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Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)
.The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

Its name is derived from the Luso-Latin macaronic Tepre Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan[citation needed]. .It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.^ Then he goes to the scuba tour outfit South East Asia Liveaboards (SEAL), which is run by a British family.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outcasts of the Islands: The Sea Gypsies of South East Asia by Sebastian Hope, published by Harper Collins UK. .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 169.2 million square kilometres (65.3 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about 30% of its total surface.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For them it is a "water world" they hold secrets about the sea that the rest of us will never know.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mergui Township area:     Palei Aw Kyun -- over 50 households     Reigan Aw Ywa -- about 30 households     Gei Maw Gyi Ywa -- over 30 households .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.^ Ocean ecology of north Pacific salmonids.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Hollowed and Wooster (1992) have hypothesized that the North Pacific alternates between two environmental states, with one transition occurring in 1977.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the Pacific and in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,797 ft).^ A depth charge attack was made at that point, and just before the explosions began, the periscope reappeared, passing close aboard to port, and disappearing before it reached the stern.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
The Pacific Ocean.

Contents

Overview

Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station. Anvil tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
.The 'Pacific Ocean' encompasses approximately a third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 179.7 million square kilometres (69.4 million sq mi and 161 million cubic mi) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass, with room for another Africa to spare.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following is a summary of losses suffered by the Pacific Fleet and forces operating from the Pacific Ocean Areas, and of the losses which these forces inflicted upon the enemy.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operations in Pacific Ocean Areas -- August 1945.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600  mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the northern extent of the circumpolar Southern Ocean at 60° S (older definitions extend it to Antarctica's Ross Sea), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 kilometres (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia and Peru – halfway across the world, and more than five times the diameter of the Moon.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many parts of Oceania, travelling by sea and air is more important than travelling by land.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There has been a tiny amount of deep sea fishing, but not enough to provide much more than enthusiasm.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lowest known point on earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 metres (35,797 ft) below sea level. Its average depth is 4028~4188metres (14,000 ft)[4].
.The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest boats can carry more than 10,000 kilos of fish.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

Including partially submerged islands, the figure is substantially higher.
.The Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking from plate tectonics, while the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size, by roughly an inch per year (2–3 cm/yr) on 3 sides, roughly averaging 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2) a year.^ Variability of winter ocean conditions and strong year classes of Northeast Pacific groundfish.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Brodeur and Ware (1992) documented a twofold increase in zooplankton biomass between the 1950s and 1980s in the subarctic Pacific Ocean.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Storm in Pacifica, California
.Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea.^ Today the Moken swim deep into submerged caves harvesting sea cucumbers for export to China and Japan.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strikes Against Wake Island; East China Sea Operations; Attacks on Ships in BUCKNER Bay; Pilot Rescued from Tokyo Bay; Minesweeping Operation in East China Sea.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fourth War Patrol of Spikefish - The Fourth War Patrol of Spikefish was conducted in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea from 8 July to 31 August, 1945.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and Drake Passage and the Straits of Magellan link the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east. .To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean.^ In the mid-1970s, ocean conditions in the North Pacific Ocean underwent a dramatic and abrupt change (Graham 1994).
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The influence of ocean conditions on the production of salmonids in the North Pacific.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ocean ecology of north Pacific salmonids.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

As the Pacific straddles the 180th meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is in the Western Hemisphere.
For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful. However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. .Many tropical storms batter the islands of the Pacific.^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The lands around the Pacific rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes.^ Historic statistics of salmon production around the Pacific rim.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and destroyed entire towns.

Extent

The 3rd edition of the International Hydrographic Organization's (IHO) Limits of Oceans and Seas defines the limits of the North Pacific Ocean as follows:[5]
.
  • On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the East Indian Archipelago from the Equator to Luzon Island.
  • On the West and Northwest. The Eastern limits of the Philippine Sea and Japan Sea and the Southeastern limit of the Sea of Okhotsk.^ They live on wooden boats, moving between the 800 islands that make up the archipelago and "live and die by what the sea gives and takes".
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Strikes Against Wake Island; East China Sea Operations; Attacks on Ships in BUCKNER Bay; Pilot Rescued from Tokyo Bay; Minesweeping Operation in East China Sea.
    • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The regime launched its own aggressive promotion of Mergui Archipelago tourism centered on Bocho Island's "Sea Gypsy Village" with a "Salone Festival" in February 2004.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Also Kuril Islands and Kamchatka
  • On the North. The Southern limits of the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska.
  • On the East. The Western limit of Coastal waters of Southeast Alaska and Br.^ Outcasts of the Islands: The Sea Gypsies of South East Asia by Sebastian Hope, published by Harper Collins UK. .
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Strikes Against Wake Island; East China Sea Operations; Attacks on Ships in BUCKNER Bay; Pilot Rescued from Tokyo Bay; Minesweeping Operation in East China Sea.
    • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Like the Ma'dan "Marsh Arabs" of southern Iraq, the Moken "Sea Gypsies" are a water people under siege from land.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Columbia, and the Southern limit of the Gulf of California.
  • On the South. The Equator, but excluding those islands of the Gilbert and Galàpagos Groups which lie to the Northward thereof.
And the South Pacific Ocean is defined as:
.
  • On the West. From Southeast Cape, the Southern point of Tasmania, down the meridian of 146°55'E to the Antarctic continent.
  • On the Southwest and Northwest. The Southern, Eastern and Northeastern limits of the Tasman Sea, the Southeastern and Northeastern limits of the Coral Sea, the Southern, Eastern and Northern limits of the Solomon and Bismark seas, and the Northeastern limit of the East Indian Archipelago from New Guinea to the Equator.
  • On the North. The Equator, but including those islands of the Gilbert and Galàpagos Groups which lie to the Northward thereof.
  • On the East. The meridian of Cape Horn (67°16'W) from Tierra del Fuego to the Antarctic continent; a line from Cape Virgins (52°21′S 68°21′W / 52.35°S 68.35°W / -52.35; -68.35) to Cape Espititu Santo, Tierra del Fuego, the Eastern entrance to Magellan Strait.^ They form three distinct cultural groups stemming from archipelagic environments: the Orang Laut from estuaries of the Lingga-Riau-Straits of Malacca mudflats, the Moken from the Mergui Archipelago and the Bajau from the Sulu Archipelago of the Philippines, in the adjoining islands of East Borneo, and those of eastern Indonesia, in particular the coasts of Celebes and Flores.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Burma's "Sea Gypsies" are found amid the Mergui Archipelago, a chain of hundreds of small islands parallel to the southeastern Burma coast (Tenasserim) of the Indian Ocean's Andaman Sea.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sea gypsies are a minority group that number only a few tens of thousands in southern Burma and Thailand.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (These limits have not yet been officially accepted by Argentina and Chile.)
  • On the South. The Antarctic continent.
.Note that these definitions exclude any marginal waterbodies that are separately defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (such as the Gulf of Alaska and Coral Sea), though these are usually considered to be part of the Pacific Ocean.^ The following is a summary of losses suffered by the Pacific Fleet and forces operating from the Pacific Ocean Areas, and of the losses which these forces inflicted upon the enemy.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of these groups, however, was considered capable of organized offensive action, and their existence had in general been reduced to a struggle for survival.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2000 the IHO redefined the Pacific Ocean, moving its southern limit to 60°S, with the waters south of that line identified as the Southern Ocean.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Helio Ocean is a Qualcomm product made by Pantech in South Korea, and I am extemely limited as to service carriers that can fill in for the great deal that is offered at Helio.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This new definition has not yet been ratified (a reservation has been lodged by Australia[6]) though it is in use by the IHO and others. .If and when adopted, the 2000 definition will be published in the 4th edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, restoring the Southern Ocean as originally outlined in the 2nd edition and subsequently omitted from the 3rd edition.^ Park Place Hotel Between 2nd & 3rd Streets on the Boardwalk Ocean City, MD 21843 Map it Add to planner website .
  • Accommodations: Hotel & Motel Reservations and Condos - Ocean City, Maryland 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC ococean.com [Source type: General]

Water characteristics

.Water temperatures in the Pacific vary from freezing in the poleward areas to about 30 °C (86 °F) near the equator.^ Mergui Township area:     Palei Aw Kyun -- over 50 households     Reigan Aw Ywa -- about 30 households     Gei Maw Gyi Ywa -- over 30 households .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bokpyin Township area:     Langaen Kyu -- about 30 households     Busa Kyu -- about 40 households     Bei Sein Kyun [Green Fire Island] -- about 50 households     Kawrei Kyun -- about 30 households .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Salinity also varies latitudinally. .The water near the equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year.^ South of 65° S latitude, pack ice and icebergs can be found year-round, although they don't usually make it further than the northern limit of 45° S latitude.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the latitudes bordering the Equator the opposite condition prevails -- evaporation exceeds rainfall because high temperatures plus increased winds accelerate evaporation losses.
  • Why is the Ocean Salty? 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multiyear ice contains much less brine and more air pockets than first-year ice.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas.^ But in the latitudes bordering the Equator the opposite condition prevails -- evaporation exceeds rainfall because high temperatures plus increased winds accelerate evaporation losses.
  • Why is the Ocean Salty? 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be sure to store and transport gasoline in places where there isnt any direct sunlight because the gasoline will evaporate, and all of the gases that have been evaporated will pollute the air.

^ But for a long time, discussions of climate change did not take the oceans fully into account, simply because very little was known about them.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The motion of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.
.Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some waters move northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turn southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current.^ Typhoon Delays Operations - On 1 August, the THIRD Fleet proceeded southward in order to avoid the track of a typhoon moving northward from the Philippine Sea.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water World Some anthropologists think the Moken are descended from peoples who migrated from Mongolia, later moving down Burma's northeastern Shan states.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea.^ The counter-clockwise South Pacific current crosses from New Zealand to Chile and there merges with the cold waters of the circumpolar current before splitting into the three branches of the south equatorial current , one part turning towards Australia, the other two crossing back further north.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currents Huge whirls, formed by the major ocean currents, are found roughly north and south of the equator; the Equatorial Counter Current separates them.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based out of South Florida USA, the Gateway to the Americas,  Ocean Machinery services its substantial North American clientele, as well as its growing base of South American and Caribbean customers.
  • Ocean Machinery - One-Stop Shopping for the Steel Fabricating Industry 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.oceanmachinery.com [Source type: General]

.Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current.^ In contrast, the Arctic region north of the Atlantic Ocean is open to the warmer waters from the south, because of the way the ocean currents flow.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern whirl is formed by the North Equatorial Current, Japan Current, North Pacific Drift, and California Current; the southern whirl is formed by the South Equatorial Current, East Australian Current, West Wind Drift, and Peruvian (or Humboldt) Current.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the southern temperate region of the Pacific, currents generally flow westward.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current.^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current.^ As the kabang floats away, a teenager on board turns around and lends one more Moken smile.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Geology

The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches
The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific. It separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins. .The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand's North Island.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If new information such as results from genetic studies of fruit bats in the Mariana Islands indicate the presence of additional subspecies, we will take appropriate action.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California.^ Continued submerged patrol north of the Formosa Strait then proceeded back to the China Coast off Turnabout Island.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand—all eastward extensions of the continental blocks of Asia, Australia and Zealandia—lie outside the Andesite Line.^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All other functions and responsibilities previously assigned Commander SEVENTH Fleet were assumed in the Philippines by Commander Philippine Sea Frontier (Vice Admiral J.L. Kauffman), and in the Australia-New Guinea (Rear Admiral C.E. Van Hook), both of whom remained under CinCSWPA control.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large part of Oceania, particularly Australia and New Zealand, has entered upon an era marked by increasing secularization.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pacific ocean takes up roughly one third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 179.7 million square kilometres.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following is a summary of losses suffered by the Pacific Fleet and forces operating from the Pacific Ocean Areas, and of the losses which these forces inflicted upon the enemy.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operations in Pacific Ocean Areas -- August 1945.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator, Including partially submerged islands.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest boats can carry more than 10,000 kilos of fish.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pacific ocean was mapped by a man named Abraham Ortelius, he called it Maris Pacifici because of Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522 and said that it was much more calm than the Atlantic.^ Crossing to my sister for this week's report as this is much more in her line of work than mine..
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ Quality Inn & Suites Beachfront 3301 Atlantic Avenue Ocean City, MD 21842 Map it Add to planner website .
  • Accommodations: Hotel & Motel Reservations and Condos - Ocean City, Maryland 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC ococean.com [Source type: General]

^ There has been a tiny amount of deep sea fishing, but not enough to provide much more than enthusiasm.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pacific ocean has several long seamount chains (which are chains of mountains submerging from the ocean seafloor) formed by hotspot volcanism. “the ring of fire” is the worlds largest belt of explosive volcanism. .The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones(which is a geological process in which one edge of a crustal plate is forced sideways and downward into the mantle below another plate).^ This trench is a subduction zone, where one tectonic plate of the Earth's lithosphere is moving beneath another.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Within the closed loop of the Andesite Line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin.^ Deserted white-sand beaches backed by prime rain forest line the shores, and mountain peaks on the larger islands beckon from many miles away.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The opening and closing liturgies incorporated signs and symbols drawn from Pacific island cultures as expressions of faith and reverence.
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.Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters.^ During the ice ages the water level sank and the rainwater permeated the porous stone, forming caves, passageways and huge domes.
  • Scuba Diving, Snorkel Tours, Cenote Diving, World Class Reef, Sea Urchin Dive page 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC seaurchindive.com [Source type: General]

^ (Everest) "The TALLEST mountain on earth, measured from base to summit is the volcanic peak of Mauna Kea, one of five volcanic masses making up the "Big Island"of Hawaii.
  • What are the tallest mountains from base to peak, not counting any part of the mountain that is underwater? - Yahoo!7 Answers 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The atolls and coral islands of the central Pacific are thought to be caps of reef rock upon the summits of volcanic mountains.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism. .The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones.^ This is part of the area known as the Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean which is responsible for about 90% of the world’s earthquakes ( Wikipedia ).
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click2Houston, TX) Philippine volcano eruption revs up, no-go zone imposed    Dec 18, 2009 The Philippines lies on the "Ring of Fire", a belt of volcanoes circling the Pacific Ocean that is also prone to earthquakes.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

^ Maekawa, H., Shozui, M., Ishii, T., Fryer, P., Pearce, J. A., Blueschist metamorphism in an active subduction zone, Nature, 364(6437), 520-523, 1993.
  • Mud Volcanoes from the Mantle Research 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.soest.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones.^ (Source: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario ) Off the eastern coast of the Pacific Ocean, the sediments on the ocean floors are almost entirely pelagic.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The total length of all 'subduction' zones is only one-third the total length of spreading zones [19] .
  • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Only the Antarctic and Australian coasts have no nearby subduction zones.

Seamount chains

.The Pacific Ocean contains several long seamount chains, formed by hotspot volcanism.^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

These include the Emperor Seamounts chain, the Louisville seamount chain, and the Hawaiian Islands.

Landmasses

Pacific Ocean viewed from the Southern California coast near Aliso Creek mouth.
The shore of the Pacific Ocean in San Francisco, California.
.The largest landmass entirely within the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea— the second largest island in the world.^ Papua New Guinea is the largest of the Melanesian nations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
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^ In the particular Churches of Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and the other island nations of the Pacific, new seminaries have been opened to cater for an increasing number of seminarians who need to be formed in their own regions and in contact with their own culture.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30°N and 30°S, extending from Southeast Asia to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost entirely submerged.^ For hundreds of years, small nomadic tribes called sea gypsies have lived among the islands of Southeast Asia, earning fame for their swimming and diving skills.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With variations, their houseboats are the outriggers with mounted roofs common to Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Last glacial period, New Guinea was part of Australia so the largest landmass would have been BorneoPalawan.^ These struggles in Papua New Guinea and other parts of Melanesia have recently been marked by violence and separatist movements, in which people and institutions have suffered greatly.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Papua New Guinea is the largest of the Melanesian nations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A large part of Oceania, particularly Australia and New Zealand, has entered upon an era marked by increasing secularization.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The great triangle of Polynesia, connecting Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand, encompasses the island arcs and clusters of the Cook Islands, Marquesas Islands, Samoa, Society, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tuvalu and the Wallis and Futuna islands.^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.North of the equator and west of the International Date Line are the numerous small islands of Micronesia, including the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands.^ As you round the north end of the island, you sight a small pagoda on a grassy hill.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unauthorized collecting, handling, possessing, selling, delivering, carrying, or transporting of the species, including import or export across State lines and international boundaries; .
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ However, small numbers of fruit bats from Palau continue to be intercepted in the Mariana Islands (G. Phocas, pers.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The shoreline at Palm Beach, New South Wales
.In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea.^ These struggles in Papua New Guinea and other parts of Melanesia have recently been marked by violence and separatist movements, in which people and institutions have suffered greatly.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the particular Churches of Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and the other island nations of the Pacific, new seminaries have been opened to cater for an increasing number of seminarians who need to be formed in their own regions and in contact with their own culture.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other important island groups of Melanesia include the Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.^ These groups live off the coasts of Malaysian and Indonesian islands including Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Sulu Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No reports of brown treesnakes exist from other islands in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms.^ Oceania as the name suggests includes numerous territories and countries and a majority of them are islands of the Pacific Ocean, mostly the central and southern Pacific Ocean and its nearby places.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ All of the continental land masses on the planet could be placed in the Pacific Ocean, and there would still be room left over.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Ocean Islands Pacific Ocean Islands Atlantic Ocean Islands Charles William Beebe Marianas Trench Ashmore Reef Great Barrier Reef oceans of the world deep sea creatures Jacques Cousteau .
  • ocean@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Continental islands lie outside the Andesite line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.These islands are structurally associated with nearby continents.^ Kenneth P. Emory, Bishop Museum ethnologist, has made a study of the archaeological remains on these islands, and can associate the former inhabitants with eastern and western Polynesia.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The remaining native forest habitat for fruit bats on many of these islands continues to be threatened by the fragmentation and degradation associated with feral ungulates.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ These plants grow together in various associations, some of which are suggested in the diagrammatic cross-sections of dry, medium, and wet islands.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes.^ Most of the islands are actually the tips of volcanoes, some of which are still active.

^ Fryer, P. and G. J. Fryer, Origins of non-volcanic seamounts in forearc environments, in "Seamount Islands and Atolls" (Keating et al.
  • Mud Volcanoes from the Mantle Research 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.soest.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other South Pacific islands are either volcanic in origin, like the Polynesian islands or are coral islands like those of Micronesia.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, and the Solomon Islands.
.The third and fourth types of islands are both the result of coralline island building.^ Feral ungulates are present on both islands, resulting in further degradation and fragmentation.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Coral reefs are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface.^ The only structure that was not destroyed was the Ocean Park Municipal Auditorium built in 1923 which in 1958 was transformed into the USS Nautilus exhibit and the Westinghouse Enchanted Forest.

^ A wreck, possibly a Japanese fishing trawler, lies on her side on the south-west side of Elizabeth Reef, Pacific Ocean.

^ The coral reef around the perimeter is only a few feet above the water at low tide and is completely submerged at high tide.

.One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia.^ For all the great diversity of cultures and traditions, she is one in faith, hope and charity, one in Catholic doctrine and discipline, one in the communion of the Most Holy Trinity.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands.^ Most islands here are low coral atolls.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They grew best around the margin of the platform, and as the sea-level rose, due to the melting of the glaciers, they grew upward, forming rings of coral reef.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the Polynesian Islands, the Hawaiian chain presents the type of a volcanic group through which coral reefs are not equally distributed.

.Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia.^ The small, endangered ethnic group referred to as "Sea Gypsies" or "Moken," the Saloun people, traditionally have lived on boats in the region and survived on ocean and island foods.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History and economy

Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). One of the first printed maps to show the Pacific Ocean; see also Waldseemüller map (1507)[7]
.Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of the Polynesians from the Asian edge of the ocean to Tahiti and then to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ In colonial times, Catholic clergy and religious quickly established institutions to help the new settlers in Australia and New Zealand to preserve and strengthen their faith.
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The ocean was sighted by Europeans early in the 16th century, first by the Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa who crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513, and then by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation from 1519 to 1522.
In 1564, conquistadors crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi who sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Spain to the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands.
.During the 17th century, the Dutch, sailing around southern Africa, dominated discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman discovered Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642. The 18th century marked a burst of exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the French in Polynesia, and the British in the three voyages of James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A large part of Oceania, particularly Australia and New Zealand, has entered upon an era marked by increasing secularization.
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^ In Australia and New Zealand, catechists teach the faith in the local community, especially to children and catechumens.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

Bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 23 January 1960.
Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by European powers, and later, the United States and Japan. Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873–76); and the German Gazelle (1874–76).
.Although the United States gained control of the Philippines from Spain in 1898, Japan controlled most of the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II.^ World War II is not clear.
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^ During the Synod Assembly, the universal Church came to see more clearly how the Lord Jesus is encountering the many peoples of Oceania in their lands and on their many islands.
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^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.However, by the end of that war, Japan was defeated and the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean.^ The following is a summary of losses suffered by the Pacific Fleet and forces operating from the Pacific Ocean Areas, and of the losses which these forces inflicted upon the enemy.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the war at an end, and the final returns from the various subordinate commands in, it is interesting to review the statistics which picture better than paragraphs the large part played in Allied victory by the Pacific Fleet submarines.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the month ended, the SEVENTH Fleet prepared to assume its assigned duties in the occupation of areas in Japan, China, and Korea, under the command of Cinpac-Cincpoa.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the end of World War II, many former colonies in the Pacific have become independent states.^ World War II is not clear.
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^ Like the other southern islands, parts of Guam were seeded with tangantangan following World War II to control erosion (Fosberg 1960).
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^ During and after World War II, military activities resulted in further dramatic reductions in fruit bat habitat on the southern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths.^ The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean .

^ The central Pacific area contains ocean of rather uniform depth on its north-eastern side, and the remains of the ancient "Melanesian Continent" on its south-western side.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashore in a cyclone on the Lihou Reefs, 230 miles outside the Great Barrier Reef, Pacific Ocean, 23 December 1899.

.In shallow waters of the continental shelves off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Philippines, although in sharply declining volume in some cases.^ They are sometimes also found in Bangladesh waters and off the Arakan coast.
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^ A large part of Oceania, particularly Australia and New Zealand, has entered upon an era marked by increasing secularization.
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^ In Australia and New Zealand, catechists teach the faith in the local community, especially to children and catechumens.
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The Pacific's greatest asset is its fish. .The shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield herring, salmon, sardines, snapper, swordfish, and tuna, as well as shellfish.^ Geographically, Oceania comprises the continent of Australia, many islands, big and small, and vast expanses of water.
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Environmental issues

.Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles.^ Each of the four production groups is faced with a unique set of environmental conditions between their freshwater rearing habitat and entry into the marine feeding and migration grounds.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ OFC General Secretary Tai Nicholas says that if Auckland City can play well, Oceania’s case to get direct entry into the main draw will be strengthened.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ Old growth trees neutralize the pH of rain and absorb harmful chemicals before they reach the ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

.The biggest culprits are people who use the rivers for disposing of their waste.^ It is presumed that the Salone are the only people who can stay underwater for many minutes without using oxygen tank.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some articles in this compendium refer to Burma's "Sea Gypsies" as "Moken" (or "Mawken") people, using the name of the "Sea Gypsies" of neighboring Thailand (who are apparently closely related.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The rivers then empty into the Ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture. The excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone.[8]
.Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is a term used to describe human-created waste that has found itself floating in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.^ Burma's "Sea Gypsies" are found amid the Mergui Archipelago, a chain of hundreds of small islands parallel to the southeastern Burma coast (Tenasserim) of the Indian Ocean's Andaman Sea.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Oceanic debris tends to accumulate at the centre of gyres and coastlines, frequently washing aground where it is known as beach litter.

