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PBY Catalina
PBY-5 landing at Naval Air Station Jacksonville.
Role Flying boat
Manufacturer Consolidated Aircraft
Designed by Isaac M. Laddon
First flight March 28, 1935
Introduced October 1936, United States Navy
Retired January 1957, United States Navy Reserve
Primary users United States Navy
United States Army Air Forces
Royal Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Produced 1936-1945
Number built 4,051 (estimated)
Unit cost US$90,000 (as of 1935)
Variants Bird Innovator

The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the US military and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. In the United States Army Air Forces and later in the USAF their designation was the OA-10, while Canadian-built PBYs were known as the Canso.

During World War II, PBYs were used in anti-submarine warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escorts, search and rescue missions (especially air-sea rescue), and cargo transport. The PBY was the most successful aircraft of its kind; no other flying boat was produced in greater numbers. The last active military PBYs were not retired from service until the 1980s. Even today, over seventy years after its first flight, the aircraft continues to fly as an airtanker in aerial firefighting operations all over the world.

The initialism of "PBY" was determined in accordance with the U.S. Navy aircraft designation system of 1922; PB representing "Patrol Bomber" and Y being the code used for the aircraft's manufacturer, Consolidated Aircraft.

Contents

Development

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Background

The PBY was originally designed to be a patrol bomber, an aircraft with a long operational range intended to locate and attack enemy transport ships at sea in order to compromise enemy supply lines. With a mind to a potential conflict in the Pacific Ocean, where troops would require resupply over great distances, the U.S. Navy in the 1930s invested millions of dollars in developing long-range flying boats for this purpose. Flying boats had the advantage of not requiring runways, in effect having the entire ocean available. Several different flying boats were adopted by the Navy, but the PBY was the most widely used and produced.

PBY riding at sea anchor.

Although slow and ungainly, PBYs distinguished themselves in World War II as exceptionally reliable. Allied armed forces used them successfully in a wide variety of roles that the aircraft was never intended for. They are remembered by many veterans of the war for their role in rescuing downed airmen, in which they saved the lives of thousands of aircrew downed over water. PBY airmen called their aircraft the "cat" on combat missions and "Dumbo" in air-sea rescue service.[1]

Prototyping

As American dominance in the Pacific Ocean began to face competition from Japan in the 1930s, the U.S. Navy contracted Consolidated Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft Corporation in October 1933 to build competing prototypes for a patrol flying boat.[2] Naval doctrine of the 1930s and 1940s used flying boats in a wide variety of roles that today are handled by multiple special-purpose aircraft. The US Navy had adopted the Consolidated P2Y and Martin P3M models for this role in 1931, but both aircraft proved to be underpowered and hampered by short ranges and low maximum payloads.

Consolidated and Douglas both delivered single prototypes of their designs, the XP3Y-1 and XP3D-1, respectively. Consolidated's XP3Y-1 was an evolution of the XPY-1 design that had originally competed unsuccessfully for the P3M contract two years earlier and of the XP2Y design that the Navy had authorized for a limited production run. Although the Douglas aircraft was a good design, the Navy opted for Consolidated's because the projected cost was only $90,000 per plane.

PBY waist gunner mounting port side gun blister.

Consolidated's XP3Y-1 design (company Model 28) was revolutionary in a number of ways. The aircraft had a parasol wing with internal bracing that allowed the wing to be a virtual cantilever, except for two small streamlined struts on each side. Stabilizing floats, retractable in flight to form streamlined wingtips, were another aerodynamic innovation, a feature licensed from the Saunders-Roe company. The two-step hull design was similar to that of the P2Y, but the Model 28 had a cantilever cruciform tail unit instead of a strut-braced twin tail. Cleaner aerodynamics gave the Model 28 better performance than earlier designs.

The prototype was powered by two 825 hp (615 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-54 Twin Wasp engines mounted on the wing’s leading edges. Armament comprised four 0.30 in (7.62 mm) Browning machineguns and up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs.

