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Oxycodone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5R,9R,13S,14S)-4,5α-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one
Identifiers
CAS number 76-42-6
ATC code N02AA05
N02AA55 (in combinations)
PubChem 5284603
DrugBank APRD00387
ChemSpider 4447649
Chemical data
Formula C18H21NO4 
Mol. mass 315.364 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms dihydrohydroxycodeinone, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone, 6-deoxy-7,8-dihydro-14-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-6-oxomorphine[1]
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Up to 87%
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP450: 2D6 substrate)
Half life 3 - 4.5 hr
Excretion Urine (19% unchanged)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. B/D (prolonged use or in high doses at term)
Legal status Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule I (CA) ? (UK) Schedule II (US)
Dependence Liability Moderate - High
Routes oral, intramuscular, intravenous, intranasal, subcutaneous, transdermal, rectal, epidural[2]
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Oxycodone is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from opium-derived thebaine.^ Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from the opium alkaloid thebaine.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pharmacotherapeutic group: Natural opium alkaloids ATC code: NO2A AO5 Oxycodone is a full opioid agonist with no antagonist properties.
  • OxyContin tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone is a white, odorless crystalline powder derived from the opium alkaloid, thebaine.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opiates and opioids: morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), and codeine.^ Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a structural similarity to codeine.

^ Chronic Back Pain Opiate Addiction: Percocet, Vicodin, Tylenol 3, Opium, Heroin, Morphine and Codeine Opiates are known to slow breathing rates because it works on the respiratory center of the brain.

^ What Paula calls "that oxy buzz" comes from OxyContin's only active ingredient: oxycodone, an opioid, or synthetic opiate, developed in a German laboratory in 1916.

[2]
Currently it is formulated as single ingredient products or compounded products. .Some common examples of compounding are oxycodone with acetaminophen or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen.^ Preliminary evidence supported the rationale 27 , 28 ; however, combinations of acetaminophen with codeine or oxycodone have been associated with a considerably greater incidence (up to fourfold greater) of adverse events than have conventional NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, ketorolac and aspirin.
  • The analgesic efficacy of valdecoxib vs. oxycodone/acetaminophen after oral surgery -- DANIELS et al. 133 (5): 611 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, in the multiple-dose phase, 204 patients received bromfenac, acetaminophen/oxycodone, or ibuprofen for up to 5 days.

^ Because some versions of OxyContin contained large doses of oxycodone (up to 160 milligrams), unmixed with analgesics such as acetaminophen or aspirin, it appealed to drug users looking for a handy way to get high.

.The formulations are available as generics but are also made under various brand names.^ RADARS will collect information on brand-name and generic versions of buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, morphine, and methadone.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My biggest issues related to the Oxycontin is really with my insurance company and their refusal to "cover" the BRAND name of Oxycontin; and as we all know "NOW-- the generic is surprisingly unavailable!!
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OxyContin is the brand name of a 12 hour slow-release wax matrix formulation of oxycodone.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.OxyContin is Purdue Pharma's brand for time-release single-ingredient oxycodone oral medication.^ OxyContin ' was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

^ Prepare oxycontin time release.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

^ Purdue pharma generic oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

.The manufacturing rights to generic oxycodone time-release is under dispute.^ I also take norcos and 15mg oxycodone (non-time release) for breakthrough pain.
  • OXYCONTIN: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I seriously felt like Oxycodone was weaker than the Vicodin, but that could be because it is time released.
  • OXYCONTIN: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ OxyContin contains between 10 and 160 milligrams of oxycodone in a timed-release tablet.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oxycodone oral medications are generally prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain.^ After trying several medications,it was the only thing that offered pain relief.
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is used to treat moderate to severe pain.
  • Drug Finder - OxyContin® 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC drugsaz.about.com [Source type: General]

^ A doctor may prescribe medications that contain oxycodone to treat pain.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Chemistry and nomenclature

.Oxycodone's chemical name is derived from codeine.^ Cure for Hiccups How to Take OxyContin Safely OxyContin is the brand name for a very strong painkiller with the chemical name oxycodone.

^ Chemically, it is a close relative of every other opium derivative and synthetic: heroin, morphine, codeine, fentanyl, methadone.

The chemical structures are very similar, differing only in that
  • Oxycodone has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14 (codeine has just a hydrogen in its place), hence oxycodone;
  • Oxycodone has a 7,8-dihydro feature, whereas codeine has a double bond between those two carbons; and
  • Oxycodone has a carbonyl group (as in ketones) in place of the hydroxyl group of codeine, hence the "-one" suffix.
It is also similar to hydrocodone, differing only in that it has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14.[3]
.Expanded expression for the compound oxycodone in the academic literature include "dihydrohydroxycodeinone",[1][4][5] "Eucodal",[4][5] "Eukodal",[2][6] "14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone",[1][4] and "Nucodan".[4][5] In a UNESCO convention, the translations of "oxycodone" are oxycodone (French), oxicodona (Spanish), والأوآسيكودون (Arabic), 羟考酮 (Chinese), and оксикодон (Russian).^ The Oxycodone component is 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone, a white, odorless, crystalline powder having a saline, bitter taste.

[7] The word "oxycodone" should not be confused with "oxandrolone", "oxazepam", "oxybutynin", "oxytocin", or "Roxanol".[8]

History

.Freund and Speyer of the University of Frankfurt in Germany first synthesized oxycodone from thebaine in 1916,[9] a few years after the German pharmaceutical company Bayer had stopped the mass production of heroin due to hazardous use, harmful use, and dependence.^ Oxycodone was originally synthesized in a German laboratory in 1916.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What Paula calls "that oxy buzz" comes from OxyContin's only active ingredient: oxycodone, an opioid, or synthetic opiate, developed in a German laboratory in 1916.

^ This new compound was soon synthesized by the German pharmaceutical company, Bayer, and put on the market in 1898 under the brand name Heroin.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was hoped that a thebaine-derived drug would retain the analgesic effects of morphine and heroin with less dependence.^ Oxycodone, which is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from the naturally occurring alkaloid, thebain, has good oral bioavailability and seems to provide analgesic action that is as potent as that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Codeine has less than one-seventh the analgesic potency of morphine (Foye, Medicinal Chemistry, 254 (1975)).
  • Method for Producing Oxycodone 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.poppies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone which are found in present day analgesic prescription drugs, are all congeners of morphine.
  • Method for Producing Oxycodone 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.poppies.org [Source type: Academic]

.To some extent this was achieved, as oxycodone does not have the same immediate effect as heroin or morphine nor does it last as long.^ The maximal antinociceptive effect of i.t.-administered morphine or oxycodone was observed at 10 or 5 min, respectively, following each injection (data not shown).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We next investigated whether morphine or oxycodone could produce rewarding effects in sciatic nerve-ligated mice using the CPP method.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin was compared to heroin so many times that some people concluded it should be treated the same way.

The first clinical use of the drug was documented in 1917.[6] It was first introduced to the US market in May 1939.
.The International Narcotics Control Board estimates that 11.5 tons of oxycodone were manufactured worldwide in 1998, which grew to 75.2 tons in 2007.[10] Of all countries, the United States had the highest total consumption of oxycodone in 2007 (82% of the world total of 51.6 tons).^ International Narcotics Control Board Web site.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, April 24, 2006, Reid et al. 166 (8): 837 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consumption of oxycodone in the United Kingdom and the United States from 1999 to 2003.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, April 24, 2006, Reid et al. 166 (8): 837 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ETHEX markets a range of pain management products, including many schedule II controlled narcotic pharmaceuticals such as morphine, oxycodone and hydromorphone.
  • ETHEX Corporation - Products & Technology 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.ethex.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .In addition, in 2007 the U.S. had the highest per capita consumption of oxycodone, followed by Canada, Denmark, Australia, and Norway.^ Nationwide, Pennsylvania ranks eighth in the per capita consumption of OxyContin.