Bordering countries and territories

Major ports and harbours

See also

References

  1. ^ Pacific Ocean". Britannica Concise. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  2. ^ International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Special Publication 23, Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition (1953)
  3. ^ "Japan Atlas: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center". http://web-japan.org/atlas/technology/tec03.html. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
  4. ^ "Pacific Ocean". Britannica Concise. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  5. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf. Retrieved 7 February 2010. 
  6. ^ Darby, Andrew (22 December 2003). "Canberra all at sea over position of Southern Ocean". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/12/21/1071941610556.html. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  7. ^ LOC.gov
  8. ^ Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975)

Further reading

Based on public domain text from US Naval Oceanographer
  • Barkley, Richard A. (1968). Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean. .Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • prepared by the Special Publications Division, National Geographic Society.^ Colonization and later immigration have shaped the nation into a bi-cultural society, where integration of Maori and Western culture remains a pressing challenge.
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    (1985). Blue Horizons: Paradise Isles of the Pacific. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-544-8. 
  • Cameron, Ian (1987). Lost Paradise: The Exploration of the Pacific. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House. ISBN 0-88162-275-3. 
  • Couper, A. D. (ed.) (1989). Development and Social Change in the Pacific Islands. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00917-0. 
  • Gilbert, John (1971). Charting the Vast Pacific. London: Aldus. ISBN 0-490-00226-9. 
  • Lower, J. Arthur (1978). .Ocean of Destiny: A Concise History of the North Pacific, 1500-1978.^ Geological Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in the Lau and North Fiji Basins, Southwest Pacific Ocean: Results of SONNE Cruise SO-35, Geologisches Jahrbuch.
    • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the mid-1970s, ocean conditions in the North Pacific Ocean underwent a dramatic and abrupt change (Graham 1994).
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The influence of ocean conditions on the production of salmonids in the North Pacific.
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0101-8.
     
  • Napier, W.; Gilbert, J., and Holland, J. (1973). Pacific Voyages. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-04335-X. 
  • Oliver, Douglas L. (1989). The Pacific Islands (3rd ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1233-6. 
  • Ridgell, Reilly (1988). Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia (2nd ed.). Honolulu: Bess Press. ISBN 0-935848-50-9. 
  • Soule, Gardner (1970). .The Greatest Depths: Probing the Seas to 20,000 feet (6,100 m) and Below.^ And these "Burmese" Moken are the only group of sea nomads, among an estimated total of 20,000, who remain largely uninfluenced by Islam or Buddhism.
    • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Philadelphia: Macrae Smith. ISBN 0-8255-8350-0.
     
  • Spate, O. H. K. (1988). Paradise Found and Lost. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1715-5. 
  • Terrell, John (1986). .Prehistory in the Pacific Islands: A Study of Variation in Language, Customs, and Human Biology.^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
    • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The island regions of the Pacific are everywhere characterized by uniform high air -temperatures; the mean annual range varies from 1° to 9° F., with extremes of 24° to 27°, and the diurnal range from 9° to 16°.

    ^ The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge University Press.
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-521-30604-3.
     

External links

  • LAtimes.com, LA Times special Altered Oceans
  • NOAA.gov, EPIC Pacific Ocean Data Collection Viewable on-line collection of observational data
  • NOAA.gov, NOAA In-situ Ocean Data Viewer, plot and download ocean observations
  • NOAA.gov, NOAA Ocean Surface Current Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) Near-realtime Pacific Ocean Surface Currents derived from satellite altimeter and scatterometer data
  • NOAA.gov, NOAA PMEL Argo profiling floats Realtime Pacific Ocean data
  • NOAA.gov, NOAA TAO El Niño data Realtime Pacific Ocean El Niño buoy data

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Oceania article)

From Wikitravel

Crystal blue sea off the coast of Samoa.
Crystal blue sea off the coast of Samoa.
Oceania is a vast, arbitrarily defined expanse of the world where the Pacific Ocean – rather than land borders – connects the nations. It is home to glistening white beaches, coconut palms swaying in the breeze, beautiful coral reefs, and rugged volcanic islands rising out of the blue ocean. Its diverse nations have some of the world's most international cities, and some of its most remote villages.
Map of Oceania
Map of Oceania

Regions

Australia and New Zealand, often grouped as Australasia, are by far the largest countries in the continent and the most visited by travellers. Oceania also incorporates Polynesia to the east, Melanesia to the west and Micronesia to the north.
A carving from the Sepik river area of PNG
A carving from the Sepik river area of PNG
  • Australia - The largest and most populous country in Oceania.
  • New Zealand - A major destination, second to Australia in size. Well-developed facilities for travelers. Technically part of Polynesia as the Maoris are considered Polynesian.

Melanesia

Melanesia consists of the island of New Guinea to the north of Australia, which is part Indonesia and part Papua New Guinea (PNG), as well as the other islands of PNG. Other countries in the southwest Pacific make up the remainder of the area. Australian aboriginals are not considered Melanesian.
  • Fiji - A major island tourist destination. Resorts, coral reefs and beaches.
  • New Caledonia - (France) in the tropics. A short flight from Australia.
  • Papua New Guinea – Tropical rainforest, great scenery and culture. An adventurous, but risky, travel destination.
  • Solomon Islands – site of major Second World War battles that involved, among others, JFK. Its main island is Guadalcanal.
  • Vanuatu - Well-developed island destination. As the New Hebrides, was a British-French Condominium until 1980.

Micronesia

Micronesian islands are on or north of the Equator.
Agana: Capital of Guam
Agana: Capital of Guam

Polynesia

Polynesia is mainly made up of the countries to the east of the Pacific. The most northerly island of Fiji, Rotuma, is also Polynesian.
Bora Bora in French Polynesia
Bora Bora in French Polynesia
  • French Polynesia – (France). Includes three islands with a strong claim to being the most beautiful island in the world, Bora Bora, Tahiti and Moorea, but also Mururoa where the French carried out nuclear tests until 1996.
  • Hawaii (United States), and the Midway Islands (United States)
  • Niue – just one flight a week, from Auckland.
  • Pitcairn Islands with descendants of the Bounty mutineers.
  • Samoa – two main volcanic islands with luxuriant vegetation, traditional culture and wonderful open-sided houses.
  • Tokelau (New Zealand)
  • Tonga – the so-called “Friendly islands” and a Kingdom. But traditional and modern cultures are now clashing.
  • Tuvalu - One of the smallest countries in the world in terms of population.
  • Wallis and Futuna (France)
Tahitian Women on the Beach, by Paul Gauguin
Tahitian Women on the Beach, by Paul Gauguin
  • Apia - a little shabby and run down, but useful as an initial stop off point for first time visitors
  • Auckland - bustling multicultural metropolis that scores well in quality-of-life polls
  • Christchurch - known as the Garden City, it is filled with trees and old-English buildings
  • Melbourne - multicultural and sports-mad, this city includes many cultural institutions
  • Nouméa - features beautiful beaches and colonial mansions and is not (yet) a heavily touristed destination
  • Papeete - not a tropical paradise, but has shopping, eating, drinking and is nice for people-watching
  • Port Moresby - spread out capital of Papua New Guinea, but can be very dangerous
  • Suva - the major commercial and political centre of Fiji, Nadi is the tourist capital
  • Sydney - the largest and most cosmopolitan city of Australia, home to the Harbor Bridge and Opera House
More palm-fringed beaches; this time on Aitutaki, Cook Islands
More palm-fringed beaches; this time on Aitutaki, Cook Islands

Understand

European influence

Australia and New Zealand are both former British colonies. At one time it was envisaged that the two colonies would become a single country.
Papua New Guinea was, at one time, a United Nations trusteeship, administered by Australia.
Various islands have been annexed by the Britain, Portugal, Germany, France, Australia and the United States.
This has had an influence of aspects of culture. Many areas speak both an indigenous language, and the language of the colonial power, often mixing in interesting blends. There has also been an influence on the food and architecture.

Ecology

Ecologically, Oceania also includes the eastern parts of Indonesia as far as Lombok and Sulawesi.

Get in

By plane

See the country articles for detailed information on how to Get in.
The major countries of Australia and New Zealand do of course offer extensive connections to all continents. There are some other gateways offering other opportunities to get in to Oceania, and for interesting itineraries. Air France connects New Caledonia direct with Tokyo and Paris. Onward connections to Sydney and Auckland are possible. Air Pacific connect Fiji with Los Angeles with connections through to Sydney, Auckland and Tahiti. Tahiti is connected to Los Angeles, and you can fly to the Cook Islands direct from there.
Guam and Honolulu offer a gateway to many smaller Pacific Islands.
The smallest islands with less tourism present additional challenges to get to. Many are entirely deserted, and some have restictions on access.

By boat

A South Pacific cruise.

Get around

By plane

Without a yacht, or a lot of time, the only way for travelers to get around between the main destinations of Oceania is by plane. Sydney, Brisbane, Auckland, and Los Angeles have good connectivity to the region.It is usually possible to fly from the west coast of the United States through to Sydney or Auckland via Hawaii, Tahiti, Fiji or even the Cook Islands.
However, air routes tend to come and go depending on whether the airlines find them profitable or not. Much of Micronesia, having been under US Administration, is serviced by Continental Airlines. Much of English-speaking Polynesia receives regular flights from Air New Zealand. Melanesia is mainly serviced by national and Australian airlines. Don't expect daily flights. Patience is required.
Flying between Micronesia and the other two areas is problematic and may involve flying all the way to Honolulu or a complicated route through Manila, Sydney and Auckland.
Some flight options, amongst others, are:
  • The Tonga, Samoa and Fiji triangle is fairly well connected, although there is only one flight a week each way between Samoa and Tonga at present.

By ship

There are some options for boats, cruise ships, private yachts, adventure cruises, and even cargo ships.
Consult the guide for the destination you are visiting.

See

All island groups are fascinating and with time and money you can spend months just travelling around. There are some stunningly beautiful islands (Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia), some fascinating cultures and festivals, some wonderful diving and totally deserted beaches. Check the individual country sections for details.
  • Coral and Tropical Fish. There are locations for diving throughout Oceania, for coral and tropical fish, explore the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, the Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia, Fiji has some reef around Nadi, and specular unspoilt brightly coloured coral on the more remote islands. Samoa is favoured by scuba divers. Cook Islands has accessible reef just off the beach on the main islands. Vanuatu has accessible some accessible reef too, but the facilities there make it more challenging to access than Fiji.
  • Sail. Vava'u in Tonga is a popular destination for yachts crossing the Pacific. Yachts can also be chartered there.
  • Sub-tropical diving - Diving and snorkelling opportunities still exist even without a tropical reef. Tasmania has some diving spots.

On land

Skiing and snow sports. New Zealand has reliable winter snowfalls, mostly on the South Island in winter. The Snowy Mountains in New South Wales have the largest ski resorts in the southern hemisphere.

Eat

Although staple foods from outside the region, such as rice and flour, now have a firm foothold, the traditional staples of roots and tubers remain very important. The cheapest is usually cassava, which also plays a food security role as it can be left in the ground for a long time. Sweet potato is a very important crop and is found in most parts of Oceania with the major producing area being the Higlands of Papua New Guinea. Taro and yam are also widespread. The latter is the most valuable of the roots and tubers and there are many customs associated with its cultivation. In the Sepik area of Papua New Guinea, for example, sex between married couples is supposed to be forbidden while the yams are growing. On the other hand, in the Trobriand Islands the yam harvest is a period of sexual liberty.

Drink

Kava is a drink produced from the roots of a plant related to the pepper plant and found mainly in Polynesia as well as Fiji and Vanuatu. It has a mildly narcotic effect. Other names include 'awa (Hawai'i), 'ava (Samoa), yaqona (Fiji), and sakau (Pohnpei). Traditionally it is prepared by chewing, grinding or pounding the roots of the kava plant. In Tonga, chewing traditionally had to be done by female virgins. Pounding is done in a large stone with a small log. The product is then added to cold water and consumed as quickly as possible, invariably as part of a group of people sitting around and sharing the cup. Check the rules before taking any out of the country, however, as importing kava can be can be illegal.

Stay healthy

Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea all have malaria risk in parts. Fiji, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, Samoa and the other islands are malaria free.
The islands may be remote but sexual diseases know no boundaries. Usual precautions apply.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.PACIFIC OCEAN, the largest division of the hydrosphere, lying between Asia and Australia and North and South America.^ Ocean ecology of north Pacific salmonids.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ PACIFIC OCEAN, the largest division of the hydrosphere , lying between Asia and Australia and North and South America .

^ One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.

.It is nearly landlocked to the N., communicating with the Arctic Ocean only by Bering Strait, which is 36 m.^ It is nearly landlocked to the N., communicating with the Arctic Ocean only by Bering Strait , which is 36 m.

wide and of small depth. .The southern boundary is generally regarded as the parallel of 40° S., but sometimes the part of the great Southern Ocean (40 0 to 662° S.) between the meridians passing through South Cape in Tasmania and Cape Horn is included.^ The southern boundary is generally regarded as the parallel of 40° S., but sometimes the part of the great Southern Ocean (40 0 to 662° S.) between the meridians passing through South Cape in Tasmania and Cape Horn is included.

^ The Kingdom of Tonga, located in the South Pacific Ocean, was under the protection of Great Britain from 1900 to 1970.

^ The following paragraphs review the oceanic islands generally, and are therefore concerned almost entirely with the central and mid-western parts of the ocean.

.The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.^ Made radar contact at 30,000 yards on an enemy group heading south instead of north as expected.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coasts of the Pacific are of varied contour.^ The coasts of the Pacific are of varied contour .

.The American coasts are for the most part mountainous and unbroken, the chief indentation being the Gulf of California; but the general type is departed from in the extreme north and south, the southern coast of South America consisting of bays and fjords with scattered islands, while the coast of Alaska is similarly broken in the south and becomes low and swampy towards the north.^ The American coasts are for the most part mountainous and unbroken, the chief indentation being the Gulf of California ; but the general type is departed from in the extreme north and south, the southern coast of South America consisting of bays and fjords with scattered islands, while the coast of Alaska is similarly broken in the south and becomes low and swampy towards the north.

^ Perhaps the most extreme view was Ben Reilly’s November 2000 paper, The Africanisation of the South Pacific (.pdf).
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream , to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.

.The coast of Australia is high and unbroken; there are no inlets of considerable size, although the small openings include some of the finest harbours in the world, as Moreton Bay and Port Jackson.^ The coast of Australia is high and unbroken; there are no inlets of considerable size, although the small openings include some of the finest harbours in the world, as Moreton Bay and Port Jackson .

^ William Dampier , however, making various voyages in 1690-1705, explored the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and at the opening of the century both the French and the Dutch showed some activity.

^ While most Pacific states have a high ratio of police to population, some islands have no police presence, and in others the police take orders from tribal leaders.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Asiatic coasts are for the most part low and irregular, and a number of seas are more or less completely enclosed and cut off from communication with the open ocean.^ The Asiatic coasts are for the most part low and irregular, and a number of seas are more or less completely enclosed and cut off from communication with the open ocean.

^ Bering Sea is bounded by the Alaskan Peninsula and the chain of the Aleutian Islands ; the sea of Okhotsk is enclosed by the peninsula of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the Sea of Japan is shut off by Sakhalin Island, the Japanese Islands and the peninsula of Korea ; the Yellow Sea is an opening between the coast of China and Korea; the China Sea lies between the Asiatic continent and the island of Formosa , the Philippine group, Palawan and Borneo .

^ Many Ocean City attractions are also open year round, and Ocean City rentals offer off-peak deals to go with the smaller crowds.
  • Ocean City Maryland Vacation Rentals by Owner, Ocean City VRBO®, Ocean City MD Condos, Ocean City Lodging, Ocean City Vacations 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bering Sea is bounded by the Alaskan Peninsula and the chain of the Aleutian Islands; the sea of Okhotsk is enclosed by the peninsula of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the Sea of Japan is shut off by Sakhalin Island, the Japanese Islands and the peninsula of Korea; the Yellow Sea is an opening between the coast of China and Korea; the China Sea lies between the Asiatic continent and the island of Formosa, the Philippine group, Palawan and Borneo.^ Bering Sea is bounded by the Alaskan Peninsula and the chain of the Aleutian Islands ; the sea of Okhotsk is enclosed by the peninsula of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the Sea of Japan is shut off by Sakhalin Island, the Japanese Islands and the peninsula of Korea ; the Yellow Sea is an opening between the coast of China and Korea; the China Sea lies between the Asiatic continent and the island of Formosa , the Philippine group, Palawan and Borneo .

^ One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.

^ The partition of the Pacific islands never led to any serious friction between the powers, though the acquisition of Hawaii was attempted by Britain, France and Japan before the United States annexed the group, and the negotiations as to Samoa threatened trouble for a while.

.Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.^ Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes , Java , Banda and Arafura seas.

^ The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea , the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.

^ The Asiatic coasts are for the most part low and irregular, and a number of seas are more or less completely enclosed and cut off from communication with the open ocean.

.The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea, the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.^ The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea , the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.

^ Carrying 327 Chinese gold-seekers from Hong Kong to Sydney, hit a reef near Rossel Island on the eastern tip of the Louisade Archipelago, off the tail of eastern Papua New Guinea, 30 September 1858.

^ One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.

.The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean.^ The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean .

^ The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.

^ This means that the ocean reflects only 6 percent of the incoming solar radiation and absorbs the rest, while sea ice reflects 50 to 70 percent of the incoming energy.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific Ocean has one and three-quarter times the E area of the Atlantic - the next largest division of the hydrosphere - and has more than double its volume of water.^ The Pacific Ocean has one and three-quarter times the E area of the Atlantic - the next largest division of the hydrosphere - and has more than double its volume of water.

^ The bottom waters have almost uniformly a salinity of 34.8 per mille, corresponding closely with the bottom waters of the South Atlantic, but fresher than those of the North Atlantic.

^ The following table, showing the area of the floor of the Pacific (to 40° S.) and the volume of water at different levels, is due to Sir J. Murray: So far as our knowledge goes, the present contours of the open Pacific Ocean are almost as they were in Palaeozoic times, and in the intervening ages changes of level and form have been slight.

.Its area is greater than the whole land surface of the globe, and the volume of its waters is six times that of all the land above sealevel.^ No sooner was i down, after brushing the field a couple of times to see if a landing was possible, than cowboys and villagers sprang up miraculously.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, the high-density surface water mixes with other masses and sinks all the way to the ocean bottom.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we removed all the salt from the ocean and spread it evenly over Earth's land surface, how long before everything became extinct?
  • Not many people know that... - Straight Dope Message Board 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total land area draining to the Pacific is estimated by Murray at 7,500,000 sq.^ The total area covered by it is estimated at 38,332,000 sq.

^ The total land area draining to the Pacific is estimated by Murray at 7,500,000 sq.

^ Hence the proportion of purely oceanic area to the total area is greater in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, the supply of detritus being smaller, and terrigenous deposits are not borne so far from land.

m., or little more than one-fourth of the area draining to the Atlantic. The American rivers draining to the Pacific, except the Yukon, Columbia and Colorado, are unimportant. The chief Asiatic rivers are the Amur, the Hwang-ho and the Yangtsze-kiang: none of which enters the open Pacific directly. .Hence the proportion of purely oceanic area to the total area is greater in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, the supply of detritus being smaller, and terrigenous deposits are not borne so far from land.^ Hence the proportion of purely oceanic area to the total area is greater in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, the supply of detritus being smaller, and terrigenous deposits are not borne so far from land.

^ The surface waters of the North Pacific are relatively fresh, the salinity being on the whole much lower than in the other great Salinity.

^ Its area is greater than the whole land surface of the globe, and the volume of its waters is six times that of all the land above sealevel.

.The bed of the Pacific is not naturally divided into physical regions, but for descriptive purposes the parts of the area lying east and west of 150° W. are conveniently dealt with separately.^ The bed of the Pacific is not naturally divided into physical regions, but for descriptive purposes the parts of the area lying east and west of 150° W. are conveniently dealt with separately.

^ The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group.

^ One of the most obscure questions with which the ethnologist has to deal is that of the prehistoric remains which occur in different and widely separated parts of the oceanic region.

.The eastern region is characterized by great uniformity of depth; the 2000-fathom line keeps close to the American coast except off the Isthmus of Panama, whence an ill-defined ridge of less than 2000 fathoms runs south-westwards, and again off the coast of South America in about 40° S., where a similar bank runs west and unites with the former.^ The eastern region is characterized by great uniformity of depth; the 2000- fathom line keeps close to the American coast except off the Isthmus of Panama , whence an ill-defined ridge of less than 2000 fathoms runs south-westwards, and again off the coast of South America in about 40° S., where a similar bank runs west and unites with the former.

^ Depths of less than 2000 fathoms occur continuously on a bank extending from south-eastern Asia, on which stands the Malay Archipelago .

^ Five small deeps are recognized along a line close to the coast of South America and parallel to it, in the depression enclosed by the two banks mentioned - they extend from about 12° to 30° S. - and are named, from north to south, Milne-Edwards deep, Krummel deep, Bartholomew deep, Richards deep and Haeckel deep.

.The bank then continues south to the Antarctic Ocean, in about 120° W. Practically the whole of the north-east Pacific is therefore more than 2000 fathoms deep, and the south-east has two roughly triangular spaces, including the greater part of the area, between 2000 and 3000 fathoms.^ The bank then continues south to the Antarctic Ocean, in about 120° W. Practically the whole of the north-east Pacific is therefore more than 2000 fathoms deep, and the south-east has two roughly triangular spaces, including the greater part of the area, between 2000 and 3000 fathoms.

^ Five small deeps are recognized along a line close to the coast of South America and parallel to it, in the depression enclosed by the two banks mentioned - they extend from about 12° to 30° S. - and are named, from north to south, Milne-Edwards deep, Krummel deep, Bartholomew deep, Richards deep and Haeckel deep.

^ A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N. and S. A comparison of this distribution with that of atmospheric pressure is of great interest.

.Notwithstanding this great average depth, the " deeps " or areas over 3000 fathoms are small in number and extent.^ Notwithstanding this great average depth, the " deeps " or areas over 3000 fathoms are small in number and extent.

^ Dashed line shows location of trench axis, and small numbers at bottom of each proile denote maximum depth in kilometers.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A long strip within the Tuscarora deep forms the largest continuous area with a depth greater than 4000 fathoms.

.Five small deeps are recognized along a line close to the coast of South America and parallel to it, in the depression enclosed by the two banks mentioned - they extend from about 12° to 30° S. - and are named, from north to south, Milne-Edwards deep, Krummel deep, Bartholomew deep, Richards deep and Haeckel deep.^ Five small deeps are recognized along a line close to the coast of South America and parallel to it, in the depression enclosed by the two banks mentioned - they extend from about 12° to 30° S. - and are named, from north to south, Milne-Edwards deep, Krummel deep, Bartholomew deep, Richards deep and Haeckel deep.

^ The bottom waters have almost uniformly a salinity of 34.8 per mille, corresponding closely with the bottom waters of the South Atlantic, but fresher than those of the North Atlantic.

^ One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.

