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Oxytocin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-(19-amino-13-sec-butyl-7-(carboxymethyl)-4-(2-(1-(carboxymethylamino)-5-
guanidino-1-oxopentan-2-ylcarbamoyl)pyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-16-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-6,9,12,15,18-pentaoxo-1,2-dithia-5,8,11,14,17-pentaazacycloicosan-10-yl)propanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 50-56-6
ATC code H01BB02
PubChem 439302
DrugBank BTD00016
ChemSpider 388434
Chemical data
Formula C43H66N12O12S2 
Mol. mass 1007.19 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability nil
Protein binding 30%
Metabolism hepatic oxytocinases
Half life 1–6 min
Excretion Biliary and renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. A(AU)
Legal status POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Intranasal, IV, IM
.Oxytocin (pronounced /ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/) (sold as Pitocin, Syntocinon) is a mammalian hormone that acts primarily as a neurotransmitter in the brain.^ Kozlowski GP, and Nilaver G. Localization of neurohypophysial hormones in the mammalian brain.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurotransmitters and Conflict The brain is awash in chemicals, including hormones and neurotransmtters that accentuate or dampen its responses and influence its organization and operations.
  • Bringing Oxytocin Into The Room: Notes On The Neurophysiology Of Conflict 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus OT may act primarily as a local mediator and not as a circulating hormone during parturition.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Also known as alpha-hypophamine (α–hypophamine), oxytocin has the distinction of being the very first polypeptide hormone to be sequenced and synthesized biochemically by Vincent du Vigneaud et al.^ Oxytocin was one of the first peptide hormones to be isolated and sequenced.
  • Use of oxytocin for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition against cancer in situ and cervicitis - Patent 7405200 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hormone assays Oxytocin was assayed as described by McNeilly et al.
  • Relation of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin Concentrations to Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants: Influence of Stress -- Chatterton et al. 85 (10): 3661 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin was first synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, for which he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1955.
  • Bringing Oxytocin Into The Room: Notes On The Neurophysiology Of Conflict 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in 1953.[1]
.Oxytocin is best known for its roles in female reproduction: 1) it is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor, and 2) after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding, respectively.^ Perhaps the best-known birth hormone is oxytocin, the hormone of love, which is secreted during sexual activity, male and female orgasm, birth, and breastfeeding.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulating the nipples causes the release of additional oxytocin.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medicine has long known the effects of oxytocin on the female reproductive system.
  • EP17. OXYTOCIN IS A MANY SPLENDID THING 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ksharpe.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, trust, love, and maternal behaviors.^ But it's oxytocin's role in bonding that is most intriguing.
  • Gregarious people may have more oxytocin receptors | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In certain mountain rodents such as the mountain vole, a species that lives an isolated life (as differentiated from the prairie vole, which is more social), a shot of oxytocin proved to encourage bonding and pairing between voles.
  • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 3/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior towards foreign lambs upon cerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise.

[2]

Contents

Actions

.Oxytocin has peripheral (hormonal) actions, and also has actions in the brain.^ Peripheral (hormonal) actions of oxytocin .
  • About Oxytocin | Psych Central 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin has peripheral (hormonal) actions, and also has actions in the brain.
  • Oxytocin Molecule 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin produces action both peripherally and in the brain.

.The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high affinity oxytocin receptors.^ The method according to claim 3, wherein said substance that increases the release of oxytocin and/or the number or affinity of oxytocin receptors is oestrogen.
  • Use of oxytocin for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition against cancer in situ and cervicitis - Patent 7405200 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The present study provides morphological evidence for tachykinin - induced modulation of oxytocin -containing neurons as mediated by substance P receptor in the hypothalamus of mammals.
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such substances could increase the release of oxytocin and/or the number or affinity of oxytocin receptors, such as oestrogen, or drugs having an α 2 -agonistic effect, such as clonidine.
  • Use of oxytocin for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition against cancer in situ and cervicitis - Patent 7405200 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor which requires Mg2+ and cholesterol.^ Lefkowitz RJ. G protein-coupled receptors.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytoplasmic loops 2 and 3 are also proposed to be implicated in receptor G protein coupling for many other GPCRs.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Strakova Z, and Soloff MS. Coupling of oxytocin receptor to G proteins in rat myometrium during labor: G i receptor interaction.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.^ It belongs to the rhodopsin-type (class I) group of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  • Oxytocin Molecule 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lefkowitz RJ. G protein-coupled receptors.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite the close similarities in sequence, oxytocin and vasopressin have different biological activities and bind to distinct G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Millipore - ChemiScreen™ Recombinant Human OT Oxytocin Receptor Membrane Preparation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Millipore - ChemiScreen™ CALCIUM-OPTIMIZED STABLE CELL LINE HUMAN RECOMBINANT OT OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

Peripheral (hormonal) actions

.The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland.^ Peripheral (hormonal) actions of oxytocin .
  • About Oxytocin | Psych Central 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is secreted from the pituitary gland.
  • Oxytocin : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., information 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production and secretion of natural oxytocin is stimulated by the pituitary gland.
  • Uterine Stimulants - procedure, test, blood, pain, complications, time, infection, medication, pregnancy, heart, risk, nausea, rate, Definition, Purpose, Precautions, Description, Preparation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.(See oxytocin receptor for more detail on its action.^ The occurrence of homologous desensitization (but not heterologous desensitization) of [Ca 2+ ] i responses to oxytocin and vasopressin in renal medulla cells was taken as evidence for action via distinct receptors ( 27 ).
  • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, the possibility that the antidiuretic action of oxytocin is mediated via the V 2 receptor has been reported in animal studies.
  • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to in vitro microperfusion studies from rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), the hydrosmotic action of oxytocin is mediated by the V 2 receptor [ 7 , 8 ].
  • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

)
.
  • Letdown reflex – in lactating (breastfeeding) mothers, oxytocin acts at the mammary glands, causing milk to be 'let down' into a collecting chamber, from where it can be extracted by compressing the areola and sucking at the nipple.^ Cows lactate, their mammary glands emboldened by oxytocin.
    • oxytocin@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oxytocin has long been used to induce labour and assist the let-down of milk in breastfeeding.

    ^ In breastfeeding, oxytocin mediates the let-down reflex and is released in pulses as the baby suckles.
    • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus.^ Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus.
    • About Oxytocin | Psych Central 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxytocin Molecule 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the caudal brainstem, and from there to the hypothalamus.

    ^ Sucking by the infant at the nipple is relayed by spinal nerves to the hypothalamus .
    • Oxytocin - WikiHealth 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The stimulation causes neurons that make oxytocin to fire action potentials in intermittent bursts; these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland.
  • Uterine contraction – important for cervical dilation before birth and causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor.^ Causes uterine contractions.

    ^ Use during the third stage of labor (delivery of the placenta).
    • Maintain Healthy Levels of Oxytocin & Support Placenta Delivery 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Physiologically, it promotes the secretion of breast milk and stimulates the contraction of the uterus during labor.
    • Bringing Oxytocin Into The Room: Notes On The Neurophysiology Of Conflict 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxytocin release during breastfeeding causes mild but often painful uterine contractions during the first few weeks of lactation.^ Causes uterine contractions.

    ^ Oxytocin : Medication that causes uterine contractions .
    • * Oxytocin - (Pregnancy & Parenting): Definition 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC en.mimi.hu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxytocin is not simply released during orgasm, it seems to actually cause orgasm .
    • oxytocin@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum.^ This also serves to assist the uterus in clotting the placental attachment point postpartum.
    • About Oxytocin | Psych Central 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC psychcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxytocin Molecule 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
    • WHAT IS OXYTOCIN? 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.best-discount-gifts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

    .However, in knockout mice lacking the oxytocin receptor, reproductive behavior and parturition is normal.^ Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice.
    • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Roles of prostaglandin and oxytocin receptors in parturition .
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Female reproduction in mice lacking the prostaglandin F receptor .
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    [3]
  • .
  • The relationship between oxytocin and human sexual response is unclear.^ Legros JJ, Chiodera P, Geenen V, Smitz S, and Von Frenckell R. Dose-response relationship between plasma oxytocin and cortisol and adrenocorticotropin concentrations during oxytocin infusion in normal men.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin levels were compared between genders and between subjects with and without a romantic relationship, using the t -test (two-tailed, unpaired), and between subjects with different attachment styles with ANOVA. .
    • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is oxytocin that makes two people go to bed and experience the ultimate satisfaction of a human relationship.
    • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .At least two non-controlled studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm – in both men and women.^ Interestingly enough, surges of oxytocin have also been found in the blood of men and women during orgasm.
    • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both men and women feel the effects of oxytocin but to different degrees.
    • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A 1998 study found significantly lower levels of oxytocin in blood plasma of autistic children.