^ The states in which it was reported as emerging also seemed to correlate with the states in which OxyContin per capita consumption was highest.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, "Vermont is 14th in the nation for per capita consumption of oxycodone, an opiate derivative used as a painkiller.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

OxyContin

.OxyContin is the brand name of a time-release formula of oxycodone produced by the pharmaceutical company Purdue Pharma.^ Companies like Purdue Pharma who makes oxycontin are not unique.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Purdue Pharma is a privately held pharmaceutical company, founded by physicians.

^ It is the non-time-release formula.
  • OXYCONTIN: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1995 and first introduced to the U.S. market in 1996.[11] By 2001, OxyContin was the best-selling non-generic narcotic pain reliever in the U.S.; 2008 sales in the U.S. totaled $2.5 billion.^ Commercial sale and marketing of OxyContin began in January of 1996.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug in December 1995."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OxyContin ' was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

[12] .An analysis of data from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration found that retail sales of oxycodone "jumped nearly six-fold between 1997 and 2005."[13] Mundipharma distributes OxyContin in Australia,[14] China,[15] and Europe.^ During the same year, the highest annual sales bonus was nearly $240,000, and the lowest was nearly $15,000.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone which are found in present day analgesic prescription drugs, are all congeners of morphine.
  • Method for Producing Oxycodone 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.poppies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Roanoke Times reported on June 14, 2005 ( "OxyContin's Maker Under Investigation In Southwest Virginia" ) that "Federal authorities in Southwest Virginia are investigating the drug company Purdue Pharma for its marketing of the painkiller OxyContin, a company spokesman confirmed Monday.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
OxyContin is available in 5 mg (blue) tablets in Canada and the U.K.; 10 mg (white) in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K.; 15 mg (grey) in the U.S.; 20 mg (pink) in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K.; 30 mg (brown) in the U.S.; 40 mg (yellow) in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K.; 60 mg (red) in the U.S.; 80 mg (greenish blue) in Canada, the U.S., and the U.K.; and 160mg (blue) in the U.S., and possibly Canada, and the U.K.[17][18][19] In 2001, Purdue Pharma suspended distribution of 160 mg tablets in the U.S. because of the "possibility of illicit use of tablets of such high strength."[11][20]

Lawsuits concerning generic OxyContin

.Purdue has multiple patents for OxyContin, but has been involved in a series of ongoing legal battles on the validity of these patents.^ We are gratified that these lawsuits have ended in our favor,” said Howard R. Udell, Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer at Purdue Pharma.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1995 Purdue began shifting its marketing resources away from MS Contin (as its patent had expired) and towards OxyContin.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purdue Employed Multiple Approaches to Market and Promote OxyContin: In addition to expanding its sales force, Purdue used multiple approaches to market and promote OxyContin.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On June 7, 2005, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit upheld a decision from the previous year that some of Purdue’s patents for OxyContin could not be enforced.^ And we believe that the Federal Government, that the Congress of the United States, can define standards, can set standards for prescription monitoring programs, encourage the States to implement them.

^ Some state legislatures are considering various sorts of measures in response to concerns over OxyContin.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is possible for American citizens to obtain OxyContin in Mexico and Canada and import them back to the United States , this threat is not great.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .This decision allowed and led to the immediate announcement from Endo Pharmaceuticals that they would begin launching a generic version of all four strengths of OxyContin.^ So finally, what I would like to know is when will they be able to make the generic version again?
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generic version of oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

^ The decision by Judge Sidney H. Stein of Federal District Court in Manhattan came in response to a suit brought by Purdue against Endo Pharmaceuticals Holdings, which had filed an application to sell a generic version of OxyContin.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Purdue, however, had already made negotiations with another pharmaceutical company (IVAX Pharmaceuticals) to distribute their brand OxyContin in a generic form.^ Companies that make generic oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

^ Purdue, however, had already made negotiations with another pharmaceutical company (IVAX Pharmaceuticals) to distribute their brand OxyContin in a generic form.

^ The pharmacist had always told me the generic brand was the same as the purdue brand oxycontin.
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .This contract was severed, and as of October 2005 Watson Pharmaceuticals became the exclusive U.S. distributor of Purdue-manufactured generic versions of OxyContin tablets in 10-, 20-, 40-, and 80-milligram dosages.^ OxyContin 20 mg Tablets .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin® Tablets, 10 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 15 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 20 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 30 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 40 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 60 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 80 mg OxyContin® Tablets, 160 mg .
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Generic version of oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

[23]
.On February 1, 2006, the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals issued a decision revising its June 7, 2005, decision.^ William Hurwitz, the Northern Virginia physician whose case became a cause célèbre in pain management and drug policy reform circles, was granted a new trial by the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals in August 2006.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Doctor In VA Drug-Trafficking Case Granted New Trial" ) that "Medical groups are hailing a federal appeals court's decision to grant a new trial to a Virginia doctor accused of drug trafficking for prescribing large quantities of narcotics to his patients.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The judge dismissed all the plaintiffs claims with prejudice, and ruled that California state court should not be deciding on an issue that is the subject of federal regulation.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] This time the court vacated the lower court's "judgment that the patents-in-suit are unenforceable due to inequitable conduct," and the case was "remanded for further proceedings."[24]
.Purdue Pharma has since announced resolution of its infringement suits with Endo,[25] Teva,[26] IMPAX,[27] and Mallinckrodt.^ Purdue Pharma L.P. was not actually formed until 1991, when it was created by the Purdue Frederick Company which had existed since 1952 selling laxatives and antiseptic products.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 25, 2001, the FDA announced that, in cooperation with Purdue Pharma, it was strengthening the warning and precautions section in the labeling of OxyContin.

^ On June 12, 2001 the state of West Virginia announced that it was filing suit against the manufacturer Purdue Pharma and co-marketer Abbott Laboratories for failing to warn patients about the addictive nature of OxyContin.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Endo and Teva each agreed to cease selling generic forms of OxyContin.^ Reply I agree that most of the generics do not give you the same quality of life as the original purdue oxycontin.
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But generally, OxyContin sells between 50 cents and $1 per milligram.

^ When he was switched from Oxycontin to the generic form, he went from experiencing pain relief to experiencing no pain relief.
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

[25][26] IMPAX negotiated a temporary, and potentially renewable, license.[27] In 2008, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals reintroduced generic OxyContin in the strengths of 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg, which was made possible by a temporary royalties-bearing license with Purdue Pharma that expired in 2009.[28]

Marketing and misbranding

Critics have accused Purdue Pharma of putting profits ahead of public interest by applying "significant political pressure" to attempt to reverse South Carolina's requiring prior approval before a person with Medicaid can receive the drug;[29] for "fail[ing] to adequately warn consumers of the risks" of OxyContin such as dependence;[30] and for promoting the drug "aggressively" and by means such as "promotional beach hats, pedometers and swing-music CDs."[30][31]
.In May 2007 Purdue Pharma "agreed to pay $19.5 million" in fines relating to aggressive off-label marketing practices of OxyContin in 26 states and the District of Columbia.^ OxyContin ' was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

^ How has Purdue marketed and promoted OxyContin?
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purdue pharma generic oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

[32] .In specific, the company encouraged dosing more frequent than the recommended interval of 12 hours, and did not fully disclose the risk of hazardous or harmful use.^ ER (10 to 110 mg) or oxycodone CR (20 to 220 mg) every 12 hours during a 7- to 14-day dose-titration phase.