In the northeast the deeps are again few and small, but they are quite irregularly distributed, and not near the land. .East of 150° W. the Pacific has few islands; the oceanic islands are volcanic, and coral formations are of course scanty.^ Geographically, this is an enormous and diverse area including all island types: continental islands, volcanic islands and coral atolls.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most important group is the Galapagos Islands.
The western Pacific is in complete contrast to the part just described. .Depths of less than 2000 fathoms occur continuously on a bank extending from south-eastern Asia, on which stands the Malay Archipelago.^ Similar situations occur along the west coast of South America and along the islands of Southeast Asia, all notorious for major earthquakes.
  • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This bank continues southwards to the Antarctic Ocean, expanding into a plateau on which Australia stands, and a branch runs eastwards and then southwards from the north-east of Australia through New Zealand.^ There is no northern land boundary for the northward flowing sea ice to run into, so the ice flows northward until it melts in warmer oceans and air temperatures .
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large part of Oceania, particularly Australia and New Zealand, has entered upon an era marked by increasing secularization.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Australia and New Zealand, catechists teach the faith in the local community, especially to children and catechumens.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most considerable areas over 3000 fathoms are the Aldrich deep, an irregular triangle nearly as large as Australia, situated to the east of New Zealand, in which a sounding of 5155 fathoms was obtained by H.M.S. " Penguin," near the Tonga Islands: and the Tuscarora deep, a long, narrow trough running immediately to the east of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and Japan.^ Ask New Zealanders what springs to mind about Oceania, and the answer will involve palm-fringed islands and blue lagoons – paradise.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.A long strip within the Tuscarora deep forms the largest continuous area with a depth greater than 4000 fathoms.^ In the meantime, the periscope had reappeared long enough to enable Thomas F. Nickel to sight it and drop a depth charge pattern in the area.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The error on the 10,866 m depth must be greater than + 55 m, based on the 0.5% accuracy assumed for Sea Beam center-beam depths in optimal conditions.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This depth was corrected based also on a sound velocity of 1500 m/s from an XBT cast made the day of the survey; the error on the sounding must again be greater than +/- 55 m.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.All the rest of the western Pacific is a region of quite irregular contour.^ WOCE INTERNATIONAL PLANNING OFFICE;1989 Report of the regional workshop on the Western Pacific, Quindao, China, 6-7 April 1988.
  • Unpublished Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC woce.nodc.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The average depth varies from 1500 to 2500 fathoms, and from this level innumerable volcanic ridges and peaks rise almost or quite to the surface, their summits for the most part occupied by atolls and reefs of coral formation, while interspersed with these are depressions, mostly of small area, among which the deepest soundings recorded have been obtained.^ They were particularly conscious of those who provide these services in the most remote areas: the jungle, small islands or the Australian "Outback".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is proving to be a delicate balance in these small and vulnerable societies, some of which are facing a very uncertain future, not only because of large-scale emigration but also because of rising sea levels caused by global warming.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the northern islands have supported small human settlements, and most of these have been occupied only sporadically.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The United States telegraph ship " Nero," while surveying for a cable between Hawaii and the Philippines, sounded in 1900 the greatest depth yet known between Midway Islands and Guam (12° 43' N., 1 45° 49' E.) in 5269 fathoms, or almost exactly 6 m.^ In Sheeline's (1991) survey, 45 percent of the respondents believed overhunting was the primary reason for the decline of fruit bats on Guam.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Soundings for making these profiles were acquired between 1925 and 1939 by following systematic tracklines from the U. S. West Coast to the Aleutians for hydrographic surveying operations.

^ The Republic of Palau became subject to the CITES restrictions for trade with the Mariana Islands when it established its independence from the United States in October 1994.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Fathoms.
Areas.
(sq. m.)
Volume.
(cub. m.)
0-100
3,379,700
6,128,500
100-500
1,753,450
23,348,350
500-1000
1,707,650
28,323,700
1000-2000
6,902,550
52,628,500
2000-3000
39,621,550
32,545,400
3000-4000
2,164,150
1,357,900
over 4000
94,850
70,600
55,6 2 3,9 00
144,402,950
.The following table, showing the area of the floor of the Pacific (to 40° S.) and the volume of water at different levels, is due to Sir J. Murray: So far as our knowledge goes, the present contours of the open Pacific Ocean are almost as they were in Palaeozoic times, and in the intervening ages changes of level and form have been slight.^ Followed, in due course, after weeks of mechanical preparation, efforts to et the monoplane "Friendship" off from the gray waters of Boston Harbor.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But for a long time, discussions of climate change did not take the oceans fully into account, simply because very little was known about them.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Renamed John Murray, she was in 1917 refitted as a cargo vessel for use in World War I. Wrecked on Maldon Island, Pacific Ocean, 1918.

.There is no reason to suppose that any considerable part of the vast area now covered by the waters of the Pacific has ever been exposed as dry land.^ There’s no reason why we can’t perform as well as, for example, the All Whites did,” said Vicelich.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ This tabulation does not include losses in the Southwest Pacific Area, which appear in Part VI of this report.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, because there is no land boundary to the north, the sea ice is free to float northward into warmer waters where it eventually melts.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.^ As we righted and held level again, through the blackness below i could see the white-caps too close for comfort.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The largely uninhabited islands are home to a small number of Salone people, who are also known as Moken or 'Sea Gypsies.'
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar situations occur along the west coast of South America and along the islands of Southeast Asia, all notorious for major earthquakes.
  • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Ocean.) .The deeper parts of the bed of the Pacific are covered by deposits of red clay, which occupies an area estimated at no less than 105,672,000 sq.^ Massive overcrowding in other areas, for example the Marshall — where one island has a population density of over 23,000/sq.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personally (over 6,000 pool catches so far - and no turtle), I have to keep on moving to new areas, just to break up the boredom...
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ With no official count, locals estimate that 1,000 Moken live a traditional life on Burmese waters.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

kilometres, or three-fifths of the whole. .Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.^ A Chinese corporation is building a large nickel mine in Papua New Guinea (possibly the first of a number), and Chinese fishing fleets are hammering the Pacific’s fisheries.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left Sydney on a whaling cruise 18 January 1830; wrecked at Fanning Island, Line Islands Group, central Pacific Ocean, 20 September 1831.

^ In parts of the Pacific region, she is especially venerated under the title of Help of Christians; and the Bishops have proclaimed her as Patroness of Oceania under the title of Our Lady of Peace.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Radiolarian ooze is found in the central Pacific in a region between 15° N. to 10° S. and 140° E. to 150° W., occurring in seven distinct localities, and covering an area of about 3,007,000 sq.^ As a result, areas covered by sea ice don't absorb much solar energy, so temperatures in the polar regions remain relatively cool.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what about the differences in sea ice between the two regions?
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some arctic regions are covered with ice that is 4 to 5 m (12 to 15 feet) thick.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

kilometres. .The " Challenger " discovered an area of radiolarian ooze between 7°-12° N. and 147°-152° W., and another in 2°-10° S., 152°-153° W. Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic.^ These can be found in cases in this area.
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Goeke [2] , these Wadati or Benioff Zones are only found near trenches and nowhere else on Earth.
  • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what about the differences in sea ice between the two regions?
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40° S., between 80°-98° W. and 150°-118° W. - but this deposit is not known in the northeastern part of the basin.^ The vessels listed have been lost in the South Pacific, not including New Zealand and the Coral Sea (separate listings).

^ Just got mine after about 80 catches in an imperial manta pool in BT. In the little strip between the major land mass and the area where the Nexxus is located.
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ The response has been for Australia and New Zealand to offer aid, training and partnership to Pacific police forces, along with a regional Transnational Crime unit set up in Suva and individual Transnational Crime units in most Pacific states.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total area covered by it is estimated at 38,332,000 sq.^ Massive overcrowding in other areas, for example the Marshall — where one island has a population density of over 23,000/sq.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And these "Burmese" Moken are the only group of sea nomads, among an estimated total of 20,000, who remain largely uninfluenced by Islam or Buddhism.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

kilometres - about two-thirds of that in the Atlantic. .Pteropod ooze occurs only in the neighbourhood of Fiji and other islands of the western Pacific, passing up into fine coral sands and mud.^ She is currently based in Fiji but is willing to entertain charters in Vanuatu, Tonga or other Pacific Island groups.

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pacific contains up to 30,000 small islands.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diatom ooze has been found in detached areas between the Philippine and Mariana islands, and near the Aleutian and Galapagos groups, forming an exception to the general rule of its occurrence only in high latitudes.^ The difficult terrain of the Mariana Islands, remote location of the northern islands of the CNMI, and the high costs associated with transits of the island group by sea and aerial surveys of individual islands have hindered the establishment of a standard monitoring program for the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Distances between islands in the Mariana archipelago range from 3 to 62 mi (5 to 100 km).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ In the proposed rule, we stated that the moratorium on the taking of Mariana fruit bats on all islands (Public Law 5-21, September 1977) had been lifted.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

All the enclosed seas are occupied by characteristic terrigenous deposits.
.Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.^ In contrast, the Arctic region north of the Atlantic Ocean is open to the warmer waters from the south, because of the way the ocean currents flow.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your little geographies told you that the northeast trade winds blow steadily in the mid-Pacific region.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Weyl (1968) , speculating that the "temporary stagnation" of the bottom water would end because of warming by the interior heat of the Earth; the role of glacial meltwater suppressing North Atlantic Deep Water production was also pioneered by Worthington (1968) ; a neat explanation of the entire circulation in terms of water evaporating from the North Atlantic more than from the cooler North Pacific was indicated by Warren (1983) .
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.monsoon of southern Asia controls the prevailing winds, its influence extending eastwards to 145° E., near the Ladrones, and southwards to the equator.^ A change in prevailing winds changed the ocean surface temperature, which in turn influenced the prevailing winds, shifting the planet’s weather system at least for a while.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the South Pacific the northwest monsoon of Australia affects a belt running east of New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.^ From Sydney to the Eastern Isles (Society Islands) on 12 February 1833, arrived safely in New ZealanD and on 3 March sailed for the South Seas.

^ The vessels listed have been lost in the South Pacific, not including New Zealand and the Coral Sea (separate listings).

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the east the north-east trade-belt extends between 5° and 25° N.; the south-east trade crosses the equator, and its mean southern limit is 25° S. The trade-winds are generally weaker and less persistent in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, and the intervening belt of equatorial calms is broader.^ Your little geographies told you that the northeast trade winds blow steadily in the mid-Pacific region.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you were "an excellent driver," could you cross the moon's equivalent of the Marianas Trench in less than twenty minutes in a moon buggy powered by sodium?
  • Not many people know that... - Straight Dope Message Board 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relationship between wind and sea ice drift is so strong that a general guideline can be applied: sea ice that drifts freely moves at 2 percent of the wind speed.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Except in the east of the Pacific, the south-east trade is only fully developed during the southern winter; at other seasons the regular trade-belt is cut across from north-west to south-east by a band twenty to thirty degrees wide, in which the trades alternate with winds from north-east and north, and with calms, the calms prevailing chiefly at the boundary of the monsoon region (5° N.-15° S., 160°-185° E.).^ Your little geographies told you that the northeast trade winds blow steadily in the mid-Pacific region.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ During the winter, up to 18 million km 2 (6.9 million square miles) of ocean is covered by sea ice, but by the end of summer, only about 3 million km 2 (1.1 million square miles) of sea ice remain.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This area, in which the south-east trade is interrupted, includes the Fiji, Navigator and Society groups, and the Paumotus. In the Marquesas group the trade-wind is constant. .Within the southern monsoon region there is a gradual transition to the northwest monsoon of New Guinea in low latitudes, and in higher latitudes to the north-east wind of the Queensland coast.^ 'Ghost yacht' found Map of Queensland Australia    Emergency services have launched a search for the 3-man crew of a yacht found drifting off the North Queensland coast .
  • Oceania Timeline, 21st Century 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.mapreport.com [Source type: News]

^ In the Southern Hemisphere , sea ice only develops around Antarctica , occurring as far north as 55 degrees south latitude.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local diocesan priests should be provided with more opportunities for higher studies both within the region and further afield.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The great warming and abundant rainfall of the island regions of the western Pacific, and the low temperature of the surface water in the east, cause a displacement of the southern tropical maximum of pressure to the east; hence we have a permanent " South Pacific anticyclone " close to the coast of South America.^ The breakthough came in 1969 when Jacob Bjerknes presented a persuasive hypothesis for interactions between what had long been known as separate phenomena: the "El Niño" surface temperature changes in the South Pacific Ocean, and the "Southern Oscillation" of pressure changes in the atmosphere above it.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most obvious physical manifestations of the late 1970s shift include a strengthening and eastward shift of the Aleutian Low (Trenberth 1990) and warming of the surface waters in the Gulf of Alaska (Royer 1989).
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This figure shows the relationship between salinity and temperature of water to illustrate how salinity influences the temperature of maximum water density and freezing temperature.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The characteristic feature of the south-western Pacific is therefore the relatively low pressure and the existence of a true monsoon region in the middle of the tradewind belt.^ In this region where the Pacific Plate is subducting and the bending hinge is at a high angle to the lineations, the apparent throw of these features does not increase towards the trench.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is to be noted that the climate of the islands of the Pacific becomes more and more healthy the farther they are from the monsoon region.^ Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island arcs-Tonga Region, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Resources, Earth Science Series 2 , 323- 332.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The upper ocean layers also seemed to mix together more in regions with many storms, and storminess was another thing that might change as the climate changed.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island arcs-Tonga Region, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Resources, Earth Science Series 2 , 109-120.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The island regions of the Pacific are everywhere characterized by uniform high air-temperatures; the mean annual range varies from 1° to 9° F., with extremes of 24° to 27°, and the diurnal range from 9° to 16°.^ The climate is tropical, with daily mean temperatures of 75 to 90° Fahrenheit (24 to 32° Celsius), high humidity, and average annual rainfall of 80 to 100 inches (in) (200 to 260 centimeters (cm)).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ While most Pacific states have a high ratio of police to population, some islands have no police presence, and in others the police take orders from tribal leaders.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

In the monsoon region relative humidity is high, viz. 80 to 90%. .The rainfall is abundant; in the western island groups there is no well-marked rainy season, but over the whole region the greater part of the rainfall takes place during the southern summer, even as far north as Hawaii.^ Women would never think of cooking ashore, even during the rainy season when their boats are moored along beaches.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viktor Cotume: No, NoX. Viktor Cotume: All can take part.
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ The residents live on boats during dry season and remain on land during rainy season.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the trade-wind region we find the characteristic heavy rainfall on the weather sides of the islands, and a shorter rainy season at the season of highest sun on the lee side.^ Your little geographies told you that the northeast trade winds blow steadily in the mid-Pacific region.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, during the rainy season, when the weather is strong and rough, they managed to stay slovenly on the nearest islands they could find.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buchan describes the island-studded portion of the western Pacific as the most extensive region of the globe characterized by an unusually heavy rainfall.^ Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island arcs-Tonga Region, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Resources, Earth Science Series 2 , 323- 332.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Namias argued plausibly that this was caused, paradoxically, by some unusually warm surface water lingering in a region of the North Pacific.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island arcs-Tonga Region, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Resources, Earth Science Series 2 , 109-120.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic.^ The energy carried to the neighborhood of Iceland was "staggering," Broecker explained — nearly a third as much as the Sun sheds upon the entire North Atlantic.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When one piece fitted into another an unexpected picture could appear, like the possibility of a sudden shutdown of the North Atlantic conveyor belt.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A threatening "low" on the first leg of the route had dissipated to the southeast; a "high" seemed to be moving in promisingly beyond Newfoundland.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

.The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.^ For Labrador is frigid because it lies downwind from tundra that freezes in winter, whereas England is warmed by prevailing Westerly winds that pick up the ocean’s heat, much of which is simply heat retained from the summer.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The waters off the eastern coasts of Canada and Russia are affected by cold air moving off the land from the west.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caught off the western coast of Howling Fjord, after many hundreds of casts.
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

.In the southern hemisphere there is a transition to the low-pressure belt encircling the Southern Ocean, in which westerly and north-westerly winds continue all the year round.^ Many Ocean City attractions are also open year round, and Ocean City rentals offer off-peak deals to go with the smaller crowds.
  • Ocean City Maryland Vacation Rentals by Owner, Ocean City VRBO®, Ocean City MD Condos, Ocean City Lodging, Ocean City Vacations 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the southern Marianas are hypothesized to have been densely forested when first settled by humans some 3,500 years ago (Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg 1998).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a year-round indoor ice-skating rink which hosts...
  • Accommodations: Hotel & Motel Reservations and Condos - Ocean City, Maryland 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC ococean.com [Source type: General]

.The distribution of temperature in the waters of the Pacific Ocean has been fully investigated, so far as is possible with the existing observations, by G. Schott.^ The freezing temperature of salt water is lower than fresh water; ocean temperatures must reach -1.8 degrees Celsius (28.8 degrees Fahrenheit) to freeze.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Water from the Pacific Ocean and several rivers in Russia and Canada provide fresher, less dense water to the Arctic Ocean .
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the surface an extensive area of maximum temperature (over 20° C.) occurs over 10° on each side of the equator to the west of the ocean.^ Cold, dense, polar water sinks and moves along the ocean bottom toward the equator, while warm water from mid-depth to the surface travels from the equator toward the poles.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ocean water, which is more saline, has a lower temperature of maximum density and a lower freezing temperature than fresh water.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the eastern side temperature falls to 22° on the equator and is slightly higher to N. and S. In the North Pacific, beyond lat. .40°, the surface is generally warmer on the E. than on the W., but this condition is, on the whole, reversed in corresponding southern latitudes.^ Some sensible-heat exchange also occurs within latent-heat polynyas because the water in the polynya is generally warmer than the air above it even though the water is at freezing temperature.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warmer water that replaces it must also be cooled, so more than just the ocean surface needs to reach the freezing point.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the intermediate levels, down to depths not exceeding woo metres, a remarkable distribution appears. .A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N. and S. A comparison of this distribution with that of atmospheric pressure is of great interest.^ N station and bottle position information files (latitude/longitude, distance along the section, and bottle positions of good data for each station).
  • Hydrographic sections in the Pacific 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC sam.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The coupled ocean-atmosphere computer models improved rapidly through the 1990s, and gradually took a central role in thinking about climate change.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With your own kitchen, lots of space, separate bedrooms and all the amenities of home, vacation rentals area great way to enjoy your...
  • Accommodations: Hotel & Motel Reservations and Condos - Ocean City, Maryland 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC ococean.com [Source type: General]

.High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.^ The breakthough came in 1969 when Jacob Bjerknes presented a persuasive hypothesis for interactions between what had long been known as separate phenomena: the "El Niño" surface temperature changes in the South Pacific Ocean, and the "Southern Oscillation" of pressure changes in the atmosphere above it.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These structural highs are easily identifiable in Map 2, and commonly define the trench slope break at about 4000 m water depth.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, the high-density surface water mixes with other masses and sinks all the way to the ocean bottom.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The isothermal lines, in fact, suggest that in the vast area of the Pacific something corresponding to the " planetary circulation " is established, further investigation of which may be of extreme value in relation to current inquiries concerning the upper air.^ This is because ocean currents and atmospheric circulation move sea ice around Antarctica , causing most of the ice to melt in the summer as it moves into warmer waters, or as the upper ocean heats up due to absorption of solar heat by open water areas.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the greater depths temperature is extraordinarily uniform, 80% of the existing observations falling within the limits of 1.6° C. and 1.9° C. In the enclosed seas of the western Pacific, temperature usually falls till a depth corresponding to that of the summit of the barriers which isolate them from the open ocean is reached, and below that point temperature is uniform to the bottom.^ Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Summit Peak 5 m .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Elevation extremes 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Elevation extremes 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because oceans are so deep, it takes longer to reach the freezing point, and generally, the top 100 to 150 meters (m) (300 to 450 feet) of water must be cooled to the freezing temperature for ice to form.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mauga Silisili (Savaii) 1,857 m .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Elevation extremes 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Elevation extremes 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the Sulu Sea, for example, a temperature of 10.3° C. is reached at 400 fathoms, and this remains constant to the bottom in 2500 fathoms.^ As a result, areas covered by sea ice don't absorb much solar energy, so temperatures in the polar regions remain relatively cool.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The surface waters of the North Pacific are relatively fresh, the salinity being on the whole much lower than in the other great Salinity. oceans.^ This raises the salinity of the near-surface water.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ocean water, which is more saline, has a lower temperature of maximum density and a lower freezing temperature than fresh water.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volume on the phone is horrible, does not support mp3-ringtones, but rather yamaha mmf which is much lower quality than I’m used to at least.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The saltest waters are found along a belt extend ing westwards from the American coast on the Tropic of Cancer to 160° E., then turning southwards to the equator.^ Cold, dense, polar water sinks and moves along the ocean bottom toward the equator, while warm water from mid-depth to the surface travels from the equator toward the poles.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are sometimes also found in Bangladesh waters and off the Arakan coast.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North of this salinity diminishes steadily, especially to the north-west, the Sea of Okhotsk showing the lowest salinity observed in any part of the globe.^ Especially striking were studies in the 1980s that turned up layers of tiny pebbles in North Atlantic deep-sea cores.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile several teams stirred up anxieties by announcing they had observed significant changes in the North Atlantic salinity and circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South and east of the axis mentioned salinity becomes less to just north of the equator, where it increases again, and the saltest waters of the whole Pacific are found, as we should expect, in the south-east trade-wind region, the maximum occurring in about 18° S. and 120° W. South of the Tropic of Capricorn the isohalines run nearly east and west, salinity diminishing quickly to the Southern Ocean.^ Your little geographies told you that the northeast trade winds blow steadily in the mid-Pacific region.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South of this point, the trench narrows, becomes asymmetrical with a steeper landward slope, and convergence rapidly becomes near normal to the trench axis as the trench assumes a more north-south azimuth (Profiles 12-15, Figure 5).
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Northern Hemisphere , it can currently exist as far south as Bohai Bay, China (approximately 38 degrees north latitude), which is actually about 700 kilometers (km) (435 miles) closer to the Equator than it is to the North Pole.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bottom waters have almost uniformly a salinity of 34.8 per mille, corresponding closely with the bottom waters of the South Atlantic, but fresher than those of the North Atlantic.^ Broecker suggested that when fresh water was brought into the North Atlantic in a million melting icebergs, it might have halted the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equally significant was the time scale, which turned out to be half a millennium or so (in particular, the deep water of the North Atlantic had been down there an average of 650 years).
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence of these broad, sluggishly rotating columns of water had turned up during a survey voyage across the North Atlantic in 1960.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.^ Namias argued plausibly that this was caused, paradoxically, by some unusually warm surface water lingering in a region of the North Pacific.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oceanographers concentrated on surface winds and currents, far easier to measure and far more important for seafarers than the slow overall circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chamberlin had speculated that the circulation could shut down if the North Atlantic surface water became less salty.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Speak . ing generally, however, it may be said that they are for the most part under the direct control of the prevailing winds.^ London and Berlin are in the same latitude as Labrador, they pointed out, and would be as barren if not for the prevailing winds that pick up heat from the ocean and carry it westward.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Activities on these lands will trigger consultation under section 7 if they may affect the Mariana fruit bat.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Most experts, however, believe they migrated up the coast from the Riaw-Ringga Archipelago, south of Singapore.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The North Equatorial Current is due to the action of the north-east trades. .It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.^ When the circulation changed so that the North got cooler, the South got warmer, and vice versa — a far cry from the current warming all around the globe.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They saw that the vast mass of water that gradually creeps northward near the surface of the Atlantic is as important in carrying heat as the familiar and visible Gulf Stream.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broecker suggested that when fresh water was brought into the North Atlantic in a million melting icebergs, it might have halted the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land. .The Equatorial CounterCurrent flowing eastwards is largely assisted during the latter half of the year by the south-west monsoon, and from July to October the south-west winds prevailing east of 150° E. further strengthen the current, but later in the year the easterly winds weaken or even destroy it.^ In the Antarctic, the currents and winds tend to flow without interruption around the continent in a west-to-east direction, acting like a barricade to warmer air and water to the north.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second was the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58, which further expanded and strengthened ocean research under the leadership of an international committee.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half a century has passed since her disappearance in the South Pacific in July 1937, and each succeeding year brings forth new books on her and her probable fate.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

.The South Equatorial Current is produced by the southeast trades, and is more vigorous than its northern counterpart.^ In the Northern Hemisphere , it can currently exist as far south as Bohai Bay, China (approximately 38 degrees north latitude), which is actually about 700 kilometers (km) (435 miles) closer to the Equator than it is to the North Pole.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oceanographers concentrated on surface winds and currents, far easier to measure and far more important for seafarers than the slow overall circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On reaching the western Pacific part of this current passes southwards, east of New Zealand, and again east of Australia, as the East Australian Current, part northwards to join the Equatorial CounterCurrent, and during the north-east monsoon part makes its way through the China Sea towards the Indian Ocean.^ During the seaward and return migrations, pink and sockeye salmon pass through the Coastal Downwelling Domain, a region extending from Queen Charlotte Sound to Prince William Sound dominated by the Alaska Current.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vessels listed have been lost in the South Pacific, not including New Zealand and the Coral Sea (separate listings).