    [4][5] .Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of self stimulated orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured 5 minutes after self arousal.^ "Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children".

    ^ In human females, masturbation to orgasm also increases plasma oxytocin levels (13).
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    [4] .The authors of one of these studies speculated that oxytocin's effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate sperm and egg transport.^ Effect of oxytocin on phasic contractions .
    • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In men’s, oxytocin may facilitate healthy erections and sperm ejaculation.
    • Scenes from an oxytocin party Boing Boing 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxytocin causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus and of the mammary gland.
    • Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.uniprot.org [Source type: Academic]

    [4] .In a study that measured oxytocin serum levels in women before and after sexual stimulation the author suggests that oxytocin serves an important role in sexual arousal.^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ CCK stimulates the release of oxytocin in women.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cuddling increases oxytocin release, stimulating sexual arousal in women.
    • The Medical Need for Orgasms in Women 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.13.waisays.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This study found that that genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm.^ Wildt L, Kissler S, Licht P, Becker W: Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography.
    • HMDB: Showing Oxytocin (HMDB02865) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These results lay the foundation for future investigation into the neural role of the OTR and provide a useful model for further study of oxytocin functions in the mouse.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ B, Cells were pretreated with oxytocin and then stimulated with GnRH. Results were obtained from three separate experiments that included a total of approximately 50 cells.
    • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [6] .Another study that reports increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal states that it could be in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract stimulation as confirmed in other mammals.^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In sexual arousal, vasopressin is at its peak, while oxytocin peaks during ejaculation.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sexual arousal during breastfeeding .
    • Is breastfeeding a sexual act? 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.007b.com [Source type: Original source]

    [7] .Murphy et al.^ Murphy et al.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Murphy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Murphy, M.R. et al, Naloxone inhibits oxytocin release at orgasm in man.
    • The Medical Need for Orgasms in Women 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.13.waisays.com [Source type: Academic]

    .(1987), studying men, found that oxytocin levels were raised throughout sexual arousal and there was no acute increase at orgasm.^ Also, there was no evidence for a decline in oxytocin levels from 2–6 weeks of lactation.
    • Relation of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin Concentrations to Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants: Influence of Stress -- Chatterton et al. 85 (10): 3661 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Men's oxytocin levels have been found to quintuple during orgasm, but women's levels skyrocket .
    • oxytocin@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    [8] .A more recent study of men found an increase in plasma oxytocin immediately after orgasm, but only in a portion of their sample that did not reach statistical significance.^ The second, and more striking, effect of this concentration of oxytocin was to selectively increase the tension evoked at each [Ca 2+ ] i during the falling phase of each phasic contraction (Table 2 ).
    • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ One patient in that study was colectomised, and she was the only one in whom no increase in oxytocin release was seen after CCK stimulation.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Recent human studies have shown that OT facilitates a temporary attachment between strangers, increasing trust and reciprocity [34] – [38] .
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The authors noted that these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue."^ Many neurons make peptides that act as messengers within the brain, and many of these are also released from dendrites, so this model may reflect a common pattern-generating mechanism in the brain.
    • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At these positions, an amino acid substitution may be tolerated through mammalian evolution without influencing the functional properties of the receptor.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These data indicate that early breastfeeding and physical closeness may be associated not only with more interaction between mother and child, but also with endocrine [hormonal] changes in the mother.
    • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

    [9]
.It is also important to note that more studies have been done to examine sexual arousal in women compared to men.^ Forty-five healthy subjects (12 men, 33 women, mean age 31.5 ± 6.2 years) all of whom volunteered for the study, were included.
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Not until the seventies in the last century, women hardly ever were sexually satisfied by men.
  • The Medical Need for Orgasms in Women 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.13.waisays.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No studies have yet examined the effect of DA agonists or antagonists in other regions of the brain or on other forms of appetitive sexual responding in females.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Women experience longer orgasms compared to men, (see orgasm) and have a more complex reproductive endocrine system with clearly identified cycles such as, menstruation, lactation, menopause, and pregnancy.^ Patients are growing sicker (and living longer) and requiring more complex care than ever, and the supply of nurses is shrinking at the same time.
  • Ricki Lake: Please stop lying about homebirth! - AmyTuteurMD - Open Salon 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men's oxytocin levels have been found to quintuple during orgasm, but women's levels skyrocket .
  • oxytocin@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The OT mRNA in the rat shows an increase in poly(A) tail length in response to the activation of the hypothalamoneurohypophysial system, e.g., during pregnancy, lactation, and dehydration.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] .This allows more opportunities to measure and examine the hormones related to sexual arousal.^ The nearest measure of a predictable mounting pattern is the semivoluntary tendency to pelvic thrusting which is a feature of human sexual arousal, but which in fact has been largely ignored in the human literature.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In men, alcohol dose-dependently delayed ejaculation, reduced the intensity of orgasm, and decreased both physiological and subjective measures of sexual arousal.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And if the process calls for a follow-up ultrasound examination, there is one more opportunity for the mother to bond with her unborn child."
  • 'Stealth' Bush Appointee Worries About Wayward Wives | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Oxytocin evokes feelings of contentment, reductions in anxiety, and feelings of calmness and security around a mate.^ Beyond the reduction of anxiety oxytocin is suggested to have specific rewarding or hedonic effects that may facilitate parenting (Numan and Insel, 2003 ).
  • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .In order to reach full orgasm[citation needed], it is necessary that brain regions associated with behavioral control, fear and anxiety are deactivated; which allows individuals to let go of fear and anxiety during sexual arousal.^ Second, alcohol has long been associated with sexual disinhibition and has been reported to enhance sexual arousal and behavior in some individuals with preexisting sexual dysfunctions, such as premature ejaculation, inhibited sexual desire, or inhibited orgasm.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, oxytocin is released during stress (Jezova et al., 1995 ) and is an important modulator of anxiety and fear response (McCarthy et al., 1996 ).
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These data suggest that endogenous oxytocin serves to facilitate certain components of sexual arousal and copulatory behavior.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

(see .orgasm) Many studies have already shown a correlation of oxytocin with social bonding, increases in trust, and decreases in fear.^ It is interesting to note that oxytocin seems to be released during sexual intercourse and orgasm [ 18 ] and during the application of different relaxation techniques [ 19 , 20 ], so that it is thought to be one of the promoters of attachment and/or mediators in the decrease of the stress responses which are related to positive social bonding [ 21 - 23 ].
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, oxytocin administration in humans was shown to increase trust, suggesting involvement of the amygdala, a central component of the neurocircuitry of fear and social cognition that has been linked to trust and highly expresses oxytocin receptors in many mammals.
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An estrogen -dependent four-gene micronet regulating social recognition: a study with oxytocin and estrogen receptor -alpha and -beta knockout mice .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

.One study confirmed that there was a positive correlation between oxytocin plasma levels and an anxiety scale measuring the adult romantic attachment.^ Research A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment .
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment .
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The major finding of the present study was the detection of a statistically significant and positive correlation between oxytocin plasma levels and the anxiety scale of the ECR, a self-report questionnaire measuring adult romantic attachment, which showed that the higher the oxytocin levels, the higher the score on the anxiety scale of the ECR. .
  • Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.cpementalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

[12] .This suggests that oxytocin may be important for the inhibition of brain regions that are associated with behavioral control, fear, and anxiety, thus allowing orgasm to occur.^ In addition, oxytocin is released during stress (Jezova et al., 1995 ) and is an important modulator of anxiety and fear response (McCarthy et al., 1996 ).
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The continuous presence of receptors in certain brain regions after gonadectomy suggests the existence of alternate mechanisms of regulation.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The important role of oxytocin in parental behavior of rodents (Lim and Young, 2006 ; Olazábal and Young, 2006 ) and sheep (Keverne and Kendrick, 1992 ) has been documented extensively.
  • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

