The Full Wiki

PRKAR2A: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

PDB rendering based on 1l6e.
Available structures
1l6e, 1r2a, 2drn, 2h9r, 2hwn, 2izx, 2izy
Symbols PRKAR2A; MGC3606; PKR2; PRKAR2
External IDs OMIM176910 MGI108025 HomoloGene3064 GeneCards: PRKAR2A Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PRKAR2A 204842 x at tn.png
PBB GE PRKAR2A 204843 s at tn.png
PBB GE PRKAR2A 213052 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5576 19087
Ensembl ENSG00000114302 ENSMUSG00000032601
UniProt P13861 Q8K1M3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004157 NM_008924
RefSeq (protein) NP_004148 NP_032950
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
48.76 - 48.86 Mb
Chr 9:
108.55 - 108.61 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKAR2A gene.[1]

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependant Protein Kinase, more commonly called Protein Kinase A (PKA), which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive holoenzyme of PKA is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits of PKA have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and determine the subcellular localization of PKA. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).[2]



PRKAR2A has been shown to interact with AKAP2,[3][4] AKAP1,[5][6] AKAP11,[3][7][8] AKAP8,[9][10] ARFGEF2,[11] AKAP9,[3][12] GSK3B,[7] AKAP3,[13][14] RUNX1T1,[15] AKAP13,[3][16] CBFA2T3[17] and PDE4A.[18]

See also


  1. ^ Tasken K, Naylor SL, Solberg R, Jahnsen T (Oct 1998). "Mapping of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (locus PRKAR2A) to human chromosome region 3p21.3-p21.2". Genomics 50 (3): 378–81. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5326. PMID 9676433.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: PRKAR2A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha".  
  3. ^ a b c d Alto, Neal M; Soderling Scott H, Hoshi Naoto, Langeberg Lorene K, Fayos Rosa, Jennings Patricia A, Scott John D (Apr. 2003). "Bioinformatic design of A-kinase anchoring protein-in silico: a potent and selective peptide antagonist of type II protein kinase A anchoring". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 100 (8): 4445–50. doi:10.1073/pnas.0330734100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 12672969.  
  4. ^ Dong, F; Feldmesser M, Casadevall A, Rubin C S (Mar. 1998). "Molecular characterization of a cDNA that encodes six isoforms of a novel murine A kinase anchor protein". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (11): 6533–41. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9497389.  
  5. ^ Herberg, F W; Maleszka A, Eide T, Vossebein L, Tasken K (Apr. 2000). "Analysis of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction with protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits: PKA isoform specificity in AKAP binding". J. Mol. Biol. (ENGLAND) 298 (2): 329–39. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3662. ISSN 0022-2836. PMID 10764601.  
  6. ^ Kapiloff, M S; Schillace R V, Westphal A M, Scott J D (Aug. 1999). "mAKAP: an A-kinase anchoring protein targeted to the nuclear membrane of differentiated myocytes". J. Cell. Sci. (ENGLAND) 112 ( Pt 16): 2725–36. ISSN 0021-9533. PMID 10413680.  
  7. ^ a b Tanji, Chie; Yamamoto Hideki, Yorioka Noriaki, Kohno Nobuoki, Kikuchi Kunimi, Kikuchi Akira (Oct. 2002). "A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of GSK-3beta". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (40): 36955–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206210200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12147701.  
  8. ^ Lester, L B; Coghlan V M, Nauert B, Scott J D (Apr. 1996). "Cloning and characterization of a novel A-kinase anchoring protein. AKAP 220, association with testicular peroxisomes". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 271 (16): 9460–5. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 8621616.  
  9. ^ Eide, T; Coghlan V, Orstavik S, Holsve C, Solberg R, Skâlhegg B S, Lamb N J, Langeberg L, Fernandez A, Scott J D, Jahnsen T, Taskén K (Feb. 1998). "Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and cell cycle-dependent subcellular distribution of the A-kinase anchoring protein, AKAP95". Exp. Cell Res. (UNITED STATES) 238 (2): 305–16. doi:10.1006/excr.1997.3855. ISSN 0014-4827. PMID 9473338.  
  10. ^ Collas, P; Le Guellec K, Taskén K (Dec. 1999). "The A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP95 is a multivalent protein with a key role in chromatin condensation at mitosis". J. Cell Biol. (UNITED STATES) 147 (6): 1167–80. ISSN 0021-9525. PMID 10601332.  
  11. ^ Li, Hewang; Adamik Ronald, Pacheco-Rodriguez Gustavo, Moss Joel, Vaughan Martha (Feb. 2003). "Protein kinase A-anchoring (AKAP) domains in brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2 (BIG2)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 100 (4): 1627–32. doi:10.1073/pnas.0337678100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 12571360.  
  12. ^ Takahashi, M; Shibata H, Shimakawa M, Miyamoto M, Mukai H, Ono Y (Jun. 1999). "Characterization of a novel giant scaffolding protein, CG-NAP, that anchors multiple signaling enzymes to centrosome and the golgi apparatus". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 274 (24): 17267–74. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10358086.  
  13. ^ Vijayaraghavan, S; Liberty G A, Mohan J, Winfrey V P, Olson G E, Carr D W (May. 1999). "Isolation and molecular characterization of AKAP110, a novel, sperm-specific protein kinase A-anchoring protein". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 13 (5): 705–17. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 10319321.  
  14. ^ Carr, D W; Fujita A, Stentz C L, Liberty G A, Olson G E, Narumiya S (May. 2001). "Identification of sperm-specific proteins that interact with A-kinase anchoring proteins in a manner similar to the type II regulatory subunit of PKA". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (20): 17332–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011252200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278869.  
  15. ^ Fukuyama, T; Sueoka E, Sugio Y, Otsuka T, Niho Y, Akagi K, Kozu T (Sep. 2001). "MTG8 proto-oncoprotein interacts with the regulatory subunit of type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in lymphocytes". Oncogene (England) 20 (43): 6225–32. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204794. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 11593431.  
  16. ^ Carr, D W; Hausken Z E, Fraser I D, Stofko-Hahn R E, Scott J D (Jul. 1992). "Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. Cloning and characterization of the RII-binding domain". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 267 (19): 13376–82. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 1618839.  
  17. ^ Schillace, Robynn V; Andrews Sarah F, Liberty Greg A, Davey Michael P, Carr Daniel W (Feb. 2002). "Identification and characterization of myeloid translocation gene 16b as a novel a kinase anchoring protein in T lymphocytes". J. Immunol. (United States) 168 (4): 1590–9. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 11823486.  
  18. ^ Dodge, K L; Khouangsathiene S, Kapiloff M S, Mouton R, Hill E V, Houslay M D, Langeberg L K, Scott J D (Apr. 2001). "mAKAP assembles a protein kinase A/PDE4 phosphodiesterase cAMP signaling module". EMBO J. (England) 20 (8): 1921–30. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.8.1921. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 11296225.  