^ According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, as recently as 1999, more than 9 million Americans, aged 12 and older, reported that they used prescription drugs at least once that year for nonmedical reasons.

^ The STANPUMP computer program (STANPUMP 1998) was used to drive an infusion device to administer test or control solutions as two boluses, approximately 12-hours apart.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.Later in May 2007 Purdue Pharma and three of its top executives pleaded guilty in a Virginia federal court to charges that they misbranded OxyContin by representing it to have "less euphoric effect and less abuse potential" than it actually has, and by claiming that people taking the drug at low doses could stop taking it suddenly without symptoms of withdrawal.^ Patients should be advised that OxyContin is a potential drug of abuse.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you abruptly stop taking OxyContin (oxycodone ER), withdrawal symptoms could occur.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you stop taking oxycodone too quickly, withdrawal symptoms may occur.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .The FDA had not approved these claims.^ This gave the DEA, Congress, the FDA, and the medical community no choice but to respond to these claims.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The company and the executives were to pay $634 million in fines for felony and misdemeanor misbranding.^ Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report Friday, May 11, 2007 Prescription Drugs Purdue Pharma, Executives Plead Guilty to Misbranding OxyContin, Fined $634.5M Purdue Pharma and three of the company's current and former executives on Thursday pleaded guilty to misleading the public about the safety of its painkiller OxyContin and agreed to pay $634.5 million in fines, the Los Angeles Times reports.

^ In an unusual move, Brownlee said, company chief executive officer Michael Friedman, general counsel Howard Udell and former chief medical officer Paul Goldenheim each pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor count of misbranding the drug.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The settlement comes two days after Purdue agreed to pay $19.5 million in fines to 26 states and Washington , D.C .

[33]
.In October 2007, officials in Kentucky filed a lawsuit against Purdue Pharma for misleading health care providers and consumers "regarding the appropriate uses, risks and safety of OxyContin"; as of mid-2008, however, the case had been "consolidated with other lawsuits into a single multi-litigation suit" in a federal court in New York.^ Attorneys in a suit against Purdue Pharma, manufacturer of OxyContin, have withdrawn their motion to have dozens of federal suits against Purdue consolidated and heard through multidistrict litigation.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attorneys in southeastern Kentucky have filed suit against Purdue Pharma.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OxyContin ' was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

[35]

Other preparations

Formulations containing oxycodone and other analgesics.
Oxycodone formulation containing 5 mg oxycodone HCL and 325 mg acetaminophen.
.Oxy·IR immediate-release oxycodone tablets from Purdue Pharma in Canada are available in 5, 10, and 20 mg strengths.^ OxyContin Tablets q12h 5 mg immediate-release q6h .
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is available in 10 milligram, 20 milligram, 40 milligram, and 80 milligram tablets.

^ OxyContin 20 mg Tablets .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]
OxyNorm is available in 5, 10, and 20 mg capsules, and also as a 5 mg/5 ml liquid in 250 ml bottles in Australia, New Zealand, and the U.K.[36][37][38] In addition, OxyNorm is available in a 10 mg/ml liquid concentrate for oral use in the U.K., and in a 10 mg/ml solution and 50mg/ml solution for injection or infusion in New Zealand and the U.K.[38][39]
.Percocet (oxycodone with paracetamol/acetaminophen) tablets are available in Canada and the U.S. with 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg of oxycodone and varying amounts of acetaminophen.^ Each of his Percocet pills contained 5 mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen ( Tylenol ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pennsylvania: Trash Science From Pain Medicine Journal and the Drug Industry Pushing Narcotics for Low Back Pain: The authors claim the purpose of their report is "To evaluate the analgesic effectiveness/safety of the new oxycodone 7.5- and 10-mg/acetaminophen 325-mg (Percocet)" which has more high potency narcotic in each tablet.

^ Each patient received 2 bottles, each containing identical placebo or 10-mg CR oxycodone tablets (OxyContin tablets; Purdue Pharma LP, Norwalk, Conn).
  • Arch Intern Med -- Around-the-Clock, Controlled-Release Oxycodone Therapy for Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: Placebo-Controlled Trial and Long-term Evaluation, March 27, 2000, Roth et al. 160 (6): 853 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[40]
.Depalgos (oxycodone with paracetamol) tablets are marketed in Italy, with 325 mg Paracetamol and 5, 10, and 20 mg oxycodone.^ OxyContin 20 mg Tablets .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone 20 mg .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cost: OxyContin 20 mg costs $3.10 a pill with the generic $2.80; 40 mg costs $5.27 a pill with a generic available for $4.80; 80 mg costs $9.91 a pill with the generic $7.14; 160 mg.

.Recent legislation in Italy has made it easier for physicians to prescribe this medication and other opioids to pain patients.^ Medically Prescribed for back pain .
  • OXYCONTIN: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pain made me suicidal and withdrawn, not the medication.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Physician and patient chronic pain advocates pressured legislators to adopt policies which would insulate physicians from disciplinary action when prescribing opioids.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.Percodan tablets available in the U.S. contain 4.8355 mg of oxycodone HCl and 325 mg of aspirin.^ Each of his Percocet pills contained 5 mg of oxycodone and 325 mg of acetaminophen ( Tylenol ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxycodone HCl Tablets, 5mg CII .
  • ETHEX Corporation - Products & Technology 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.ethex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone HCl 20mg Tablets 100's, CII .
  • ETHEX Corporation - Products & Technology 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.ethex.com [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.Proladone suppositories, available in Australia, contain 30 mg of oxycodone pectinate.^ Oxycodone 30 mg .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many strengths available for OxyContin tablets; 30 mg is one of the eight available strengths.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As this eMedTV page explains, 30 mg oxycodone tablets are available in short-acting and long-acting forms.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[43]
.Injectable oxycodone hydrochloride or tartrate is available in ampoules and multi-dose vials in many European countries and to a lesser extent various places in the Pacific Rim.^ Oxycodone hydrochloride API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) is available from a variety of manufacturers such as Johnson Matthey and Mallinckrodt.
  • Process for preparing oxycodone hydrochloride having less than 25 ppm 14-hydroxycodeinone - US Patent 7129248 Description 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.patentstorm.us [Source type: Reference]

^ This page also describes the various available forms of oxycodone and covers its potential for abuse.
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin ' is but one of many available products that contain oxycodone.

For this purpose, the most common trade names are Eukodol and Eucodol. The German-language package insert for an oxycodone injectable indicates that the preferred route of injection is intramuscular.
.Roxicodone, a generic oxycodone product designed to have an immediate release effect for rapid pain relief, is available in 5 mg (white), 15 mg (green), and 30 mg (blue) tablets; in a 5 mg per 5 ml oral solution; and in a 20 mg per ml liquid concentrate.^ Oxycodone became extended from Step 2 to Step 3 with the availability of single-entity immediate-release oxycodone (IRO) tablets and liquids.

