Pacific Ring of Fire: Wikis

  
  



















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The Pacific Ring of Fire (see below)
Eruption of Mount St. Helens on July 22, 1980.
.The Pacific Ring of Fire (or sometimes just the Ring of Fire) is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of a Pacific Ocean.^ This volcano is in the Ring of Fire, a region on the edge of the Pacific Ocean plagued by earthquakes and volcanoes.

^ Meantime, the volcanoes in the Pacific ?Ring of Fire?
  • Access : Flames burn higher in Pacific 'ring of fire' : Nature News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: General]

^ It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire found on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.
  • The 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.edhelper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements.^ The Ring of Fire is a large 40,000 km horseshoe shape area that has a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and plate movements.
  • Shake, Rattle And Learn - Property I.D. Platinum Services - View Article 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.propertyid.com [Source type: News]

^ It is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, island arcs, and volcanic mountain ranges and / or plate movements.
  • Look, See: October 30, 2005 - November 05, 2005 Archives 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.chrisashley.net [Source type: General]

^ In a 40,000km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements.
  • At the discovery of the planet Earth: I. Ring of fire - Educational Materials - PreventionWeb.net 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.preventionweb.net [Source type: Reference]

.The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.^ Of the world's 1,500 active volcanos, almost 90 percent are in the Ring of Fire.
  • FACTBOX-The Pacific's earthquake-prone Ring of Fire| Reuters 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reuters.com [Source type: News]

^ Meantime, the volcanoes in the Pacific ?Ring of Fire?
  • Access : Flames burn higher in Pacific 'ring of fire' : Nature News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: General]

^ The Ring of Fire has a total of 452 volcanoes, and has 75% of the Earth's active and dormant volcanoes.

[1] .It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.^ It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.

^ It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific seismic belt.
  • Look, See: October 30, 2005 - November 05, 2005 Archives 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.chrisashley.net [Source type: General]

^ Also called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, it is shaped like a horseshoe and is 40,000 km (25,000 miles) long.
  • World Environment News - FACTBOX - Key Facts on Pacific "Ring of Fire" - Planet Ark 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.planetark.com [Source type: News]

.About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 80% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire.^ The rest, including 80% of the largest, occur along the ring.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About.com articles on the Ring of Fire .

^ Ring of Fire Earthquake search Login .
  • dailywireless.org » Ring of Fire Earthquake 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dailywireless.org [Source type: General]

.The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.^ The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.
  • How did the ring of fire gets its name? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic, accounts for another 17%, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a third prominent earthquake belt.
  • Look, See: October 30, 2005 - November 05, 2005 Archives 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.chrisashley.net [Source type: General]

^ The Himalayan region also represents one of the most seismically active regions in the world.
  • Report of the FAO Asia-Pacific Conference 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: News]

.The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.^ The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.

^ This world map shows the major plates and plate boundaries, including such notables as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the San Andreas Fault, and the Java and Aleutian Trenches.
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "ring of fire" 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most prominent feature on the Pacific's ocean floor is the East Pacific Rise , which is part of the world-wide Mid-Ocean Ridge system and merges into the San Andreas Fault system.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[2][3]
.The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates.^ Results 1 - 10 of 67 for 'ring of fire' .
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "ring of fire" 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ring of Fire is a direct consequence of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates [3].
  • How did the ring of fire gets its name? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Search results for Pacific Ring of Fire .
  • National Digital Library : Search Results 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fws.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate.The Cocos Plate is being subducted beneath the Caribbean Plate, in Central America.^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the east, ring activity is caused by the subduction of the Nazca and Cocos plates under the South American Plate.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nazca Plate - the small plate just west of South America.
  • Answers: Ring of Fire Label Me! Printout - EnchantedLearning.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.zoomschool.com [Source type: General]

.A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate.^ Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc.

^ In the Pacific Northwest, the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plate boundaries around the north american plate?
  • WikiAnswers - How many volcanoes are in the ring of fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc.^ Along the northern portion the northwestward moving Pacific plate is being subducted beneath the Aleutian Islands arc.

^ A portion of the Pacific Plate along with the small Juan de Fuca Plate are being subducted beneath the North American Plate.

^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan.^ The Pacific plate is also subducting underneath the Kamchatka Peninsula and Japan.

^ In the west, activity is caused by the subduction of the Pacific Plate along the Kamchatka Peninsula.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further west the Pacific plate is being subducted along the Kamchatka Peninsula arcs on south past Japan.

.The southern portion is more complex with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand.^ The southern portion is more complex with a number of smaller tectonic plates in collision with the Pacific plate from the Mariana Islands, the Philippines, Bougainville, Tonga, and New Zealand.

^ Australia New Zealand Oceanic islands .
  • What is Pacific islands? - A definition of Pacific islands from the ecomii science encyclopedia 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: General]

^ The last section of the Ring of Fire is made up of Micronesia and New Guinea, where the Indo-Australian plate drops below the Pacific, and New Zealand, where the Pacific plate returns the favor, and dives below the Indo-Australian.
  • Savage Earth: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor.^ Countries along the pasific ring of fire?
  • WikiAnswers - Countries in the Ring of fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Are the volcanoes deadly along the ring fire?
  • WikiAnswers - How many volcanoes are in the ring of fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Pacific Ring of Fire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Indonesia lies between the Ring of Fire along the northeastern islands adjacent ...
  • What is the "Ring of Fire"? What areas does the "Ring of Fire" display action in the last 50 years? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico.^ The famous and very active san Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United states and Mexico.
  • At the discovery of the planet Earth: I. Ring of fire - Educational Materials - PreventionWeb.net 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.preventionweb.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The best known of these faults is the San Andreas Fault of California .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The famous and very active San Andreas Fault zone of California is a transform fault which offsets a portion of the East Pacific Rise under southwestern United States and Mexico.

.The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt.^ Most earthquakes can't be felt.

^ The motion of the fault generates numerous small earthquakes, at multiple times a day, most of which are too small to be felt.

^ On May 22, 1960 a record magnitude 9.5 earthquake occurred off the south central coast of Chile and generated a tsunami felt around the Pacific Rim.

[5][6] The active Queen Charlotte Fault on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada, has generated three large earthquakes during the 20th century: a magnitude 7 event in 1929, a magnitude 8.1 occurred in 1949 (Canada's largest recorded earthquake) and a magnitude 7.4 in 1970.[7]

Contents

Chile

Llaima's 2008 eruption
.Volcanoes of Chile are related to subduction of the Nazca Plate to the east.^ The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate.

^ The eastern side of the Ring of Fire has the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted (going underneath) the South American Plate.

^ To the north-east of New Zealand, the Kermadec Ridge is a chain of mainly andesitic submarine volcanoes formed above the subduction zone by melting of the oceanic Australian Plate.
  • Volcanoes - Pacific Ring of Fire - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.teara.govt.nz [Source type: General]

.Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above Villarrica Lake and the town of Villarrica.^ It's the most active of the volcanoes in the Philippines.
  • Philippines Volcano - Global Impacts? 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are in this ring.
  • Questions about Ring of Fire - Ask.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Mayon is the most active volcano in Philippines.