.During the south-west monsoon this last branch is reversed, and the surface waters of the China Sea probably unite with the Kuro Siwo.^ During summer, as the snow on top of sea ice melts, the meltwater can accumulate in depressions on the sea ice surface called melt ponds .
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other features that form on the surface of sea ice are frost flowers, crystals of ice deposited on the sea ice when water vapor bypasses the liquid phase and becomes a solid.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [AS1] Bateson adds that the locationn of her loss was probably the island of Atiu, 300 miles west by south of Tahiti.

.Between the Kuro Siwo and the Asiatic coast a band of cold water, with a slight movement to the southward, known as the Oya Siwo, forms the analogue of the " Cold Wall " of the Atlantic.^ The waters off the eastern coasts of Canada and Russia are affected by cold air moving off the land from the west.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very cold, low-density fresh water stays at the surface of lakes and rivers, forming an ice layer on the top.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern Canadian coast is also fed by southward-flowing cold water currents that make it easier for sea ice to grow.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the higher latitudes of the South Pacific the surface movement forms part of the west wind-drift of the Roaring Forties.^ The wind blowing on the top surface of the sea ice results in a drag force on the ice surface and causes the ice to drift.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Submarines lost - During the entire war, 5 S-type and 44 Fleet type submarines were lost in the Pacific (including the South West Pacific), or 19.5% of the 251 submarines which have operated in the Pacific.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the west coast of South America the cold waters of the Humboldt or Peruvian Current corresponding to the Benguela Current of the South Atlantic, make their way northwards, ultimately joining the South Equatorial Current.^ So, at a leisurely pace, I fished my way south, hopping from pool to pool, out into Borean Tundra, and eventually to the coast.
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ They saw that the vast mass of water that gradually creeps northward near the surface of the Atlantic is as important in carrying heat as the familiar and visible Gulf Stream.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The waters off the eastern coasts of Canada and Russia are affected by cold air moving off the land from the west.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic.^ Others since Chamberlin had speculated that the circulation might stop if global warming somehow made northern surface waters less dense.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oceanographers concentrated on surface winds and currents, far easier to measure and far more important for seafarers than the slow overall circulation.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chamberlin had speculated that the circulation could shut down if the North Atlantic surface water became less salty.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic.^ Especially striking were studies in the 1980s that turned up layers of tiny pebbles in North Atlantic deep-sea cores.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the extent that a slowdown might come, any cooling it caused around the North Atlantic would be outrun by increasing warmth caused by the greenhouse gases accumulating in the atmosphere.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence of these broad, sluggishly rotating columns of water had turned up during a survey voyage across the North Atlantic in 1960.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.^ This raises the salinity of the near-surface water.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They saw that the vast mass of water that gradually creeps northward near the surface of the Atlantic is as important in carrying heat as the familiar and visible Gulf Stream.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been over clouds, between two layers, or actually in the formation for hours on end, and have seen no shops excepting very near land.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

.The only movement in the depths is the slow creep of ice-cold water northwards along the bottom from the Southern Ocean; but this is more marked, and apparently penetrates farther north, than in the Atlantic.^ Sea ice also affects the movement of ocean waters.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The deep waters of the North Atlantic had apparently grown cold and still.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversely, in western Europe, the northern coast of Norway at 70 degrees north latitude (2,000 km, or 1,243 miles, farther north than Newfoundland or Japan) generally remains ice-free.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See Reports of expeditions of the U.S.S. " Albatross " and " Thetis," 1888-1892; A. Agassiz, Expedition to the Tropical Pacific, 1899-1900, 1904-1905; H.M.S. " Challenger," 1873-1876; " Egeria, " 1888-1889 and 1899; " Elisabeth," 1877; " Gazelle," 1875-1876; " Planet," 1906; " Penguin," 1891-1903; " Tuscarora," 1873-1874; " Vettor Pisani," 1884; " Vitraz," 1887-1888; also observations of surveying and cable ships, and special papers in the Annalen der Hydrographie (for distribution of temperature see G. Schott, p.^ Fritz (1901) reported a large number of bats on Tinian in 1900 and Fritz (1904) reported that bats were common on all the southern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Next came a Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere study (TOGA) that surveyed the equatorial Pacific, inspired by the devastating El Niño of 1982-83.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2, 1910).
.(H. N. D.) Islands Of The Pacific Ocean Up to a certain point, the islands of the Pacific fall into an obvious classification, partly physical, partly political.^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile fallout from bomb tests was already mixing into the Pacific Ocean, sparking an international outcry and demands to know exactly where the poisons were going.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed that was the most interesting cup of chocolate I have ever had, sitting up eight thousand feet over the middle of the Pacific Ocean, quite alone.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the west there is the great looped chain which fringes the east coast of Asia, and with it encloses the series of seas which form parts of the ocean.^ Sea ice grows, forms, and melts strictly in the ocean.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If there’s still a part of you hankering after the iPhone, then maybe the price will convince you otherwise; Ocean will drop this coming Spring with a MRSP of $295.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 15 percent of the world's oceans are covered by sea ice during part of the year.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.^ Continued submerged patrol north of the Formosa Strait then proceeded back to the China Coast off Turnabout Island.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burma's "Sea Gypsies" are found amid the Mergui Archipelago, a chain of hundreds of small islands parallel to the southeastern Burma coast (Tenasserim) of the Indian Ocean's Andaman Sea.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Helio Ocean uses Sprint’s network which is CDMA. It’s not a GSM phone, so will not work outside of the United States.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the loop of the Kuriles depends from the southern extremity of Kamchatka, so from the east of the same peninsula another loop extends across the northern part of the ocean to Alaska, and helps to demarcate the Bering Sea; this chain is distinctly broken to the east of the Commander Islands, but is practically continuous thereafter under the name of the Aleutian Islands.^ One of three ships commanded by Pedro Fernandez de Quiros during his 1606 expedition across the Pacific Ocean, [HH1] LAstrolabe.

^ The continued health of this and other oceans is crucial for the welfare of peoples not only in Oceania but in every part of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The directionality of free drift depends on the size of the sea ice moving; larger pieces of sea ice move at the higher range of 20 to 40 degrees to the right ( Northern Hemisphere ) or left ( Southern Hemisphere ) of the wind direction.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Islands form a much less important feature of the American Pacific coast than of the Asiatic; between 48° N. and 38° S. there are practically none, and to the north and south of these parallels respectively the islands, though large and numerous, are purely continental, lying close under the mainland, enclosing no seas, and forming no separate political units.^ Slowly I climbed to 10,000 feet, to skim over the mountains that hem in the high central valley where the city lies, separating it from the lands that slope down to the sea.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Multiyear ice contains much less brine and more air pockets than first-year ice.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A conservative interpretation of these data indicate that bat numbers have declined on the two islands, which historically had large numbers of fruit bats in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.South-eastward of the Malay Archipelago lies " the largest island and the smallest continent," Australia; eastward of the archipelago, New Guinea, the largest island if Australia be regarded as a continent only.^ Papua New Guinea is the largest of the Melanesian nations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mergui Archipelago is comprised of over 800 islands inhabited only by Salone, or sea gypsies.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among Myeik Archipelago many interesting features is a small village on the Bo Cho Island south of the Lampi Island.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With Australia may be associated the islands lying close under its coasts, including Tasmania.^ These groups live off the coasts of Malaysian and Indonesian islands including Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Sulu Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Next follow the two great islands and attendant islets of New Zealand.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perouses two vessels were located in 1962 by a New Zealander engineer and diver Reece Discombe, resident in Vanuatu.

^ From Sydney to the Eastern Isles (Society Islands) on 12 February 1833, arrived safely in New ZealanD and on 3 March sailed for the South Seas.

.There now remains a vast number of small islands which lie chiefly (but not entirely) within an area which may be defined as extending from the Philippines, New Guinea and Australia to 130° W., and from tropic to tropic.^ You may remain there.
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ All other functions and responsibilities previously assigned Commander SEVENTH Fleet were assumed in the Philippines by Commander Philippine Sea Frontier (Vice Admiral J.L. Kauffman), and in the Australia-New Guinea (Rear Admiral C.E. Van Hook), both of whom remained under CinCSWPA control.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without the vast drift of tropical waters northward, he suggested, a new glacial period could begin.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These islands fall principally into a number of groups clearly enough defined to be well seen on a map of small scale; they are moreover divided, as will be shown, into three main divisions; but whereas they have enough characteristics in common to render a general view of them desirable, there is no well-recognized name to cover them all.^ The forearc from 14oS to 26°S may be sub-divided latitudinally into three major blocks, based on morphology, structure, and sediment geometry (Tappin, 1994): the northern block (north of ~18° 30’S; Maps 1 and 2 at back) lies beneath the deepest water, and includes small islands formed by TVA volcanoes that penetrate a relatively thin sedimentary section with no preferential regional dip; .
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There’s no reason why we can’t perform as well as, for example, the All Whites did,” said Vicelich.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ These structural highs are easily identifiable in Map 2, and commonly define the trench slope break at about 4000 m water depth.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The name Polynesia was formerly taken to do so, but belongs properly to one of the three main divisions, to which the name Eastern Polynesia was otherwise given; Oceania and Oceanica are variants of another term which has been used for the same purpose, though by no means generally.^ Cruise on one of three Oceania cruise ships.
  • Oceania Cruises | Discount Oceania Cruise Deals | Cheap Oceania Cruises 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.cruisemarketplace.com [Source type: General]

^ Despite the vastly diverse cultures and great distances in Oceania, the local Bishops realize that they are united with one another and with the Bishop of Rome, and they see this too as a great gift.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Eastern Catholic Churches have arrived in Oceania in comparatively recent times, and they have established themselves as a rich expression of Catholicity in various parts of Oceania, particularly Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover usage varies slightly as regards the limits of the three main divisions, but the accompanying table shows the most usual classification, naming the principal groups within each, and distributing them according to the powers to which they are subject.^ It would be nice if they grouped the videos by show names first and then list each episode.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On this voyage they saw th remains of the wrecked Dutch vessel Zeewyk in the Abrolhos islands, and named the Pelsart Group.

.The following islands may be classified as oceanic, but not with any of the three main divisions: the Bonin Islands, north of the Marianas, belonging to Japan; Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands (to New South Wales); Easter Island (to Chile); the Galapagos Islands (to Ecuador).^ During the Synod Assembly, the universal Church came to see more clearly how the Lord Jesus is encountering the many peoples of Oceania in their lands and on their many islands.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Come home!": Homily at Mass for the Dioceses of New South Wales, Randwick Racecourse, Sydney (26 November 1986), 5: Insegnamenti IX, 2 (1986), 1678.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In an area to be defined roughly as lying about the Tropic of Cancer, between Hawaii and the Bonin Islands, there are scattered a few small islands and reefs, of most of which the position, if not the existence, is doubtful.^ Just got mine after about 80 catches in an imperial manta pool in BT. In the little strip between the major land mass and the area where the Nexxus is located.
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

^ Kawthaung has only two hotels, neither of which are international standard, although there is a luxury resort on small nearby island.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saipan, Tinian, and Guam, the most severely altered islands, today harbor very few fruit bats.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Such are Patrocinio (about 28° 30' N., 177° 18' E.) and Ganges (39° 47' N., 154° 15' E.), among others which appear on most maps.^ The resturant is beautiful..I loved the decor...it is a very mixed crowd..we had to wait on a Friday night about 30 min but had a reservation and we had a party of about 15.

Marcus Island, in 23° 10' N., 154° E., was annexed by Japan in 1899 with a view to its becoming a cable station.
MELANESIA.
Area,
sq. m.
Pop.
MICRONESIA.
Area '
sq. m.
Pop.
POLYNESIA.
Area,
sq. m.
Fiji .
7,435
121,000
Gilbert Island .
166
30,000
America Islands .
260
300
Louisiade Archip.
850
5,000
Cook Islands'. .
III
6,200
To Great
Santa Cruz Island
380
5,000
Ellice Islands. .
14
2,400
Britain.
Solomon Islands
Manihiki Islands .
12
1,000
(part).. .
12,800
135,000
Niue. .. .
36
4,000
Phoenix Islands .
16
60
Pitcairn .
2
170
Tokelau Islands .
7
500
Tonga Islands. .
385
19,000
Total, British
21,465
266,000 .
166
30,000
843
33,630
To United
States of
Guam. .. .
200
9,000
Hawaii.. .
6,651
154,000
America .
Samoa (part). .
95
6,000
Total, U.S.A.. ... .
-
-
.. ... .
200
9,000
6,746
160,00o
To France .
Loyalty Island .
1,050
20,000
Marquesas Islands
490
4,300
New Caledonia .
6,450
52,000
Paumotu Archip.
364
5,000
Society Islands .
637
18, 500
Tubuai Islands .
110
2,000
Wallis Archip. .
40
4,500
Total, French .
7,500
72,000
-
-
1,641
34,300
To Germany.
Bismarck Archip.
20,000
188,000
Caroline Islands .
380
36,000
Samoa (part). .
985
33,000
Solomon Islands
Mariana Islands
(part).. .
4,200
45,000
(excl. Guam) .
245
2,500
Marshall Islands .
160
15,000
Pelew Islands. .
175
3,100
Total, German. ... .
24,200
233,000
960
56,600
985
33,000
New Hebrides 2 .
5,106
50,600
TOTAL. .
Melanesia.. .
58,271
621,600
Micronesia. .
1,326
95,600
Polynesia. .
10,215
260,930
.The following paragraphs review the oceanic islands generally, and are therefore concerned almost entirely with the central and mid-western parts of the ocean.^ What I came to this thread looking for was an answer to the following questions: 1) Has man visited the deepest parts of the ocean?
  • Not many people know that... - Straight Dope Message Board 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is impossible to estimate the total number of the islands; an atoll, for instance, which may slate in the Marquesas, which afford a type of the extinct volcanic islands, as does Tahiti.^ The northern islands thus all have the potential for volcanic activity, and eruptions are another natural disturbance that may alter fruit bat habitat in the northern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ After the volcanic eruption in May 2003, the island's state of devegetation facilitated accurate location of all colonies (C. Kessler, in litt.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.In other areas, however, there is still volcanic activity, and in many cases volcanoes to which only tradition attributes eruptions can hardly be classified as extinct.^ There are many other challenges facing the Church's members, especially those entrusted with pastoral responsibility.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, defoliation and other damage caused by storms forces bats to forage during the day in areas close to human habitation (Lemke 1992b).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The following information was related by a Burmese source with many connections among fishermen and others active in the areas around the Mergui Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hawaii contains the celebrated active crater of Kilauea. .In Tonga, in the New Hebrides, and in the long chain of the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago there is much activity.^ In the by-passed Solomons-Bismarcks theater, Marine Corps F4Us and B-25s continued to supplement the RNZAF in strikes against the enemy on Bougainville, New Britain, and New Ireland.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Submarine vents sometimes break forth, locally raising the level of the sea-bottom, or even forming temporary islands or shoals. Earthquakes are not uncommon in the volcanic areas. .Most of the volcanic islands are lofty in proportion to their size.^ The relatively large size and moderate topography of the southern islands led to their being, along with Guam, the most heavily populated and intensively cultivated islands in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.^ They live on wooden boats, moving between the 800 islands that make up the archipelago and "live and die by what the sea gives and takes".
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geology and Offshore Resources of Pacific Island arcs-Tonga Region, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Resources, Earth Science Series 2 , 109-120.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The small, endangered ethnic group referred to as "Sea Gypsies" or "Moken," the Saloun people, traditionally have lived on boats in the region and survived on ocean and island foods.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m., with a population of 978,130; but they are for the most part merely approximate.
be divided into a large number of islets, often bears a single name. .The number of names of islands and separate groups in the Index to the Islands of the Pacific (W. T. Brigham), which covers the limited area under notice, is about 2650, exclusive of alternative names.^ In some missionary areas, the Bishops are concerned about the effect that these religious groups or sects are having on the Catholic community.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bokpyin Township area:     Langaen Kyu -- about 30 households     Busa Kyu -- about 40 households     Bei Sein Kyun [Green Fire Island] -- about 50 households     Kawrei Kyun -- about 30 households .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these, it may be mentioned, there is a vast number, owing in some cases to divergence of spelling in the representation of native names, in others to European discoverers naming islands (sometimes twice or thrice successively) of which the native names subsequently came into use also.^ The prominent linear form of some of these canyons (as at 18䓹'S) suggests that they may have exploited faults that cut the forearc at high angles to the trench.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some cities have Jewish communities, made up of a considerable number of survivors of the Holocaust, and these communities can play an important role in Jewish-Christian relations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I mentioned this to the waiter he replied that they don't use fish sauce in the restaurant.......and that threw me into a rant like no other on the way out.
  • Sea Thai Restaurant & Bistro - Williamsburg - South Side - Brooklyn, NY 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.The islands may be divided broadly into volcanic and coral islands, though the physiography of many islands is imperfectly known.^ Phuket, now a tourist resort island, was known in Malay as "Ujong Salang" which may or may not have given these people the name used for them in Burma.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.^ In many countries of Oceania, young people form the majority of the population, while in countries like Australia and New Zealand this is not true to the same extent.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Along with these, similarly, hornblende and diabase occur in the Pelew Islands and gneiss and mica 1 These are dependencies of New Zealand, as are also the following islands and groups which lie apart from the main Polynesian clusters, nearer New Zealand itself: Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Islands, Chatham Islands, Kermadec Islands.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These groups live off the coasts of Malaysian and Indonesian islands including Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Sulu Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These factors, and their application to the Mariana fruit bat (Pteropus mariannus mariannus) in the Mariana Islands are as follows: .
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

2 Under British and French influence jointly.
frequently culminate, combined with the rich characteristic vegetation, are the principal features which have led all travellers to extol the beauty of the islands.
.In the central and western Pacific the northern and southern limits of the occurrence of reef-forming corals are approximately 30 N. and 30 S. It may be added that this belt narrows greatly towards the east, mainly from the south, in sympathy with the northward flow of cold water off the coast of South America.^ At the same time, Central Pacific forces were blazing a more direct path toward Japan with amphibious landings at Iwo Jima in February, followed in April and May at Okinawa by the largest amphibious operation yet mounted in the Pacific.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are sometimes also found in Bangladesh waters and off the Arakan coast.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caught off the western coast of Howling Fjord, after many hundreds of casts.
  • Sea Turtle - El's Extreme Anglin' - WoW Fishing Guide 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.elsanglin.com [Source type: General]

.But apart from this the limits are seen to accord fairly closely with the geographical definition of the area under consideration.^ I was climbing lowly with my heavy load i was definitely under the prescribed limit.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

.Here the broad distinction has been drawn between volcanic and coral islands; but this requires amplification, both because the coral islands follow more than one type, and because the work of corals is in many cases associated with the volcanic islands in the form of fringing or barrier reefs.^ The remaining native forest habitat for fruit bats on many of these islands continues to be threatened by the fragmentation and degradation associated with feral ungulates.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The forested, coral-fringed islands teem with wildlife and are almost completely devoid of tourist facilities.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second class comprises the transfer-function noise (TFN) models, which relate an output-series variability to both its own history and that of one or more explanatory variables.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As to the distribution of coral reefs within the Pacific area, in Micronesia the northern Marianas (volcanic) are without reefs, which, however, are well developed in the south.^ The Burmese Government is trying to bring them within the auspices of its military regime, the loggers are developing an appetite for the area's untapped resources and fishermen are encroaching on their traditional grounds.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern islands of the CNMI were formed by volcanic activity on the Mariana trench.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mariana archipelago consists of the 15-island Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and the Territory of Guam, both within the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The Pelew islands have extensive reefs, and the Caroline, Marshall and Gilbert islands are almost entirely coral.^ The forested, coral-fringed islands teem with wildlife and are almost completely devoid of tourist facilities.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Melanesia, as has been seen, the volcanic type predominates. Coral reefs occur round many of the islands (e.g. the .Louisiade and Admiralty groups, New Caledonia and Fiji), but in some cases they are wholly absent or nearly so (e.g.^ The OFC Competitions Department will do an analysis on the equalisation of airfares between Tahiti and New Zealand and New Caledonia and Fiji as hosts.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

the eastern .Solomon Islands and the New Hebrides).^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of the Polynesian Islands, the Hawaiian chain presents the type of a volcanic group through which coral reefs are not equally distributed.^ In contrast, the Orang Laut and the Bajau run after the fish, with the first group scouring estuary habitats and the second sifting through coral reefs and mangroves.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The frequency of treesnake sightings on Saipan reported from 1982 through 2004 indicates that brown treesnakes are present on the island (Brown Treesnake Control Plan 1996; N. Hawley, pers.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The main island of Hawaii and Maui at the east end are practically without reefs; which, however, are abundant farther west. Round the volcanic Marquesas Islands, again, coral is scanty, but the Society Islands, Samoa and Tonga have extensive reefs. .The various minor groups to the north of these (Ellice, Phoenix, Union, Manihiki and the America Islands) are coral islands.^ TIGHAR are concentrating their search around Nikumaroro (Gardner Island), Phoenix Group, Republic of Kiribati.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These groups live off the coasts of Malaysian and Indonesian islands including Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Sulu Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These 800 islands lie just North of Thailand in Myanmar.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Christmas, one of the last-named, is reputed to be the largest lagoon island in the Pacific.^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Submarines operating in the Southwest Pacific sank one enemy merchant ship during the last two weeks of hostilities.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Paumotu Archipelago is the most extensive of the coral groups.
.The coral islands are generally of the form well known under the name of atoll, rising but slightly above sea-level, flat, and generally of annular form, enclosing a lagoon.^ Phuket, now a tourist resort island, was known in Malay as "Ujong Salang" which may or may not have given these people the name used for them in Burma.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Note that there are separate essays for the topics ice sheets and rising sea level and rapid climate change .
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Salons (generally known as Mokens) who were arrested and forced to give up life on sea were sent to Nyaughwi, Lanpi, Kyuntale and Phila islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, as has been said, the atoll is divided into a number of islets, but in some smaller atolls the ring is complete, and the sea-water gains access beneath the surface of the reef to the lagoon within, where it is sometimes seen to spout up at the rise of the tide.^ Some cities have Jewish communities, made up of a considerable number of survivors of the Holocaust, and these communities can play an important role in Jewish-Christian relations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, only excerpts directly relevant to the Burma "Sea Gypsies" are included, rather than a complete article.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This life ring was seen by the Japanese who picked them up, but apparently the enemy thought the buoy had been found accidentally by the survivors in the water, and did not realize that it was marking the position of the submarine on the bottom.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Besides the atolls there is a type of island which has been called the elevated coral island. .The Loyalty Islands exhibit this type, in which former reefs appear as low cliffs, elevated above the sea, and separated from it by a level coastal tract.^ The Moken ethnic group, including the "Sea Gypsies" of Burma and Thailand, has historically been based around Phuket, a large Thai island which was a coastal trading center.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Note that there are separate essays for the topics ice sheets and rising sea level and rapid climate change .
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The island of Mare shows evidence of three such elevations, three distinct cliffs alternating with level tracts. .For the much debated question as to the conditions under which atolls and reefs are formed, see Coral Reefs.^ Our Response: Both the proposed and final rules address taxonomic questions in detail (see the Background subsection under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.As to the local distribution of reefs, it has been maintained that in the case of active volcanic islands which have no reefs, their absence is due to subterranean heat.^ On Pagan, livestock was maintained in captivity by island residents until the volcanic eruption in 1981, when the human population was evacuated.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The contour of the sea-bed, however, has been shown to influence this distribution, the continuation of the slope of a steep shore beneath the sea being adverse to their formation, whereas on a gentler slope they may be formed.^ The prominent linear form of some of these canyons (as at 18䓹'S) suggests that they may have exploited faults that cut the forearc at high angles to the trench.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In Burma, the sea gipsies are being forced to live on shore.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the upper slopes of the landward plate are steep, the overall gradient of the landward slope is gentler and more continuous than to the north (Figure 11; Figure 6, Profiles 27-29).
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