^ OxyContin Tablets q12h 5 mg immediate-release q6h .
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin 20 mg Tablets .
  • Oral Sex and Hepatitis C - Paliperidone (Invega) Articles 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[44][45] .On March 31, 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration directed Boehringer Ingelheim Roxane and Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals to cease manufacture and distribution of 5 mg Roxicodone tablets in the U.S. because they lacked proper approval.^ The Food and Drug Administration was part of the investigation.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Times noted that "It could take up to three years for the new drug to undergo clinical studies and receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FDA regulations require pharmaceutical manufacturers to submit all promotional materials for approved prescription drug products to the agency at the time of their initial use.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.Targin is a tablet with a prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone combination.^ OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release) Tablets 40 mg are round, unscored, yellow-colored, convex tablets imprinted with OC on one side and 40 on the other.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin® (oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release) Tablets 10 mg are round, unscored, white-colored, convex tablets imprinted with OC on one side and 10 on the other.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Footnote 42] In addition, OxyContin's controlled-release feature allows a tablet to contain more active ingredient than other, non-controlled-release oxycodone-containing drugs.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Clinical use

.In a 2008 review written by authors who "are members of advisory boards and speaker panels for Mundipharma," prolonged-release oxycodone (i.e., OxyContin) was found to be superior to placebo in randomized controlled trials concerning diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, osteoarthritis, ambulatory laparoscopic tubal ligation surgery, unilateral total knee arthroplasty, and abdominal/gynaecological surgery.^ A randomized trial in postherpetic neuralgia.

^ OxyContin is a Schedule II controlled-release form of the narcotic Oxycodone.

^ Controlled-release oxycodone relieves neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial in painful diabetic neuropathy.

[47]
.In 2001, the European Association for Palliative Care recommended that oral hydromorphone or oxycodone, "if available in both normal release and modified release formulations for oral administration," be second-line alternatives to oral morphine for cancer pain.^ Kalso E, Vaino A. Morphine and oxycodone hydrochloride in the management of cancer pain.

^ Cancer pain relief and palliative Care.

^ Today, administration of oral controlled-release morphine is considered standard practice for the treatment of cancer pain.

[48] .There is no evidence that any opioids are superior to morphine in relieving the pain of cancer, and no controlled trials have shown oxycodone to be superior to morphine.^ Controlled-release oxycodone compared with controlled-release morphine in the treatment of cancer pain.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, April 24, 2006, Reid et al. 166 (8): 837 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphine and alternative opioids in cancer pain.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Oxycodone for Cancer-Related Pain: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, April 24, 2006, Reid et al. 166 (8): 837 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Controlled-release oxycodone and morphine in cancer related pain.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[49] However, switching to an alternative opioid can be useful if adverse effects are troublesome, although the switch can be in either direction, i.e. some patients have fewer adverse effects on switching from morphine to oxycodone and vice versa.

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

.A group of Australian researchers has proposed (based on a 1997 study in rats) that oxycodone, unlike morphine (the effect of which is mediated by μ-opioid receptors), acts on κ-opioid receptors.^ The intrinsic antinociceptive effects of oxycodone appear to be -opioid receptor mediated.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies showed that it was comparable and preferable to short-acting Morphine and to short-acting Oxycodone.

[50] .Further research by this group indicates the drug appears to be a κ2b-opioid agonist.^ OxyContin "can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists [drugs of its type], legal or illicit," reads the new warning, announced today.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Review of case reports has indicated that the risk of fatal overdose is further increased when OxyContin is abused concurrently with alcohol or other CNS depressants, including other opioids.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Purdue Pharma said it won't be seeking Food and Drug Administration approval this year and will do further research to see if naloxone is worth pursuing.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .However, this has been disputed, primarily on the basis that oxycodone produces effects typical of μ-opioid agonists.^ Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thebaine has no analgesic effect itself, but can be used to synthesize hydrocodone (Vicodin), dihydromorphenone (Dilaudid), oxycodone (Percocet), and a number of other more obscure opioids.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We next investigated whether morphine or oxycodone could produce rewarding effects in sciatic nerve-ligated mice using the CPP method.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[52]
.Research by a Japanese group suggests that the effect of oxycodone is mediated by different receptors in different situations.^ When activated, these receptors mediate the drugs' analgesic effects.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been sporadic reports of agitation, sleeplessness, and dysphoria in patients taking high doses of oxycodone, which suggests that, in addition to -opioid effects, the drug also has kappa-opioid effects.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the high degree of complexity of the bodys receptor systems and the variability of peoples metabolism, different opioids illicit different effects and have varied pharmacological profiles.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specifically, in diabetic mice the κ-opioid receptor appears to be involved in the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone,[53] while in non-diabetic mice the μ1-opioid receptor seems to be primarily responsible for these effects.^ No specific interaction between oxycodone and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been observed, but caution in the use of any opioid in patients taking this class of drugs is appropriate.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Roxicodone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When activated, these receptors mediate the drugs' analgesic effects.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]

Absorption

.After a dose of conventional oral oxycodone, peak plasma levels of the drug are attained in approximately one hour;[55] in contrast, after a dose of OxyContin (an oral continuous release formulation), peak plasma levels of oxycodone occur in about three hours.^ In normal volunteers, the t of absorption is 0.4 hours for immediate-release oral oxycodone.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As release of the drug formulation occurs, fluid continues to be imbibed thereby driving continued release.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OxyContin Tablets are a controlled-release oral formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock analgesic is needed for an extended period of time.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]

Distribution

.Oxycodone in the blood is distributed to skeletal muscle, liver, intestinal tract, lungs, spleen, and brain.^ Once absorbed, oxycodone is distributed to skeletal muscle, liver, intestinal tract, lungs, spleen, and brain.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gastrointestinal Tract And Other Smooth Muscle Oxycodone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Deficient brain blood flow distribution usually normalizes, approximately one year after opiate abstinence is achieved.

[17] .Conventional oral preparations of oxycodone start to reduce pain within 10–15 minutes; in contrast, OxyContin starts to reduce pain within 1 hour.^ OxyContin Tablets are a controlled-release oral formulation of oxycodone hydrochloride indicated for the management of moderate to severe pain when a continuous, around-the-clock analgesic is needed for an extended period of time.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The onset of analgesic action with OxyContin occurred within 1 hour in most patients following oral administration.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one preferred embodiment, oral dosage forms are prepared to include an effective amount of melt-extruded multiparticulates within a capsule.
  • Process for preparing oxycodone hydrochloride having less than 25 ppm 14-hydroxycodeinone - US Patent 7129248 Description 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.patentstorm.us [Source type: Reference]

[3]

Metabolism

.Oxycodone is metabolized to α and β oxycodol; oxymorphone, then α and β oxymorphol and noroxymorphone; and noroxycodone, then α and β noroxycodol and noroxymorphone (N-desmethyloxycodone).^ Metabolism Oxycodone hydrochloride is extensively metabolized to noroxycodone, oxymorphone, noroxymorphone, and their glucuronides.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone is metabolized in part by cytochrome P450 2D6 to oxymorphone which represents less than 15% of the total administered dose.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone is metabolized in part to oxymorphone via cytochrome P450 2D6.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

[55] These metabolites are true only for humans.[56] .As many as six metabolites for oxycodone (14-hydroxydihydromorphinone, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeine, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeinone N-oxide {oxycodone N-oxide}, 14-hydroxydihydroisocodeine, 14-hydroxydihydrocodeine N-oxide, and noroxycodone) have been found in rabbits.^ Current evidence suggests that the metabolites of oxycodone including noroxycodone and oxymorphone do not significantly contribute to its pharmacological effects ( Heiskanen and Kalso, 1997 ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And we quickly found in our clinic, and the literature supported, that there were many patients who had less side effects, better comfort and function with Oxycodone.