The XP3Y-1 had its maiden flight on 28 March 1935, after which it was transferred to the US Navy for service trials. The XP3Y-1 soon proved to have significant performance improvements over current patrol flying boats. The Navy requested further development in order to bring the aircraft into the category of patrol bomber, and in October 1935, the prototype was returned to Consolidated for further work, including installation of 900 hp (671 kW) R-1830-64 engines. For the redesignated XPBY-1, Consolidated introduced redesigned vertical tail surfaces. The XPBY-1 had its maiden flight on 19 May 1936, during which a record non-stop distance flight of 3,443 miles (5,541 km) was achieved.

The XPBY-1 was delivered to VP-11F in October 1936. The second squadron to be equipped was VP-12, which received the first of its aircraft in early 1937. The second production order was placed on 25 July 1936. Over the next three years, the PBY design was gradually developed further and successive models introduced.

Mass-produced U.S. Navy* variants

Model Production period and distinguishing features Quantity
PBY-1 September 1936 - June 1937
Original production model.
60
PBY-2 May 1937 - February 1938
Minor alterations to tail structure, hull reinforcements.
50
PBY-3 November 1936 - August 1938
Higher power engines.
66
PBY-4 May 1938 - June 1939
Higher power engines, propeller spinners, acrylic glass blisters over waist guns (some later units).
32
PBY-5 September 1940 - July 1943
Higher power engines (using higher octane fuel), discontinued use of propeller spinners, standardized waist gun blisters.
684
PBY-5A October 1941 - January 1945
Hydraulically-actuated, retractable tricycle landing gear for amphibious operation. Introduced tail gun position, replaced bow single gun position with bow "eyeball" turret equipped with twin .30 machine guns (some later units), improved armor, self-sealing fuel tanks.[3]
802
PBY-6A January 1945 - May 1945
Incorporated changes from PBN-1,[4] including a taller vertical tail, increased wing strength for greater carrying capacity, new electrical system, standardized "eyeball" turret, and a radome over cockpit for radar.
175

* An estimated 4,051 Catalinas, Cansos, and GSTs of all versions were produced between June 1937 and May 1945 for the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army Air Forces, the U.S. Coast Guard, Allied nations, and civilian customers.

Naval Aircraft Factory modified versions of the Catalina

A radar-equipped PBY-6A Catalina in flight.

The Naval Aircraft Factory made significant modifications to the PBY design, many of which would have significantly interrupted deliveries had they been incorporated on the Consolidated production lines.[5] The new aircraft, officially known as the PBN-1 Nomad, had several differences from the basic PBY. The most obvious upgrades were to the bow, which was sharpened and extended by two feet, and to the tail, which was enlarged and featured a new shape. Other improvements included larger fuel tanks, increasing range by 50%, and stronger wings permitting a 2,000 pound (908 kg) higher gross take-off weight. An auxiliary power unit was installed, along with a modernized electrical system, and the weapons were upgraded with continuous-feed mechanisms.[5]

138 of the 156 PBN-1s that were produced served with the Soviet Navy. The remaining 18 of them were assigned to training units at NAS Whidbey Island and the Naval Air Facility in Newport, Rhode Island.[6] Later, improvements found in the PBN-1 – notably, the larger tail – were incorporated into the amphibious PBY-6A.

Operational history

Roles in World War II

The final construction figure is estimated at around 4,000 aircraft, and these were deployed in practically all of the operational theatres of World War II. The PBY served with distinction and played a prominent and invaluable role in the war against the Japanese. This was especially true during the first year of the war in the Pacific, because the PBY and the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress were the only two available aircraft with the range necessary. As a result, they were used in almost every possible military role until a new generation of aircraft became available.