It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. .A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene, >0.9 million years ago.^ MILLIONS of years ago?
  • Will there be another earthquake in the Pacific Ring of Fire? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • Pacific Mountain System - Cascades volcanoes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: General]
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • USGS Geology in the Parks 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC geomaps.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: General]

^ The formation of the Kuril Archipelago began in the late Cretaceous (approximately 90 million years before present).

.A 2-km-wide postglacial caldera is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera.^ In marked contrast, Oregon has six generally smaller stratovolcanoes, but the entire state is traversed by a 40-50-kilometer-wide band of basaltic to andesitic lava shields, cinder cones, and smaller stratovolcanoes that the "Cascade" cones rise above.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

About 25 scoria cones dot Villarica's flanks. .Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows have been produced during the Holocene from this dominantly basaltic volcano, but historical eruptions have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion.^ On steep volcanoes pyroclastic flows can reach speeds of over 100 miles per hour.

^ Today’s earthquake is thought to have been tectonic in origin and not directly associated with the ongoing eruption of nearby Mount Merapi , although the earthquake is reported to have caused increased activity in the volcano .
  • dailywireless.org » Ring of Fire Earthquake 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dailywireless.org [Source type: General]

^ Some 29 of these are active, some producing steam, others bubbling lava, and a few issuing forth dramatic pyroclastic eruptions.
  • Northern Ring of Fire: Kamchatka & Kuril Islands - Expeditions to the Arctic North 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.sunstonetours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lahars from the glacier-covered volcano have damaged towns on its flanks.
.In 2008, Chile experienced two volcanic eruptions, the first one from Llaima Volcano (January 1) and Chaitén Volcano (May 1).^ The Pacific's thousands of small islands are of two types: many are high and volcanic and others are low and formed on the top of submerged volcanoes.
  • World InfoZone - Pacific Information 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.worldinfozone.com [Source type: News]

^ In 2005 for two months smoke poured out more and more until January when the volcano blasted ash and dust out from the top of the volcano, some 14 islanders died.
  • Pacific Island Ministries - Field Stories 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.piministries.org [Source type: General]

^ After the May 2008 eruption of the Chaiten Volcano in Chile, for example, there were five airline encounters with volcanic ash, with three of these incidents resulting in significant engine damage-including one that cost $2.5 million to repair.
  • RIMS | Archive 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.rmmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, an 8.8-magnitude earthquake struck central Chile on February 27, 2010 (2010 Chile earthquake).^ "Five big earthquakes with a magnitude more than 7.5 took place successively within only three years.
  • CNN - Japan shaken by re-energized "Ring of Fire" - Oct. 29, 1995 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The earthquake Thursday in northeastern Indonesia had a preliminary magnitude of 6.6 and struck 55 miles beneath the Molucca Sea, the U.S. Geological Survey said.
  • Powerful Quakes Strike Along Pacific's 'Ring of Fire' - International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News - FOXNews.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ On May 22, 1960 a record magnitude 9.5 earthquake occurred off the south central coast of Chile and generated a tsunami felt around the Pacific Rim.

[8]

Mexico

.Volcanoes of Mexico are related to subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates to the east, which has produced large explosive eruptions.^ Most volcanoes are located where the large, rigid plates that make up the earth's surface move toward each other and collide.
  • Scholastic.com | Online Activities: Weather Watch 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teacher.scholastic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These tectonic plates constantly shift, sometimes causing large earthquakes, some of which produce tsunamis.
  • Tsunami Hits Solomon Islands; South Pacific Alerted (Update5) - Bloomberg.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.bloomberg.com [Source type: News]
  • Tsunami Hits Solomon Islands; South Pacific Alerted (Update5) - Bloomberg.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.bloomberg.com [Source type: News]

^ The eastern section of the ring is the result of the Nazca Plate and the Cocos Plate being subducted beneath the westward moving South American Plate.

.Most active volcanoes in Mexico occur in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which extends 900 kilometres (559 mi) from west to east across central-southern Mexico.^ It's the most active of the volcanoes in the Philippines.
  • Philippines Volcano - Global Impacts? 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are in this ring.
  • Ring of Fire - Ask.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mayon is the most active volcano in Philippines.

.A few other active volcanoes in northern Mexico are related to extensional tectonics of the Basin and Range Province, which split the Baja California peninsula from the mainland.^ Some 29 of these are active, some producing steam, others bubbling lava, and a few issuing forth dramatic pyroclastic eruptions.
  • Northern Ring of Fire: Kamchatka & Kuril Islands - Expeditions to the Arctic North 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.sunstonetours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rim of the Pacific Basin is ringed with volcanoes, from Alaska through the USA , Mexico and South America, then on to New Zealand and up to Japan and Russia .
  • World InfoZone - Pacific Information 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.worldinfozone.com [Source type: News]

^ It is one of the most pristine parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula and features volcanoes, some of which are still active; hot springs; and geysers.
  • Northern Ring of Fire: The Bering Sea & Aleutians - Expeditions to the Arctic North 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.sunstonetours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] Popocatépetl lies in the eastern half of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba. .It is one of most active volcanoes in Mexico, having had more than 20 major eruptions since the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. The 1982 eruption of El Chichón killed about 2,000 people who lived near the volcano.^ Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having to have to -- any damages to people who who -- they have that in this.
  • 5/23/2009 Ring of Fire | play.it 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC multimedia.play.it [Source type: Original source]

^ Why do people live near volcanoes?

.It created a 1 kilometre (1 mi) wide caldera that filled with an acidic crater lake.^ At the top, the steep walls caved in to form a caldera, or crater, as wide as Mount St. Helens’.
  • Robot Paints Stunning Map of Deep-sea Volcano : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.whoi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WHOI : Oceanus : Robot Paints Stunning Map of Deep-sea Volcano 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.whoi.edu [Source type: General]

^ A comparision of Crater Lake and West Rota calderas.

.Prior to 2000, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent non-volcanic peaks.^ Despite the emphasis on volcanoes, several prominent non-volcanic peaks are included, especially those in close proximity to volcanic regions or significant in the history and development of ski mountaineering.
  • Ski Mountaineering: Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyond 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.skimountaineer.com [Source type: News]

^ All wood must be no longer than 30 inches in length and must not be allowed to rise above the height of the fire ring more than 2 feet.
  • Oceanside San Diego California Tourist Beaches & Local Activities 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.visitoceanside.org [Source type: General]

^ During the 20 th century the effects of these human activities on Northwest forests have been much greater than the climatic effect.
  • Climate Change Impacts on the US: Pacific Northwest. Educational Resources 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.usgcrp.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

United States

Area of the Cascadia subduction zone, including the Cascade Volcanic Arc (red triangles)
.In the western United States lies the Cascade Volcanic Arc.^ He has studied the fire history and ecology of western United States landscapes for over 20 years.
  • Fire Experts and Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.pacificbio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ McCabe GJ , Dettinger MD (1999 ) Decadal variations in the strength of ENSO teleconnections with precipitation in the western United States.
  • CSIRO PUBLISHING - International Journal of Wildland Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.publish.csiro.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In the western United States, many areas that are not forested or only sparsely forested often experience severe wildfires.