^ The amounts measured in the urine have been reported as follows: free oxycodone up to 19%; conjugated oxycodone up to 50%; free oxymorphone 0%; conjugated oxymorphone ≤ 14%; both free and Page 7 of 31 conjugated noroxycodone have been found in the urine but not quantified.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

[57] .A study using conventional oral oxycodone concluded that oxycodone itself, and not its metabolites, is responsible for the drug's opioid effects on the brain.^ Oxycodone, which is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from the naturally occurring alkaloid, thebain, has good oral bioavailability and seems to provide analgesic action that is as potent as that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thebaine, a compound derived from opium, although having no medicinal use in itself, is useful as a starting material in synthetic schemes for the production of oxycodone.
  • Process for preparing oxycodone hydrochloride having less than 25 ppm 14-hydroxycodeinone - US Patent 7129248 Description 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.patentstorm.us [Source type: Reference]

^ Current evidence suggests that the metabolites of oxycodone including noroxycodone and oxymorphone do not significantly contribute to its pharmacological effects ( Heiskanen and Kalso, 1997 ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.Unlike morphine and hydromorphone, oxycodone is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the liver, making it vulnerable to drug interactions.^ Oxycodone is metabolized in part to oxymorphone via cytochrome P450 2D6.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ETHEX markets a range of pain management products, including many schedule II controlled narcotic pharmaceuticals such as morphine, oxycodone and hydromorphone.
  • ETHEX Corporation - Products & Technology 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.ethex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug-Drug Interactions (see PRECAUTIONS) Oxycodone is metabolized in part by cytochrome P450 2D6 and cytochrome P450 3A4 and in theory can be affected by other drugs.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Some people are fast metabolizers resulting in reduced analgesic effect but increased adverse effects, while others are slow metabolisers resulting in increased toxicity without improved analgesia.^ These differences are accompanied by increases in some, but not other, drug effects.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other studies 20 - 25 describe favorable experiences with opioid use in some patients, including effective analgesia, no CNS toxic effects, improved performance in some cases, and only infrequent instances of abuse, when opioid analgesics were included as part of a comprehensive, individualized pain management program.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Around-the-Clock, Controlled-Release Oxycodone Therapy for Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: Placebo-Controlled Trial and Long-term Evaluation, March 27, 2000, Roth et al. 160 (6): 853 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thebaine has no analgesic effect itself, but can be used to synthesize hydrocodone (Vicodin), dihydromorphenone (Dilaudid), oxycodone (Percocet), and a number of other more obscure opioids.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58][59] .The dose of OxyContin must be reduced in patients with reduced hepatic function.^ Cessation of Therapy When the patient no longer requires therapy with OxyContin Tablets, doses should be tapered gradually to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal in the physically dependent patient.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The second contrasted dosing with other opioid pain relievers with OxyContin dosing as "the hard way versus the easy way" to dose because OxyContin's twice-a-day dosing was more convenient for patients.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OxyContin 60 mg, 80 mg, and 160 mg Tablets, or a single dose greater than 40 mg, are for use in opioid-tolerant patients only.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Elimination

.Oxycodone and its metabolites are mainly excreted in the urine and sweat; therefore, it accumulates in patients with renal impairment.^ Elimination: Oxycodone and its metabolites are excreted primarily via the kidney.
  • Roxicodone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Renal Impairment In patients with renal impairment, as evidenced by decreased creatinine clearance ( <60 mL/min), the concentrations of oxycodone in the plasma are approximately 50% higher than in subjects with normal renal function.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on information available on the metabolism and excretion of oxycodone, dose initiation in patients with renal impairment should follow a conservative approach.
  • Roxicodone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 11 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Dosage and administration

.Oxycodone can be administered orally, intranasally, via intravenous/intramuscular/subcutaneous injection or rectally.^ Between six to eight hours after the end of infusion, each subgroup of Groups 1-4 was administered 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 or 3 mg/kg oxycodone by subcutaneous (SC) injection, respectively.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The animals were divided into four groups and on Day −1, each group was further divided into six subgroups and administered 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 or 1.5 mg/kg oxycodone by subcutaneous (SC) injection, respectively.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In human plasma, the half-life of orally administered immediate release oxycodone is about 3.2 hours.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The bioavailability of oral administration averages 60–87%, with rectal administration yielding the same results; intranasal varies between individuals with a mean of 46%[60].^ It has a high oral bioavailability relative to other opioids, between 60 and 87 percent, making it ideal for oral administration.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bioavailability of oxycodone is 60-87% which increases the predictability of its pharmacokinetics (Kalso and Vaino 1990, Kalso et al 1991, Reder et al 1996).

^ Long-term Effects Chronic use of Oxycontin can result in tolerance for the drugs, which means that users must take higher doses to achieve the same initial effects.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oxycodone is approximately 1.5–2 times as potent as morphine when administered orally.^ Oxycodone, which is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from the naturally occurring alkaloid, thebain, has good oral bioavailability and seems to provide analgesic action that is as potent as that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximal antinociceptive effect of i.t.-administered morphine or oxycodone was observed at 10 or 5 min, respectively, following each injection (data not shown).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the present study, we also found that oxycodone showed about 10 times lower ligand-binding affinity than that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[61][62] .However, 10–15 mg of oxycodone produces an analgesic effect similar to 10 mg of morphine when administered intramuscularly.^ Oxycodone, which is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from the naturally occurring alkaloid, thebain, has good oral bioavailability and seems to provide analgesic action that is as potent as that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximal antinociceptive effect of i.t.-administered morphine or oxycodone was observed at 10 or 5 min, respectively, following each injection (data not shown).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thebaine has no analgesic effect itself, but can be used to synthesize hydrocodone (Vicodin), dihydromorphenone (Dilaudid), oxycodone (Percocet), and a number of other more obscure opioids.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .Therefore, as a parenteral dose, morphine is approximately up to 50% more potent than oxycodone.^ It has been described that both oxymorphone and noroxycodone were more potent than oxycodone after i.t.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone, which is a semisynthetic opioid analgesic derived from the naturally occurring alkaloid, thebain, has good oral bioavailability and seems to provide analgesic action that is as potent as that of morphine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So stop blowing smoke up our dresses with this moronic stories that are far more fiction than fact.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are no comparative trials showing that oxycodone is more effective than any other opioid.^ With pure opioid agonist analgesics, there is no defined maximum dose; the ceiling to analgesic effectiveness is imposed only by side effects, the more serious of which may include somnolence and respiratory depression.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphine is not quickly absorbed even by injection compared to some others, and tends to cause more histemic and emetic reactions, not to mention more respiratory depression.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, there is no standard dosage of medicine: A prescription for opioids that would incapacitate or kill one patient might be barely enough to alleviate the pain of another.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In palliative care, morphine remains the gold standard;[49] however, oxycodone can be useful as an alternative opioid if a patient has troublesome adverse effects with morphine.^ Morphine is considered by many to be the gold standard because it has been in use the longest.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxycodone is an opioid agonist of the morphine-type.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The information contained on PatientsVille.com site has not been scientifically or otherwise verified as to a cause and effect relationship and cannot be used to estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions or for establishing or changing of patient treatments.
  • Oxycontin Side Effects 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

Side effects

Main side effects of oxycodone[64]
.The most commonly reported effects include euphoria, constipation, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, lightheadedness, headache, dry mouth, anxiety, pruritus, and diaphoresis.^ Other common side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, dizziness, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, sweating, and weakness.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headache, dry mouth, constipation, somnolence, pruritus, sweating, dizziness, and asthenia are also reported by a small percentage of users [6] .
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side effects of enalapril may include dizziness, fatigue, and headache.
  • Enalapril Side Effects - Equipment Failure During a Cardiac Cath Articles 12 September 2009 8:23 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] It has also been claimed to cause dimness in vision due to miosis. .Some patients have also experienced loss of appetite, nervousness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, ischuria, dyspnea, and hiccups,[17] although these symptoms appear in less than 5% of patients taking oxycodone.^ Some of these are less addictive than others.