  • Due to its similarity to vasopressin, it can reduce the excretion of urine slightly. .In several species, oxytocin can stimulate sodium excretion from the kidneys (natriuresis), and in humans, high doses of oxytocin can result in hyponatremia.
  • Oxytocin and oxytocin receptors are also found in the heart in some rodents, and the hormone may play a role in the embryonal development of the heart by promoting cardiomyocyte differentiation.^ Several mechanisms may be involved in oxytocin actions on the heart.
    • Negative Inotropic and Chronotropic Effects of Oxytocin -- Mukaddam-Daher et al. 38 (2): 292 -- Hypertension 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hyper.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin receptors and human parturition: a dual role for oxytocin in the initiation of labor.
    • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In certain mountain rodents such as the mountain vole, a species that lives an isolated life (as differentiated from the prairie vole, which is more social), a shot of oxytocin proved to encourage bonding and pairing between voles.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 3/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    [13][14] .However, the absence of either oxytocin or its receptor in knockout mice has not been reported to produce cardiac insufficiencies.^ Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice.
    • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This is the first report showing that the antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary AQP2 excretion, and these observations further suggest that oxytocin might produce antidiuresis by regulating AQP2 possibly via the V 2 receptor in humans.
    • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Effects of oxytocin and an oxytocin receptor antagonist on retention of a nose-poke habituation response in mice.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    [3]
  • .
  • Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.^ Reduced brain and plasma levels of OT during the starvation phase of the illness might contribute to the symptom profile of anxiety, loss of libido, amenorrhea, and increased activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal stress axis.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The major endocrine response to stress is via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Altemus M, Deuster PA, Galliven E, Carter CS, and Gold PW. Suppression of hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in lactating women.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxytocin, under certain circumstances, indirectly inhibits release of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol and, in those situations, may be considered an antagonist of vasopressin.^ When oxytocin release is inhibited, it results in: .

    ^ Moreover, the vasopressin response was inhibited by an oxytocin antagonist (Fig.
    • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Calcium antagonists, such as nifedipine and, to a lesser extent, magnesium sulfate, may also inhibit uterine contractions.
    • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [15]

Actions within the brain

.Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood-brain barrier.^ Second, oxytocin, synthetic or not, cannot cross from the body to the brain through the blood-brain barrier.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peptides and the blood-brain barrier.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IV oxytocin cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or which are collaterals from them.^ Actions of oxytocin on behaviors in different species .
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved nonapeptide released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus through the posterior pituitary (Buijs et al., 1983 ).
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is a nine amino acid peptide hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary gland with a well-established involvement in the female reproductive function.
  • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens and brainstem.^ Verbalis JG. The brain oxytocin receptor(s)?
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved nonapeptide released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus through the posterior pituitary (Buijs et al., 1983 ).
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is a nonapeptide secreted by the posterior pituitary, but it is also released into the brain from the terminals of neurons located in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamus, the latter of which projects axons inter alia to the ventrolateral regions of the VMH, lateral septum, brainstem and spinal cord autonomic regions (see Rinaman et al.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

  • Sexual arousal. .Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats,[17] reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord.^ Oxytocin administration at the rat upper spinal cord 11 or into acutely decentralized canine stellate or middle cervical ganglia 12 induces significant increases in cardiac rate and force.
    • Negative Inotropic and Chronotropic Effects of Oxytocin -- Mukaddam-Daher et al. 38 (2): 292 -- Hypertension 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hyper.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin is a nonapeptide secreted by the posterior pituitary, but it is also released into the brain from the terminals of neurons located in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamus, the latter of which projects axons inter alia to the ventrolateral regions of the VMH, lateral septum, brainstem and spinal cord autonomic regions (see Rinaman et al.
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Beckmann H, Lang RE, and Gattaz WF. Vasopressin-oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients and normal controls.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Centrally administrated oxytocin receptor antagonists can prevent non contact erections, which is a measure of sexual arousal.^ To test whether Oxt itself regulates feeding, we measured the effects of central administration of an Oxt receptor antagonist or repeated doses of Oxt on food intake of Sim1 (+/-) and wild-type mice.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Systemic administration of the k -receptor agonist U-50,488H, decreased sexual behavior in male rats, and this effect was prevented by systemic naloxone or intracranial infusions of a k -receptor antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (NBNI).
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To test whether Oxt itself regulates feeding, we measured the effects of central administration of an Oxt receptor antagonist or repeated doses of Oxt on food intake of Sim1 +/ – and wild-type mice.
    • Oxytocin Deficiency Mediates Hyperphagic Obesity of Sim1 Haploinsufficient Mice -- Kublaoui et al. 22 (7): 1723 -- Molecular Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC mend.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Studies using oxytocin antagonists in female rats provide data that oxytocin increases lordosis, indicating an increase in sexual receptivity.^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Arletti R, and Bertolini A. Oxytocin stimulates lordosis behavior in female rats.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anderson HM, and Dennerstein L. Increased female sexual response after oxytocin.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [10]
  • Bonding. .In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner.^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In certain mountain rodents such as the mountain vole, a species that lives an isolated life (as differentiated from the prairie vole, which is more social), a shot of oxytocin proved to encourage bonding and pairing between voles.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 3/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A substantial animal literature has established that OT facilitates attachment to offspring, and in monogamous mammals, cohabiting sexual partners and same-sex conspecifics [31] – [33] .
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males.^ Because of its structural similarity to vasopressin and its presence in the neurohypophysis of males, its role as a hormone in other physiological processes, especially in renal function, has been under investigation for years.
    • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [18] .Oxytocin has a role in social behaviors in many species, and so it seems likely that it has similar roles in humans.
  • Autism.^ Actions of oxytocin on behaviors in different species .
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In social living species like humans, affiliative behaviors are an essential component of reproduction.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PubMed ] Frayne J, Nicholson HD: Localization of oxytocin receptors in the human and macaque monkey male reproductive tracts: evidence for a physiological role of oxytocin in the male.
    • HMDB: Showing Oxytocin (HMDB02865) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxytocin may play a role in autism and may be an effective treatment for autism's repetitive and affiliative behaviors.^ The important role of oxytocin in parental behavior of rodents (Lim and Young, 2006 ; Olazábal and Young, 2006 ) and sheep (Keverne and Kendrick, 1992 ) has been documented extensively.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In contrast, humans and other primates display a phenomenon called "concealed ovulation" that may have played a role in the evolution of social structures ( 369 ).
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These data suggest that oxytocin acts directly on the CNS to alter behavior toward pups and that prolactin may not play a role in the maternal behavior of the house mouse .
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    [19] .Oxytocin treatments also resulted in an increased retention of affective speech in adults with autism.^ Urinary excretion of AQP2 increased after pre-treatment with oxytocin and dDAVP in patients with CDI, but not in patients with NDI. The figures represent the means±SEM of the values obtained.
    • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Urinary excretion of AQP2 increased after pre-treatment with oxytocin, dDAVP and water deprivation.
    • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Its involvement in social behaviours has even led to oxytocin being investigated as a potential treatment for autism .
    • Gregarious people may have more oxytocin receptors | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [20] .Two related studies in adults, in 2003 and 2007, found that oxytocin decreased repetitive behaviors and improved interpretation of emotions, but these preliminary results do not necessarily apply to children.^ These results lay the foundation for future investigation into the neural role of the OTR and provide a useful model for further study of oxytocin functions in the mouse.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The effects of naloxone on sexual behavior have also been studied using a number of these behavioral procedures, and the results also indicate the complexities underlying the superficially simple effects of the systemically administered opioid antagonist.
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In humans, OT-related maternal behaviors have not been the subject of any systematic studies so far.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [21] .Oxytocin has also been implicated in the etiology of autism with one report suggesting that autism is correlated with genomic deletion of the gene containing the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR).^ Positive association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) with autism in the Chinese Han population.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Am J Physiol 1995; 269: F70–F77 Terashima Y, Kondo K, Oiso Y. Administration of oxytocin affects vasopressin V2 receptor and aquaporin-2 gene expression in the rat.
    • Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 -- Joo et al. 19 (10): 2480 -- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ndt.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Keywords: parenting; sensitivity; oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene; serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene; marital discord; maternal depression .
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Studies involving Caucasian and Finnish samples and Chinese Han families provide support for the relationship of OXTR with autism.^ Replication in a Caucasian sample showed preferential transmission of G over A at rs2254298 for children with autism, but no significant association with rs53576 (Jacob et al ., 2007 ).
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In previous studies, variations in OXTR have been related to autism.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Positive association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) with autism in the Chinese Han population.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [20][22] .Autism may also be associated by an aberrant methylation of OXTR, as reported by Gregory and colleagues.^ Positive association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) with autism in the Chinese Han population.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [20] .After treatment with inhaled oxytocin, autistic patients exhibit more appropriate social behavior.^ Intriguingly, the same paper suggests that the distribution of oxytocin receptors in the brain might help to explain why some animals are more social than others.
    • Gregarious people may have more oxytocin receptors | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination : a detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Young LJ. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptors and species-typical social behaviors.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [23]
  • Maternal behavior. .Rat females given oxytocin antagonists after giving birth do not exhibit typical maternal behavior.^ Arletti R, and Bertolini A. Oxytocin stimulates lordosis behavior in female rats.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Additionally, in nonovariectomized female rats in spontaneous behavioral estrus, intracerebroventricular injection of OT increased lordosis quotient and lordosis duration, whereas an OT antagonist prevented this OT-induced effect ( 50 ).
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vincent PA, and Etgen AM. Steroid priming promotes oxytocin-induced norepinephrine release in the ventromedial hypothalamus of female rats.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [24] .By contrast, virgin female sheep show maternal behavior towards foreign lambs upon cerebrospinal fluid infusion of oxytocin, which they would not do otherwise.^ Beckmann H, Lang RE, and Gattaz WF. Vasopressin-oxytocin in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients and normal controls.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The important role of oxytocin in parental behavior of rodents (Lim and Young, 2006 ; Olazábal and Young, 2006 ) and sheep (Keverne and Kendrick, 1992 ) has been documented extensively.
    • Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genes associated with observed parenting -- Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn 3 (2): 128 -- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC scan.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Brown DC, and Perkowski S. Oxytocin content of the cerebrospinal fluid of dogs and its relationship to pain induced by spinal cord compression.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [25]
  • .
  • Increasing trust and reducing fear.^ Second, it suggests that a variety of techniques might be useful in reducing adrenalin, increasing oxytocin, and stimulating collaboration and trust.
    • Bringing Oxytocin Into The Room: Notes On The Neurophysiology Of Conflict 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "It promotes bonding by reducing fear and anxiety in social settings, increasing trust and trustworthiness, reducing stress and pain, and decreasing social aggression," he said.
    • 'Stealth' Bush Appointee Worries About Wayward Wives | Rights and Liberties | AlterNet 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    .In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group.^ Nature: Oxytocin and Trust http://www.nature.c...umm/e050602-13.html [ leinypoo13 , Aug 07 2007] In a risky investment game, experimental subjects given nasally administered oxytocin displayed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group.
    • Halfbakery: Oxytocin car freshener 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.halfbakery.com [Source type: General]