A Catalina of No. 205 Squadron RAF was also involved in a dogfight with a Mitsubishi G3M Nell bomber of Mihoro Air Group near the Anambas Islands on 25 December 1941, in which the Catalina was shot down.[7]

Anti-submarine warfare

PBYs were the most extensively used ASW aircraft[citation needed] in both the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters of the Second World War, and were also used in the Indian Ocean, flying from the Seychelles and from Ceylon. Their duties included escorting convoys to Murmansk. By 1943, U-boats were well-armed with anti-aircraft guns and two Victoria Crosses were won by Catalina pilots pressing home their attacks on U-boats in the face of heavy fire: John Cruickshank of the RAF, in 1944, against the U-347 and in the same year Flight Lt. David Hornell of the RCAF (posthumously) against the U-1225. Catalinas destroyed 40 U-boats in all, but they suffered losses of their own.

Maritime patrol

A PBY-5A of VP-61 over the Aleutian Islands in 1943.

In their role as patrol aircraft, Catalinas participated in some of the most notable engagements of World War II. The aircraft's parasol wing and large waist blisters allowed for a great deal of visibility and combined with its long range and endurance, made it well suited for the task.

  • A Coastal Command Catalina located the German battleship Bismarck on May 26, 1941 while she tried to evade Royal Navy forces.[8]
  • A flight of Catalinas spotted the Japanese fleet approaching Midway Island, beginning the Battle of Midway.[9]
  • An RCAF Canso flown by Squadron Leader L.J. Birchall foiled Japanese plans to destroy the Royal Navy's Indian Ocean fleet on April 4, 1942 when it detected the Japanese carrier fleet approaching Ceylon (Sri Lanka).[10]

Night attack and naval interdiction

Several squadrons of PBY-5As and -6As in the Pacific theater were specially modified to operate as night convoy raiders. Outfitted with state-of-the-art magnetic anomaly detection gear and painted flat black, these "Black Cats" attacked Japanese supply convoys at night. Catalinas were surprisingly successful in this highly unorthodox role.[11] Between August 1943 and January 1944, Black Cat squadrons had sunk 112,700 tons of merchant shipping, damaged 47,000 tons, and damaged 10 Japanese warships.[citation needed]

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) also operated Catalinas as night raiders, with four squadrons Nos. 11, 20, 42, and 43 mounting mine-laying operations from 23 April 1943 until July 1945 in the southwest Pacific deep into Japanese-held waters, that bottled up ports and shipping routes and kept ships in the deeper waters to become targets for US submarines; they tied up the major strategic ports such as Balikpapan that shipped 80% of Japanese oil supplies. In late 1944, their precision mining sometimes exceeded 20 hours in duration from as low as 200 feet in the hours of darkness. One included the bottling up the Japanese fleet in Manila Bay planned to assist General MacArthur's landing at Mindoro in the Philippines. They also operated out of Jinamoc in Leyte Gulf, and mined ports on the Chinese coast from Hong Kong as far north as Wenchow. They were the only non-American heavy bombers squadrons operating north of Morotai in 1945. The RAAF Catalinas regularly mounted nuisance night bombing raids on Japanese bases, they earned the motto of 'The first and the Furthest' as a testimony to their design and endurance. These raids included the major base at Rabaul. RAAF aircrews developed 'terror bombs', essentially empty beer bottles with razor blades inserted into the necks, these produced high pitched screams as they fell and kept Japanese soldiers awake and in fear of their life.[12]

Search and rescue

Search and Rescue OA-10 at USAF Museum

PBYs were employed by every branch of the US military as rescue aircraft. A PBY piloted by Lt. Cmdr. Adrian Marks (USN) rescued 56 sailors from the USS Indianapolis after the ship was sunk during World War II. PBYs continued to function in this capacity for decades after the end of the war.

Early commercial use

PBYs were also used for commercial air travel. The longest commercial flights (in terms of time aloft) ever made in aviation history were the Qantas flights flown weekly from 29 June 1943 through July 1945 over the Indian Ocean. Qantas offered non-stop service between Perth and Colombo, a distance of 3,592 nm (5,652 km). As the PBY typically cruised at 110 knots, this took from 28–32 hours and was called the "flight of the double sunrise", since the passengers saw two sunrises during their non-stop journey. The flight was made with radio silence (because of the possibility of Japanese attack) and had a maximum payload of 1000 lbs or three passengers plus 65 kg of armed forces and diplomatic mail.[13]

Post-World War II employment

Civilian PBY Catalina, modified for aerial firefighting, arrives at the Seaplane Base, NAS Whidbey Island, Oak Harbor, Washington, 18 September 2009

An Australian PBY made the first trans-Pacific flight across the South Pacific between Australia and Chile in 1946, making numerous stops at islands along the way for refueling, meals, and overnight sleep of its crew.