^ In descending order of frequency they were anorexia, nervousness, insomnia, fever, confusion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, rash, anxiety, euphoria, dyspnea, postural hypotension, chills, twitching, gastritis, abnormal dreams, thought abnormalities, and hiccups.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These reports first appeared in rural areas of some states, generally in the Appalachian region, and continued to spread to other rural areas and larger cities in several states.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rarely, the drug can cause impotence, enlarged prostate gland, and decreased testosterone secretion.[66] .Compared to morphine, oxycodone causes less respiratory depression, sedation, pruritus, nausea, and euphoria.^ Morphine is not quickly absorbed even by injection compared to some others, and tends to cause more histemic and emetic reactions, not to mention more respiratory depression.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking a large single dose of Oxycontin could cause severe respiratory depression that can lead to death.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A comparative study of oxycodone and morphine in a multi-model, tissue-differentiated experimental pain model.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .As a result, it is generally better tolerated than morphine.^ In particular, such persons would expect that flat profiles would generate higher levels of tolerance than biphasic profiles.
  • Once-a-day, oral, controlled-release, oxycodone dosage forms - Patent Application 20050106249 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.In high doses, overdoses, or in patients not tolerant to opiates, oxycodone can cause shallow breathing, bradycardia, cold, clammy skin, apnea, hypotension, miosis (pupil constriction), circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death.^ Serious adverse reactions which may be associated with OxyContin Tablet therapy in clinical use are those observed with other opioid analgesics, including respiratory depression, apnea, respiratory arrest, and (to an even lesser degree) circulatory depression, hypotension, or shock (see OVERDOSAGE).
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxycodone may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking a large single dose of Oxycontin could cause severe respiratory depression that can lead to death.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Withdrawal related side effects

.There is a high risk of experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms if a patient discontinues oxycodone abruptly.^ Patients should be advised that if they have been receiving treatment with OxyContin for more than a few weeks and cessation of therapy is indicated, it may be appropriate to taper the OxyContin dose, rather than abruptly discontinue it, due to the risk of precipitating withdrawal symptoms.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There were 2 reports of withdrawal symptoms after patients abruptly stopped taking CR oxycodone at doses of 60 or 70 mg/d.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Around-the-Clock, Controlled-Release Oxycodone Therapy for Osteoarthritis-Related Pain: Placebo-Controlled Trial and Long-term Evaluation, March 27, 2000, Roth et al. 160 (6): 853 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Florida Detox patients report our anesthesia assisted Oxycontin Detox eliminates 90 to 95 percent of painful, uncomfortable Oxycontin withdrawal symptoms.

.Therefore therapy should be gradually discontinued rather than abruptly discontinued.^ Patients should be advised that if they have been receiving treatment with OxyContin for more than a few weeks and cessation of therapy is indicated, it may be appropriate to taper the OxyContin dose, rather than abruptly discontinue it, due to the risk of precipitating withdrawal symptoms.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cessation of Therapy When the patient no longer requires therapy with OxyContin Tablets, doses should be tapered gradually to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal in the physically dependent patient.
  • Oxycontin 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, opioids should not be abruptly discontinued (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION : Cessation of Therapy ).
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.People who use oxycodone in a hazardous or harmful fashion are at even higher risk of severe withdrawal symptoms as they tend to use higher than prescribed doses.^ So I went through the worst withdrawal symptoms ever and hurt myself even more from throwing up.
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am involved in a lawsuit to stop these doctor’s from prescribing to people who don’t need it.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2001, the survey included a separate section for pain relievers, and asked participants if they had used OxyContin, identifying it by its brand name, that had not been prescribed for them.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The symptoms of oxycodone withdrawal are the same as for other opiate based painkillers and may include "anxiety, nausea, insomnia, muscle pain, muscle weakness, fevers, and other flu like symptoms."[69]
.Withdrawal symptoms have also been reported in a newborn whose mother had been either injecting OxyContin or orally taking percocet during pregnancy.^ Methadone oxycontin & withdrawal symptoms.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

^ Oxycontin withdrawal symptoms.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

^ Withdrawal symptoms of oxycontin.
  • Oxycontin Discounted, Oxycontin Buy Online, Buy Oxycontin Online 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC edmamgtg.freewebhostx.com [Source type: General]

[70]

Detection in biological fluids

.Oxycodone and/or its major metabolites may be quantitated in blood or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in a medicolegal death investigation.^ Further, the vast majority of those deaths involve the use of multiple medications--not oxycodone alone.

^ Oxycodone is extensively metabolized and eliminated primarily in the urine as both conjugated and unconjugated metabolites.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The company claims that the death reports do not take into account the fact that in the vast majority of these cases, oxycodone was detected, not OxyContin, per se.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many commercial opiate screening tests cross-react appreciably with oxycodone and its metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish oxycodone from the opiates.[71]

Illicit use and diversion

Canada

A study at St. Michael's Hospital and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) in Toronto, found that deaths from opioid pain relievers nearly doubled from 13.7 deaths per million residents in 1991 to 27.2 deaths per million residents in 2004.[72]

United States

.Instances of hazardous use, harmful use, and diversion of OxyContin have increased in the U.S. beginning in the late 1990s.^ However, GAO could not assess the relationship between the increased availability of OxyContin and locations of abuse and diversion because the data on abuse and diversion are not reliable, comprehensive, or timely.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is likely due both to the greater use of opioid pain medications which was occurring throughout the 1990s, before OxyContins introduction, and changes in public and medical perception of opioid pain relievers which had begun in the late 1980s [57] .
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing OxyContin in situations where the prescriber or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse, or diversion.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .The slang term hillbilly heroin for OxyContin refers to the occurrence of the "earliest reported cases of Oxycontin abuse" in the U.S. in rural areas such as Appalachia.^ Hillbilly heroin also become a popular term, as rural Appalachia was one area were abuse stories were first reported.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the slang terms used for OxyContin?
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its early user base in rural areas did earn it the made-for-media nickname of "hillbilly heroin," but OxyContin turned out to be anything but a regional problem or a media myth, and users in the real world quickly proved it can cause the same type of abuse and addiction it was designed to prevent.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] Diversion of OxyContin in the U.S. may occur through "fraudulent prescriptions, doctor shopping, over-prescribing, and pharmacy theft."[73]
A 2003 study by the Government Accountability Office found four factors that may have contributed to hazardous use, harmful use, and diversion of OxyContin in the U.S.:[11]
  • OxyContin contains a large amount of oxycodone compared with other types of oxycodone containing pills.
  • OxyContin's warning label said to not crush the controlled-release tablets because of the potential for rapid release of oxycodone, which led to many people crushing the tablets and injecting or snorting the drug.
  • By 2001, sales of OxyContin in the U.S. exceeded $1 billion per year.
  • People who received prescriptions for OxyContin and lived in poor areas of Appalachia may have perceived a "profit potential" in selling the pills to drug dealers (e.g., 20 mg of OxyContin could be bought for $2 but sold for $20).
.A study published in 2005 examined the prevalence of hazardous or harmful use of opiate analgesics among "recreational drug users and street addicts" as perceived by "key informants" throughout the U.S.; the authors found that hazardous or harmful use of opiates was increasing in general, but that of the drugs studied hazardous or harmful use of OxyContin "was mentioned most frequently."^ By and large, OxyContin is not a street drug in most places.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OxyContin is NOT intended for use as a prn analgesic.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We have seen, in the last few years, the increased use of Ritalin and Oxycontin as street drugs.'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .Purdue Pharma has attempted to reformulate the 10–40 mg strengths of OxyContin to prevent the release of a high percentage of the oxycodone by crushing; however, in 2008 a joint panel convened by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was "concerned that abusers could find a way to manipulate the new formulation."^ OxyContin ' was introduced by Purdue Pharma in 1995.