Table of contents

Flora

In considering the flora of the islands it is necessary to distinguish between the rich vegetation of the fertile volcanic islands and the poor vegetation of the coral islands. .Those plants which are widely distributed are generally found to be propagated from seeds which can easily be carried by the wind or by ocean currents, or form the food of migratory birds.^ I haven’t found it to be true anymore (if it was at all), but the ocean at http://www.hellohelio.net is $150 with $50 cash back in the form of a rebate.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ London and Berlin are in the same latitude as Labrador, they pointed out, and would be as barren if not for the prevailing winds that pick up heat from the ocean and carry it westward.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to the wide variety of approaches in atmospheric models, most ocean modelers created "varietal forms" based on similar physical assumptions and numerical methods.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tropical Asiatic element predominates on the low lands; types characteristic of Australia and New Zealand occur principally on the upper parts of the high islands.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, in the 1930s and early 1940s, salmon landings were high, followed by an era of low catches from the late 1940s to late 1970s.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So this is of interest for us in New Zealand (or Japan, Australia, the UK, China) why?
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Hawaii there are instances of American elements. .In the volcanic islands a distinction may be observed between the windward and leeward flanks, the moister windward slopes being the more richly clothed.^ After the volcanic eruption in May 2003, the island's state of devegetation facilitated accurate location of all colonies (C. Kessler, in litt.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The observed increase on Sarigan may reflect a response to the recovery of forest vegetation after the eradication of feral goats and pigs from the island in 1998 (Zoology Unlimited 1998).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The northern islands thus all have the potential for volcanic activity, and eruptions are another natural disturbance that may alter fruit bat habitat in the northern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast. .The flora is estimated to include 15% of ferns, but they form only the most important group among many plants of beautiful foliage, such as draceanas and crotons.^ For many of them, land is most important: its fertile soil or its deserts, its variety of plants and animals, its abundance or scarcity.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These surveys yielded estimates of fewer than 750 animals for most of the 15 months following the supertyphoon (J. Esselstyn, in litt.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ And these "Burmese" Moken are the only group of sea nomads, among an estimated total of 20,000, who remain largely uninfluenced by Islam or Buddhism.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Flowering plants are numerous, and the natives often (as in Hawaii) greatly appreciate flowers, which thus add a feature to the picturesqueness of islandlife, though they do not usually grow in great profusion.^ The Synod was conscious of the great dedication of single parents in the task of raising and educating their children, and it expressed appreciation of them as they live out the Gospel in often difficult circumstances.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They don't plant coconut trees or grow greens in gardens on land and amazingly, they don't fish.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This loss restricts the availability of resources that fruit bats need to survive and reproduce, i.e., the native plants fruit bats feed on and the mature native forest trees where they roost, and thus limits the capacity of any island to support fruit bats.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Fruits are abundant, though indigenous fruits are few; the majority have been introduced by missionaries and others. Oranges are often plentiful, also pine-apples, guavas, custard-apples, mangoes and bananas. .These last are of special importance, and the best kind, the Chinese banana, is said to have sprung from a plant given to the missionary John Williams, and cultivated in Samoa.^ Special care needs to be given to these parents and their children by clergy, Catholic schools and catechists.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The natives live very largely on vegetable food, among the most important plants which supply them being the taro, yam, banana, bread-fruit, arrow-root, pandanus and coco-nut.^ The relatively large size and moderate topography of the southern islands led to their being, along with Guam, the most heavily populated and intensively cultivated islands in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ At least 22 plant species are used as food sources by the Mariana fruit bat.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ For many of them, land is most important: its fertile soil or its deserts, its variety of plants and animals, its abundance or scarcity.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The last constitutes a valuable article of commerce in the form of copra, from which palm oil is expressed; the natives make use of this oil in made dishes, and also of the soft half-green kernel and the coco-nut " milk," the clear liquid within the nut.^ And this brings us to the last and greatest mystery about Amelia Earhart: the failure of the great movements for women's rights to make full use of her legend and her example.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

Their well-known drink, kava, is made from a variety of pepper-plant. The most characteristic trees are the coco-nut palm, pandanus and mangrove. .The low coral islands suffer frequently from drought; their soil is sandy and unproductive, and in some cases the natives attempt cultivation by excavating trenches and fertilizing them with vegetable and other refuse.^ Although the frequency of illegal hunting in the Northern Islands is likely low and difficult to quantify, this evidence supports that it does occur.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Existing ecosystems and habitats will also be surveyed, including tropical rainforests, mangrove swamps and other vegetation , coral reefs and tidal shelves.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This plant is known to smother and displace native vegetation on other Pacific islands (U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2004).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Fauna

.The indigenous fauna of the islands is exceedingly poor in mammals, which are represented mainly by rats and bats.^ Mariana fruit bats have been used as food since humans first arrived on the islands (Lemke 1992a), and consumption of bats represents a significant cultural tradition.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Pigs have been held to be indigenous on some islands, but were doubtless introduced by early navigators.^ A large population of feral pigs still occurs on the island and some goats remain; aerial hunting for goats is ongoing (Curt Kessler, Service, pers.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Cattle and horses, where introduced, are found to degenerate rather rapidly unless the supply of fresh stock is kept up. .Birds are more numerous than mammals, among the most important kinds being the pigeons and doves, especially the fruit-eating pigeons.^ It is important to note that the Act provides an additional set of enforcement tools for the protection of listed species than are currently available for the fruit bat in the CNMI. .
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Megapodes are found in the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides, Samoa, Tonga, the Carolines and the Marianas.^ BLUE GOLD will offer wonderful trips sailing throughout the outer islands of Vanuatu, by special arrangement BLUE GOLD can also do trips in the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, Tonga, Fiji, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and New Zealand.

^ If new information such as results from genetic studies of fruit bats in the Mariana Islands indicate the presence of additional subspecies, we will take appropriate action.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ This vessel is ready to explore French Polynesia, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu and is also after the Pacific Island season in Nov headed to Micronesia.

The remarkable didunculus occurs in Samoa, and after the introduction of cats and rats, which preyed upon it, was compelled to change its habits, dwelling in trees instead of on the ground. .Insect life is ricn in northern Melanesia; in southern Melanesia it is less so; in Fiji numerous kinds of insects occur, while individual numbers are small.^ Individual surveys have been conducted on several of the southern islands at relatively frequent intervals, and comprehensive surveys of the northern islands were conducted in 1983, 2000, and 2001 (Wiles et al.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

In the rest of the islands the insect fauna is poor. But if this is true of the land fauna as a whole, especially on the atolls, where it consists mainly of a few birds, lizards and insects, the opposite is the case with the marine fauna. Fish are exceedingly abundant, especially in the lagoons of atolls, and form an important article of food supply for the natives, who are generally expert fishermen. .The fish fauna of the islands is especially noted for the gorgeous colouring of many of the species.^ Like fruit bats, many other highly mobile vertebrates of Pacific Islands, especially birds, are treated as a single species or subspecies inhabiting multiple islands in an archipelago (Mayr 1945; Pratt et al.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Among marine mammals, the dugong occurs in the parts about New Guinea and the Caroline Islands.^ These struggles in Papua New Guinea and other parts of Melanesia have recently been marked by violence and separatist movements, in which people and institutions have suffered greatly.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Various sorts of whale are found, and the whaling industry reached the height of its importance about the middle of the 19th century.^ Before the 19th century, however, little was recorded about these people, although references to simple non-Muslim boat people along the Trang-Mergui coastline may be found as far back as the 16th century.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In considering the marine fauna the remarkable palolo or balolo should be mentioned. This annelid propagates its kind by rising to the surface and dividing itself. The occurrence of this process can be predicted exactly for one day, before sunrise, in October and November, and as both the worm and the fish which prey on it are appreciated by the natives as food the occasions of its appearance are of great importance to them.

History

.Not long after the death of Columbus, and when the Portuguese traders, working from the west, had hardly reached the confines of the Malay Archipelago, the Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed America at its narrowest part and discovered the great ocean to the west of it (1513).^ The researchers eventually worked with the Moken, a tribe living in the archipelago along the west coasts of Burma and Thailand.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long and Foster Real Estate West OC 12216 Ocean Gtwy Ocean City, MD 21842 Map it Add to planner website .
  • Accommodations: Hotel & Motel Reservations and Condos - Ocean City, Maryland 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC ococean.com [Source type: General]

.The belief in the short and direct westward passage from Europe to the East Indies was thus shaken, but it was still held that some passage was to be found, and in1519-1521Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan) made the famous voyage in which he discovered the strait which bears his name.^ By 2006 some models still found that changes in the ocean circulation "are able to produce abrupt climate changes on decadal to centennial time scales," Randall et al.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sailing thence north-westward for many weeks, over a sea so calm that he named it El Mar pacifico, he sighted only two small islands.^ For hundreds of years, small nomadic tribes called sea gypsies have lived among the islands of Southeast Asia, earning fame for their swimming and diving skills.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two weeks earlier, a sea gypsy had been gunned down when robbers attacked his boat and stole his engine.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largely uninhabited islands are home to a small number of Salone people, who are also known as Moken or 'Sea Gypsies.'
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These may have been Puka Puka of the Tuamotu Archipelago and Flint Island; but it may be stated here that the identification of islands sighted by the early explorers is often a matter of conjecture, and that therefore some islands of which the definite discovery must be dated much later had in fact been seen by Europeans at this early period.^ A conservative interpretation of these data indicate that bat numbers have declined on the two islands, which historically had large numbers of fruit bats in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The relatively isolated northern islands support the majority of the fruit bats in the archipelago, but because of their remote location, these islands have not been surveyed as frequently as the southern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Information that we received indicates that this storm may have defoliated as much as 60 to 75 percent of the island (A. Pangelinan, pers.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.In this narrative the familiar names of islands are used, irrespective of whether they were given by the first or later discoverers, or are native names.^ Phuket, now a tourist resort island, was known in Malay as "Ujong Salang" which may or may not have given these people the name used for them in Burma.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the missionaries first brought the Gospel to Aboriginal or Maori people, or to the island nations, they found peoples who already possessed an ancient and profound sense of the sacred.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As their name, sea-gypsies, implies they are skillful in returning back to their islands, shortly, when they behold an unfavorable weather.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Magellan reached the " Ladrones " (Marianas) in 1521, and voyaged thence to the Philippines, where he was killed in a local war. .In1522-1524various voyages of discovery were made on the west coast of America, partly in the hope of finding a strait connecting the two oceans to the region of the central isthmus.^ When about four miles west of Upki Kaku made radar contact at 17,000 yards on a ship moving up the coast from Pakusa Point.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In1525-1527Garcia Jofre de Loyasa sailed to the Moluccas, but, like Magellan, missed the bulk of the oceanic islands. .About this time, however, the Portuguese sighted the north coast of New Guinea.^ This same chop, however, was soon to stand us in good stead; for at noon the masts of another north-bound freighter were sighted down the coast.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fuller knowledge of this coast was acquired by Alvaro de Saavedra (1527-1529), and among later voyages those of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos (1542-1545) and Miguel Lopez de Legaspi (1564-1565) should be mentioned. .These, however, like others of the period, did not greatly extend the knowledge of the Pacific islands, for the course between the Spanish American and Asiatic possessions did not lead voyagers among the more extensive archipelagoes.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They live on wooden boats, moving between the 800 islands that make up the archipelago and "live and die by what the sea gives and takes".
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAP-RAID operated through the Tenasserim Division and more specifically through the 800 islands of the Mergui (Myeik) Archipelago since 1998.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the same reason the British and Dutch fleets which sailed with the object of harrying the Spaniards, under Sir Francis Drake (1577-1580), Thomas Cavendish (1586-1593)593) and Oliver van Noort (1598-1601), were not, as regards the Pacific, of prime geographical importance.^ At the conclusion of hostilities, The British East Indies Fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir A. J. Power, consisted of two battleships, HMS Nelson and Richelieu, (French), nine cruisers, (including the Dutch Van Tromp ), 14 escort carriers, 25 destroyers, and numerous auxiliaries.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Task Force 37, under the command of Vice Admiral Sir Bernard Rawlings (RN) was composed of the following British ships on 1 August: (This force operated at this time under THIRD Fleet command as part of the Fast Carrier Task Forces.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 March, Task Force 112 and 113 of the British Pacific Fleet reported to CinPac for duty.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the theory of the existence of a great southern continent was now also attracting voyagers. .Alvaro Mendana de Neyra, after crossing a vast extent of ocean from Peru and sighting only one island, probably in the Ellice group, reached the Solomon Islands.^ By 1986, the treesnake had reached the extreme northern end of the island (Savidge 1987), and was probably present throughout the island.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ We found ourselves in the interior of a vast space, going from one island to another, from one village to another.
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^ The small, endangered ethnic group referred to as "Sea Gypsies" or "Moken," the Saloun people, traditionally have lived on boats in the region and survived on ocean and island foods.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1 5951 59 6 he made a second voyage, and though he did not again reach these islands, the development of which was his objective, he discovered the Marquesas Islands, and afterwards Santa Cruz, where, having attempted to found a settlement, he died.^ Some of the northern islands have supported small human settlements, and most of these have been occupied only sporadically.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ One of these included six of the 10 northern islands (Cruz et al.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ But it was not until foreign missionaries came in the latter half of the second millennium that these original inhabitants first heard of Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thereafter his pilot, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, set out with the remainder of the company to make for the Philippines, and on the way discovered Ponape of the Caroline Islands, some of which group, however, had been known to the Portuguese as early as 1527. Quiros returned to Europe, and, obtaining command of a fleet, made a voyage in1605-1607during which he observed some of the Paumotu and Society Islands, and later discovered the small Duff group of the Santa Cruz Islands, passing thence to the main island of the New Hebrides, which he hailed as his objective, the southern continent.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the second day of the month, a "Ventura" pilot of this command, on a routine reconnaissance flight from Peleliu, made the initial sighting of survivors of the Indianapolis (CA) disaster.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A week later, off yet another island, we make way for a fleet of dugouts streaming back to a be-pennanted mother boat with the afternoon's catch, where bare-breasted women have been diving from their canoes for a variety of marine organisms, including shellfish, crabs, shrimp and sea cucumbers.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.^ All other functions and responsibilities previously assigned Commander SEVENTH Fleet were assumed in the Philippines by Commander Philippine Sea Frontier (Vice Admiral J.L. Kauffman), and in the Australia-New Guinea (Rear Admiral C.E. Van Hook), both of whom remained under CinCSWPA control.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The researchers eventually worked with the Moken, a tribe living in the archipelago along the west coasts of Burma and Thailand.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These groups live off the coasts of Malaysian and Indonesian islands including Borneo, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and the Sulu Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In1615-1617two Dutchmen, Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten, having in view both the discovery of the southern continent and the possibility of establishing relations with the East Indies from the east, took a course which brought them to the north part of the Paumotu Archipelago, thence to part of the Tonga chain, and ultimately to New Pomerania, after which they reached the East Indies.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In every way possible, associations of Catholic doctors, nurses and health care workers are to be fostered and, where they do not exist, they should be established.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japan was divided into three areas for these duties, TG 38.1 covering Honshu north of the Tokyo plain, TG 38.4 the Tokyo area, and TG 38.3 southern Honshu and part of Shikoku.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In1642-1643Abel Tasman, working from the east, discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and the west coast of New Zealand, subsequently reaching the Tonga Islands.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The researchers eventually worked with the Moken, a tribe living in the archipelago along the west coasts of Burma and Thailand.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CDMA phones do work outside the US. Here in New Zealand, Telecom supports CDMA while Vodafone supports GSM. .
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Now for a while the tide of discovery slackened. .Towards the close of the century the buccaneers extended their activity to the Pacific, but naturally added little to general knowledge.^ On 7 July, General C.A. Spaatz, USA, was designated Commanding General of the new Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific (short title ComGenUSASTAF) with all B-29 activities transferred to his command.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

William Dampier, however, making various voyages in 1690-1705, explored the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and at the opening of the century both the French and the Dutch showed some activity. .The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group.^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feral ungulates continue to severely degrade fruit bat forest habitat on some of the northern islands.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The OIA and DOD actively fund research into methods of controlling snakes on Guam, in part to reduce the threat of introduction to other Pacific islands (OIA 1999).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The voyage of Commodore George (afterwards Lord) Anson in 1740-1744 was for purposes rather of war than of exploration, and Commodore John Byron's voyage in 1765 had little result beyond gaining some additional knowledge of the Paumotu Archipelago.^ Additional charters and exploration cruises will sail in the archipelago up to Mergui (Myeik) town with paying guests.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, only excerpts directly relevant to the Burma "Sea Gypsies" are included, rather than a complete article.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mariana Audubon Society supported listing all bats in the Mariana archipelago as endangered rather than threatened.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.It is about this time that what may be called the period of rediscovery set in fully.^ But for a long time, discussions of climate change did not take the oceans fully into account, simply because very little was known about them.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seemed that slight variations in the planet’s orbit had somehow set the timing for major glacial periods.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the ensuing account a constant repetition of the names of the main archipelagoes will be found; it may of course be assumed that each successive voyager added something to the knowledge of them, but on the other hand, as has been said, islands were often rediscovered and renamed in cases where later voyagers took no account of the work of their predecessors, or where the earlier voyagers were unable clearly to define the positions of their discoveries.^ No reports of brown treesnakes exist from other islands in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archipelago-wide surveys and the apparent decline they document may not account for these natural fluctuations.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Moreover, rivalry between contemporary explorers of different nationalities sometimes caused them to ignore each other's work, and added to the confusion of nomenclature among the islands.
In 1767 Samuel Wallis worked through the central part of the Paumotus, and visited Tahiti and the Marianas, while his companion Philip Carteret discovered Pitcairn, and visited Santa Cruz, the Solomons and New Pomerania. .The French were now taking a share in the work of discovery, and in 1768 Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed by way of the central Paumotus, the Society Islands, Samoa, the northern New Hebrides, the south coast of New Guinea and the Louisiade and Bismarck archipelagoes.^ Given the central importance of the consecrated life in the Church in Oceania, it is important that Bishops respect the charisms of the religious institutes and encourage them in every way to share their charisms with the local Church.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way, they play a vital part in society and the Church, preparing future professionals and leaders, who will take their Christian responsibility seriously.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If new information such as results from genetic studies of fruit bats in the Mariana Islands indicate the presence of additional subspecies, we will take appropriate action.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The next voyages in chronological .order are those of the celebrated Captain James Cook. .Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.^ They form three distinct cultural groups stemming from archipelagic environments: the Orang Laut from estuaries of the Lingga-Riau-Straits of Malacca mudflats, the Moken from the Mergui Archipelago and the Bajau from the Sulu Archipelago of the Philippines, in the adjoining islands of East Borneo, and those of eastern Indonesia, in particular the coasts of Celebes and Flores.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1786 Jean Francois Galoup de La Perouse, in the course of the famous voyage from which he never returned, visited Easter Island, Samoa and Tonga. .The still more famous voyage of William Bligh of the " Bounty " (1788) was followed by that of Captain Edwards of the " Pandora " (1791), who in the course of his search for Bligh discovered Rotumah and other islands.^ With a chorus of assent, the guards were happy to follow the Captains to Bald Island to see what we would see, see, see..
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ Like the other southern islands, parts of Guam were seeded with tangantangan following World War II to control erosion (Fosberg 1960).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The Hawaiian Islands came within the purview of George Vancouver, following the course of Cook in 1791. In1792-1793Joseph Antoine d'Entrecasteaux, searching for traces of La Perouse, ranged the islands west of Tonga. In 1797 Captain J. Wilson of the missionary ship " Duff " visited the Society group, Fiji, Tonga and the Marquesas, and added to the knowledge of the Paumotu and Caroline Islands. Another power entered on the field of exploration when the Russians sent Adam Ivan Krusenstern to the Pacific (1803). He was followed by Otto von Kotzebue (1816) and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (1819-1821). .The work of these three was carried out principally in the easternmost part of Polynesia.^ Japan was divided into three areas for these duties, TG 38.1 covering Honshu north of the Tokyo plain, TG 38.4 the Tokyo area, and TG 38.3 southern Honshu and part of Shikoku.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In1818-1819the French navigator Louis Claude Desaulses de Freycinet ranged from New Guinea through the Marianas to Hawaii.^ Issue 12: Protection for the Mariana fruit bat on Farallon de Medinilla should come from the Service through the consultation process under section 7 of the Act.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Two of his countrymen followed him in 1823-1829--Louis Isidore Duperrey and Dumont d'Urville. .Kotzebue made a second voyage, accompanied by scientists, in 1823-1826. In1826-1828Frederick William Beechey was at work in the middle parts of the ocean, and Feodor Petrovich Count Liitke, the Russian circumnavigator, in the northern.^ By this point scientists recognized that they would never understand climate change at all until they knew how the oceans worked.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. .During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.^ John Paul II, Address to the Bishops of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, Port Moresby (8 May 1984), 6: AAS 76 (1984), 1013.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the particular Churches of Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and the other island nations of the Pacific, new seminaries have been opened to cater for an increasing number of seminarians who need to be formed in their own regions and in contact with their own culture.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1839 sqq. the first important .American expedition was made under Charles Wilkes, who covered a great extent of the ocean from Hawaii to Tonga, Fiji and New Zealand.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also paid a special tribute to Desmond Faaiuaso who this year became the first Samoan player to sign with a New Zealand Football Championship franchise.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ More great news….GameStop will be carrying the Ocean first.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among later British explorers may be mentioned Captain J. Elphinstone Erskine (1849) and Captain H. M. Denham, and several important voyages for scientific research were made in the second half of the 19th century, including one from Austria under Captain Wiillerstorf Urbair (1858), and one from Italy in the vessel "Magenta" (1865-1868), which was accompanied by the scientist Dr Enrico Giglioli.^ Which is not to say that the Mokens should be made to endure life under the scientific microscope, either.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second was the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58, which further expanded and strengthened ocean research under the leadership of an international committee.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it was not until foreign missionaries came in the latter half of the second millennium that these original inhabitants first heard of Jesus Christ, the Word made flesh.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