    ^ High levels of Oxytocin correlate to high levels of trust.
    • All Things International - ATI/RI/PDR Soap Opera 2 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC wc5.worldcrossing.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nasally administered oxytocin is contraindicated in pregnancy.

    .Subjects who were told that they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin was not merely affecting risk-aversion.^ However, one of the women included was colectomised, and she was the only one who had no release of oxytocin in response to CCK [ 14 ], although colectomy leads to higher concentrations of CCK in plasma [ 15 - 17 ].
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Next, I was told because they gave me and exam, I had one hour to push the baby out or I would under no uncertain terms be having a c section due to the risk of infection.
    • Ricki Lake: Please stop lying about homebirth! - AmyTuteurMD - Open Salon 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My conclusion: liquid trust contains effectively no oxytocin, and is merely a homeopathic scam.
    • Scenes from an oxytocin party Boing Boing 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [26] .Nasally administered oxytocin has also been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be responsible for fear responses).^ From Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxytocin - Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore must be administered by injection or as nasal spray.
    • Scenes from an oxytocin party Boing Boing 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition, oxytocin is released during stress (Jezova et al., 1995 ) and is an important modulator of anxiety and fear response (McCarthy et al., 1996 ).
    • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Key words: amygdala ; social cognition ; human ; fMRI ; oxytocin ; fear .
    • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

    [27] .Rather than enhancing positive social emotions, it has been suggested that it has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and schadenfreude.^ It has also been suggested that initial or continued intravenous administration of oxytocin increases effectiveness.
    • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The second, and more striking, effect of this concentration of oxytocin was to selectively increase the tension evoked at each [Ca 2+ ] i during the falling phase of each phasic contraction (Table 2 ).
    • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Although 10 -7 M GnRH and 10 -7 M oxytocin caused comparable spike increases in [Ca 2+ ] i , the plateau response to oxytocin was clearly less pronounced than that to GnRH (Figs.
    • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [28]
  • .
  • Affecting generosity by increasing empathy during perspective taking.^ The increased generosity was not due to greater altruism because OT did not affect transfers in the DG, and the impact of OT on generosity remains significant even when altruism in the DG was taken into account.
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When induced to take another's perspective in the UG, due to the risk of punishment, transfers are higher than in the DG. We showed that empathy is a likely causal factor because OT infusion produced an increase in generosity.
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    .In a neuroeconomics experiment, intranasal oxytocin increased generosity in the Ultimatum Game by 80% but has no effect in the Dictator Game that measures altruism.^ State-sensitive instruments (STAXI state component, SAM, and MBDF) were administered before and after drug administration to investigate an acute effect of oxytocin on the measured scales.
    • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This indicates that generosity is associated with both altruism as well as an emotional identification with another person.” [Zak PJ, Stanton AA, Ahmadi S (2007) Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans.
    • Bringing Oxytocin Into The Room: Notes On The Neurophysiology Of Conflict 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.mediate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One patient in that study was colectomised, and she was the only one in whom no increase in oxytocin release was seen after CCK stimulation.
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Perspective-taking is not required in the Dictator Game, but the researchers in this experiment explicitly induced perspective-taking in the Ultimatum Game by not identifying to participants which role they would be in.^ I also thought it seemed a little odd that they would take her on and off the Pitocin like that.
    • Pitocin/induction question - Authors Denise & Alan Fields / Windsor Peak Press Book Forums 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.windsorpeak.com [Source type: General]

    ^ By asking subjects for the minimum acceptable offer, the UG task was designed to have participants consider how the DM2 in the dyad would react to an offer (perspective taking).
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Two decision tasks from experimental economics, the ultimatum game (UG) and the dictator game (DG) were used.
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    [29]
  • .
  • According to some studies in animals, oxytocin inhibits the development of tolerance to various addictive drugs (opiates, cocaine, alcohol) and reduces withdrawal symptoms.^ Moreover, OT has been shown to inhibit the development of tolerance to morphine and to attenuate various symptoms of morphine withdrawal in mice (Table 5 ).
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It does tend to shorten labor compared with lower-dose oxytocin regimens, and a few studies have shown it reduces the cesarean rate, although others do not.
    • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Intriguingly, the same paper suggests that the distribution of oxytocin receptors in the brain might help to explain why some animals are more social than others.
    • Gregarious people may have more oxytocin receptors | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    [30]
  • Preparing fetal neurons for delivery. .Crossing the placenta, maternal oxytocin reaches the fetal brain and induces a switch in the action of neurotransmitter GABA from excitatory to inhibitory on fetal cortical neurons.^ For simplicity, we assume that the rates of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs are equally affected by endocannabinoids [24] , and neglect the direct effect of oxytocin on the actions of GABA [25] as duplicated by this.
    • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This awakening of maternal capabilities is well known among animal researchers, who link it to the action of pregnancy and birth hormones on the brain of newly delivered mothers.
    • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Theodosis DT, El MM, Gies U, and Poulain DA. Physiologically-linked structural plasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs to oxytocin neurons.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This silences the fetal brain for the period of delivery and reduces its vulnerability to hypoxic damage.^ If this is not addressed, it may result in fetal distress (abnormal heart-rate patterns), brain damage, or death.
    • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bradycardia Premature ventricular contractions and other arrhythmias Permanent CNS or brain damage Fetal death Neonatal seizures have been reported with the use of Pitocin.