.It includes nearly 20 major volcanoes, among a total of over 4,000 separate volcanic vents including numerous stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and cinder cones, along with a few isolated examples of rarer volcanic forms such as tuyas.^ A portion of the ocean crust remelts and rises to the surface behind the trench along a line of more than 40 submarine volcanoes and volcanic islands extending north of Guam for more than 1,000 kilometers.
  • NOAA Ocean Explorer: Submarine Ring of Fire 2003 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC oceanexplorer.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 40 percent of total buildings would be damaged, more than 33,000 people killed and 147,000 injured by a major quake.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/fromthefield/wvaspro/125499344729.htm 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ The explosions were provoked by the collapse of a dome that had formed recently in the crater of the volcano, located in the Pacific coast state of Colima.
  • St. Helens part of volcanic 'Ring of Fire' - Science- msnbc.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Volcanism in the arc began about 37 million years ago, however, most of the present-day Cascade volcanoes are less than 2,000,000 years old, and the highest peaks are less than 100,000 years old.^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • Pacific Mountain System - Cascades volcanoes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: General]
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The caldera was formed about 730,000 years ago by a cataclysmic volcanic eruption.
  • Mammoth Pacific - The Basics of Geothermal 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.mammothpacific.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is only about half the rate of convergence of 7 million years ago.
  • Pacific Mountain System - Cascades volcanoes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: General]

.It formed by subduction of the Gorda and Juan de Fuca plates at the Cascadia subduction zone.^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Juan de Fuca Ridge - Juan de Fuca Subduction .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where the Juan de Fuca Plate sinks beneath the North American Plate there is no deep trench, seismicity (earthquakes) are fewer than expected, and there is evidence of a decline in volcanic activity over the past few million years.
  • Pacific Mountain System - Cascades volcanoes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nature.nps.gov [Source type: General]

.This is a 680 mi (1,094 km) long fault, running 50 mi (80 km) off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia.^ The active Queen Charlotte Fault is a transform fault on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

^ The many islands along the Pacific coast .
  • PACIFIC RIM NATIONAL PARK RESERVE, 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The entire national park reserve falls within the traditional territory of the Nuu-chah-nulth people who have inhabited Vancouver Island's west coast for countless generations.
  • http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/bc/pacificrim/activ/activ6a/viii.aspx 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.pc.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches (10 mm) per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone.^ These plates move at only 1 to 4 inches per year!
  • Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.cgrove417.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All plates are moving relative to all others.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ring is along the western and northern edges of the Pacific Plate, a slab of the Earth's surface that is slowly (a couple of inches per year) sliding northwest relative to the adjacent plates.
  • Philippines Volcano - Global Impacts? 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

.Because of the very large fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce very large earthquakes, magnitude 9.0 or greater, if rupture occurred over its whole area.^ Generated from the very large earthquake .
  • Ring of Fire - FOXNews.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ But but Californians -- very -- area that has lots of earthquake so there's this whole areas is it's hazardous.
  • Ring of Fire - FOXNews.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: General]

.When the "locked" zone stores up energy for an earthquake, the "transition" zone, although somewhat plastic, can rupture.^ That locked zone is where the next megathrust earthquake is expected to come from when it suddenly releases.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ If the accumulating stress exceeds the strength of the rocks comprising these brittle zones, the rocks can break suddenly, releasing the stored elastic energy as an earthquake.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's energy being stored for the next big megathrust earthquake and on top of that regular motion we have this cycle that adds a little more stress every 14 months.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

.Thermal and deformation studies indicate that the locked zone is fully locked for 60 kilometers (about 40 miles) downdip from the deformation front.^ Indian Ocean about 60 miles northwest off Nias island, said Lukito, an official at the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency.
  • Quake hits offshore Indonesia - Asia-Pacific - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ The depth on the fault where the rocks reach 3 50 degrees C agrees well with the down-dip limit of the locked zone as determined from the measurements of deformation.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These earthquake zones enter the mantle at 30–60 angles below the horizontal and extend to depths of about 420 miles.
  • In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood - The Origin of Ocean Trenches and the Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.creationscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further downdip, there is a transition from fully locked to aseismic sliding.^ The actual situation is somewhat more complex than this simple conceptualization: at the deeper, landward boundary of the locked zone, there is a gradual transition between areas that are rigidly locked and those that are completely free-sliding.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cascade Range volcano eruptions in the last 4000 years
.Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia.^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Links are presented here on earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building, folding and faulting, hot spots, and a selection of "Top 10" most extreme mountains, sea trenches, and earthquakes.
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "ring of fire" 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so-called Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

.Instead, terranes and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains.^ It is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, island arcs, and volcanic mountain ranges and / or plate movements.
  • Look, See: October 30, 2005 - November 05, 2005 Archives 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.chrisashley.net [Source type: General]

^ In California, it is also found in the Coast Range, throughout much of the Klamath Mountains, and in some areas west of the Sierra Nevada.

^ Most are concentrated on the edges of continents, along island chains, or beneath the sea forming long mountain ranges.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers (Fraser River, Columbia River, and Klamath River) which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench.^ 'We've been working up in Queensland on some lake sites which have very high sedimentation rates — you've got a lot of sediment building up over 20,000 years.
  • Asia Pacific Research - Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies - RSPAS - ANU 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC rspas.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the other 12 major volcanoes in the Cascade Range of northern California, Oregon and Washington state lie within this geological phenomenon as well.
  • St. Helens part of volcanic 'Ring of Fire' - Science- msnbc.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ It crosses the mighty Mississippi River in at least three places, escalating the chances for big floods should a huge earthquake hit.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

