism
egoism
emotivism
ethical relativism
eudaimonia
evolutionary theory
expression theory of art
feminist theory
historicism
holism
humanism
individualism
intellectualism
legal positivism
liberalism
libertarianism
modernism
moral absolutism
moral relativism
moral universalism
post modernism
sophism
stoicism
totalitarianism
utilitarianism
Zoroastrianism

Philosophy by region/era

History

Fundamental question

General concept

Below are basic terms of philosophy which are not covered above:

Western

General

deconstructiondialecticfreethoughtknow thyselflife stancemeaning of lifeperennial philosophyphilosopherphilosophy and literaturepragmaticsrationalityreason (practical, speculative, and theoretical) – semanticssemioticsThe Republic (Plato)rhetoricThus Spoke Zarathustrauniversals (problem of)The Urantia BookVienna CircleWeltanschauungwisdomwomen in philosophyworld viewYoung HegeliansZeitgeist

Aesthetics

Epistemology

A prioriA posterioribeliefcertaintyEpistemological particularism - Five Wshypothesisinternalism and externalismjustificationjustified true belief knowledgeprejudicescientific method – truth – uncertaintyverification

Ethic

actionaction theorybioethicsbusiness ethicseudaimoniaevildescriptive ethicsfreedom of religiongenethicsgoodhappiness – the Happy Humanenvironmental ethicshuman flourishingeuthanasiafreedomhuman rightsintolerancejusticejustification of human rightsmedical ethicsmorality normnormative ethicsoriginal position personal valuequality of lifesocial contractsufferingSymposium (by Plato) – toleranceUniversal Declaration of Human Rightsvalue theoryvaluesveil of ignoranceviceviolencevirtuevirtue ethicsvirtue theoryvoluntary euthanasiawar and philosophyweakness of willWelfarewelfare economicswell-beingwrong

Logic

abductionambiguityanalogyargumentargument, logicalaxiomdeductionfallacyinductioninferencenon-contradiction, law ofreasonvalidityVenn diagramvoting paradoxwell-formed formula

Fallacy

Metaphysics

awarenessbeingcategories of the understandingcausalityCogito, ergo sumconsciousnesscosmologycosmogonyCreation myth - Daseinessenceevolutionexistencefree will human natureirreligionI think, therefore I amnaturenoumenonobjectontologycreation mythsperceptionperception, philosophy ofrational choice theory - realityreligionselfsense dataspiritualitysubjectsubstancetabula rasathing in itselfunderstanding, categories of theuniversalveil of perceptionvolitionwillwill to powerZeno's paradoxes

Eastern

Wheel of lifeyangyinyin and yangYogazen

Philosopher

Analytic

Classical philosopher

Deconstructionist

Eastern philosopher

Empiricist

Existentialist

German idealist

Logical positivist

Pessimist

Phenomenologist

  • Dominique Janicaud

Political philosopher

Pragmatist

Rationalist

Structuralist

Utilitarian

Philosophy list

Main lists: Lists of philosophy topics and List of philosophy topics (index)

See also

Book

Following are some introductory works about major philosophical issues:

External links


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