    [31]
  • .
  • Certain learning and memory functions are impaired by centrally administered oxytocin.^ Engelmann M, Wotjak CT, Neumann I, Ludwig M, and Landgraf R. Behavioral consequences of intracerebral vasopressin and oxytocin: focus on learning and memory.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Verbalis JG, Blackburn RE, Hoffman GE, and Stricker EM. Establishing behavioral and physiological functions of central oxytocin: insights from studies of oxytocin and ingestive behaviors.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PVN neurons in Sim1 +/– mice are hyporesponsive to the melanocortin agonist melanotan II. PVN neuropeptides oxytocin (Oxt), TRH and CRH inhibit feeding when administered centrally.
    • Oxytocin Deficiency Mediates Hyperphagic Obesity of Sim1 Haploinsufficient Mice -- Kublaoui et al. 22 (7): 1723 -- Molecular Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC mend.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [17] .Also, systemic oxytocin administration can impair memory retrieval in certain aversive memory tasks.^ Regarding its impairing effects on some memory-related tasks, OT could possibly be involved in the forgetting of delivery pain in mothers ( 161 ).
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Plasma oxytocin concentrations were also high in lactating NCAM -deficient dams but certain parameters of lactation and maternal behaviour were impaired.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bohus B, Kovacs GL, and De Wied D. Oxytocin, vasopressin and memory: opposite effects on consolidation and retrieval processes.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    [32]
  • .
  • MDMA (ecstasy) may increase feelings of love, empathy and connection to others by stimulating oxytocin activity via activation of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, if initial studies in animals apply to humans.^ Some studies indicate that this disturbance may apply to humans also.
    • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sexual activity increases oxytocin levels.
    • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Women's brains also have more oxytocin neural receptors, and pregnancy may increase the number of receptors.
    • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [33] .The anxiolytic Buspar (buspirone) also appears to produce some or all of its effect via 5-HT1A receptor-induced oxytocin stimulation.^ Simultaneous administration of PLMPTO- OXY completely blocked the analgesia produced by OXY whereas the antidiuretic antagonist dIA- AVP partially blocked OXY - induced analgesia and dTM- AVP had no effect.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The present study provides morphological evidence for tachykinin - induced modulation of oxytocin -containing neurons as mediated by substance P receptor in the hypothalamus of mammals.
    • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CCK acts on receptors on afferent vagal nerves to stimulate the oxytocin release from the pituarity [ 12 ], and these receptors are present throughout the GI tract [ 3 - 5 ].
    • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    [34][35]
  • .
  • Emotional empathy in healthy males was recently shown to be increased after intranasal oxytocin.^ Recent human studies have shown that OT facilitates a temporary attachment between strangers, increasing trust and reciprocity [34] – [38] .
    • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nevertheless, in other studies emotional stress has been shown to increase oxytocin secretion ( 36 ).
    • Relation of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin Concentrations to Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants: Influence of Stress -- Chatterton et al. 85 (10): 3661 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CBH has not been shown to increase the risk of PPH; however, there was a trend to increased PPH in a recent meta-analysis.
    • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    [36] .This finding contradicts earlier findings that oxytocin has no effect on empathy for pain in partners,[37] which is most likely due to differentiation between cognitive empathy ('theory of mind') and emotional empathy (how much an individual 'feels' for another individual).^ Uvnas MK, Ahlenius S, Hillegaart V, and Alster P. High doses of oxytocin cause sedation and low doses cause an anxiolytic-like effect in male rats.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin and its receptor are highly regulated in different brain regions during the estrous cycle, an effect that is likely due to changes in estrogen and progesterone.
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In another series of Ca 2+ imaging experiments, effects of oxytocin, vasopressin, vasotocin, and GnRH were compared using a repeat stimulation protocol.
    • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .While cognitive empathy is thought primarily to involve the medial prefrontal cortex region, emotional empathy engages the insular and anterior cingulate cortices and limbic regions, such as the amygdala,[38][39] in which the oxytocin receptor is very densely distributed.^ In addition to its well-known effects on reproductive functions, such as uterine contraction, milk-ejection reflex, and induction of maternal behavior, 3 , 4 oxytocin was recently shown to be involved in endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation through receptor-mediated actions exerted on the heart, vasculature, and kidneys.
    • Negative Inotropic and Chronotropic Effects of Oxytocin -- Mukaddam-Daher et al. 38 (2): 292 -- Hypertension 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hyper.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin and its receptor are highly regulated in different brain regions during the estrous cycle, an effect that is likely due to changes in estrogen and progesterone.
    • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However only a single class of oxytocin receptor has been detected in the anterior pituitary gland ( 12 ).
    • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [40]

Drug forms

.Synthetic oxytocin is sold as proprietary medication under the trade names Pitocin and Syntocinon and also as generic oxytocin.^ They probably meant oxytocin, which is the generic name for Pitocin.
  • Pitocin/induction question - Authors Denise & Alan Fields / Windsor Peak Press Book Forums 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.windsorpeak.com [Source type: General]

^ Oxytocin is available under the names Pitocin (Parke-Davis) and Syntocinon (Sandoz).
  • Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.uniprot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Didn't know that was the generic name for pitocin!
  • Pitocin/induction question - Authors Denise & Alan Fields / Windsor Peak Press Book Forums 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.windsorpeak.com [Source type: General]

.Oxytocin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and therefore must be administered by injection or as nasal spray.^ The aim of this study was therefore to examine if women who had performed a colectomy, had a different oxytocin response to CCK than otherwise healthy women with an intact GI tract.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Subjects who inhaled oxytocin in a nasal spray were more likely to hand over cash to strangers, knowing that they might not get it back.
  • Gregarious people may have more oxytocin receptors | Science | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The rapid and transient increase following oxytocin stimulation is seen in Ca 2+ -free medium and must therefore reflect mobilization of [Ca 2+ ] i pools.
  • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Oxytocin has a half-life of typically about three minutes in the blood.^ Although the plasma half-life of pitocin is about 6 minutes, it can take up to 1 hour for the effects of pitocin to completely wear off.

^ Oxytocin crosses the placenta and enters the blood and brain of the fetus within seconds or minutes.

^ For example, the half-life of bupivacaine -- the time it takes to reduce blood level by 50% -- is 2.7 hours in the adult, but around 8 hours in a newborn baby.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

.Oxytocin given intravenously does not enter the brain in significant quantities - it is excluded from the brain by the blood-brain barrier.^ Peptides and the blood-brain barrier.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IV oxytocin cannot cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plasma OT does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, and there is no relationship between the release of OT into the blood by the neurohypophysis and the variations in OT concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is no evidence for significant CNS entry of oxytocin by nasal spray.^ Also, there was no evidence for a decline in oxytocin levels from 2–6 weeks of lactation.
  • Relation of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin Concentrations to Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants: Influence of Stress -- Chatterton et al. 85 (10): 3661 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When there is little oxytocin, there is no attachment.
  • Janov's reflections on the Human Condition: Oxytocin (Part 4/5) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cigognenews.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no evidence of adverse reactions associated with oxytocin infusion.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Oxytocin nasal sprays have been used to stimulate breastfeeding but the efficacy of this approach is doubtful.^ Using these strategies as the primary approach avoids unnecessary use of oxytocin, instrumental delivery, and c-section along with their attendant risks.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CAVEATS: Delivery methods and the use of oxytocin to stimulate labor may have differed among obstetricians and may have affected the results.
  • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In another series of Ca 2+ imaging experiments, effects of oxytocin, vasopressin, vasotocin, and GnRH were compared using a repeat stimulation protocol.
  • Oxytocin Receptor-Mediated Activation of Phosphoinositidase C and Elevation of Cytosolic Calcium in the Gonadotrope-Derived {alpha}T3-1 Cell Line -- Evans et al. 138 (5): 2049 -- Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.Injected oxytocin analogues are used for labor induction and to support labor in case of non-progression of parturition.^ Stubbs TM. Oxytocin for labor induction.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is commonly used to induce or augment labor, but its mode of action is uncertain.
  • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Theobald calculated that, at average levels used for induction or augmentation/acceleration, a womans oxytocin levels will be 130 to 570 times higher than she would naturally produce in labor.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has largely replaced ergometrine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage.^ If ongoing concerns exist regarding uterine tone, then start an oxytocin infusion or administer a longer-acting agent.
  • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to facilitate birth and to increase milk production.^ Oxytocin use rates and instrumental and cesarean delivery rates are much lower for out-of-hospital births.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With prolonged use, oxytocin increases the risk of postpartum hemorrhage.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trials using oxytocin alone showed reduced rates of manual removal of the placenta, whereas those using ergot preparations demonstrated increased rates.
  • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile) acts as an antagonist of oxytocin receptors; this drug is registered in many countries to suppress premature labor between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation.^ CCK acts on receptors on afferent vagal nerves to stimulate the oxytocin release from the pituarity [ 12 ], and these receptors are present throughout the GI tract [ 3 - 5 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strakova Z, and Soloff MS. Coupling of oxytocin receptor to G proteins in rat myometrium during labor: G i receptor interaction.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, oxytocin has in one study been shown to enhance gastric emptying [ 10 ], and in a yet unpublished study, we have found that an oxytocin-receptor antagonist delayed the gastric emptying rate (unpublished observation).
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Oxytocin and cholecystokinin secretion in women with colectomy 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline).^ Women are encouraged to use pharmaceutical pain relief for their own good with little reference to the possible side effects for the baby.