.However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is slowly being compressed, similar to a giant spring.^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most subduction zones have experienced great thrust events (defined as those having a Richter magnitude higher than 8) at some time.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further support comes from our efforts to apply the same techniques to other subducting margins.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the stored energy is suddenly released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create very large earthquakes such as the magnitude 9 Cascadia earthquake of 1700.^ Generated from the very large earthquake .
  • Ring of Fire - FOXNews.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ You can view animations here of the formation of a mid-ocean ridge, a subduction zone, and a fault.
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Geological evidence indicates that great earthquakes may have occurred at least seven times in the last 3,500 years, suggesting a return time of 400 to 600 years.^ Observational evidence indicates that prescribed burns alter the thermal conductivity of soils to a depth of at least 0.20 meters without altering its bulk density.
  • IAWF News for March/Aprll 2008 | WILDFIRE 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC wildfiremag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They returned last month, in time to witness a full eruption.
  • Video Captures Underwater 'Brimstone and Fire' : NPR 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Recent geological evidence indicates that Cinder Cone, also a volcano, erupted in the 18th century.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also evidence of accompanying tsunamis with every earthquake, as the prime reason they know of these earthquakes is through "scars" the tsunami left on the coast, and through Japanese records (tsunami waves can travel across the Pacific).^ These waves can travel across the Pacific Ocean in less than one day.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each earthquake radiates waves through the earth.
  • In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood - The Origin of Ocean Trenches and the Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.creationscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tsunami alert creates wave of panic across Pacific .
  • Tsunami alert creates wave of panic across Pacific 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was the most significant to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states in recorded history (VEI = 5, 0.3 cu mi, 1.2 km3 of material erupted), exceeding the destructive power and volume of material released by the 1915 eruption of California's Lassen Peak. The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes, caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the mountain that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on Mount St. Helens' north slope. An earthquake at 8:32 a.m. on .May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, suddenly exposing the partly molten, gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to lower pressure.^ July 17, ECUADOR: Tungurahua volcano, about 80 miles (130 km) south of Quito, rains molten rock and covers villages in ash, months after it became active in May.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/SP242060.htm 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]
  • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » The Pacific “Ring of Fire” is prone to quakes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: News]

^ In contrast, the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State produced just a tenth of this volume.
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mud, rocks and melted snow raced down the valley of the North Fork Toutle River, finally stopping more than 13 miles away.
  • Washington's Mount St. Helens holds her fire - Travel - LATimes.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC travel.latimes.com [Source type: General]

.The rock responded by exploding into a very hot mix of pulverized lava and older rock that sped toward Spirit Lake so fast that it quickly passed the avalanching north face.^ In older subduction zones - including the zone off New Zealand's North Island - the water from great depths moves largely straight upward into the hot upper mantle, lowering the melting temperature of the rock and ultimately leading to the formation volcanoes on the land above.
  • Shaking the Earth: Just Add Water - University of Utah News Release: August 5th, 2009 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.unews.utah.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurling out hot lava rocks, the eruption killed at least two people and forced more than 2,000 to flee.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ There is a tremendous amount of energy created by these plates and they easily melt rock into magma, which rises to the surface as lava and forms volcanoes.
  • Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.cgrove417.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alaska is known for its volcanism, having more than 50 volcanoes which have erupted since about 1760.[10] Volcanoes can be found not only in the mainland but also in the Aleutian Islands.^ Most of Alaska's volcanoes are specifically found in the Aleutian Arc, a chain of about 300 volcanic islands in the Northern Pacific Ocean.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its deepest, in the Marianas Trench , solid ground can be found only by heading straight down for 10,924 m (35,798') while its average depth is about 4.270 m (14,000').
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Mount Adams lies only about 50 miles east of Mount St. Helens but has not erupted in thousands of years, Major said.
  • St. Helens part of volcanic 'Ring of Fire' - Science- msnbc.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.The most recent activity in the American portion of the Ring of Fire occurred in early 2009 when Mount Redoubt in Alaska became active and finally erupted late in the evening of March 22, the eruption currently ongoing.^ Maps and activity along the Ring of Fire.
  • Earth Processes Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teams.lacoe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experts said the Pacific ''ring of fire'' - where the meeting of tectonic plates causes frequent seismic activity - had been especially volatile in recent days.
  • Tsunami alert creates wave of panic across Pacific 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next stop is Rotorua, which sits squarely on the Pacific Ring of Fire, so volcanic activity is part of the city's past and present.
  • 14 Days Lord of the Rings Tour Package 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

Canada

Mount Edziza, a large shield volcano in northwestern British Columbia
.Although little-known to the general public, British Columbia and Yukon Territory are home to a vast region of volcanoes and volcanic activity in the Pacific Ring of Fire.^ Close Pacific 'Ring of Fire' roars again .
  • Pacific 'Ring of Fire' roars again | World news | The Observer 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The 'Ring of Fire' (map) is a volcanic chain surrounding the Pacific Ocean.

^ Maps and activity along the Ring of Fire.
  • Earth Processes Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teams.lacoe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Several mountains that many British Columbians look at every day are dormant volcanoes.^ In the northern Rocky Mountains, there are many areas that regularly experience severe wildfires that are not in densely forested areas.

^ It looks to me now like the next challenge, after saving lives and homes, is keeping the fire from burning for many more days or weeks across the back country.

^ The peripheral areas of the Pacific Ocean Basin, containing the boundaries of several plates are dotted by many active volcanoes that form the so-called "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of them have erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene.^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 3,000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although none of Canada's volcanoes are currently erupting, several volcanoes, volcanic fields and volcanic centers are considered potentially active.^ The Mayon volcano poses tremendous hazards in its immediate vicinity, of several potential types .
  • Philippines Volcano - Global Impacts? 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ Mayon's history, recent behavior and active tectonic setting suggest that the volcano will continue to erupt for thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of years to come.

^ The volcano on the Caribbean island of Montserrat has been erupting since 1995 and is the world's top site for volcanic research.
  • Raging Planet: Ring of Fire : Video : Discovery Channel 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC dsc.discovery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .There are hot springs at some volcanoes while 10 volcanoes in British Columbia appear related to seismic activity since 1975, including: the Silverthrone Caldera, Mount Meager, Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, Castle Rock, The Volcano, Mount Edziza, Hoodoo Mountain, Crow Lagoon and Nazko Cone.^ Caldera volcanoes and the Taupō Volcanic Zone .
  • Volcanoes - Pacific Ring of Fire - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.teara.govt.nz [Source type: General]

^ There are over 130 Alaskan volcanoes and volcanic fields.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cone volcanoes and volcanic fields .
  • Volcanoes - Pacific Ring of Fire - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.teara.govt.nz [Source type: General]

[13] .The volcanoes are grouped into five volcanic belts with different tectonic settings.^ Philippines has more than 200 volcanoes distributed along five volcanic belts.
  • Report of the FAO Asia-Pacific Conference 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: News]

^ Oceanic Volcanics -- [Graphic,26K,GIF] Continental Volcanics: In the typical "continental" environment , volcanoes are located in unstable, mountainous belts that have thick roots of granite or granitelike rock.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This immense belt of volcanic and earthquake activity corresponds closely with the edge of the Pacific tectonic plate, and also coincides with some of the most densely populated regions on the planet.
  • Volcanoes - Pacific Ring of Fire - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.teara.govt.nz [Source type: General]

The Mount Meager volcanic complex as seen from the east near Pemberton, BC. Summits left to right are Capricorn Mountain, Mount Meager, and Plinth Peak
Mount Cayley as seen from its southeast slopes
.The Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province (sometimes known as the Stikine Volcanic Belt) is the most active volcanic region in Canada.^ This zone is found at the northern edge of the Pacific Plate and refers to the geologically most active fields of the earth.