^ The Food and Drug Administration was part of the investigation.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I take the 80mg Oxycontin and also 40 mg.
  • OXYCONTIN: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

[76]

Other countries

.The illegal use of OxyContin began in Australia in the early 2000s.^ In 2003, Purdue began using the promotional claim "there can be life with relief" in OxyContin promotion.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was early in April of 2000 that Purdue was first alerted to reports of abuse and diversion of OxyContin ' by accounts in Maine newspapers claiming that OxyContin ' was the subject of recreational use in Maine.

^ The story of OxyContin was in a large part created by the media, which brought national attention to the drug with a wave of sensationalized news stories which began in early 2001.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 2007, 51% of a national sample of injection drug users in Australia had reported using oxycodone, and 27% had injected it in the last six months.^ The Times-Argus reported that "According to recent statistics compiled by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration, Vermont ranks second in the nation for per capita consumption of Ritalin, used to treat attention deficit disorder in children."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But recreational users have discovered that the tablets can be crushed and then injected or snorted, quickly turning this safe medication into a highly addictive drug.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, as recently as 1999, more than 9 million Americans, aged 12 and older, reported that they used prescription drugs at least once that year for nonmedical reasons.

[77]
.Hazardous use, harmful use, and diversion of OxyContin in the U.K. commenced in the early- to mid-2000s.^ It was early in April of 2000 that Purdue was first alerted to reports of abuse and diversion of OxyContin ' by accounts in Maine newspapers claiming that OxyContin ' was the subject of recreational use in Maine.

^ DEA recognizes that the best means of preventing the diversion of OxyContin ' is to increase awareness of the proper use and potential abuse of the product.

^ In addition, FDA and Purdue collaborated on a risk management plan to help detect and prevent OxyContin abuse and diversion, an approach that was not used at the time OxyContin was approved.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] The first known death due to OxyContin overdose in the U.K. occurred in 2002.[79]

Animal studies

.Research has shown that the brains of adolescent mice, which were exposed to OxyContin, can sustain lifelong and permanent changes in their reward system.^ According to US researchers, adolescent brains exposed to the painkiller Oxycontin can sustain lifelong and permanent changes in their reward system.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, researchers have revealed that adolescent brains exposed to oxycontin may sustain lifelong and permanent changes in their reward system, changes that increase the drug's euphoric properties and make such adolescents more vulnerable to the drug's effects later in adulthood.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During adolescence, the brain undergoes marked changes.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80][81] .It is notable that the vast majority of OxyContin related deaths are attributed to ingesting substantial quantities of oxycodone in combination with another depressant of the central nervous system such as alcohol, barbiturates and related drugs.^ Oxycodone is a central nervous system depressant.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His conviction was the first for an OxyContin related death.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My 18 year old son died 2/19/01 after chewing a Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant and powerful painkiller drug called OXYCONTIN which mixed with other substances that were already in his system, including alcohol.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]

Conventions and national laws

.Oxycodone is subject to international conventions on narcotic drugs.^ Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Act of 1961 and the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA), substances classified as narcotics include opioids, marijuana, and cocaine.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OxyContin pills are Oxycodone HCl (HCl = Hydrochloric Acid) controlled-release tablets and are a narcotic drug that is approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain.
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychoactive Oxy Drugs - Powerful Narcotic, Dangerous Street Drug Read this short but informative article that contains information about oxycodone and oxycontin drugs.

.In addition, oxycodone is subject to national laws that differ by country.^ Additionally, "Vermont is 14th in the nation for per capita consumption of oxycodone, an opiate derivative used as a painkiller.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

International

.The 1931 Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs of the League of Nations included oxycodone.^ Of even greater concern, is the manufacture of these products in China (represented as equal to brand name); which are then imported and distributed to pharmacies 'of all sizes' (from individual Mom-n-Pop drug stores to the national retail drug chains).
  • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It will require the cooperative effort of the pharmaceutical industry, medical practitioners, pharmacists, the insurance industry and government to fully regulate and control the distribution of this extremely dangerous drug.

^ FDA regulations require pharmaceutical manufacturers to submit all promotional materials for approved prescription drug products to the agency at the time of their initial use.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of the United Nations, which replaced the 1931 convention, categorized oxycodone in Schedule I.[84] Global restrictions on Schedule I drugs include "limit[ing] exclusively to medical and scientific purposes the production, manufacture, export, import, distribution of, trade in, use and possession of" these drugs; "requir[ing] medical prescriptions for the supply or dispensation of [these] drugs to individuals"; and "prevent[ing] the accumulation" of quantities of these drugs "in excess of those required for the normal conduct of business."[84]

Australia

.Oxycodone is in Schedule I (derived from the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs) of the Commonwealth's Narcotic Drugs Act 1967.[85] In addition, it is in Schedule 8 of the Australian Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons ("Poisons Standard"), meaning that it is a "controlled drug...^ OxyContin is a Schedule II controlled-release form of the narcotic Oxycodone.

^ It is a Schedule II drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act.

^ Additionally, it has been documented that oxycodone acts as the MOR agonist in mice and binds selectively to the MOR ( Lemberg et al , 2006a ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

which should be available for use but require[s] restriction of manufacture, supply, distribution, possession and use to reduce abuse, misuse and physical or psychological dependence."[86]

Canada

.Oxycodone is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA).^ It is a Schedule II drug under the federal Controlled Substances Act.

^ Like morphine, oxycodone is controlled under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The sites sold Schedule 3 and 4 controlled substances.

[87] Every person who seeks or obtains from a practitioner either the substance or an authorization to obtain the substance must disclose to that practitioner information on all controlled substances and authorizations for controlled substances obtained from any other practitioner within the preceding 30 days; otherwise, the person may be found "guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years".[87] Anyone possessing the substance for the purpose of trafficking "is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life".[87]

Germany

.The drug is in Appendix III of the Narcotics Act ("Betäubungsmittelgesetz" or BtMG).^ Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Act of 1961 and the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA), substances classified as narcotics include opioids, marijuana, and cocaine.
  • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .The law states that only physicians, dentists and veterinarians ("Ärzte, Zahnärzte und Tierärzte") can prescribe oxycodone, and that the federal government can regulate the prescriptions (e.g., by requiring reporting).^ According to the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, all state pharmacy laws require that records of prescription drugs dispensed to patients be maintained and that state pharmacy boards have access to the prescription records.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State regulatory boards face new challenges with the advent of Internet pharmacies, because they enable pharmacies and physicians to anonymously reach across state borders to prescribe, sell, and dispense prescription drugs without complying with state requirements.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sales representatives routinely receive daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly physician prescribing reports based on IMS Health data that specify the physicians who have written prescriptions for OxyContin and other opioid analgesics, and the number of prescriptions written.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]

Hong Kong

.Oxycodone is regulated under Part I of Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.^ It will require the cooperative effort of the pharmaceutical industry, medical practitioners, pharmacists, the insurance industry and government to fully regulate and control the distribution of this extremely dangerous drug.