Further reading

  • Cho-Chung YS, Nesterova MV (2006). "Tumor reversion: protein kinase A isozyme switching.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1058: 76–86. doi:10.1196/annals.1359.014. PMID 16394127.  
  • Harrich D, McMillan N, Munoz L, et al. (2007). "Will diverse Tat interactions lead to novel antiretroviral drug targets?". Current drug targets 7 (12): 1595–606. doi:10.2174/138945006779025338. PMID 17168834.  
  • Skålhegg BS, Landmark B, Foss KB, et al. (1992). "Identification, purification, and characterization of subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in human testis. Reverse mobilities of human RII alpha and RII beta on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis compared with rat and bovine RIIs.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (8): 5374–9. PMID 1544918.  
  • Carr DW, Hausken ZE, Fraser ID, et al. (1992). "Association of the type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a human thyroid RII-anchoring protein. Cloning and characterization of the RII-binding domain.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (19): 13376–82. PMID 1618839.  
  • Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Baldwin RL, et al. (1991). "HIV inhibits the early steps of lymphocyte activation, including initiation of inositol phospholipid metabolism.". J. Immunol. 145 (11): 3699–705. PMID 1978848.  
  • Scott JD, Stofko RE, McDonald JR, et al. (1991). "Type II regulatory subunit dimerization determines the subcellular localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (35): 21561–6. PMID 2147685.  
  • Oyen O, Myklebust F, Scott JD, et al. (1989). "Human testis cDNA for the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase encodes an alternate amino-terminal region.". FEBS Lett. 246 (1-2): 57–64. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(89)80253-4. PMID 2540040.  
  • Obar RA, Dingus J, Bayley H, Vallee RB (1990). "The RII subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase binds to a common amino-terminal domain in microtubule-associated proteins 2A, 2B, and 2C.". Neuron 3 (5): 639–45. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(89)90274-2. PMID 2561973.  
  • Rubino HM, Dammerman M, Shafit-Zagardo B, Erlichman J (1990). "Localization and characterization of the binding site for the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase on MAP2.". Neuron 3 (5): 631–8. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(89)90273-0. PMID 2701845.  
  • Hemmings BA, Aitken A, Cohen P, et al. (1983). "Phosphorylation of the type-II regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by glycogen synthase kinase 3 and glycogen synthase kinase 5.". Eur. J. Biochem. 127 (3): 473–81. PMID 6293815.  
  • Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Nguyen T, et al. (1993). "Human immunodeficiency virus proteins induce the inhibitory cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in normal lymphocytes.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (14): 6676–80. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.14.6676. PMID 7688126.  
  • Pariset C, Weinman S (1995). "Differential localization of two isoforms of the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in human sperm: biochemical and cytochemical study.". Mol. Reprod. Dev. 39 (4): 415–22. doi:10.1002/mrd.1080390410. PMID 7893490.  
  • Cheley S, Panchal RG, Carr DW, et al. (1994). "Type II regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and their binding proteins in the nervous system of Aplysia californica.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (4): 2911–20. PMID 7905481.  
  • Hausken ZE, Coghlan VM, Hastings CA, et al. (1994). "Type II regulatory subunit (RII) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase interaction with A-kinase anchor proteins requires isoleucines 3 and 5.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (39): 24245–51. PMID 7929081.  
  • Hofmann B, Nishanian P, Fan J, et al. (1994). "HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro.". AIDS 8 (7): 1016–7. doi:10.1097/00002030-199407000-00025. PMID 7946090.  
  • Beebe SJ, Salomonsky P, Holroyd C, Becker D (1994). "Differential expression of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes in normal human melanocytes and malignant melanomas.". Cell Growth Differ. 4 (12): 1005–12. PMID 8117614.  
  • Coghlan VM, Langeberg LK, Fernandez A, et al. (1994). "Cloning and characterization of AKAP 95, a nuclear protein that associates with the regulatory subunit of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (10): 7658–65. PMID 8125992.  
  • Lester LB, Coghlan VM, Nauert B, Scott JD (1996). "Cloning and characterization of a novel A-kinase anchoring protein. AKAP 220, association with testicular peroxisomes.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (16): 9460–5. PMID 8621616.  
  • Foss KB, Solberg R, Simard J, et al. (1997). "Molecular cloning, upstream sequence and promoter studies of the human gene for the regulatory subunit RII alpha of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1350 (1): 98–108. PMID 9003463.  
  • Dransfield DT, Bradford AJ, Smith J, et al. (1997). "Ezrin is a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein.". Embo J. 16 (1): 35–43. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.1.35. PMID 9009265.  


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address