With the end of the war, all of the flying boat versions of the Catalina were quickly retired from the U.S. Navy, but the amphibious ones remained in service for some years. The last Catalina in U.S. service was a PBY-6A operating with a Naval Reserve squadron, which was retired from use on 3 January 1957.[2] The PBY subsequently equipped the world's smaller armed services, in fairly substantial numbers, into the late 1960s.

The U.S. Air Force's Strategic Air Command had PBYs (designated OA-10s) in service as scouting airplanes from 1946 through 1947.

The Brazilian Air Force flew Catalinas in naval air patrol missions against German submarines starting in 1943. The flying boats also carried out air mail deliveries. In 1948, a transport squadron was formed and equipped with PBY-5As converted to the role of amphibious transports. The 1st Air Transport Squadron (ETA-1) was based in the port city of Belem and flew Catalinas and C-47s in well-maintained condition until 1982. Catalinas were convenient for supplying military detachments scattered among the Amazon waterways. They reached places where only long-range transport helicopters would dare to go. ETA-1 insignia was a winged turtle with the motto "Though slowly, I always get there". Today, the last Brazilian Catalina (a former RCAF one) is displayed at the Airspace Museum (MUSAL), in Rio de Janeiro.[14]

Jacques-Yves Cousteau used a PBY-6A (N101CS) as part of his diving expeditions. His second son, Philippe, was killed while attempting a water landing in the Tagus river near Lisbon, Portugal, June 28, 1979. His plane had just been repaired when he took it out for a flight. As he landed, one of the plane's propellers separated, cut through the cockpit and killed the younger Cousteau.

Of the few dozen remaining airworthy Catalinas, the majority of them are in use today as aerial firefighting planes.

China Airlines, the official airline of the Republic of China (Taiwan) was founded with two PBY amphibious flying boats.

Catalina affair

The Catalina Affair is the name given to a Cold War incident in which a Swedish Air Force PBY Catalina was shot down by Soviet fighters over the Baltic Sea in June 1952 while investigating the earlier crash of a Swedish Douglas DC-3.