The celebrated voyage of H.M.S. "Challenger" (1874-1875) and those of the American vessels " Tuscarora " (1873-1876) and" Albatross " (1888-1892) may complete the tale.
Whalers, sealers and traders followed in the wake of explorers, the traders dealing chiefly in copra, trepang, pearls, tortoiseshell, &c. .The first actual settlers in the islands were largely men of bad character - deserting sailors, escapers from the penal settlements in Australia and others.^ Besides this challenge, the Church in Australia now faces many modern "deserts" ( 11 ) similar to those in other Western countries.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is not to be supposed that there were no orderly colonists, but that the natives suffered much at the hands of Europeans and Americans is only too clear.^ "When we came there was nothing here, no buildings, no cottages, only the Salone houses.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The class of traders who made a living by disreputable means and attempted to keep a monopoly of the island on which they settled, became notorious under the name of " beachcombers," and for each of the many dark chapters in Polynesian history there must have been many more unwritten.^ They live on wooden boats, moving between the 800 islands that make up the archipelago and "live and die by what the sea gives and takes".
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are those among the Moken themselves who suggest they made their way from the Nicobar Islands, whether directly or else by island-hopping up through the Andaman Islands and then along the southwest coast of Myanmar.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sarigan, the next island north of Anatahan, has been surveyed more frequently in recent years in conjunction with the ungulate eradication there.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The kidnapping of natives for the South American and Australian labour markets was common. .It cannot be denied that there has been actual deterioration of the native races, and elimination in their numbers, consequent upon contact with Europeans and Americans (see further, Polynesia).^ A complete list of all references cited herein is available upon request from our Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, we invite you to submit any further information on the species whenever it becomes available and any information you may have for recovery planning purposes (see FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.The romantic character of island-history has perhaps, however, tended to emphasize its dark side, and it is well to turn from it to recognize the work of the missionaries, who found in the Pacific one of their most extensive and important fields of labour, and have exercised not only a moral, but also a profound political influence in the islands since the London Missionary Society first established its agents in Tahiti in 1797. Many of them, moreover, have added greatly to the scientific knowledge of the islands and their inhabitants.^ When the missionaries first brought the Gospel to Aboriginal or Maori people, or to the island nations, they found peoples who already possessed an ancient and profound sense of the sacred.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the nations of Oceania are dependent on the oceans and seas, the Synod Fathers also voiced concern for seafarers, who often work under severe conditions and endure many hardships.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The imposition of strict rules of life upon the natives was in some instances carried too far; in others their conversion to Christianity was little more than nominal, but cases of this sort are overshadowed by the fine work of William Ellis and John Williams (c. 1818) and many of their successors.^ In many parts of Oceania, travelling by sea and air is more important than travelling by land.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest boats can carry more than 10,000 kilos of fish.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ocean circulation was indeed likely to slow down during the 21st century, but more gradually than some had feared.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The discovery of sandalwood in Fiji in 1804, and the establishment of a trade therein, made that group a centre of interest in the early modern history of the Pacific islands.^ The Moken ethnic group, including the "Sea Gypsies" of Burma and Thailand, has historically been based around Phuket, a large Thai island which was a coastal trading center.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Palau became subject to the CITES restrictions for trade with the Mariana Islands when it established its independence from the United States in October 1994.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Moreover the London Missionary Society, having worked westward from its headquarters in Tahiti to Tonga as early as 1797, founded a settlement in Fiji in 1835. Meanwhile the white traders in Fiji had played an intimate part in the internal political affairs of the group, and in 1858 King Thakombau, being threatened with reprisals by the American consul on account of certain losses of property which he had sustained, asked for British protection, but did not obtain it.^ In this way, they play a vital part in society and the Church, preparing future professionals and leaders, who will take their Christian responsibility seriously.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some missionary areas, the Bishops are concerned about the effect that these religious groups or sects are having on the Catholic community.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniella asked how much Gorrow owed the King, but Wez did not seem to know the answer to that.
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

.The British, however, were paramount among the white population, and as by 1870 not only American, but also German influence was extending through the islands (the first German government vessel visited Fiji in 1872), annexation was urged on Great Britain by Australia and New Zealand.^ Modern developments have made New Zealand a more urban and secularized society, in which the Church faces challenges similar to those in Australia.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So this is of interest for us in New Zealand (or Japan, Australia, the UK, China) why?
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871. In 1872 an act was passed by the British government to regulate the labour traffic; Fiji was annexed in 1874, and in 1875 another act established the post of the British high commissioner.^ Acknowledged that co-operation agreements between OFC and the French Government, French Football Federation, New Caledonia Government, the European Union and the CIES/FIFA/University of South Pacific and University of New Caledonia Sports Management Programme are pending.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ Come home!": Homily at Mass for the Dioceses of New South Wales, Randwick Racecourse, Sydney (26 November 1986), 5: Insegnamenti IX, 2 (1986), 1678.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them are engaged in missionary outreach in Oceania and beyond, in the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea, and in Southeast Asia and more distant parts of the world.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1842 the French had formally annexed the Marquesas Islands; and subsequently extended their sphere, as shown in the table at the outset of this article, both in the east of Polynesia and in the south of Melanesia.^ Outcasts of the Islands: The Sea Gypsies of South East Asia by Sebastian Hope, published by Harper Collins UK. .
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some of the island-groups independent native states were recognized for some time by the powers, as in the case of Hawaii, which, after the deposition of the queen in 1893 and the proclamation of a republic in 1894, was annexed to the United States of America only in 1898, or, again, in the case of Tonga, which provided a curious example of the subordination of a native organization to unauthorized foreign influence.^ In some cases, only excerpts directly relevant to the Burma "Sea Gypsies" are included, rather than a complete article.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am fine that it only works in United States, the U.S. is the best country anyways.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the northern islands have supported small human settlements, and most of these have been occupied only sporadically.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

The partition of Polynesia was completed in 1899, when Samoa was divided between Germany and the United States. .In Micronesia, since the discoveries of the early Spanish navigators, the Carolines, Mariana and Pelew Islands had been recognized as Spanish territory until 1885, when Germany began to establish herself in the first-named group.^ Mariana fruit bats have been used as food since humans first arrived on the islands (Lemke 1992a), and consumption of bats represents a significant cultural tradition.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The difficult terrain of the Mariana Islands, remote location of the northern islands of the CNMI, and the high costs associated with transits of the island group by sea and aerial surveys of individual islands have hindered the establishment of a standard monitoring program for the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Since that time, the FWS has discovered that the bat is endemic to the entire Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and the Territory of Guam, thus there is actually a larger number of bats with a wider distribution.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Spain had never occupied this group, but protested against the German action, and Pope Leo XIII. as arbitrator awarded the Carolines to her. Thereafter Spain made attempts at occupation, but serious conflicts with the natives ensued, and in 1899 the islands were sold to Germany, which thus became the predominating power in Micronesia. .When Germany acquired the Bismarck Archipelago in Melanesia the introduction of German names (New Pomerania, Neu Pommern, for New Britain; Neu Mecklenburg for New Ireland; Neu Langenburg for the Duke of York Group, &c.^ In the by-passed Solomons-Bismarcks theater, Marine Corps F4Us and B-25s continued to supplement the RNZAF in strikes against the enemy on Bougainville, New Britain, and New Ireland.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) met with no little protest as contrary to precedent and international etiquette. .The provision for the joint influence of Great Britain and France over the New Hebrides (1906) brought these islands into some prominence owing to the hostile criticism directed against the British government both in Australia and at home.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of these, 49% were directed against manufacturing and dock areas, 19% against shipping, and 16% against airdromes and lines of communication.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the cessation of hostilities on 15 August, however, fighting continued against isolated enemy forces in mountain areas in the Philippines, and against enemy garrisons which had been driven back from Borneo, New Guinea, New Britain and Bougainville.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The partition of the Pacific islands never led to any serious friction between the powers, though the acquisition of Hawaii was attempted by Britain, France and Japan before the United States annexed the group, and the negotiations as to Samoa threatened trouble for a while.^ The final match of the round between Group B's Hekari United FC and Marist FC will be played on Saturday 5 December at PMRL stadium in Port Moresby before the 2010 O-League takes a break until February.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ Marine fish production trends off the Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States, p.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mariana archipelago consists of the 15-island Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and the Territory of Guam, both within the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

There were occasional native risings, as in Samoa (where, however, the fighting was rather in the nature of civil warfare), the French possessions in eastern Polynesia, and the New Hebrides, apart from attacks on individual settlers or visitors, which have occurred here and there from the earliest period of exploration.

Administration

Of the British possessions among the islands of the Pacific, Fiji is a colony, and its governor is also high commissioner for the western Pacific. .In this capacity, assisted by deputies and resident commissioners, he exercises jurisdiction over all the islands except Fiji and those islands which are attached to New Zealand and New South Wales.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The confederation, the smallest of six within FIFA, is riding a wave of success after New Zealand recently qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ Mariana fruit bats have historically inhabited all of these islands except Uracas, the northernmost island (Wiles and Glass 1990).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Some of the islands (e.g. Tonga) are native states under British protection. Pitcairn, in accordance with its peculiar conditions of settlement, has a peculiar system of local government. The New Hebrides are under a mixed British and French commission. .The Hawaiian Islands forma territory of the United States of America and are administered as such; Guam is a naval station, as is Tutuila of the Samoan Islands, where the commandant exercises the functions of governor.^ The Republic of Palau became subject to the CITES restrictions for trade with the Mariana Islands when it established its independence from the United States in October 1994.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mariana archipelago consists of the 15-island Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and the Territory of Guam, both within the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET AND PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS Headquarters of the Commander in Chief .
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New Caledonia is a French colony under a governor; the more easterly French islands are grouped together under the title of the French Establishments in Oceania, and are administered by a governor, privy council, administrative council, &c., Papeete in Tahiti being the capital.^ During the Synod Assembly, the universal Church came to see more clearly how the Lord Jesus is encountering the many peoples of Oceania in their lands and on their many islands.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In colonial times, Catholic clergy and religious quickly established institutions to help the new settlers in Australia and New Zealand to preserve and strengthen their faith.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In New Zealand, and even more in Australia, the colonial and post-colonial policies of immigration have made the indigenous people a minority in their own land and, in many ways, a dispossessed cultural group.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

The seat of government of the German protectorate of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (New Guinea) is Herbertshohe in the Bismarck Archipelago. .The administrative area includes the German Solomon Islands and the Caroline, Pelew and Mariana Islands, which are divided into three administrative groups - the eastern Carolines, western Carolines and Marianas.^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Japan was divided into three areas for these duties, TG 38.1 covering Honshu north of the Tokyo plain, TG 38.4 the Tokyo area, and TG 38.3 southern Honshu and part of Shikoku.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 August, Vice Admiral G.D. Murray (Commander MARIANAS) relieved Rear Admiral E. Buckmaster as Commander Western Carolines Sub-Area (the latter having assumed command from Rear Admiral J.W. Reeves on 27 January 1945).
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Marshall Islands form a " district " (Bezirk) within the same administrative area.^ For example, WOTJE (in the Marshalls-Gilberts area) received 28 tons on the first of August, and MALOELAP was also struck on the same date.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The German Samoan Islands are under an imperial governor.

Races

.In the oceanic islands of the Pacific three different peoples occur, who have been called Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians.'^ The traditional peoples of Oceania make up a mosaic of many different cultures: Aboriginal, Melanesian, Polynesian and Micronesian.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The largely uninhabited islands are home to a small number of Salone people, who are also known as Moken or 'Sea Gypsies.'
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These form themselves naturally into two broad but very distinct divisions - the dark and brown races; the first division being represented by the Melanesians, and the Polynesians and Micronesians together forming the second.^ The traditional peoples of Oceania make up a mosaic of many different cultures: Aboriginal, Melanesian, Polynesian and Micronesian.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Melanesians, sometimes called Papuans (q.v,, the Malay name for the natives of New Guinea, the headquarters of the race), are physically negroid in type, nearly black, with crisp curly hair, flat noses and thick lips.^ Papua New Guinea is the largest of the Melanesian nations.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In all essentials they agree with the African type: such variations as there are, for example, the more developed eyebrow ridges, narrower, often prominent nose, and somewhat higher narrower skull, obviously owing their existence to crossing with the Malay or the Polynesian races.^ But to do this, they agreed, there is a need for new ways and methods of evangelization, inspired by deeper faith, hope and love of the Lord Jesus.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also sign a contract with all the major cell phone makers so there would be various styles.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without losing their identity or abandoning their traditional values, they want to share in the development resulting from more direct and complex interaction with other peoples and cultures.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

The oceanic black peoples must thus be regarded as having a connexion more or less remote with the African negroes. Whether the two families have a common ancestor in the negritos of Malaysia and the Indian archipelago, or whether Papuan and Negrito are alike branches of an aboriginal African race, is a problem yet to be solved. .But if their origin is unknown, there is little doubt that the Melanesians were the earliest occupants of the oceanic world, possibly reaching it from Malaysia.^ In any case, there was little doubt about the heat being on in this area.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They undoubtedly constitute the oldest ethnic stock sometimes modified on the spot by crossings with migratory peoples (Malays, Polynesians); sometimes, as in the eastern Pacific, giving way entirely before the invaders.^ Modelers had a long way to go before they could calculate ocean circulation well enough to furnish accurate models of climate.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been believed that the Salone people had lived, in the ancient times, on the Malay Peninsula until the Malay incursion when they left their native places and lived scattered throughout the Myeik Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With them, I pray fervently that all the peoples of Oceania will discover the love of Christ, the Way, the Truth and the Life, so that they will experience and build together the civilization of love and peace for which the world of the Pacific has always longed.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The traditions of many of the Polynesian islanders refer to a black indigenous race which occupied their islands when their ancestors arrived, and the black woolly-haired Papuan type is not only found to-day in Melanesia proper, but traces of it occur throughout Polynesia and Micronesia.^ Only patrol boats and planes were sighted throughout the day ...
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The traditional peoples of Oceania make up a mosaic of many different cultures: Aboriginal, Melanesian, Polynesian and Micronesian.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not all answers could be found in the days of the Synod, for many issues call for more reflection, experience and prayer.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.That the oceanic blacks form one family there can be no doubt, and it is evidence of the immensely remote date at which their dispersion began that they have a multitude of languages often unintelligible except locally, and an extraordinary variety of insular customs: differentiations which must have needed centuries to be effected.^ There, they began striking the mass of rock oysters with stones and collecting the tiny portions of meat into baskets with astonishing speed and efficiency.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also there is no-one powerful enough to oppose him and the other people involved in keeping the business hidden.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our Response: There has been no evidence to suggest that harassment of fruit bats is likely to occur as a result of listing.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore the Rev. R. H. Codrington (Melanesian Languages) has adduced evidence to prove that Melanesia is the most primitive form of the oceanic stock-language, and that both Malays and Polynesians speak later dialects of this archaic form of speech. .The Melanesians then, must be regarded as the aborigines of Oceania.^ The traditional peoples of Oceania make up a mosaic of many different cultures: Aboriginal, Melanesian, Polynesian and Micronesian.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.How they came to occupy the region it is impossible to say.^ But they were unable to say just how severe the climate changes would be.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did not Christ himself say "I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly" ( Jn 10:10)?
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Evidence exists as to the migrations of the brown races; but there is nothing to explain how the blacks came to inhabit the isolated Pacific islands.^ During the Synod Assembly, the universal Church came to see more clearly how the Lord Jesus is encountering the many peoples of Oceania in their lands and on their many islands.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "When we came there was nothing here, no buildings, no cottages, only the Salone houses.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No reports of brown treesnakes exist from other islands in the archipelago.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.In this connexion it is a curious fact, and one which deepens the mystery, that, unlike the Polynesian peoples, who are all born sailors, the blacks are singularly unskilful seamen.^ So too the Synod Fathers declared that "the Church is essentially a mystery of communion, a people made one with the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Synod Fathers were keen that the people of Oceania become still more conscious of human dignity, which is based on the fact that all are created in God's image (cf.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bishops and all who were with them were animated by the one faith in Christ.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

The second ethnic division, the Polynesian-Micronesian races, represents a far later migration and occupation of the Pacific islands. .It has been urged that these brown peoples sprang from one stock with the Malays and the Malagasy of Madagascar; and that they represent this parent stock better than the Malays who have been much modified by crossings.^ Actually, the signal is much better here than at home (I didn’t even realize I could get 6 bars of signal until I came here :) )[/quote] .
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phuket, now a tourist resort island, was known in Malay as "Ujong Salang" which may or may not have given these people the name used for them in Burma.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The camera on the phone is so much better than the sidekick cameras.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But linguistic and physical evidence are against this theory. It is practically certain that the Polynesians at least are an older race than the Malays and their subfamilies. .The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific.^ Most experts, however, believe they migrated up the coast from the Riaw-Ringga Archipelago, south of Singapore.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Christ must be presented in a way well adapted to the younger generation and the rapidly changing culture in which they live.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even the most elaborate computer models of climate had shown only gradual transitions — but by their very structure that was all they could be expected to show.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features. Such an explanation of the Polynesian's origin does not preclude a relationship with the Malays. .It is most probable that the two stocks have Asiatic ancestors in common, though the Polynesians remain today, what they must have always been in remote times, a distinct race.^ They were particularly conscious of those who provide these services in the most remote areas: the jungle, small islands or the Australian "Outback".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a sign of the Church's recognition of their fidelity, they must always be provided with adequate assistance and sustenance.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is probable that they are an extremely ancient people, kindred of that aboriginal stock which peopled the mainland before the advent of the Htai."
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of their sub-division, the Micronesians, the same cannot be said. .They are undoubtedly a very hybrid race, owing this characteristic to their geographical position in the area where the dominating races of the Pacific, Malays, Polynesians, Melanesians, Japanese 1 From these the three main divisions of the islands are named Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia.^ The following is a summary of losses suffered by the Pacific Fleet and forces operating from the Pacific Ocean Areas, and of the losses which these forces inflicted upon the enemy.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large areas of southern Guam are dominated by savannas; these landscapes are thought to have originated as a result of aboriginal burning (Fosberg 1960).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ The island nations of Polynesia and Micronesia are relatively small, each with its own indigenous language and culture.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

and Chinese, may be said to converge. .Careful investigations have supported the theory that Micronesia was peopled largely from the Philippines or some portion of the Malay Archipelago at a much later period than the Polynesian migration.^ Volume on the phone is horrible, does not support mp3-ringtones, but rather yamaha mmf which is much lower quality than I’m used to at least.
  • Helio Ocean - SlashGear 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.slashgear.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been believed that the Salone people had lived, in the ancient times, on the Malay Peninsula until the Malay incursion when they left their native places and lived scattered throughout the Myeik Archipelago.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water World Some anthropologists think the Moken are descended from peoples who migrated from Mongolia, later moving down Burma's northeastern Shan states.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Micronesians then are probably of Malay stock much modified by early Polynesian crossings, and probably, within historic times, by Papuan and even Japanese and Chinese migrations.^ It turned out to be a Japanese ship, manned by a Chinese crew, and at the moment was under attack by Malay pirates in canoes.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While their general physique approximates to the Polynesian type, they are often characterized by a stunted form and a dark complexion.
.In this review of the inhabitants of the Pacific islands an imaginary ethnological line has been drawn round it so as to include none but the-branches of the two great divisions.^ The original inhabitants of New Zealand, an island nation, were the Maori people who called their country Aotearoa , "Land of the Great White Cloud".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ This reviewer did not include any professional judgment about movement of bats between islands, but has published peer-reviewed literature containing information that supports interisland exchange.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.But on the borders of the region, often without real boundary lines, are grouped other peoples, the true Malays, the Indonesians or pre-Malays with the Negritos to the westward and the Australians, who are generally admitted to be a distinct race.^ The small, endangered ethnic group referred to as "Sea Gypsies" or "Moken," the Saloun people, traditionally have lived on boats in the region and survived on ocean and island foods.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This distinction is important but often ignored as many anthropologists and others continue to oppose land and sea people, as if the two ways of life contradicted one another.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of their scarcity, bats are often reserved for the elderly and other respected guests, and *1206 one bat may be shared among several people (Lemke 1992a).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Of these races detailed information will be found under their several headings.^ Our Response: Both the proposed and final rules address taxonomic questions in detail (see the Background subsection under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION).
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

Prehistoric Remains

.One of the most obscure questions with which the ethnologist has to deal is that of the prehistoric remains which occur in different and widely separated parts of the oceanic region.^ The only damage inflicted on ships of the task group occurred when a mine exploded 50 yards from one of the minesweepers, but she was quickly repaired and remained operative.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most remarkable of these are on Easter Island, where immense platforms built of dressed stone without mortar are found, together with stone images.^ The most severely altered of these islands, Saipan, Tinian, and Guam, today support very few Mariana fruit bats.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Together, these effects limit the habitat for fruit bats on this island.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ They were particularly conscious of those who provide these services in the most remote areas: the jungle, small islands or the Australian "Outback".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

Similar remains have been found on Pitcairn Island. On the island of Tongatabu in the Tonga group, there is a monument of great stone blocks which must have been brought thither by sea. In some of the Caroline Islands, again, there are extensive remains of stone buildings, and in the Marianas stone monuments occur. No native traditions assign origin to these remains, nor has any complete explanation of their existence been offered.
Bibliography. - .For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).^ As they were varying the CO 2 to see how that might change climate, they made an inadvertent discovery.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The operations described herein include those of the Southwest Pacific Area for the same period in order to show their relationship with concurrent operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas.
  • CinCPac: Operations in the Pacific Ocean Areas During the Month of August 1945 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since sea-gypsy tribes have depended on the ocean for hundreds of years, it's possible that the Moken children have inherited genetic variations that enable them to see more clearly underwater, the researchers note.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of general works (which are few) see C. E. Meinicke, Die Inseln des Stillen Oceans (Leipzig, 1875); F. H. H. Guillemard, Australasia, vol. ii., revised by A. H. Keane, in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1908); and W. T. Brigham, Index to the Islands of the Pacific (Honolulu, 1900). .Among other works (the majority of which deal only with parts of the region known to the writers from travel), see J. A. Moerenhout, Voyages aux Iles du Grand Ocean (1837); W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches (London, 1853) G. Turner, Nineteen Years in Polynesia (London, 1861); T. West, Ten Years in South Central Polynesia (London, 1865); J. Brenchley, Cruise of the " Curacoa " among the South Sea Islands during 1865 (London, 1873); W. Coote, Western Pacific Islands (London, 1883); H. H. Romilly, The Western Pacific and New Guinea (London, 1887); H. Stonehewer Cooper, The Islands of the Pacific (London, 1888; earlier editions, 1880, &c., were under the title Coral Lands); F. J. Moss, Through Atolls and Islands (London, 1889); W. T. Wawn, The South Sea Islanders and the Queensland Labour Trade (1889); G. Haurigot, Les Etablissements francais en Oceania (Paris, 1891); B. F. S. B. Powell, In Savage Isles and Settled Lands (London, 1892); " Sundowner," Rambles in Polynesia (London, 1897); M. M. Shoemaker, Islands of the Southern Seas (New York, 1898); Joachim Graf Pfeil, Studien.^ Sea gypsies are a minority group that number only a few tens of thousands in southern Burma and Thailand.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Synod Assembly, the universal Church came to see more clearly how the Lord Jesus is encountering the many peoples of Oceania in their lands and on their many islands.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Salone can be found in the Southern part of Myeik Archipelago which has more than 800 small islands.
  • Burma's Sea Gypsies: A Compendium 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.projectmaje.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

aus der Siidsee
(Brunswick, 1899); Robert Louis Stevenson, In the South Seas (London, 1900); A. R. Colquhoun, The Mastery of the Pacific (London, 1902); G. Wegener, Deutschland in der Siidsee (Bielefeld, 1903); A. Kramer, Hawaii, Ostmikronesien, and Samoa (Stuttgart, 1906) J. D. Rogers, Australasia, vol. vi. of the Historical Geography of the British Colonies, edited by Sir C. P. Lucas (Oxford, 1907); T. A. Coghlan, Statistical Account of the Seven Colonies of Australasia (Sydney). .With especial reference to the natives and their languages see Sir G. Grey, Polynesian Mythology (London, 1855); W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific (London, 1876); J. D. Lang, Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian Nation (Sydney, 1877); A. Lesson, Les Polynesiens (Paris, 1880 seq.^ The Australians are therefore "an original people, the result of the meeting of people of very different nations, languages and civilizations".
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

); R. H. Codrington, The Melanesian Languages (Oxford, 1885); E. Reeves, Brown Men and Women (London, 1898); J. Gaggin, Among the Man-Eaters (London, 1899); A. C. Haddon, Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown (London, 1902); D.Macdonald, The Oceanic Languages: their Grammatical Structure, Vocabulary and Origin (London, 1907); J. Macmillan Brown, Maori and Polynesian (London, 1907), and the articles Polynesia; Melanesia. And with especial reference to natural history, J. D. Hooker, A Lecture on Insular Floras (London, 1868); E. Drake del Castillo, Remarques sur la fore de la Polynesie (Paris, 1890); H. B. Guppy, Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific,1896-1899(London, 1903 seq.).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Pacific Ocean

Etymology

From pacific < French pacifique ‘peaceful’ + ocean.

