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Paired related homeobox 1
Symbols PRRX1; PHOX1; PMX1; PRX1
External IDs OMIM167420 MGI97712 HomoloGene7896 GeneCards: PRRX1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PRRX1 205991 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5396 18933
Ensembl ENSG00000116132 ENSMUSG00000026586
UniProt P54821 P63013
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_006902 NM_001025570
RefSeq (protein) NP_008833 NP_001020741
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
168.9 - 168.98 Mb
Chr 1:
165.08 - 165.15 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Paired mesoderm homeobox protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRRX1 gene.[1][2]

The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus. The protein functions as a transcription co-activator, enhancing the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor, a protein required for the induction of genes by growth and differentiation factors. The protein regulates muscle creatine kinase, indicating a role in the establishment of diverse mesodermal muscle types. Alternative splicing yields two isoforms that differ in abundance and expression patterns.[2]


  1. ^ Grueneberg DA, Natesan S, Alexandre C, Gilman MZ (Sep 1992). "Human and Drosophila homeodomain proteins that enhance the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor". Science 257 (5073): 1089-95. PMID 1509260.  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PRRX1 paired related homeobox 1".  

Further reading

  • Grueneberg DA, Simon KJ, Brennan K, Gilman M (1995). "Sequence-specific targeting of nuclear signal transduction pathways by homeodomain proteins.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (6): 3318–26. PMID 7760827.  
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.". Gene 138 (1-2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298.  
  • Grueneberg DA, Henry RW, Brauer A, et al. (1997). "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to TFII-I.". Genes Dev. 11 (19): 2482–93. doi:10.1101/gad.11.19.2482. PMID 9334314.  
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.". Gene 200 (1-2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.  
  • Nakamura T, Yamazaki Y, Hatano Y, Miura I (1999). "NUP98 is fused to PMX1 homeobox gene in human acute myelogenous leukemia with chromosome translocation t(1;11)(q23;p15).". Blood 94 (2): 741–7. PMID 10397741.  
  • Dias Neto E, Correa RG, Verjovski-Almeida S, et al. (2000). "Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (7): 3491–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.7.3491. PMID 10737800.  
  • Kataoka K, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Shioda S, Nishizawa M (2001). "A set of Hox proteins interact with the Maf oncoprotein to inhibit its DNA binding, transactivation, and transforming activities.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (1): 819–26. doi:10.1074/jbc.M007643200. PMID 11036080.  
  • Norris RA, Scott KK, Moore CS, et al. (2001). "Human PRRX1 and PRRX2 genes: cloning, expression, genomic localization, and exclusion as disease genes for Nager syndrome.". Mamm. Genome 11 (11): 1000–5. doi:10.1007/s003350010193. PMID 11063257.  
  • Jones FS, Meech R, Edelman DB, et al. (2001). "Prx1 controls vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and tenascin-C expression and is upregulated with Prx2 in pulmonary vascular disease.". Circ. Res. 89 (2): 131–8. doi:10.1161/hh1401.093582. PMID 11463719.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Izmailova E, Bertley FM, Huang Q, et al. (2003). "HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages.". Nat. Med. 9 (2): 191–7. doi:10.1038/nm822. PMID 12539042.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Wissmüller S, Kosian T, Wolf M, et al. (2006). "The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors.". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (6): 1735–44. doi:10.1093/nar/gkl105. PMID 16582099.  
  • Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. (2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.". Nature 441 (7091): 315–21. doi:10.1038/nature04727. PMID 16710414.  
  • Kim YJ, Ahn JY, Liang P, et al. (2007). "Human prx1 gene is a target of Nrf2 and is up-regulated by hypoxia/reoxygenation: implication to tumor biology.". Cancer Res. 67 (2): 546–54. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2401. PMID 17234762.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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