Variants

A US Army Air Forces OA-10 and her crew.
Catalina Mk Is of British No. 205 Squadron RAF undergoing servicing in their hangar at RAF Seletar, Singapore.
XP3Y-1
Prototype Model 28 flying boat later re-designated XBPY-1, one built (USN Bureau No. 9459). Later fitted with a 48-foot diameter ring to sweep magnetic sea mines. A 550-HP Ranger engine drove a generator to produce a magnetic field.[15]
XBPY-1
Prototype version of the Model 28 for the United States Navy, a re-engined XP3Y-1 with two 900hp R-1830-64 engines, one built.
PBY-1 (Model 28-1)
Initial production variant with two 900hp R-1830-64 engines, 60 built.
PBY-2 (Model 28-2)
Equipment changes and improved performance, 50 built.
PBY-3 (Model 28-3)
Powered by two 1000hp R-1830-66 engines, 66 built.
PBY-4 (Model 28-4)
Powered by two 1050hp R-1830-72 engines, 33 built (including one initial as a XBPY-4 which later became the XBPY-5A).
PBY-5 (Model 28-5)
Either two 1200hp R-1830-82 or -92 engines and provision for extra fuel tanks, 683 built (plus one built at New Orleans), some aircraft to the RAF as the Catalina IVA and one to the United States Coast Guard. The PBY-5 was also built in the Soviet Union as the GST.
XPBY-5
One PBY-4 converted into an amphibian and first flown in November 1939.
PBY-5A (Model 28-5A)
Amphibious version of the PBY-5 with two 1200hp R-1830-92 engines, first batch (of 124) had one 0.3in bow gun the remainder had two bow guns. 803 built including diversions to the United States Army Air Corps, the RAF (as the Catalina IIIA) and one to the United States Coast Guard.
PBY-6A
Amphibious version with two 1200hp R-1830-92 engines and a taller fin and rudder. Radar scanner fitted above cockpit and two 0.5 in nose guns. 175 built including 21 transferred to the Soviet Navy.
PBY-6AG
One PBY-6A used by the United States Coast Guard as a staff transport.
PB2B-1
Boeing Canada built version of the PBY-5, 165 built most supplied to the RAF and RNZAF as the Catalina IVB.
PB2B-2
Boeing Canada built version of the PBY-5 but having a taller fin of the PBN-1, 67 built most supplied to the RAF as the Catalina VI.
PBN-1
Naval Aircraft Factory built version of the PBY-5 with major modification including a 2ft bow extension, re-designed wingtip floats and tail surfaces and a revised electrical system. 155 built for delivery to the RAF as the Catalina V although 138 were loaned to the Soviet Navy
Canadian Vickers PBV-1A Canso A at RIAT, England in 2009. A version of the PBY-5A Catalina, this aircraft was built in 1944 for the Royal Canadian Air Force
PBV-1A
Canadian Vickers built version of the PBY-5A, 380 built including 150 to the Royal Canadian Air Force as the Canso-A and the rest to the USAAF as the OA-10A.
OA-10
United States Army Air Forces designation for PBY-5A, 105 buit. 58 aircraft survivors re-designated A-10 in 1948.
OA-10A
USAAF designation of Canadian Vickers-built version of the PBV-1, 230 built. Survivors re-designated A-10A in 1948. Three additional aircraft from Navy in 1949 as A-10As.
OA-10B
USAAF designation of PBY-6A, 75 built. Re-designated A-10B in 1948.
Catalina I
Direct purchase aircraft for the Royal Air Force, same as the PBY-5 with six 0.303in guns (one in bow, four in waist blisters and one aft of the hull step) and powered by two 1200hp R-1830-S1C3-G engines, 109 built.
Catalina IA
Operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force as the Canso, 14 built.
Catalina IB
Lend-lease PBY-5Bs for the RAF, 225 aircraft built.
Catalina II
Equipment changes, six built.
Catalina IIA
Vickers-Canada built Catalina II for the RAF, 50 built.
Catalina IIIA
Former US Navy PBY-5As used by the RAF on the North Atlantic Ferry Service, 12 aircraft.
Catalina IVA
Lend-lease PBY-5s for the RAF, 93 aircraft.
Catalina IVB
Lend-lease PB2B-1s for the RAF, some to the Royal Australian Air Force.
Catalina VI
Lend-lease PB2B-2s for the RAF, some to the RAAF.
GST
Soviet built version of the PBY-5 ("Gydro Samoliot Transportnyi").

Operators

Survivors

Restored Catalina, displayed in IWM Duxford

Specifications (PBY-5A)

Orthographically projected diagram of the PBY Catalina.

Data from Encyclopedia of World Air Power,[16] Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II,[4] Handbook of Erection and Maintenance Instructions for Navy Model PBY-5 and PBY-5A Airplanes[17] and Quest for Performance[18]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 8 — pilot, co-pilot, bow turret gunner, flight mechanic, radioman, navigator and two waist gunners
  • Length: 63 ft 10 7/16 in (19.46 m)
  • Wingspan: 104 ft 0 in (31.70 m)
  • Height: 21 ft 1 in (6.15 m)
  • Wing area: 1,400 ft² (130 m²)
  • Empty weight: 20,910 lb (9,485 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 35,420 lb (16,066 kg)
  • Powerplant:Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW each) each
  • Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0309