^ Click on ring of fire to learn about the most volcanically and seismically active region on Earth.
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will investigate the region known as the Ring of Fire , where 75 percent of the active and dormant volcanoes of Earth are located.
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "ring of fire" 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

.It formed due to extensional cracking, faulting and rifting of the North American Plate, as the Pacific Plate grinds and slides past the Queen Charlotte Fault, unlike subduction that produces the volcanoes in Japan, Philippines and Indonesia.^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transform fault -- one plate slides horizontally past another.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north, it is caused by the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the North American plate.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The region has Canada's largest volcanoes,[11] much larger than the minor stratovolcanoes found in the Canadian portion of the Cascade Volcanic Arc.^ Indonesia has the largest number of active volcanoes in the world and Me sitting on the edge of the world is part of the so called "Ring of Fire", an arc of volcanos and fault lines encircling the Pacific Basin.
  • Indonesia - The Ring of Fire... 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.travelblog.org [Source type: News]

^ This arc includes 76 percent of the region's volcanoes, but those on either end are tectonically more complex.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distance between successive wave crests or the wavelength however, is much larger than that of a normal wave and may be hundreds of miles apart.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Several eruptions are known to have occurred within the last 400 years.^ The Smithsonian Institution's global volcano database provides pictures and eruption information for each known volcano during the last 10,000 years: www.volcano.si.edu/gvp .
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specifically, regional fire events co-occurring in the same sets of years in numerous sites within regions were well correlated with dry or dry/warm conditions.
  • CSIRO PUBLISHING - International Journal of Wildland Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.publish.csiro.au [Source type: Academic]

^ He has found that some of the largest eruptions during the last 85,000 years have followed times of major climate upheaval and attendant sea-level fluctuations.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mount Edziza is a huge volcanic complex that erupted several times in the past several thousand of years, which has formed several cinder cones and lava flows.^ Recent geological evidence indicates that Cinder Cone, also a volcano, erupted in the 18th century.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we got closer to the edge of the crater we were greeted by Mount Bromo, smoking peacefully away, and whose entire top has blown off several years ago.
  • Indonesia - The Ring of Fire... 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.travelblog.org [Source type: News]

^ Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters.
  • Pacific Ocean at AllExperts 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pacific Ocean encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The complex comprises the Mount Edziza Plateau, a large volcanic plateau (65 kilometers long and 20 kilometers wide) made of predominantly basaltic lava flows with four large stratovolcanoes built on top of the plateau.^ Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters.
  • Pacific Ocean at AllExperts 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pacific Ocean encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In marked contrast, Oregon has six generally smaller stratovolcanoes, but the entire state is traversed by a 40-50-kilometer-wide band of basaltic to andesitic lava shields, cinder cones, and smaller stratovolcanoes that the "Cascade" cones rise above.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An additional $20.00 may be added to reservations made less than four weeks in advance.

.The associated lava domes and satellite cones were constructed over the past 7.5 million years during five magmatic cycles beginning with eruption of alkali basalts and ending wth felsic and basaltic eruptions as late as 1,340 years ago.^ More than a hundred hotspots beneath the Earth's crust have been active during the past 10 million years.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holocene, and especially during the past 2000 years.
  • CSIRO PUBLISHING - International Journal of Wildland Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.publish.csiro.au [Source type: Academic]

The blocky lava flows still maintain their original forms. .Hoodoo Mountain is a tuya in northwestern British Columbia, which has had several periods of subglacial eruptions.^ Turner, Nancy J. 1991 "Burning Mountain Sides for Better Crops: Aboriginal Landscape Burning in British Columbia."
  • American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems References 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.wildlandfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.The oldest eruptions occurred about 100,000 years ago and the most recent being about 7000 years ago.^ Fires were most common between 12,000 to 9,000, and 2,000 to 1,000 years ago.
  • IAWF News for March/Aprll 2008 | WILDFIRE 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC wildfiremag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You may want to chart the locations of major volcanic eruptions that have occurred in recent history on your display as well.

^ Using sediment, coral and tree-ring records, it has been shown that temperatures in the last thousand years were relatively stable until 100 to 50 years ago.
  • Asia Pacific Research - Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies - RSPAS - ANU 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC rspas.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hoodoo Mountain is also considered active and could erupt in the future. .The nearby Tseax Cone and The Volcano produced some of Canada's youngest lava flows, that are about 150 years old.^ Over the years, "Saturday Night Live" has produced some memorable Olympics spoofs.
  • Let the Games withdrawal begin - The Boston Globe 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: General]

^ Also in 1991, Japan's Unzen Volcano , located on the Island of Kyushu about 40 km east of Nagasaki, awakened from its 200-year slumber to produce a new lava dome at its summit.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some scientists have estimated the Hawaiian hot spot to be about 200 miles across, with much narrower vertical passageways that feed magma to the individual volcanoes.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canada's worst known geophysical disaster came from the Tseax Cone during the 18th century at the southernmost end of the volcanic belt.^ Recent geological evidence indicates that Cinder Cone, also a volcano, erupted in the 18th century.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The voluminous, but mostly non-explosive, eruption at Lakaggar (Laki), Iceland, in 1783, resulted in one of the world's worst volcanic disasters.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eruption produced a 22.5 km long lava flow, destroying the Nisga'a villages and the death of at least 2000 Nisga'a people by volcanic gases and poisonous smoke.^ Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hurling out hot lava rocks, the eruption killed at least two people and forced more than 2,000 to flee.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ Because tsunamis are caused by disturbances in great bodies of water, the frequent volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in the Ring of Fire have produced tsunamis every now and then.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nass River valley was inundated by the lava flows and contain abundant tree molds and lava tubes.^ Young volcanoes, lava flows, and hot springs were discovered in a broad valley less than 8 kilometers wide along the crest of the ridge in the 1970's.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The event happened at the same time with the arrival of the first European explorers to penetrate the uncharted coastal waters of northern British Columbia.^ However, do NOT risk your life and attempt to get underway if it is too close to the first wave arrival time.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cascades Province forms an arc-shaped band extending from British Columbia to Northern California, roughly parallel to the Pacific coastline.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holocene Volcanism and the Cascade Arc: Holocene volcanism in the Cascades extends from the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southern British Columbia to the Lassen volcanic complex in northern California.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the basaltic lava deposits are a draw to tourists and are part of the Nisga'a Memorial Lava Beds Provincial Park.^ It is part of a vast geographic unit - a great lava plateau with isolated volcanic peaks - that also encompasses Lava Beds National Monument, California, and Crater Lake National Park, Oregon.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern part of the park is a vast lava plateau more than one mile above sea level.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western part of the park features great lava pinnacles (huge mountains created by lava flows), jagged craters, and steaming sulphur vents.
  • Get Outdoors - Destinations: The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.getoutdoors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southwestern British Columbia, is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States (which includes Mount Baker and Mount St. Helens) and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada.[14] .It formed as a result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate (a remnant of the much larger Farallon Plate) under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone.^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Juan de Fuca Ridge - Juan de Fuca Subduction .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt includes the Bridge River Cones, Mount Cayley, Mount Fee, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Price, Mount Meager, the Squamish Volcanic Field and much more smaller volcanoes.^ Philippines has more than 200 volcanoes distributed along five volcanic belts.
  • Report of the FAO Asia-Pacific Conference 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: News]

^ North of Mount Rainier , young volcanism is concentrated in only a few isolated andesitic and dacitic composite cones (notably Glacier Peak , Mount Baker , and the volcanoes of the Garibaldi belt in British Columbia ), whereas south of Mount Hood moderate-sized andesitic and dacitic composite cones are relatively unimportant features of a landscape dominated by small andesite and basalt vents.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This zone feeds another string of volcanoes: the Bataan Arc, which includes Mount Pinatubo, the source of the biggest eruption of the 20th century.