Proper noun

Singular
Pacific Ocean
Plural
-
Pacific Ocean
  1. The world's largest body of water, to the east of Asia and Australasia and to the west of the Americas.

Synonyms

Translations


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)
  • Arctic Ocean
  • Atlantic Ocean
  • Indian Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Southern Ocean
Pacific Ocean
.The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, "peaceful sea", bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.^ The name Pacific (“peaceful”) was given to it by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan in 1520.
  • PACIFIC OCEAN, 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pacific Ocean is by far the largest of the world's oceans.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest ocean in the world is the Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean | Universe Today 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Antarctic in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia on the west and the Americas on the east.^ It is bounded by southern Asia in the north, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa in the west, the Malay Peninsula, Sundra Islands and Australia in the east and the Southern Ocean in the south.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the east, the Atlantic is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Arctic Ocean in the north and the south.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the west, the Atlantic stretches all the way to North and South America.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 169.2 million square kilometres (65.3 million square miles) in area, this largest division of the World Ocean – and, in turn, the hydrosphere – covers about 46% of the Earth's water surface and about 32% of its total surface area, making it larger than all of the Earth's land area combined.^ Oceans hold nearly all of the Earths water.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major surface currents of the world’s oceans.
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The area of the circle would then be almost exactly 1 million square miles.
  • Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere CHARLESMOORE / Natural History v.112, n.9, Nov03 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean.^ We have split them into north and south.
  • Ocean Beaches in Washington State 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.northwestplaces.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific Ocean north of North Head and south of Seaview, Washington.
  • Lewis and Clark's Columbia River - Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC columbiariverimages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ocean ecology of north Pacific salmonids.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the Pacific and the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres (35,798 ft) [2]

Contents

Overview

.The ocean encompasses a third of the Earth's surface, having an area of 179.7 million square kilometres (69.4 million sq mi and 161 million cubic mi) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass, with room for another Africa to spare.^ It encompasses a third of the Earth 's surface, having an area of 179.7 million square kilometres (69.4 million sq mi and 161 million cubic mi) —significantly larger than Earth's entire landmass, with room for another Africa to spare.
  • Pacific Ocean at AllExperts 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pacific Ocean occupies nearly one-third of the earth's surface.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the Earths surface.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extending approximately 15,500 kilometres (9,600  mi) from the Bering Sea in the Arctic to the icy margins of Antarctica's Ross Sea in the south (although the Antarctic regions of the Pacific are sometimes described as part of the circumpolar Southern Ocean), the Pacific reaches its greatest east-west width at about 5°N latitude, where it stretches approximately 19,800 kilometres (12,300 mi) from Indonesia to the coast of Colombia and Peru - halfway across the world.^ Off the West Coast, Pacific ocean perch are a rebuilding species.
  • FishWatch - Pacific Ocean Perch 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nmfs.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About as far west as you can get -- to Manhattan Beach and the Pacific Ocean.
  • pacificocean coverage by LAist 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC laist.com [Source type: General]

^ There are five oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern.

.The western limit of the ocean is often placed at the Strait of Malacca.^ The western limit of the ocean is often placed at the Strait of Malacca .
  • Pacific Ocean at AllExperts 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its farthest western point is most likely the Strait of Malacca.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pacific Ocean joins the Indian Ocean via the Strait of Malacca, and is separated from it by the chain of islands that extends from Sumatra to Australia.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lowest point on earth—the Mariana Trench—lies 10,911 metres (35,797 ft) below sea level.^ The Challenger Deep on the Mariana Trench is the deepest point on the earth — 10,924 m below sea level.
  • What are the tallest mountains from base to peak, not counting any part of the mountain that is underwater? - Yahoo!7 Answers 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ At 133 meters below sea level it is the second lowest point in Africa.
  • Lowest Land Points Below Sea Level Map | Depression Elevations 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC geology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest ocean depth has been sounded in the Challenger Deep of the Marianas Trench , a distance of 10,911 m (35,798 ft) below sea level.
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Marianas Trench: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Its average depth is 4,280 metres (14,000 ft)[1].^ The average depths of the Atlantic, with its adjacent seas, is 3,339 meters (10,936 ft); without them it is 3,926 metres (12,881 ft).
  • Howe deep is the atlantic ocean? 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's a Link I found on Google, says 25 feet (7.6m) is the largest, with 12 ft being the average, so the 26 metres is definately a missprint.
  • Possible Megalodon in Mariana trench - Unexplained Mysteries Discussion Forums 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.unexplained-mysteries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern half is of nearly uniform depth, averaging about 16,000 feet, and is rather free from islands.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

The shoreline at Palm Beach
.The Pacific contains about 25,000 islands (more than the total number in the rest of the world's oceans combined), the majority of which are found south of the equator.^ Major surface currents of the world’s oceans.
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest ocean in the world is the Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean | Universe Today 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pacific Ocean also has the deepest location of any ocean in the world.
  • Pacific Ocean | Universe Today 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific Ocean is currently shrinking from plate tectonics, while the Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size.^ Pacific Ocean // Current login .
  • Pacific Ocean // Current 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

^ Africa to the western rim of the Pacific, but recognition of the Pacific as distinct from the Atlantic Ocean dates from Balboa's sighting of its eastern shore (1513).
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, divergent tectonic plate boundaries such as the mid-Atlantic ridge generate fewer, shallower and less violent earthquakes.
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

.Along the Pacific Ocean's irregular western margins lie many seas, the largest of which are the Celebes Sea, Coral Sea, East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sea of Korea, South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Tasman Sea, and Yellow Sea.^ The largest ocean in the world is the Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean | Universe Today 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principal arms of the Pacific Ocean are (in the north) the Bering Sea; (in the east) the Gulf of California; (in the south) Ross Sea; and (in the west) the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, and the Yellow, East China, South China, Philippine, Coral, and Tasman seas.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pacific Ocean South 1885 .

.The Strait of Malacca joins the Pacific and the Indian Oceans on the west, and the Strait of Magellan links the Pacific with the Atlantic Ocean on the east.^ There are five oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern.

^ Until the year 2000, there were four recognized oceans: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic.
  • Howe deep is the atlantic ocean? 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the SE it is arbitrarily divided from the Atlantic Ocean by the Drake Passage along 68° W long; in the SW, its separation from the Indian Ocean is not officially designated.
  • PACIFIC OCEAN, 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the north, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific with the Arctic Ocean.^ Geological Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in the Lau and North Fiji Basins, Southwest Pacific Ocean: Results of SONNE Cruise SO-35, Geologisches Jahrbuch.
  • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pacific Ocean extends from the Arctic to the Antarctic .
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jade Coast: ecology of the north Pacific Ocean.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Pacific straddles the ± 180° meridian, the West Pacific (or western Pacific, near Asia) is actually in the Eastern Hemisphere, while the East Pacific (or eastern Pacific, near the Americas) is actually in the Western Hemisphere.^ Africa to the western rim of the Pacific, but recognition of the Pacific as distinct from the Atlantic Ocean dates from Balboa's sighting of its eastern shore (1513).
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has a maximum depth of about 10,911 meters[1] (35,798 feet; 6.78 miles), and is located in the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east and south of the Mariana Islands, near Guam.

^ Physical Geography Extent and Seas The Pacific Ocean extends from the arctic to antarctic regions between North and South America on the east and Asia and Australia on the west.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Coastal area of Viña del Mar
.For most of Magellan's voyage from the Strait of Magellan to the Philippines, the explorer indeed found the ocean peaceful.^ Sodium chloride (table salt) is the most abundant of the many salts found in the ocean.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although nearly 60 valuable chemical elements have been found dissolved in ocean water, most are in such dilute concentrations that commercial extraction is not profitable.
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed that was the most interesting cup of chocolate I have ever had, sitting up eight thousand feet over the middle of the Pacific Ocean, quite alone.
  • Oceania - Amelia Earhart - Last Flight 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.janesoceania.com [Source type: Original source]

However, the Pacific is not always peaceful. .Many tropical cyclones (typhoons, the equivalent of Atlantic hurricanes), batter the islands of the Pacific.^ Violent tropical storms, which are called typhoons in the W Pacific and hurricanes in the S and E Pacific, originate in the trade wind belt in late summer and early autumn.
  • PACIFIC OCEAN, 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ocean view scenery wallpapers from tropical island sceneries with ocean view Pacific Ocean and South China Sea Philippines Ocean view scenery wallpapers beautiful photos from tropical islands with ocean view sceneries Pacific Ocean and South China Sea - Philippines wallpaper format 1600x1200px .
  • Ocean view scenery wallpapers from tropical island sceneries with ocean view Pacific Ocean and South China Sea Philippines 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kriyayoga.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects were devastating – drought in Australia, flooding in Chile and typhoons in the South Pacific Islands.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lands around the Pacific rim are full of volcanoes and often affected by earthquakes.^ This is part of the area known as the Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean which is responsible for about 90% of the world’s earthquakes ( Wikipedia ).
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Historic statistics of salmon production around the Pacific rim.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes, have devastated many islands and destroyed entire towns.^ Entire towns have been wiped out by Tsunamis, the large waves caused by an underwater earthquake.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the largest earthquakes are off the coast, but earthquakes off the coast can cause other problems.
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead, it's like a galaxy of garbage, populated by billions of smaller trash islands that may be hidden underwater or spread out over many miles.
  • What is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

Water characteristics

.Water temperatures in the Pacific vary from freezing in the poleward areas to about 25-30 °C Celsius 84 °F Fahrenheit near the equator.^ The freezing temperature of ocean (saline) water is typically -1.8 degrees Celsius (28.7 degrees Fahrenheit).
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fresh water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit), but the freezing point of sea water varies.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a 40,000-kilometer (25,000-mile) area where most of the world’s volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur.
  • 2009 June : Marport 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC blog.marport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Salinity also varies latitudinally. .The water near the equator is less salty than that found in the mid-latitudes because of abundant equatorial precipitation throughout the year.^ South of 65° S latitude, pack ice and icebergs can be found year-round, although they don't usually make it further than the northern limit of 45° S latitude.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in the latitudes bordering the Equator the opposite condition prevails -- evaporation exceeds rainfall because high temperatures plus increased winds accelerate evaporation losses.
  • Why is the Ocean Salty? 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multiyear ice contains much less brine and more air pockets than first-year ice.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these frigid areas.^ But in the latitudes bordering the Equator the opposite condition prevails -- evaporation exceeds rainfall because high temperatures plus increased winds accelerate evaporation losses.
  • Why is the Ocean Salty? 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be sure to store and transport gasoline in places where there isnt any direct sunlight because the gasoline will evaporate, and all of the gases that have been evaporated will pollute the air.

^ But for a long time, discussions of climate change did not take the oceans fully into account, simply because very little was known about them.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pacific Ocean is generally warmer than the Atlantic ocean.^ Africa to the western rim of the Pacific, but recognition of the Pacific as distinct from the Atlantic Ocean dates from Balboa's sighting of its eastern shore (1513).
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The trenches have lengths of thousands of kilometers, are generally hundreds of kilometers wide, and extend 3 to 4 km (1.9-2.5 mi) deeper than the surrounding ocean floor.
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three principal oceans, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian, are largely delimited by land and submarine topographic boundaries.
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.The surface circulation of Pacific waters is generally clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere (the North Pacific Gyre) and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.^ North Pacific Gyre and remains there.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ (Source: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario ) A clockwise circulation of water, known as the North Pacific Gyre generally dominates the North Pacific.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major circulation of water in these gyres is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The North Equatorial Current, driven westward along latitude 15°N by the trade winds, turns north near the Philippines to become the warm Japan or Kuroshio Current.^ The North Equatorial Current moves northeastward along the Philippine Islands, and eventually forms the Kuroshio Current (also called the Japan Current).
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind-driven circulation - - Equatorial currents .
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This current is, in turn, warmed by the easterly North Equatorial Current, which runs in a westward direction from about 5ºN latitude.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turning eastward at about 45°N, the Kuroshio forks and some waters move northward as the Aleutian Current, while the rest turn southward to rejoin the North Equatorial Current.^ The counter-clockwise South Pacific current crosses from New Zealand to Chile and there merges with the cold waters of the circumpolar current before splitting into the three branches of the south equatorial current , one part turning towards Australia, the other two crossing back further north.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ El Nino and its opposite La Nina, are oceanographic events that alternate between periods of warm and cool water moving about the Pacific Ocean.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most significant pieces of the puzzle are the ocean currents, particularly three: the clockwise Kuroshio or Japan current which, like the Atlantic's Gulf Stream , carries warm waters from the Asian coast to North America, turns south as the California current and heads back as the north equatorial current.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Aleutian Current branches as it approaches North America and forms the base of a counter-clockwise circulation in the Bering Sea.^ The counter-clockwise South Pacific current crosses from New Zealand to Chile and there merges with the cold waters of the circumpolar current before splitting into the three branches of the south equatorial current , one part turning towards Australia, the other two crossing back further north.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Currents Huge whirls, formed by the major ocean currents, are found roughly north and south of the equator; the Equatorial Counter Current separates them.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based out of South Florida USA, the Gateway to the Americas,  Ocean Machinery services its substantial North American clientele, as well as its growing base of South American and Caribbean customers.
  • Ocean Machinery - One-Stop Shopping for the Steel Fabricating Industry 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.oceanmachinery.com [Source type: General]

.Its southern arm becomes the chilled slow, south-flowing California Current.^ In contrast, the Arctic region north of the Atlantic Ocean is open to the warmer waters from the south, because of the way the ocean currents flow.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The northern whirl is formed by the North Equatorial Current, Japan Current, North Pacific Drift, and California Current; the southern whirl is formed by the South Equatorial Current, East Australian Current, West Wind Drift, and Peruvian (or Humboldt) Current.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the southern temperate region of the Pacific, currents generally flow westward.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South Equatorial Current, flowing west along the equator, swings southward east of New Guinea, turns east at about 50°S, and joins the main westerly circulation of the Southern Pacific, which includes the Earth-circling Antarctic Circumpolar Current.^ In the southern temperate region of the Pacific, currents generally flow westward.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind-driven circulation - - Equatorial currents .
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Between these two currents, the Equatorial Countercurrent flows to the east.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As it approaches the Chilean coast, the South Equatorial Current divides; one branch flows around Cape Horn and the other turns north to form the Peru or Humboldt Current.^ One current flows clockwise in the northern hemisphere and the other flows counterclockwise south of the equator.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currents Huge whirls, formed by the major ocean currents, are found roughly north and south of the equator; the Equatorial Counter Current separates them.
  • Pacific Ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One boundary extends southward to Antarctica from the Cape of Good Hope, while another stretches southward from Cape Horn .
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

Geology

.
Sunset over the Pacific Ocean as seen from the International Space Station.
^ Walk on the beach at sunset or enjoy a quiet dinner at the world famous Cliff House, over looking the Pacific Ocean.
  • Ocean Beach Bed & Breakfast, San Francisco, bed and breakfast, California, inns 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC oceanbeachbb.com [Source type: General]

^ Pacific Ocean at Sunset Beach, Oregon.
  • Lewis and Clark's Columbia River - Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC columbiariverimages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile fallout from bomb tests was already mixing into the Pacific Ocean, sparking an international outcry and demands to know exactly where the poisons were going.
  • Ocean Currents and Climate 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.aip.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anvil tops of thunderclouds are also visible.
.The andesite line is the most significant regional distinction in the Pacific.^ The reduced velocities for all three inversions within this anomalous region are evidence for a distinct change in property within the subducting Pacific slab.
  • Tomography Using 3D Ray Tracing Inversion Techniques 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.dgi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In most regions the Pacific Shelf is less than 45 kilometres wide, and it only rarely reaches its maximum width of 95 kilometres.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It separates the deeper, mafic igneous rock of the Central Pacific Basin from the partially submerged continental areas of felsic igneous rock on its margins.^ Ocean basins - Continental margins .
  • ocean (Earth feature) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The trash gyre takes up an astonishingly large area of the Pacific Ocean – twice the surface area of the continental United States.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

^ The atolls and coral islands of the central Pacific are thought to be caps of reef rock upon the summits of volcanic mountains.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc, along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, Japan, the Mariana Islands, the Solomon Islands, and New Zealand.^ Mountain arcs, known as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, soar above the surface in the west.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Zealand annexes the Cook Islands .
  • Camelot International: Britain's Heritage and History 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.camelotintl.com [Source type: News]

^ The Izu-Bonin arc forms the northern half of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin in the Western Pacific, which has an extent of almost 1500 km from Japan to the end of Volcano Islands (Fig.
  • Tomography Using 3D Ray Tracing Inversion Techniques 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.dgi.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dissimilarity continues northeastward along the western edge of the Andes Cordillera along South America to Mexico, returning then to the islands off California.^ A classic example of a volcanic island arc, the Mariana Islands extend about 900 kilometers (km) north-south along the edge of the Mariana Trench in western Micronesia.
  • Marianas tropical dry forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nutrient-rich waters from the ocean depths off South America slow and marine life dies or migrates.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The East China Sea, South China Sea, Java Sea, Arafura Sea, and South Coral Sea are in subtropical and tropical regions along the western Pacific.
  • PWLF.org - The Pacific WildLife Foundation - The Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.pwlf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, New Guinea, and New Zealand—all eastward extensions of the continental blocks of Australia and Asia—lie outside the Andesite Line.^ Those found to the west including Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia , New Guinea and New Zealand, which arise from continental plates .
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please select your destination directly on the map (Australia, New Zealand text labels) to find and book hotels.
  • Australia hotels New Zealand Hotels in Fiji French Polynesia 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The numerous nations of Oceania, among which Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, are connected by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Australia hotels New Zealand Hotels in Fiji French Polynesia 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the closed loop of the andesite line are most of the deep troughs, submerged volcanic mountains, and oceanic volcanic islands that characterize the Pacific basin.^ It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a 40,000-kilometer (25,000-mile) area where most of the world’s volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur.
  • 2009 June : Marport 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC blog.marport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western part of the floor consists of mountain arcs that rise above the sea as island groups, such as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, and deep oceanic trenches, such as the Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the Tonga Trench.

^ One of the deep places (troughs), off the N.E. corner of Mindanao, Philippine Islands, contains the greatest depth yet sounded, 35,400 feet.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters.^ During the ice ages the water level sank and the rainwater permeated the porous stone, forming caves, passageways and huge domes.
  • Scuba Diving, Snorkel Tours, Cenote Diving, World Class Reef, Sea Urchin Dive page 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC seaurchindive.com [Source type: General]

^ (Everest) "The TALLEST mountain on earth, measured from base to summit is the volcanic peak of Mauna Kea, one of five volcanic masses making up the "Big Island"of Hawaii.
  • What are the tallest mountains from base to peak, not counting any part of the mountain that is underwater? - Yahoo!7 Answers 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The atolls and coral islands of the central Pacific are thought to be caps of reef rock upon the summits of volcanic mountains.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Outside the Andesite Line, volcanism is of the explosive type, and the Pacific Ring of Fire is the world's foremost belt of explosive volcanism.^ It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a 40,000-kilometer (25,000-mile) area where most of the world’s volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur.
  • 2009 June : Marport 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC blog.marport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is part of the area known as the Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean which is responsible for about 90% of the world’s earthquakes ( Wikipedia ).
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click2Houston, TX) Philippine volcano eruption revs up, no-go zone imposed    Dec 18, 2009 The Philippines lies on the "Ring of Fire", a belt of volcanoes circling the Pacific Ocean that is also prone to earthquakes.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

.The Ring of Fire is named after the several hundred active volcanoes that sit above the various subduction zones.^ This is part of the area known as the Ring of Fire, a ring of volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean which is responsible for about 90% of the world’s earthquakes ( Wikipedia ).
  • Blog posts for June, 2009 | Tableau Software 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.tableausoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click2Houston, TX) Philippine volcano eruption revs up, no-go zone imposed    Dec 18, 2009 The Philippines lies on the "Ring of Fire", a belt of volcanoes circling the Pacific Ocean that is also prone to earthquakes.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

^ Maekawa, H., Shozui, M., Ishii, T., Fryer, P., Pearce, J. A., Blueschist metamorphism in an active subduction zone, Nature, 364(6437), 520-523, 1993.
  • Mud Volcanoes from the Mantle Research 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.soest.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Pacific Ocean is the only ocean which is almost totally bounded by subduction zones.^ (Source: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario ) Off the eastern coast of the Pacific Ocean, the sediments on the ocean floors are almost entirely pelagic.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is their special responsibility to assume on behalf of all humanity stewardship of the Pacific Ocean, containing over one half of the earth's total supply of water.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The total length of all 'subduction' zones is only one-third the total length of spreading zones [19] .
  • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only the boundary with the Antarctic plate is not a subduction zone.^ The trench forms the boundary between two tectonic plates, where the Pacific Plate is subducted beneath the small Mariana Plate.

^ The Mariana Trench forms the boundary between two tectonic plates, where the Pacific Plate is subducted beneath the small Mariana Plate.
  • 2009 June : Marport 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC blog.marport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ogawa, Y., Variety of subduction and accretion processes in Cretaceous to Recent plate boundaries around southwest and central Japan.

Landmasses

The Pacific is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches
.The largest landmass entirely within the Pacific Ocean is the island of New Guinea— the second largest island in the world.^ It is the second largest animal in the world.
  • In the Sea: Little Explorers Picture Dictionary 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a new continent in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ The numerous nations of Oceania, among which Australia, New Zealand and Fiji, are connected by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Australia hotels New Zealand Hotels in Fiji French Polynesia 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Almost all of the smaller islands of the Pacific lie between 30°N and 30°S, extending from South-east Asia to Easter Island; the rest of the Pacific Basin is almost entirely submerged.^ What islands lie south of here?
  • UO Stratics - Oceania News 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC uo.stratics.com [Source type: General]

^ All are widespread on Pacific Islands.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has a maximum depth of about 10,911 meters[1] (35,798 feet; 6.78 miles), and is located in the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east and south of the Mariana Islands, near Guam.

.The great triangle of Polynesia, connecting Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand, encompasses the island arcs and clusters of the Cook Islands, Marquesas, Samoa, Society, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tuvalu & Wallis and Futuna islands.^ Polynesia extends from Hawaii to Easter Island to New Zealand in a rough triangle.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western part of the floor consists of mountain arcs that rise above the sea as island groups, such as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, and deep oceanic trenches, such as the Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the Tonga Trench.