Performance

Armament

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Weathered, William W. "Comment and Discussion". United States Naval Institute Proceedings, October 1968.
  2. ^ a b Cacutt, Len, ed. “PBY Catalina: Ocean Patroller.” Great Aircraft of the World. London: Marshall Cavendish, 1989. p. 187-194. ISBN 1-85435-250-4.
  3. ^ Bridgeman, Leonard. “The Consolidated Vultee Model 28-5A Catalina Amphibian.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946.. p. 218. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
  4. ^ a b Bridgeman, Leonard. “The Consolidated Vultee Model 28 Catalina.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946.. p. 218. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
  5. ^ a b Bridgeman, Leonard. “The Naval Aircraft Factory Catalina.” Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946.. p. 247. ISBN 1 85170 493 0.
  6. ^ "Naval Aircraft Factory PBN-1 Nomad". Aviation Enthusiast Corner. http://aeroweb.brooklyn.cuny.edu/specs/naf/pbn-1.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-31. 
  7. ^ Bloody Shambles: Volume One : The Drift to War to the Fall of Singapore, Grub Street Publishing, 2002-10, http://www.dutchsubmarines.com/boats/boat_kxii.htm, retrieved 2010-01-29 
  8. ^ Smith, Leonard B. (1941). "Report of Scouting and Search of PBY-5 No. AH545 "Catalina" for Bismarck 26 May, 1941". Retrieved July 31, 2005.
    ---- "Bismarck: British/American Cooperation and the Destruction of the German Battleship." Retrieved August 2, 2005.
  9. ^ United States Naval Historical Center (1999). "Scouting and Early Attacks from Midway, 3-4 June 1942". Retrieved July 31, 2005.
  10. ^ Brereton Greenhous et al. The Crucible of War 1939-1945: The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Vol. III. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-8020-0574-8
  11. ^ It was hazardous, however; before an attack, one crew messaged, "Please inform next of kin."
  12. ^ See Gaunt : 'Cats at War' and Cleworth : 'The Fabulous Catalina' {date=December 2008}
  13. ^ Qantas history. The Catalinas
  14. ^ MUSAL. Consolidated Vultee 28 (PBY-5A/C-10A) “Catalina”
  15. ^ Hayward, John T., VADM USN "Comment and Discussion" United States Naval Institute Proceedings August 1978 p.24
  16. ^ Gunston, Bill (ed.) (1981). Encyclopedia of World Air Power. London: Aerospace Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-517-53754-0
  17. ^ Handbook of Erection and Maintenance Instructions for Navy Model PBY-5 and PBY-5A Airplanes
  18. ^ Loftin, LK, Jr.. "Quest for performance: The evolution of modern aircraft. NASA SP-468". http://www.hq.nasa.gov/pao/History/SP-468/cover.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-22. 

Bibliography

  • Creed, Roscoe. PBY: The Catalina Flying Boat. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 1986. ISBN 0-87021-526-4.
  • Crocker, Mel. Black Cats and Dumbos: WW II's Fighting PBYs. Crocker Media Expressions, 2002. ISBN 0-9712901-0-5.
  • Dorny, Louis B. US Navy PBY Catalina Units of the Pacific War. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-84176-911-8.
  • Hendrie, Andrew. Flying Cats: The Catalina Aircraft in World War II. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 1988. ISBN 0-87021-213-3.
  • Kinzey, Bert. PBY Catalina in Detail & Scale. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 2000. ISBN 1-888974-19-2.
  • Knott, Richard C. Black Cat Raiders of World War II. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55750-471-7.
  • Legg, David. Consolidated PBY Catalina: The Peacetime Record. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 2002. ISBN 1-55750-245-5.
  • Ragnarsson, Ragnar. US Navy PBY Catalina Units of the Atlantic War. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-84176-910-X.
  • Scarborough, William E. PBY Catalina in Action (Aircraft number 62). Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1983. ISBN 0-89747-149-0.
  • Scarborough, William E. PBY Catalina - Walk Around. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-89747-357-4.
  • Wagner, Ray. The Story of the PBY Catalina (Aero Biographies Volume 1). San Diego, CA: Flight Classics, 1972.

External links


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