.The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite.^ Generally speaking, volcanic eruptions are more explosive if their lava is composed of dacite or rhyolite.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes and small isolated lava masses.^ In marked contrast, Oregon has six generally smaller stratovolcanoes, but the entire state is traversed by a 40-50-kilometer-wide band of basaltic to andesitic lava shields, cinder cones, and smaller stratovolcanoes that the "Cascade" cones rise above.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air (often hundreds of feet), it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as cinders around the vent to form a circular or oval cone.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano, built from particles and blobs of congealed lava ejected from a single vent.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition, topography, and changing ice configurations.^ Oceanic Volcanics -- [Graphic,26K,GIF] Continental Volcanics: In the typical "continental" environment , volcanoes are located in unstable, mountainous belts that have thick roots of granite or granitelike rock.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During passage through the granite layer, magmas are commonly modified or changed in composition and erupt on the surface to form volcanoes constructed of nonbasaltic rocks.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three distinct volcanic belts are separated by volcanically inactive gaps, where subduction is at such a shallow angle that magma is not generated by the process.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was the 2350 BP eruption of Mount Meager as well as Canada.^ The eruption of Mount Pinatubo was one of the most severe eruptions ever recorded; it spewed out between 3.7 and 5.3 km 3 of magma.
  • Glencoe Science: WebQuest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This continuous zone of earthquakes and volcanic activity is termed the Ring of Fire and collectively the most volcanic zone on earth, as recent eruptions in places as far apart as Ecuador , Japan and the United States will attest to.
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mount Krakatoa is an example of a stratovolcano , a tall, conical volcano with multiple strata of solidified lava, tephra , as well as volcanic ash .
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was similar the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,[14] sending an ash column approximately 20 km high into the stratosphere.[15]
.The Chilcotin Group is a north-south range of volcanoes in southern British Columbia running parallel to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt.^ North of Mount Rainier , young volcanism is concentrated in only a few isolated andesitic and dacitic composite cones (notably Glacier Peak , Mount Baker , and the volcanoes of the Garibaldi belt in British Columbia ), whereas south of Mount Hood moderate-sized andesitic and dacitic composite cones are relatively unimportant features of a landscape dominated by small andesite and basalt vents.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holocene Volcanism and the Cascade Arc: Holocene volcanism in the Cascades extends from the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southern British Columbia to the Lassen volcanic complex in northern California.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philippines has more than 200 volcanoes distributed along five volcanic belts.
  • Report of the FAO Asia-Pacific Conference 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: News]

.The majority of the eruptions in this belt happened either 6–10 million years ago (Miocene) or 2–3 million years ago (Pliocene), although there have been some slightly more recent eruptions (in the Pleistocene).^ Are there more eruptions in our future?
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than two months ago the central Indonesian region was hit by a 6.3-magnitude quake that killed more than 5 800 people and increased activity at Mount Merapi volcano which was already on high alert for a major eruption.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ There would be no more two color labels starting with this model.   Models 3 through 6 revealed their manufacturer's location with either the "General Detroit Corp."
  • General Manufacturing Corp. History 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.vintagefe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .It is thought to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone.^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This newly formed magma rises toward the Earth's surface to erupt, forming a chain of volcanoes (the Cascade Range) above the subduction zone.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Volcanoes in this belt include Mount Noel, the Clisbako Caldera Complex, Lightning Peak, Black Dome Mountain and many lava flows.^ Volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands, by contrast, are predominantly of the flowing lava type due to a different chemical composition of the magma.
  • Philippines Volcano - Global Impacts? 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.weather.com [Source type: News]

^ Here basaltic lavas gently flow out of rifts to build huge dome-shaped volcanic mountains whose eroded summits form island arcs, chains, and clusters.
  • Pacific Ocean encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It took us about 10hours to Probolinggo the town closest to the Tengger Caldera Plateau with Mount Bromo the most famous volcano on Java.
  • Indonesia - The Ring of Fire... 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.travelblog.org [Source type: News]

.The Anahim Volcanic Belt is a line of volcanoes stretching from just north of Vancouver Island to near Quesnel, British Columbia, Canada.^ The event, known as an episodic tremor and slip, is a predictable, cyclical phenomenon that is adding pressure to a zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate and the North American Plate are locked, just off Vancouver Island.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ North of Mount Rainier , young volcanism is concentrated in only a few isolated andesitic and dacitic composite cones (notably Glacier Peak , Mount Baker , and the volcanoes of the Garibaldi belt in British Columbia ), whereas south of Mount Hood moderate-sized andesitic and dacitic composite cones are relatively unimportant features of a landscape dominated by small andesite and basalt vents.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A volcano forms as molten rock and solidified volcanic debris are ejected onto the surface and accumulate near the eruption site.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These volcanoes were formed 8-1 million years ago and the Nazko Cone which last erupted only 7,200 years ago.^ Using sediment, coral and tree-ring records, it has been shown that temperatures in the last thousand years were relatively stable until 100 to 50 years ago.
  • Asia Pacific Research - Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies - RSPAS - ANU 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC rspas.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During passage through the granite layer, magmas are commonly modified or changed in composition and erupt on the surface to form volcanoes constructed of nonbasaltic rocks.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magma rises and squeezes through the widening cracks, sometimes to erupt and form volcanoes.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The volcanoes generally get younger as one moves from the coast to the interior.^ Subduction occurs where one plate converges toward another plate, moves beneath it, and plunges as much as several hundred kilometers into the Earth's interior.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These volcanoes are thought to have formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over a small hotspot, called the Anahim hotspot.^ A few hotspots are thought to exist below the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once inhabited by the Ainu, who are thought to be descendants of migrating Mongolians, these islands are home to over 100 volcanoes, 35 of which are active.
  • Ring of Fire: Alaska, Russian Far East, Japan plus Kyoto small ship luxury adventure cruise 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.adventuresmithexplorations.com [Source type: General]