^ The D 2 side effects of such agonists, such as nausea or vestibular disturbance, make such positive drug effects difficult to elicit.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta-sympathomimetics (eg, ritodrine, terbutaline, salbutamol) relax the uterus via beta-2 stimulation.
  • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some have suggested that the trust-inducing property of oxytocin might help those who suffer from social anxieties and mood disorders, while others have noted the potential for abuse with confidence tricks[42][43] and military applications.^ Therefore those factors that inhibit oxytocin release in one area of reproductive behaviour will have the same effects in other areas.

^ Recently, oxytocin administration in humans was shown to increase trust, suggesting involvement of the amygdala, a central component of the neurocircuitry of fear and social cognition that has been linked to trust and highly expresses oxytocin receptors in many mammals.
  • Oxytocin Modulates Neural Circuitry for Social Cognition and Fear in Humans -- Kirsch et al. 25 (49): 11489 -- Journal of Neuroscience 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OT-induced cardiac effects were also reported for some other species.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[44]

Potential adverse reactions

.Oxytocin is relatively safe when used at recommended doses.^ In this country, doctors generally don't use forceps unless the head is low enough to make forceps relatively safe.
  • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The literature relating to the use of oxytocin bolus doses at caesarean section is presented in Table 1 .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonetheless we plan to use a 5 IU bolus of oxytocin within the trial in keeping with current recommended practice.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

Potential side effects include:[citation needed]
.
  • Central nervous system: Subarachnoid hemorrhage, seizures.
  • Cardiovascular: Increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, systemic venous return, cardiac output, and arrhythmias.
  • Genitourinary: Impaired uterine blood flow, pelvic hematoma, tetanic uterine contractions, uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage.
  • Fetal distress: Overstimulated uterus, too frequent contractions, resulting in reduced ability of placenta/fetus to re-oxygenate and process waste products.^ Amniotomy increases the incidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns.
    • Henci Goer: The Thinking Woman's Guide to a Better Birth: Sample Chapter 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hencigoer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both showed an increase in heart rate and blood pressure and in genital blood flow.
    • Oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the central nervous system, it has multiple actions on HR and blood pressure regulation.
    • Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia -- Braga et al. 278 (6): 1474 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    This increases chances of Caesarean section.

Synthesis, storage and release

oxytocin, prepro- (neurophysin I)
Identifiers
Symbol OXT
Alt. symbols OT
Entrez 5020
HUGO 8528
OMIM 167050
RefSeq NM_000915
UniProt P01178
Other data
Locus Chr. 20 p13
.The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.^ EntrezGene summary for OXT : There are two proteins encoded by this gene, oxytocin and neurophysin I. Oxytocin is posterior pituitary hormone which is synthesized as an inactive precursor in the hypothalamus along with its carrier protein neurophysin I. Together with neurophysin, it is packaged into neurosecretory vesicles and transported axonally to the nerve endings in the neurohypophysis, where it is either stored or secreted into the bloodstream.
  • OXT Gene - GeneCards | NEU1 Protein | NEU1 Antibody 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.genecards.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gene Network Central TM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for OXT 5/36 Interacting proteins for OXT ( ENSP00000217386 3 P01178 1 ) via UniProtKB, MINT, and/or STRING ( see all 36 ) .
  • OXT Gene - GeneCards | NEU1 Protein | NEU1 Antibody 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.genecards.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ivell R, and Richter D. The gene for the hypothalamic peptide hormone oxytocin is highly expressed in the bovine corpus luteum: biosynthesis, structure and sequence analysis.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[45][46][47] This precursor protein also includes the oxytocin carrier protein neurophysin I.[48] .The inactive precursor protein is progressively hydrolyzed into smaller fragments (one of which is neurophysin I) via a series of enzymes.^ The precursor is split into the indicated fragments by enzymatic cleavages, one involving a glycyl-lysyl-arginine (GKR) sequence and leaving a carboxamide group at the COOH-terminal end of OT. Signal, signal peptide.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.The last hydrolysis which releases the active oxytocin nonapeptide is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM).^ The processing of prohormones to active hormones is a complex event that requires the coordinated action of specific processing enzymes such as PC1/3 and PC2, carboxypeptidase E and peptidylglycine -amidating monooxygenase (PAM) ( Zhou et al.
  • Endocrinomic profile of neurointermediate lobe pituitary prohormone processing in PC1/3- and PC2-Null mice using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry -- Hardiman et al. 34 (3): 739 -- Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jme.endocrinology-journals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of lumbar epidural analgesia on prostaglandin F2 alpha release and oxytocin secretion during labor.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]
The activity of the PAM enzyme system is dependent upon ascorbate which is a necessary vitamin cofactor. .By chance, it was discovered that sodium ascorbate by itself stimulated the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of concentrations in a dose-dependent manner.^ Schams D, Kruip TA, and Koll R. Oxytocin determination in steroid producing tissues and in vitro production in ovarian follicles.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuchs AR, Rust W, and Fields MJ. Accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene transcripts in uterine tissues of pregnant and parturient cows: stimulation by oxytocin.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fuchs AR, Periyasamy S, Alexandrova M, and Soloff MS. Correlation between oxytocin receptor concentration and responsiveness to oxytocin in pregnant rat myometrium: effects of ovarian steroids.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] Many of the same tissues (e.g. ovaries, testes, eyes, adrenals, placenta, thymus, pancreas) where .PAM (and oxytocin by default) is found are also known to store higher concentrations of vitamin C.^ The use of pethidine, however, has been shown to slow labor,more so with higher doses, 49 which is consistent with the known reduction in oxytocin that natural opiates can cause.
  • Ecstatic birth - nature�s hormonal blueprint for labor 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.sarahjbuckley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreas OT and AVP have been identified in human and rat pancreatic extracts at higher concentrations than those found in the peripheral plasma ( 10 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OT concentrations were found to be higher in the atria than in the ventricles.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[51]

Neural sources

.In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary.^ Oxytocin is a nonapeptide secreted by the posterior pituitary, but it is also released into the brain from the terminals of neurons located in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamus, the latter of which projects axons inter alia to the ventrolateral regions of the VMH, lateral septum, brainstem and spinal cord autonomic regions (see Rinaman et al.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Localization of OT In the CNS, the OT gene is primarily expressed in magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic PVN and SON. Action potentials in these neurosecretory cells trigger the release of OT from their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis ( 464 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes) that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland.^ Plasma OT does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, and there is no relationship between the release of OT into the blood by the neurohypophysis and the variations in OT concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OT was also found to be responsible for the milk-ejecting activity of the posterior pituitary gland ( 428 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Given the neuroendocrine functions of the posterior pituitary, changes in Syt IV levels could be involved in endocrine transitions involving alterations in the release of the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

.These axons (likely, but dendrites have not been ruled out) have collaterals that innervate oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens.^ These contractions (sort of like aftershocks from an earthquake) are needed to expel the placenta and relax the mother after delivery of the baby .These contractions are triggered by a hormone called oxytocin.
  • Maintain Healthy Levels of Oxytocin & Support Placenta Delivery 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: General]