^ It will require the cooperative effort of the pharmaceutical industry, medical practitioners, pharmacists, the insurance industry, and government to fully regulate and control the distribution of this extremely dangerous drug.

^ Like morphine, oxycodone is controlled under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act; OxyContin has been targeted for theft and diversion by criminals.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .The penalty for trafficking (Section 4) or manufacturing (Section 6) the substance is a $5,000,000 HKD fine and/or life imprisonment.^ On March 5, he was convicted of 15 counts of drug trafficking, obtaining a controlled substance by fraud and possession of a controlled substance, which earned him a mandatory minimum of 25 years in state prison and a $500,000 fine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .In Section 8 of the Ordinance, possession of the substance for consumption without licence from the Department of Health is illegal and subject to a $1,000,000 HKD fine and/or 7 years of imprisonment.^ The emergency department mentions, for a number of years, from 1988 to 1996, have run fairly stable, about 1,000 mentions per quarter.

^ On March 5, he was convicted of 15 counts of drug trafficking, obtaining a controlled substance by fraud and possession of a controlled substance, which earned him a mandatory minimum of 25 years in state prison and a $500,000 fine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DEA suggests the Department of Health and Human Services restrict promotional materials for Schedule II substances to items related to the practice of medicine or pharmacy.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89] .Per Sections 22-23, only specific health professionals and others (e.g., "a person in charge of a laboratory used for the purposes of research") may possess and supply the substance.^ "Research in the laboratory now is focused on finding specific genes that modify risk for opioid dependence."
  • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For complete information about this product or your specific health needs, ask your health care professional.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The present study was conducted in accordance with the Guiding Principles for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Hoshi University, as adopted by the Committee on Animal Research of Hoshi University.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Comparative Pharmacological Profiles of Morphine and Oxycodone under a Neuropathic Pain-Like State in Mice: Evidence for Less Sensitivity to Morphine 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[89] Anyone who supplies the substance without a valid prescription can be fined $10,000 HKD according to Section 31.[89]

United Kingdom

.Oxycodone is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act.^ No specific interaction between oxycodone and monoamine oxidase inhibitors has been observed, but caution in the use of any opioid in patients taking this class of drugs is appropriate.
  • Oxycontin (Oxycodone HCl) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like morphine, oxycodone is controlled under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act; OxyContin has been targeted for theft and diversion by criminals.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The outright theft of a prescription drug should be a felony offense under the Controlled Substances Act.

[90] .For Class A drugs, which are "considered to be the most likely to cause harm," possession without a prescription is punishable by up to seven years in prison, an unlimited fine, or both.^ The Times noted that "It could take up to three years for the new drug to undergo clinical studies and receive approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THIS IS A FACT. If you go up in dosage you go up GRADUALLY just like you lower your does GRADUALLY. Those of us who are FOLLOWING DOCTORS PRESCRIPTIONS know this.
  • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Very often, illicit prescriptions for drugs like OxyContin are obtained by one individual who visits doctor after doctor complaining of phantom symptoms.

[91] .Dealing of the drug illegally is punishable by up to life imprisonment, an unlimited fine, or both.^ The prosecutors did not claim Hurwitz, who could receive a life sentence, got even a dime from illegal drug sales.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Pain Management & Drug Control Policy 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] In addition, oxycodone is a Schedule 2 drug per the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 which "provide certain exemptions from the provisions of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971."[92]

United States

Under the Controlled Substances Act, oxycodone is a Schedule II drug because it "has a high potential for abuse," because it "has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions," and because use of the drug "may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence."[93] According to Section 829 of the Act, Schedule II drugs must be dispensed only with the written prescription of a practitioner except in certain situations (e.g., "dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist," or "dispensed upon oral prescription (i.e. telephone)" in "emergency situations").[93] .Furthermore, Section 829 specifies that prescriptions for Schedule II drugs cannot be refilled.^ Also, a prescription for a schedule II drug may not be refilled.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far the FDA has stood by its policy of approving Schedule II drugs without demanding that they incorporate antagonists.

^ Purdue also suggested that we include Duragesic, also a schedule II opioid analgesic, as a fourth comparable drug to OxyContin.
  • GAO-04-110, Prescription Drugs: OxyContin Abuse and Diversion and Efforts to Address the Problem 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93]

See also

Notes

This article uses the terms "hazardous use," "harmful use," and "dependence" in accordance with Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1994.[94] In WHO usage, the first two terms replace the term "abuse" and the third term replaces the term "addiction."[94]

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Further reading

  • Meier, Barry (2003). .Pain killer: a "wonder" drug's trail of addiction and death.^ The addiction occurs because narcotics is the drug used for chronic pain, and the high dosage that is need in chronic pain suffers.
    • Courts Dismiss Six More OxyContin Lawsuits — LegalNewsWatch 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC www.legalnewswatch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now it is one of the widest abused prescription drugs in America, with a growing rate of addictions, overdoses, and even death all over this country.

    ^ The problem continues to grow, and the need is greater for education, prevention and drug rehab centers for those addicted to the powerful pain-killer drug which can easily be abused.
    • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Emmaus, PA: Rodale. ISBN 1579546382.
     
  • Pinsky, Drew (2004). .When painkillers become dangerous: what everyone needs to know about OxyContin and other prescription drugs.^ The other remaining were for other prescription drugs.

    ^ OxyContin "can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists [drugs of its type], legal or illicit," reads the new warning, announced today.
    • Stop OxyContin Abuse - Oxycontin Information & Resources 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC oxycontinabuse.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As is seen from the ED oxycodone mentions, the extent of OxyContin abuse is undramatic relative to the abuse of other drugs, and the same horrifying tales of human destruction have been told for decades about other drugs of the moment.
    • Oxycontin: The Politics, Science, and Sensationalization of an Abusable Pharmaceutical 2 February 2010 16:38 UTC opioids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Center City, MN: Hazelden. ISBN 159285107X.
     
  • Lockwood, Brad (2006). .Oxycontin: from pain relief to addiction.^ I now am only able to take 30mg of the purdue brand oxycontin compared to 50mg to 80mg of the generic brand I had been taking without sufficient pain relief.
    • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was doing this because of his addiction to the substance, and I assume, because of his desire for the rush, if you will, as opposed to just trying to get the same amount of relief of his pain.

    ^ When he was switched from Oxycontin to the generic form, he went from experiencing pain relief to experiencing no pain relief.
    • How Effective Is Generic Oxycodone? - The People's Pharmacy® 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.peoplespharmacy.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Rosen Pub. Group, Inc. ISBN 9781404209138.
     

External links


Simple English

Oxycodone is a synthetic opioid. It is used as an analgesic, to relieve pain. Its structure is similar to Codeine. As a painkiller, it is usually marketed in drugs that combine it with either Paracetamol or Aspirin. In some forms, the oxycodone can be extracted very easily. Some people use this as an illegal drug. Like with most other opioids, there is a high risk of addiction.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Oxycodone, which are similar to those in the above article.








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