^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The hotspot is considered similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands.^ As one island volcano becomes extinct, another develops over the hotspot, and the cycle is repeated.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The belt is defined by three large shield volcanoes (Rainbow, Ilgachuz and the Itcha Ranges) and 37 Quaternary basalt centers.^ SHIELD VOLCANOS Volcanoes with broad, gentle slopes and built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava are called shield volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eruptions of basaltic to rhyolitic volcanoes and hypabyssal rocks of the Alert Bay Volcanic Belt in northern Vancouver Island are probably linked with the subducted margin flanked by the Explorer and Juan de Fuca plates at the Cascadia subduction zone.^ Cascadia subduction zone caused it.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Juan de Fuca Ridge - Juan de Fuca Subduction .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It appears to have been active during the Pliocene and Pleistocene time. .However, no Holocene eruptions are known, and volcanic activity in the belt has likely ceased.^ However, these measurable ground movements, which most likely reflect hydrothermal pressure changes, do not necessarily signal renewed volcanic activity in the area.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1760, when volcanic activity recording began, there have been 230 confirmed eruptions.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holocene Volcanism and the Cascade Arc: Holocene volcanism in the Cascades extends from the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in southern British Columbia to the Lassen volcanic complex in northern California.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Russia

Avachinsky, an active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
.The Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, is one of the most various and active volcanic areas in the world,[18] with an area of 472,300 km².^ The Himalayan region also represents one of the most seismically active regions in the world.
  • Report of the FAO Asia-Pacific Conference 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: News]

^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ring of Fire: Alaska, Russian Far East, Japan plus Kyoto small ship luxury adventure cruise any destination .
  • Ring of Fire: Alaska, Russian Far East, Japan plus Kyoto small ship luxury adventure cruise 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.adventuresmithexplorations.com [Source type: General]

.It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Okhotsk Sea to the west.^ More than half of the world's active volcanoes above sea level encircle the Pacific Ocean to form the circum-Pacific "Ring of Fire."
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrounded by Pacific Ocean, the history of the Islands has been shaped by the interactions between land and sea.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, an oceanic plate slides ("subducts") beneath a continental plate (for example, along the west coast of South America ) or another oceanic plate (for example, the east side of the Philippine Sea plate ).
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Immediately offshore along the Pacific coast of the peninsula runs the 10,500 meter deep Kuril-Kamchatka Trench.^ The Pacific is almost surrounded by the World Cordillera System , from the Antarctic Peninsula right up the Aleutians and back down through the Kamchatka , into Japan and Indonesia .
  • Pacific Ocean@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Precisely as expected from theory, volcanoes and earthquakes are concentrated along mid-ocean ridges and trenches ( the Pacific Ring of Fire) where crust is created and destroyed.
  • Earth Processes Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teams.lacoe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc , along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula , the Kuril Islands , Japan , the Mariana Islands , the Solomon Islands , and New Zealand 's North Island .
  • Pacific Ocean encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is where rapid subduction of the Pacific Plate fuels the intense volcanism.^ The islands of Tonga and Fiji were created by volcanic eruptions along the collision of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates.
  • Environment in South Pacific at Frommer's 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Aleutian arc volcanism is the result of subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north, it is caused by the subduction of the Pacific Plate under the North American plate.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Almost all types of volcanic activity are present, from stratovolcanoes and shield volcanoes to Hawaiian-style fissure eruptions.^ Since 1760, when volcanic activity recording began, there have been 230 confirmed eruptions.
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The area outside of the flags is open to surfing and to all other types of water activity.
  • Oceanside San Diego California Tourist Beaches & Local Activities 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.visitoceanside.org [Source type: General]

^ Mount Krakatoa is an example of a stratovolcano , a tall, conical volcano with multiple strata of solidified lava, tephra , as well as volcanic ash .
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.There are over 30 active volcanoes and hundreds of dormant and extinct volcanoes in two major volcanic belts.^ By studying volcanoes like Mayon, scientists understand better than ever how to tell whether a major volcanic eruption is pending.

^ Oceanic Volcanics -- [Graphic,26K,GIF] Continental Volcanics: In the typical "continental" environment , volcanoes are located in unstable, mountainous belts that have thick roots of granite or granitelike rock.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mayon's history, recent behavior and active tectonic setting suggest that the volcano will continue to erupt for thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of years to come.

.The most recent activity takes place in the eastern belt,[18] starting in the north at the Shiveluch volcanic complex, which lies at the junction of the Aleutian and Kamchatka volcanic arcs.^ The andesite line follows the western edge of the islands off California and passes south of the Aleutian arc , along the eastern edge of the Kamchatka Peninsula , the Kuril Islands , Japan , the Mariana Islands , the Solomon Islands , and New Zealand 's North Island .
  • Pacific Ocean encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Ring of Fire" is an arc stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Areas near the epicenter of earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activity are most vulnerable to the effects of a tsunami as they cannot be properly warned by the Tsunami Warning Center of the coming danger.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just to the south is the famous Klyuchi volcanic group, comprising the twin volcanic cones of Kliuchevskoi and Kamen, the huge volcanic complexes of Tolbachik and Ushkovsky, and a number of other large stratovolcanoes.^ In other words, the stats used to prove the problems were caused by the fire rings – or pits – crime numbers were grouped according to the block – not the fire pit itself.
  • More on the fire pits: the City has been trying to close them for years and it’s not about money. 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC obrag.org [Source type: General]

^ Cinder cones are numerous in western North America as well as throughout other volcanic terrains of the world.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Washington there are five, generally large, widely spaced stratovolcanoes, with only one (Mount Adams) having significant nearly basaltic volcanics.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only active volcano in the central belt is found west of here, the huge remote Ichinsky.^ New Array Captures Redoubt Volcano Lightning Active Volcano Here are the links of two more articles from Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO): .
  • Pacific Ring Of Fire | Universe Today 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Farther south, the eastern belt continues to the southern slope of Kamchatka, topped by loads of stratovolcanoes.^ Continual winds blow over the country and the rainfall on South Island is far greater on the west side of the Southern Alps.
  • Motorcycle touring on The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.beachs-mca.com [Source type: General]


Japan

.Ten percent of the world's active volcanoes are found in Japan, which lies in a zone of extreme crustal instability.^ DANGER ZONE: Scientists say that about 80 percent of the world's most powerful earthquakes occur in the Pacific Ring of Fire, which includes Southern California.
  • Could big Pacific earthquakes trigger one here? - Sciencedude : The Orange County Register 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC sciencedude.freedomblogging.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called plate-boundary volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, tens of millions of people live within close proximity of an active volcano.

.They are formed by subduction of the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate.^ The eastern subduction zone, however, will grow: it will extend northward and join the Ryukyu Trench as the Philippine plate continues to sink below the Eurasian plate.

^ More than half of the world's active volcanoes above sea level encircle the Pacific Ocean to form the circum-Pacific "Ring of Fire."
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western subduction zone, called the Manila trench, occurs where the microplate meets the South China Sea plate.