^ The two supraoptic nuclei contain about 2000 of these oxytocin cells and (in virgin rats) about 3.2 ng of oxytocin, about 95% of which is in the dendrites [11] .
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The likely explanation for these differences is that ergot preparations act systemically on smooth muscle, whereas oxytocin is specific for uterine smooth muscle.
  • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .The peripheral hormonal and behavioral brain effects of oxytocin it has been suggested are coordinated through its common release through these collaterals.^ Herbert (26) has argued that the high information content of peptide molecules and their preferential distribution in limbic structures indicate a chemical code of behavior and that given peptides have coordinated central and peripheral roles that have been conserved through evolution.
  • The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that OT has also effects on calcium influx through voltage-gated or receptor-coupled channels.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We have investigated the relationship between testicular oxytocin , tubular movements and the effects of LH and testosterone using, as a model, the hypogonadal ( hpg / hpg ) mouse, which is deficient in hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone ( LHRH ).
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Oxytocin is also made by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.^ Oxytocin is also made by some neurons in the paraventricular nucleus that project to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also projected to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord, where it acts as a neuromodulator, influencing the activity of other neurons in the brain.
  • News Blog: The hormone that helps you read minds 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neuroscientists, including the Swiss researchers, argue that Oxytocin is not so much a trust serum as a kind of brain messenger that primes animals to overcome their natural aversion to others.
  • OxyCalm helps promote relaxation, improve mood and enhance inner peaceand tranquility.* 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.oxycalm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Depending on the species, oxytocin-receptor expressing cells are located in other areas, including the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.^ These cells may be good models for future studies with respect to OT receptor regulation in dependence of steroids ( 118 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An estrogen -dependent four-gene micronet regulating social recognition: a study with oxytocin and estrogen receptor -alpha and -beta knockout mice .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OT receptors in dependence of culture conditions in Hs578 cells.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the pituitary gland, oxytocin is packaged in large, dense-core vesicles, where it is bound to neurophysin I as shown in the inset of the figure; neurophysin is a large peptide fragment of the larger precursor protein molecule from which oxytocin is derived by enzymatic cleavage.^ Abundant occurrence of oxytocin-, vasopressin-, and neurophysin-like peptides in epithelial cells.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Samson WK, and Schell DA. Oxytocin and the anterior pituitary gland.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On-chip peptide sequencing To more accurately determine the presence and identity of the neurophysin peptides, pituitary lysates were dried on Ciphergen hydrophobic H4 ProteinChips and incubated with CPY, a protease that systematically removes amino acids from the C-terminus of peptides and proteins.
  • Endocrinomic profile of neurointermediate lobe pituitary prohormone processing in PC1/3- and PC2-Null mice using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry -- Hardiman et al. 34 (3): 739 -- Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC jme.endocrinology-journals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Secretion of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve endings is regulated by the electrical activity of the oxytocin cells in the hypothalamus.^ Oxytocin regulates prolactin secretion.
  • The Medical Need for Orgasms in Women 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.13.waisays.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Leng G, Brown CH, and Russell JA. Physiological pathways regulating the activity of magnocellular neurosecretory cells.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in cultured human puerperal uterine myometrial cells.
  • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.These cells generate action potentials that propagate down axons to the nerve endings in the pituitary; the endings contain large numbers of oxytocin-containing vesicles, which are released by exocytosis when the nerve terminals are depolarised.^ From these varicosities, large vesicles that contain oxytocin are secreted by exocytosis [2] in response to action potentials (spikes), propagated down the axons [3] .
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxytocin is made by magnocellular hypothalamic neurons, and is secreted from their nerve endings in the pituitary in response to action potentials (spikes) that are generated in the cell bodies and which are propagated down their axons to the nerve endings.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During suckling, every 5 min or so, each of these neurons discharges a brief, intense burst of action potentials; these are propagated down the axons, and release a pulse of oxytocin into the circulation.
  • PLoS Computational Biology: Emergent Synchronous Bursting of Oxytocin Neuronal Network 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ploscompbiol.org [Source type: Academic]

Non-neural sources

.Outside the brain, oxytocin-containing cells have been identified in several diverse tissues including the corpus luteum,[53][54] the interstitial cells of Leydig,[55] the retina,[56] the adrenal medulla,[57] the placenta,[58] the thymus[59] and the pancreas.^ Within the rat testes, OT is present in the interstitial Leydig cells, the cells which provide the main source of testosterone in the male ( 412 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of OT on cultivated luteal cells were also strongly dependent on the age of the corpus luteum.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ovary and corpus luteum In several species, the ovary has been shown to contain OT and may be a site of local OT production ( 271 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[60] .The finding of significant amounts of this classically "neurohypophysial" hormone outside the central nervous system raises many questions regarding its possible importance in these different tissues.^ De Wied D, Diamant M, and Fodor M. Central nervous system effects of the neurohypophysial hormones and related peptides.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Buijs RM, Devries GJ, and Van Leeuwen FW. The distribution and synaptic release of oxytocin in the central nervous system.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The difference in the decision process between the UG and the DG, shown in the mathematical model above, suggests a reason for these findings.
  • PLoS ONE: Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Female

.Oxytocin is synthesized by corpora lutea of several species, including ruminants and primates.^ Pitzel L, Jarry H, and Wuttke W. Demonstration of oxytocin receptors in porcine corpora lutea: effects of the cycle stage and the distribution on small and large luteal cells.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several neurotransmitter-containing neurons in the rat paraventricular nucleus coexpress ERbeta including; vasopressin , oxytocin , prolactin , and to a lesser extent corticotrophin releasing hormone.
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

.Along with estrogen, it is involved in inducing the endometrial synthesis of prostaglandin F to cause regression of the corpus luteum.^ Pulsatile secretion of endometrial PGF 2 is stimulated by OT during late diestrus in domestic ruminants and results in regression of the corpus luteum leading to the onset of a new estrous cycle.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Swanston IA, McNatty KP, and Baird DT. Concentration of prostaglandin F 2 and steroids in the human corpus luteum.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During pregnancy, the developing conceptuses must prevent endometrial PGF 2 from being released into the uterine vasculature to prevent corpus luteum regression and progesterone withdrawal.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

Male

.The Leydig cells in some species have also been shown to possess the biosynthetic machinery to manufacture testicular oxytocin de novo, specifically, in rats (who can synthesize Vitamin C endogenously), and in guinea pigs who (like humans) require an exogenous source of vitamin C (ascorbate) in their diets.^ PubMed ] Legros JJ, Chiodera P, Geenen V: Inhibitory action of exogenous oxytocin on plasma cortisol in normal human subjects: evidence of action at the adrenal level.
  • HMDB: Showing Oxytocin (HMDB02865) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ With the use of a cell-specific targeting approach, it was shown that a subpopulation of lactotrophs respond to OT ( 493 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This could sustain transient increases in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations and thereby prolong the effects of OT. In rat, guinea pig, and human myometrial cells, the OT-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was suggested to be mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive and/or pertussis toxin-resistant G proteins ( 20 , 359 , 452 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[61]

Structure and relation to vasopressin

.Oxytocin is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide).^ Based on the amino acid at position 8, these peptides are classified into vasopressin and OT families: the vasopressin family contains a basic amino acid (Lys, Arg), and the OT family contains a neutral amino acid at this position (Table 1 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Saji F. (1994) Amino acids in the COOH-terminal region of the oxytocin receptor third intracellular domain are important for receptor function.
  • OXTR Gene - GeneCards | OXYR Protein | OXYR Antibody 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.genecards.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The sequence of amino acids in oxytocin, with a proposal for the structure of oxytocin."
  • Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.uniprot.org [Source type: Academic]