^ The most considerable areas over 3000 fathoms are the Aldrich deep, an irregular triangle nearly as large as Australia, situated to the east of New Zealand , in which a sounding of 5155 fathoms was obtained by H.M.S. " Penguin ," near the Tonga Islands: and the Tuscarora deep, a long, narrow trough running immediately to the east of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and Japan.

.North of the equator and west of the International Date Line are the numerous small islands of Micronesia, including the Caroline Islands, the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands.^ Date line - The international date line.
  • Wish List for New Forum (BBS) Software - Google Earth Community 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC bbs.keyhole.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Micronesia - a region situated between the Mariana Trench in the west and the Line Islands in the east.

^ The Mariana Trench lies to the east of the islands paralleling the chain until it reaches Guam where it makes a right angle turn and heads west.
  • What are the tallest mountains from base to peak, not counting any part of the mountain that is underwater? - Yahoo!7 Answers 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.In the southwestern corner of the Pacific lie the islands of Melanesia, dominated by New Guinea.^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea , the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.

^ Tanna island is part of the Southern District of Vanuatu, a southwestern Pacific archipelago once called the New Hebrides.

.Other important island groups of Melanesia include the Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.^ The most important group is the Galapagos Islands .

^ The western part of the floor consists of mountain arcs that rise above the sea as island groups, such as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, and deep oceanic trenches, such as the Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the Tonga Trench.

^ West Papua (1963 onwards), East Timor (1975-99), Vanuatu (1980), New Caledonia (1980s), Bougainville (1988-1997); ethnic warfare in Solomon Islands (1998-2003) and Papua New Guinea’s highlands (ongoing); military coups in Fiji (four since 1987) and Solomon Islands (2000), and mutinies in PNG , Fiji and Vanuatu.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Islands in the Pacific Ocean are of four basic types: continental islands, high islands, coral reefs, and uplifted coral platforms.^ Oceania as the name suggests includes numerous territories and countries and a majority of them are islands of the Pacific Ocean, mostly the central and southern Pacific Ocean and its nearby places.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ All of the continental land masses on the planet could be placed in the Pacific Ocean, and there would still be room left over.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Ocean Islands Pacific Ocean Islands Atlantic Ocean Islands Charles William Beebe Marianas Trench Ashmore Reef Great Barrier Reef oceans of the world deep sea creatures Jacques Cousteau .
  • ocean@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Continental islands lie outside the Andesite Line and include New Guinea, the islands of New Zealand, and the Philippines.^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Those found to the west including Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia , New Guinea and New Zealand, which arise from continental plates .
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this capacity, assisted by deputies and resident commissioners, he exercises jurisdiction over all the islands except Fiji and those islands which are attached to New Zealand and New South Wales.

.These islands are structurally associated with nearby continents.^ Kenneth P. Emory, Bishop Museum ethnologist, has made a study of the archaeological remains on these islands, and can associate the former inhabitants with eastern and western Polynesia.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The remaining native forest habitat for fruit bats on many of these islands continues to be threatened by the fragmentation and degradation associated with feral ungulates.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

^ These plants grow together in various associations, some of which are suggested in the diagrammatic cross-sections of dry, medium, and wet islands.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.High islands are of volcanic origin, and many contain active volcanoes.^ Most of the islands are actually the tips of volcanoes, some of which are still active.

^ Fryer, P. and G. J. Fryer, Origins of non-volcanic seamounts in forearc environments, in "Seamount Islands and Atolls" (Keating et al.
  • Mud Volcanoes from the Mantle Research 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.soest.hawaii.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other South Pacific islands are either volcanic in origin, like the Polynesian islands or are coral islands like those of Micronesia.
  • Pacific Ocean - Encyclopedia of Earth 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among these are Bougainville, Hawaii, & the Solomon Islands.
.The third and fourth types of islands are both the result of coralline island building.^ Feral ungulates are present on both islands, resulting in further degradation and fragmentation.
  • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

.Coral reefs are low-lying structures that have built up on basaltic lava flows under the ocean's surface.^ The only structure that was not destroyed was the Ocean Park Municipal Auditorium built in 1923 which in 1958 was transformed into the USS Nautilus exhibit and the Westinghouse Enchanted Forest.

^ A wreck, possibly a Japanese fishing trawler, lies on her side on the south-west side of Elizabeth Reef, Pacific Ocean.

^ The coral reef around the perimeter is only a few feet above the water at low tide and is completely submerged at high tide.

.One of the most dramatic is the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia.^ [Credits : Matthieu Paley/Corbis] Coral exposed at low tide on the Great Barrier Reef, off the northeastern coast of Australia.
  • Pacific Ocean :: Fisheries -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashore in a cyclone on the Lihou Reefs, 230 miles outside the Great Barrier Reef, Pacific Ocean, 23 December 1899.

^ These structures may be only centimeters in length, or they may be thousands of kilometers in length like the Great Barrier Reef of Australia, arguably the largest artifact created by any organism on the planet.
  • Ocean Habitats 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second island type formed of coral is the uplifted coral platform, which is usually slightly larger than the low coral islands.^ Most islands here are low coral atolls.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They grew best around the margin of the platform, and as the sea-level rose, due to the melting of the glaciers, they grew upward, forming rings of coral reef.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the Polynesian Islands, the Hawaiian chain presents the type of a volcanic group through which coral reefs are not equally distributed.

.Examples include Banaba (formerly Ocean Island) and Makatea in the Tuamotu group of French Polynesia.^ Oceania as the name suggests includes numerous territories and countries and a majority of them are islands of the Pacific Ocean, mostly the central and southern Pacific Ocean and its nearby places.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Left Sydney on a whaling cruise 18 January 1830; wrecked at Fanning Island, Line Islands Group, central Pacific Ocean, 20 September 1831.

^ The administrative area includes the German Solomon Islands and the Caroline, Pelew and Mariana Islands, which are divided into three administrative groups - the eastern Carolines, western Carolines and Marianas.

History and economy

Further information: OceaniaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Maris Pacifici by Ortelius (1589). Probably the first printed map that shows the Pacific Ocean.
Bathyscaphe Trieste, before her record dive to the bottom of the Marianas Trench, 23 January 1960.
.Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times, most notably those of the Austronesians (specifically, the Polynesians), from the Asian edge of the ocean to Tahiti and then to Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.^ There is a new continent in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch, the Continent of Garbage 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Polynesia extends from Hawaii to Easter Island to New Zealand in a rough triangle.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with these, similarly, hornblende and diabase occur in the Pelew Islands and gneiss and mica 1 These are dependencies of New Zealand, as are also the following islands and groups which lie apart from the main Polynesian clusters, nearer New Zealand itself: Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands , Bounty Islands, Campbell Islands, Chatham Islands , Kermadec Islands.

.The ocean was sighted by Europeans early in the 16th century, first by the Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1513), who crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and then by Ferdinand Magellan, who sailed the Pacific during his circumnavigation (1519-1522).^ The bathymetry of the ocean was of no real interest until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when we began to lay telegraph cables on the seafloor between the continents.

^ The Pacific is the world's largest body of water and was named by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan who found the Pacific very peaceful (“pacifique”, means peaceful in French) for most of his journey from the Straits of Magellan to the Philippines.
  • Geography of the Ocean and the Structure of Planet Water - MarineBio.org 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC marinebio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first recorded encounter with indigenous people on the coast of British Columbia was in 1774 by the Spanish navigator Juan Perez who met a group of Haida near ...

.In 1564, conquistadors crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi who sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.^ In1525-1527Garcia Jofre de Loyasa sailed to the Moluccas , but, like Magellan, missed the bulk of the oceanic islands.

^ The deepest point in the ocean is the Mariana Trench located in the Pacific Ocean near the Northern Mariana Islands.

^ The Mariana Islands mark the dividing line between the Pacific Ocean and the Philippine Sea.

.For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Spain to the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands; the Manila Galleons linked Manila and Acapulco.^ The western part of the floor consists of mountain arcs that rise above the sea as island groups, such as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand, and deep oceanic trenches, such as the Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the Tonga Trench.

^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Protection of Spanish treasure ships from British pirates continued from the Spanish Main (Cartegena and Bilboa to Havana to Cadiz) and from Manila to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) to Acapulco.

.In 16th century also Ragusan galleys from Dubrovnik led by Vice Bune explored southwestern Pacific, and discovered the islands of Bismarck Archipelago, Vanuatu (New Hebrides), etc.^ Tanna island is part of the Southern District of Vanuatu, a southwestern Pacific archipelago once called the New Hebrides.

^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group.

.During the 17th century, the Dutch, sailing around southern Africa, dominated discovery and trade; Abel Janszoon Tasman discovered Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642; in that century Ragusan traders prevailed in Melanesia.^ In 1642, one of two ships (the other Zeehaan) under the command of Abel Janszoon Tasman, discovered and named Van Diemens land (later Tasmania), then went on to discover New Zealand, Tonga and Fiji before returning to Batavia from the north via the Solomons and New Guinea.

^ Oceania Cruises Tauranga, New Zealand Discover lovely Tauranga, with its lovely parks and history, or head to Rotorua with its fabulous geysers, hot springs and Maori culture.
  • Oceania Cruises | Discount Oceania Cruise Deals | Cheap Oceania Cruises 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.cruisemarketplace.com [Source type: General]

^ The confederation, the smallest of six within FIFA, is riding a wave of success after New Zealand recently qualified for the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

.The 18th century marked a burst of exploration by the Russians in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the French in Polynesia, and the British in the three voyages of James Cook (to the South Pacific and Australia, Hawaii, and the North American Pacific Northwest).^ The upper part of this gyre, a few hundred miles north of Hawaii , is where warm water from the South Pacific crashes into cooler water from the north.
  • What is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch? | MNN - Mother Nature Network 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.mnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Explorations of the northern Pacific also took place in what is known today as Vancouver Island, Glacier Bay, Prince William Sound and Unalaska where lands were claimed and lookouts established for Russian and English ships.

^ In the American Journal of Science, September, 1862, J. D. Hague again lists these islands; and the author discusses their identity in the Paradise of the Pacific magazine for September and October 1939.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

.Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by Great Britain and France, followed by the United States.^ It was mainly at Mr. Arundel's request that the Phoenix Islands were annexed by Great Britain during June and July 1889.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The partition of the Pacific islands never led to any serious friction between the powers, though the acquisition of Hawaii was attempted by Britain, France and Japan before the United States annexed the group, and the negotiations as to Samoa threatened trouble for a while.

^ Despite the vastly diverse cultures and great distances in Oceania, the local Bishops realize that they are united with one another and with the Bishop of Rome, and they see this too as a great gift.
  • LINEAMENTA FOR OCEANIA Synod of Bishops 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.ewtn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Significant contributions to oceanographic knowledge were made by the voyages of HMS Beagle in the 1830s, with Charles Darwin aboard; HMS Challenger during the 1870s; the USS Tuscarora (1873-76); and the German Gazelle (1874-76).^ HMS. Included Charles Darwin in its complement on the world voyage of 1831-1836.

^ During his first official visit to Samoa, the German Ambassador to New Zealand has made a generous contribution to the future development of Samoa Football (Soccer) Federation (SFSF-NC).
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ The celebrated voyage of H.M.S. "Challenger" (1874-1875) and those of the American vessels " Tuscarora " (1873-1876) and" Albatross " (1888-1892) may complete the tale.

.Although the United States conquered the Philippines in 1898, Japan controlled the western Pacific by 1914 and occupied many other islands during World War II.^ It is the Micronesia that is a conglomeration of scattered islands and was under sheer neglect at least until the World War II. The region's mythological tradition is still a matter of zeal for the anthropologists and historians to research and study.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The Izu-Bonin arc forms the northern half of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin in the Western Pacific, which has an extent of almost 1500 km from Japan to the end of Volcano Islands (Fig.
  • Tomography Using 3D Ray Tracing Inversion Techniques 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.dgi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The United Nations made the Marianas a department of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947 and gave the USA exclusive rights to administer them and to establish and maintain military bases (and to prevent other countries from doing the same).

.By the end of the war, the U.S. Pacific Fleet was the virtual master of the ocean.^ Renamed John Murray, she was in 1917 refitted as a cargo vessel for use in World War I. Wrecked on Maldon Island, Pacific Ocean, 1918.

^ The master bedroom also features a private balcony overlooking the Pacific Ocean.
  • Gold Beach, Oregon, where the Rogue River meets the Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.goldbeach.org [Source type: General]

.Seventeen independent states are located in the Pacific: Australia, Fiji, Japan, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Republic of China (Taiwan), Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.^ Chinese illegal immigrants have arrived in PNG , Fiji and other countries, and these states have been used to gain access to Australia.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea , the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.

^ The earthquake's epicentre was located about 204 km southwest of the remote Pacific island and it struck at a depth of 85 km.
  • CBS’ ‘Survivor’ production in Samoa not affected by Pacific Ocean earthquake, tsunami 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

.Eleven of these nations have achieved full independence since 1960. The Northern Mariana Islands are self-governing with external affairs handled by the United States, and Cook Islands and Niue are in similar relationships with New Zealand.^ The labourers were mainly from Niue and the Cook Islands.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The United Nations made the Marianas a department of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947 and gave the USA exclusive rights to administer them and to establish and maintain military bases (and to prevent other countries from doing the same).

.Also within the Pacific is the U.S. state of Hawaii and several island territories and possessions of Australia, Chile, Ecuador, France, Japan, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.^ Oceania as the name suggests includes numerous territories and countries and a majority of them are islands of the Pacific Ocean, mostly the central and southern Pacific Ocean and its nearby places.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The United Nations made the Marianas a department of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947 and gave the USA exclusive rights to administer them and to establish and maintain military bases (and to prevent other countries from doing the same).

^ The most considerable areas over 3000 fathoms are the Aldrich deep, an irregular triangle nearly as large as Australia, situated to the east of New Zealand , in which a sounding of 5155 fathoms was obtained by H.M.S. " Penguin ," near the Tonga Islands: and the Tuscarora deep, a long, narrow trough running immediately to the east of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and Japan.

.The exploitation of the Pacific's mineral wealth is hampered by the ocean's great depths.^ The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean .

^ The central Pacific area contains ocean of rather uniform depth on its north-eastern side, and the remains of the ancient "Melanesian Continent" on its south-western side.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashore in a cyclone on the Lihou Reefs, 230 miles outside the Great Barrier Reef, Pacific Ocean, 23 December 1899.

.In shallow waters of the continental shelves off the coasts of Australia and New Zealand, petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and pearls are harvested along the coasts of Australia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Philippines, although in sharply declining volume in some cases.^ Papua New Guinea bus crash .
  • Oceania News - Topix 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]
  • Oceania News - Topix 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]

^ If you want to experience untapped natural beauty, landscapes in its most virgin and raw form, Papua New Guinea is the place and one of the spots of sight-seeing in Papua New Guinea is the Lake Kutubu.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

The Pacific's greatest asset is its fish. .The shoreline waters of the continents and the more temperate islands yield herring, salmon, sardines, snapper, swordfish, and tuna, as well as shellfish.^ It includes islands of Polynesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and comprises of the entire Australian continent, New Zealand and Malay Archipelago as well.
  • Oceania - MyGreatWorld - Your spot related photo community 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC oceania.mygreatworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A number of species—including sardines, herring, anchovies, hake, pollock, and shrimp—have been fished in some areas up to, if not beyond, the limits of their sustainable yields.
  • Pacific Ocean :: Fisheries -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salmon fisheries are important in the United States, Japan, Russia, and Canada , while the fishing quests for tuna have particular significance for the small island countries of the Pacific.
  • Pacific Ocean :: Fisheries -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1986, the member nations of the South Pacific Forum declared the area a nuclear-free zone in an effort to halt nuclear testing and prevent the dumping of nuclear waste there.^ While this has resulted in accusations of “neo-colonialism” and “imperialism,” most Pacific states admit that there is a need for international involvement to prevent conflict, as demonstrated by the Pacific Forum’s 2000 Biketawa Declaration which provided member states for the first time with a mechanism to request assistance.
  • ComingAnarchy.com » oceania-day 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC cominganarchy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central Pacific area contains ocean of rather uniform depth on its north-eastern side, and the remains of the ancient "Melanesian Continent" on its south-western side.
  • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no reason to suppose that any considerable part of the vast area now covered by the waters of the Pacific has ever been exposed as dry land.

Environmental Issues

Main article: Marine pollution
.Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles.^ Each of the four production groups is faced with a unique set of environmental conditions between their freshwater rearing habitat and entry into the marine feeding and migration grounds.
  • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ OFC General Secretary Tai Nicholas says that if Auckland City can play well, Oceania’s case to get direct entry into the main draw will be strengthened.
  • OFC News - Oceania News @ OleOle 17 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.oleole.com [Source type: General]

^ Old growth trees neutralize the pH of rain and absorb harmful chemicals before they reach the ocean.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

.The biggest culprit are rivers that empty into the Ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture as well as waste from livestock and humans.^ How is the ocean used by humans?
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ocean pollution, meantime, has escalated dramatically as those who use the oceans for recreational and commercial purposes, as well as those who live nearby, have disposed of more and more wastes there (see water pollution ).
  • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conservation efforts include reduced diversion of Jordan River water and more efficient use of water in agriculture.
  • Dead Sea Canal 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone.^ Researchers set out last July to study the dead zone, taking water samples and measuring the total affected area.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those microscopic creatures then excrete pellets that sink to the bottom of the ocean and decay, a process that depletes the water of oxygen.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, these chemicals – along with nitrogen-rich livestock waste – seeps from farmlands along the Mississippi River into the water and eventually, down into the Gulf of Mexico, where they have led to an oxygen-starved “dead zone” the size of New Jersey.
  • Pacific Ocean Gyre | EarthFirst.com 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
See also: North Pacific Gyre
See also: Ship pollution

Major ports and harbours



See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Pacific Ocean". {{subst:#ifexist:Encyclopædia Britannica|Britannica Concise|Britannica Concise}}. 2006. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  2. ^ Japan Atlas: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  3. ^ Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975)

Further reading

Based on public domain text from US Naval Oceanographer
  • Barkley, Richard A. (1968). Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • (1985) Blue Horizons: Paradise Isles of the Pacific. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-544-8. 
  • Cameron, Ian (1987). Lost Paradise: The Exploration of the Pacific. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House. ISBN 0-88162-275-3. 
  • Couper, A. D. (ed.) (1989). Development and Social Change in the Pacific Islands. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00917-0. 
  • Gilbert, John (1971). Charting the Vast Pacific. London: Aldus. ISBN 0-490-00226-9. 
  • Lower, J. Arthur (1978). .Ocean of Destiny: A Concise History of the North Pacific, 1500-1978.^ Geological Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in the Lau and North Fiji Basins, Southwest Pacific Ocean: Results of SONNE Cruise SO-35, Geologisches Jahrbuch.
    • Bathymetry of the Tonga Trench and Forearc: A Map Series 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC dusk.geo.orst.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the mid-1970s, ocean conditions in the North Pacific Ocean underwent a dramatic and abrupt change (Graham 1994).
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The influence of ocean conditions on the production of salmonids in the North Pacific.
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.^ WOCE INTERNATIONAL PROJECT OFFICE;1992 North Pacific WOCE workshop, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 27-28 April 1992.
    • Unpublished Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC woce.nodc.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In 2004 I visited Canada's Pacific Geoscience Centre on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
    • Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories, Version 2 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.aoi.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-7748-0101-8.
     
  • Napier, W.; Gilbert, J., and Holland, J. (1973). Pacific Voyages. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-04335-X. 
  • Oliver, Douglas L. (1989). .The Pacific Islands, 3rd ed., Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.^ In the spring following the passage of the Guano Act, representatives of the American Guano Co., of New York, arrived at central Pacific islands, via Honolulu.
    • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sprinkled across the central Pacific Ocean, between Hawaii and Samoa, and east of the 180th meridian, are about thirty low coral islands.
    • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A. H. Keane, in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1908); and W. T. Brigham, Index to the Islands of the Pacific (Honolulu, 1900).

    ISBN 0-8248-1233-6.
     
  • Ridgell, Reilly (1988). .Pacific Nations and Territories: The Islands of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, 2nd ed., Honolulu: Bess Press.^ In the spring following the passage of the Guano Act, representatives of the American Guano Co., of New York, arrived at central Pacific islands, via Honolulu.
    • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A. H. Keane, in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1908); and W. T. Brigham, Index to the Islands of the Pacific (Honolulu, 1900).

    ^ They are undoubtedly a very hybrid race, owing this characteristic to their geographical position in the area where the dominating races of the Pacific, Malays, Polynesians, Melanesians, Japanese 1 From these the three main divisions of the islands are named Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia .

    ISBN 0-935848-50-9.
     
  • Soule, Gardner (1970). .The Greatest Depths: Probing the Seas to 20,000 Feet and Below.^ The eastern half is of nearly uniform depth, averaging about 16,000 feet, and is rather free from islands.
    • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The greatest ocean depth has been sounded in the Challenger Deep of the Marianas Trench , a distance of 10,911 m (35,798 ft) below sea level.
    • ocean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about ocean 18 January 2010 11:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ East of this we find two especially deep troughs, known as the Tongan Deep and the Kermadec Deep, with depths of more than 28,000 feet.
    • American Polynesia and the Hawaiian Chain 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.janeresture.com [Source type: Original source]

    Philadelphia: Macrae Smith. ISBN 0-8255-8350-0.
     
  • Spate, O. H. K. (1988). Paradise Found and Lost. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1715-5. 
  • Terrell, John (1986). .Prehistory in the Pacific Islands: A Study of Variation in Language, Customs, and Human Biology.^ During the last two decades, thousands of fruit bats have been shipped annually into the Mariana Islands from other Pacific islands for human consumption.
    • Critical Habitat Listing for the Mariana Fruit Bat 21 January 2010 1:44 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The island regions of the Pacific are everywhere characterized by uniform high air -temperatures; the mean annual range varies from 1° to 9° F., with extremes of 24° to 27°, and the diurnal range from 9° to 16°.

    ^ The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge University Press.
    • Climate Change and Salmon Production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean 6 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.iphc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-521-30604-3.
     

External links

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Pacific Ocean. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. .As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.^ Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • Scientists & Engineers for America Action Fund 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC sefora.org [Source type: News]

^ Unless otherwise noted, all text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license.
  • Sea ice - Encyclopedia of Earth 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


This article uses material from the "Pacific Ocean" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)

The Pacific Ocean is the body of water between Asia and Australia in the west, the Americas in the east, the Southern Ocean to the south, and the Arctic Ocean to the north. It is the largest named ocean and it covers half the surface of the entire world. It joins the Atlantic Ocean at a line drawn south from Cape Horn, Chile/Argentina to Antarctica, and joins the Indian Ocean at a line drawn south from Tasmania, Australia to Antarctica.

File:Pacific
A map of the Pacific Ocean. It is ringed by many volcanoes and oceanic trenches.

As the Atlantic slowly gets wider, the Pacific is slowly shrinking. It does this by folding the sea floor in towards the center of the Earth - this is called subduction. This bumping and grinding is hard so there are many earthquakes and volcanoes when the pressure builds up and is quickly put out into a big explosion of hot rocks and dust. When an earthquake happens under the sea, the quick jerk causes a tsunami. This is why tsunamis are more common around the edge of the Pacific than anywhere else. Many of the Earth's volcanoes are either islands in the Pacific, or are on continents within a few hundred kilometers of the ocean's edge. Plate tectoncis are another reason which makes Pacific Ocean smaller.

It is the largest Ocean on Earth.

frr:Grut Oseåån

rue:Тихый океан


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mariana Trench, which are similar to those in the above article.








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