The sequence is cystyrilegluaspcysproleugly (CYIQNCPLG). .The cysteine residues form a sulfur bridge.^ The cysteine residues in the first and second extracellular loops are highly conserved within the GPCR family and are probably connected by a disulfide bridge.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 daltons. One international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 micrograms of pure peptide.
.The biologically active form of oxytocin, commonly measured by RIA and/or HPLC techniques, is also known as the octapeptide "oxytocin disulfide" (oxidized form), but oxytocin also exists as a reduced dithiol nonapeptide called oxytoceine.^ The neurohypophysial hormone oxytocin (OT) was the first peptide hormone to have its structure determined and the first to be chemically synthesized in biologically active form ( 143 ).
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[62] .It has been theorized that open chain oxytoceine (the reduced form of oxytocin) may also act as a free radical scavenger (by donating an electron to a free radical); oxytoceine may then be oxidized back to oxytocin via the redox potential of dehydroascorbate <---> ascorbate.^ For example, OT acting as an anxiolytic may reduce the inhibition inherent in social encounters.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, oxytocin, possibly via protein kinase C ( 16 ), may have increased the sensitivity of the L-type Ca 2+ channels ( 11 ).
  • Oxytocin increases the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of human myometrium during the falling phase of phasic contractions -- McKillen et al. 276 (2): E345 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, carcinogens in the breast may be generated by the action of superoxide free radicals released when acinal gland distension causes microvessel ischemia.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[63]
Oxytocin (ball-and-stick) bound to its carrier protein neurophysin (ribbons)
.The structure of oxytocin is very similar to that of vasopressin (cysteinetyrosinephegluaspcysproarggly), also a nonapeptide with a sulfur bridge, whose sequence differs from oxytocin by 2 amino acids.^ Du Vigneaud V, Ressler C, and Trippett S. The sequence of amino acids in oxytocin, with a proposal for the structure of oxytocin.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The vasopressin metabolite, AVP(4-9), also increased c-fos mRNA levels in septum and hippocampus , while the response to oxytocin , which has different effects from vasopressin on memory and tolerance, was greater in hippocampus than in septum.
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fos protein expression in mouse hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei upon osmotic stimulus: colocalization with vasopressin , oxytocin , and tyrosine hydroxylase .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

.A table showing the sequences of members of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily and the species expressing them is present in the vasopressin article.^ The sequences of primers are presented in Table 1 .
  • Oxytocin Synthesis and Oxytocin Receptor Expression by Cell Lines of Human Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Stimulate Tumor Growth through Autocrine/Paracrine Signaling -- Péqueux et al. 62 (16): 4623 -- Cancer Research 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Purba JS, Hoogendijk WJ, Hofman MA, and Swaab DF. Increased number of vasopressin- and oxytocin-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in depression.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ivell R, and Richter D. The gene for the hypothalamic peptide hormone oxytocin is highly expressed in the bovine corpus luteum: biosynthesis, structure and sequence analysis.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

Oxytocin and vasopressin were isolated and synthesized by Vincent du Vigneaud in 1953, work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1955.
.Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance.^ Oxytocin is secreted from the pituitary gland.
  • Oxytocin : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., information 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe ( neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland.
  • Oxytocin - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxytocin is produced by the pituitary gland.

.However, oxytocin neurons make other peptides, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and dynorphin, for example, that act locally.^ In the present study, using the oxytocin knockout mouse model, we tested whether oxytocin might act to attenuate stress- induced up-regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone ( CRH ) mRNA expression in the brain.
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At least five distinct types of secretory neurons, identified by the expression of oxytocin , vasopressin , thyrotropin-releasing hormone , corticotropin-releasing hormone , and somatostatin , are absent in the mutant PVN, aPV, and SON. Paper-1629526 .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No Y1R -like immunoreactivity was noted in parvocellular neurons expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone or in magnocellular neurons expressing vasopressin or oxytocin .
  • Oxt - oxytocin 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.ihop-net.org [Source type: Academic]

.The magnocellular neurons that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurons that make vasopressin, and are similar in many respects.^ The magnocellular neurons that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurons that make vasopressin, and are similar in many respects.
  • Oxytocin Molecule 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oxytocin - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the central nervous system, the oxytocin gene is predominantly expressed in magnocellular neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei.
  • Oxytocin : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., information 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the close similarities in sequence, oxytocin and vasopressin have different biological activities and bind to distinct G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Millipore - ChemiScreen™ Recombinant Human OT Oxytocin Receptor Membrane Preparation 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Millipore - ChemiScreen™ CALCIUM-OPTIMIZED STABLE CELL LINE HUMAN RECOMBINANT OT OXYTOCIN RECEPTOR 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.millipore.com [Source type: Academic]

Oxytocin receptor polymorphism

.The oxytocin receptor in humans has several alleles, which differ in their effectiveness.^ Frayne J, and Nicholson HD. Localization of oxytocin receptors in the human and macaque monkey male reproductive tracts: evidence for a physiological role of oxytocin in the male.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jasper JR, Harrell CM, O'Brien JA, and Pettibone DJ. Characterization of the human oxytocin receptor stably expressed in 293 human embryonic kidney cells.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Cassoni P., Sapino A., Stella A., Bussolati G. Antiproliferative effect of oxytocin through specific oxytocin receptors in human neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Oxytocin Synthesis and Oxytocin Receptor Expression by Cell Lines of Human Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Stimulate Tumor Growth through Autocrine/Paracrine Signaling -- Péqueux et al. 62 (16): 4623 -- Cancer Research 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Individuals homozygous for the "G" allele, when compared to carriers of the "A" allele, show higher empathy, lower stress response,[64] as well as lower prevalence of autism and of poor parenting skills.^ It is also well established that during exercise, trained individuals show maximal HR responses, which are similar to sedentary individuals.
  • Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia -- Braga et al. 278 (6): 1474 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In humans, training alters exercise tachycardia with lower HR responses to submaximal exercise observed in trained versus sedentary individuals ( 4 , 39 ).
  • Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia -- Braga et al. 278 (6): 1474 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A third trial showed that true active management resulted in lower PPH rates when compared with CCT followed by oxytocin at the time of placental delivery.
  • Management of the Third Stage of Labor: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]

Evolution

.Virtually all vertebrates have an oxytocin-like nonapeptide hormone that supports reproductive functions and a vasopressin-like nonapeptide hormone involved in water regulation.^ Virtually all vertebrate species possess an OT-like and a vasopressin-like peptide.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT) and OT-like hormones facilitate reproduction in all vertebrates at several levels.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The neurohypophyseal hormones vasopressin and oxytocin.
  • Oxytocin-neurophysin 1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC www.uniprot.org [Source type: Academic]

.The two genes are usually located close to each other (less than 15,000 bases apart) on the same chromosome and are transcribed in opposite directions (however, in fugu[66], the homologs are further apart and transcribed in the same directions).^ B. Gene Structure In all species, OT and vasopressin genes are on the same chromosomal locus but are transcribed in opposite directions (Fig.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Based on calculations from the nucleotide level of OT and vasopressin gene, the ancestral gene encoding the precursor protein should be more than 500 million years old.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the OT receptor as for many other genes, the DNA sequences located in the 5'-flanking region upstream from the coding region are primarily responsible for conferring tissue-specific expression.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is thought that the two genes resulted from a gene duplication event; the ancestral gene is estimated to be about 500 million years old and is found in cyclostomes (modern members of the Agnatha).^ I am present at about two births a year on average.
  • Ricki Lake: Please stop lying about homebirth! - AmyTuteurMD - Open Salon 20 November 2009 21:11 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on calculations from the nucleotide level of OT and vasopressin gene, the ancestral gene encoding the precursor protein should be more than 500 million years old.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of genomic arrangement could result from the duplication of a common ancestral gene, which was followed by inversion of one of the genes.
  • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]

See also

References

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Further reading

.
  • Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS (June 2009).^ H.-J. Lee, H. K. Caldwell, A. H. Macbeth, S. G. Tolu, and W. S. Young 3rd A Conditional Knockout Mouse Line of the Oxytocin Receptor Endocrinology, July 1, 2008; 149(7): 3256 - 3263.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    "Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life". Progress in Neurobiology 88 (2): 127–51. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.001. PMID 19482229. 
  • Caldwell HK, Young WS III (2006). ."Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Genetics and Behavioral Implications".^ Engelmann M, Wotjak CT, Neumann I, Ludwig M, and Landgraf R. Behavioral consequences of intracerebral vasopressin and oxytocin: focus on learning and memory.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxytocin (OT), a peptide similar to vasopressin in terms of structure and synthesis sites, is known primarily for its role in milk ejection, parturition, and behavior ( 30 ).
    • Central oxytocin modulates exercise-induced tachycardia -- Braga et al. 278 (6): 1474 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Paban V, Alescio LB, Devigne C, and Soumireu MB. The behavioral effect of vasopressin in the ventral hippocampus is antagonized by an oxytocin receptor antagonist.
    • The Oxytocin Receptor System: Structure, Function, and Regulation -- Gimpl and Fahrenholz 81 (2): 629 -- Physiological Reviews 9 January 2010 13:36 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    in Abel L, Lim R. Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology. Berlin: Springer. pp. 573–607. ISBN 0-387-30348-0. http://refworks.springer.com/mrw/fileadmin/pdf/Neurochemistry/0387303480C25.PDF.
     

External links


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