.As many as 1,500 earthquakes are recorded yearly, and magnitudes of four to six on the Richter scale are not uncommon.^ The Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes.
  • Join the Ring of Fire Coaching Club | askHowie.com - AdWords Help, Advice and Tools 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC askhowie.com [Source type: General]

^ A Tsunami Watch is automatically declared by the warning center for any earthquake having a magnitude of 7.5 or larger on the Richter scale (7.0 or larger in the Aleutian Islands) and located in an area where a tsunami can be generated.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that evening I found out that it hadn't been a dream and the earthquake had measured five plus on the Richter Scale.
  • Motorcycle touring on The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.beachs-mca.com [Source type: General]

.Minor tremors occur almost daily in one part of the country or another, causing slight shaking of buildings.^ That's about 10,000 kms away so its really unlikely that one earthquake could have caused another and earthquakes are happening all the time so the timing was probably just coincidence.
  • Behind the News - 13/10/2009: Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subduction occurs where one plate converges toward another plate, moves beneath it, and plunges as much as several hundred kilometers into the Earth's interior.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parts of the plate boundary that slide past one another in opposite directions - such as the San Andreas Fault - cause minor earthquakes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major earthquakes occur infrequently; the most famous in the twentieth century were: the great Kantō earthquake of 1923, in which 130,000 people died; and the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 17 January 1995, in which 6,434 people died.^ The flaws ultimately were too great, and people died for it.
  • Ring of Fire: Texas Monthly November 2009 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.texasmonthly.com [Source type: General]

^ January 1906: During a flood wave that broke on the coasts of Colombia and Ecuador 500 to 1 500 people died.

^ Most earthquakes occur at the boundaries of these plates.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Undersea earthquakes also expose the Japanese coastline to danger from tsunamis.^ Areas near the epicenter of earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activity are most vulnerable to the effects of a tsunami as they cannot be properly warned by the Tsunami Warning Center of the coming danger.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mount Fuji at sunrise from Lake Kawaguchi
.Mount Bandai, one of Japan's most noted volcanoes, rises above the north shore of Lake Inawashiro.^ On the edge of the Gulf of Alaska, surrounded by serene wilderness, North America's most active volcano regularly builds toward bursting.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ben Mason, then an undergraduate in geologic sciences, was poring over data for Sakura-jima, one of the most active volcanoes in Japan, when he noticed the volcano had a strong tendency to erupt in December, January, and February.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific Mountain System: This region is one of the most geologically young and tectonically active in North America.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mount Bandai is formed of several overlapping stratovolcanoes, the largest of which is O-Bandai forming a complex volcano.^ The peripheral areas of the Pacific Ocean Basin, containing the boundaries of several plates are dotted by many active volcanoes that form the so-called "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peripheral areas of the Pacific Ocean Basin, containing the boundaries of several plates, are dotted by many active volcanoes that form the so-called Ring of Fire.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.O-Bandai volcano was constructed within a horseshoe-shaped caldera that formed about 40,000 years when an earlier volcano collapsed, forming the Okinajima debris avalanche, which traveled to the southwest and was accompanied by a plinian eruption.^ Here are several calderas (large craters formed by the ground collapse accompanying explosive volcanism) that were produced by three gigantic eruptions during the past two million years, the most recent of which occurred about 600,000 years ago.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has found that some of the largest eruptions during the last 85,000 years have followed times of major climate upheaval and attendant sea-level fluctuations.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pavlof has erupted 40 times in just over 200 years, heaving tons of ash and Volkswagen-size chunks of glowing debris skyward.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four major phreatic eruptions have occurred during the past 5,000 years, two of them in historical time, in 806 and 1888. Seen from the south, Bandai presents a conical profile, but much of the north side of the volcano is missing as a result of the collapse of Ko-Bandai volcano during the 1888 eruption, in which a debris avalanche buried several villages and formed several large lakes.^ Here are several calderas (large craters formed by the ground collapse accompanying explosive volcanism) that were produced by three gigantic eruptions during the past two million years, the most recent of which occurred about 600,000 years ago.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main differences in the two time schedules are driven by many factors, which are largely out of Noront's control.
  • Metals News - Noront Resources announces Ring of Fire project development plans 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.metalsnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By studying volcanoes like Mayon, scientists understand better than ever how to tell whether a major volcanic eruption is pending.

Nearly a century ago, the north flank of Mount Bandai collapsed during an eruption quite similar to the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. .After a week of seismic activity, a large earthquake on July 15, 1888, was followed by a tremendous noise and a large explosion.^ The next great earthquake in Cascadia will generate extremely large seismic waves lasting for as long as several minutes.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One week before Papua New Guinea's seismic activity, a large quake was recorded to the west of Western Samoa, and another took place in Vanuatu.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This huge ring of volcanic and seismic (earthquake) activity was noticed and described before the invention of the plate tectonics theory.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eyewitnesses heard about 15 to 20 additional explosions and observed that the last one was projected almost horizontally to the north.^ One early thinning is probably adequate for production of firewood, which may be done in 15- to 20-year rotations.

^ The songs were about separation, about NOT being able to be with the one you love, about being consumed and being kept awake 24/7, about almost being destroyed by need.
  • Ring of Fire - Reader Reviews - NYTimes.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC community.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We've also got author David Swanson witness to talk about have a constitution has been almost completely ignored for the last eight years.
  • 5/23/2009 Ring of Fire | play.it 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC multimedia.play.it [Source type: Original source]

.Mount Fuji is Japan's highest and most noted volcano.^ Most Beautiful Mountains in the World: Some of the most conspicuous and beautiful mountains in the world are composite volcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Shasta in California, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The modern postglacial stratovolcano is constructed above a group of overlapping volcanoes, remnants of which form irregularities on Fuji's profile.^ During passage through the granite layer, magmas are commonly modified or changed in composition and erupt on the surface to form volcanoes constructed of nonbasaltic rocks.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Growth of the younger Mount Fuji began with a period of voluminous lava flows from 11,000 to 8,000 years ago, accounting for four-fifths of the volume of the younger Mount Fuji.^ The volcano began erupting on Saturday afternoon, producing three lava flows, according to officials from the Galapagos National Park.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ That colossal explosion--similar to the recent Mount St. Helens blast--happened 7,700 years ago.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kohala , at the northwestern corner of the island, is the oldest, having ceased eruptive activity about 60,000 years ago.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Minor explosive eruptions dominated activity from 8,000 to 4,500 years ago, with another period of major lava flows occurring from 4,500 to 3,000 years ago.^ Less than two months ago the central Indonesian region was hit by a 6.3-magnitude quake that killed more than 5 800 people and increased activity at Mount Merapi volcano which was already on high alert for a major eruption.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ The geological record on the West Coast has shown that megathrust earthquakes occur roughly once every 500 years.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ Hurling out hot lava rocks, the eruption killed at least two people and forced more than 2,000 to flee.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

.Subsequently, intermittent major explosive eruptions occurred, with subordinate lava flows and small pyroclastic flows.^ Approximately 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows during the 1902 eruption of Mont Pelee on the Island of Martinique in the Caribbean.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and mudflows, deadly hazards which often accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone volcanoes.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Summit eruptions dominated from 3,000 to 2,000 years ago, after which flank vents were active.^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second oldest is Mauna Kea , which last erupted about 3,000 years ago; next is Hualalai , which has had only one historic eruption (1800-1801), and lastly, both Mauna Loa and Kilauea have been vigorously and repeatedly active in historic times.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kohala , at the northwestern corner of the island, is the oldest, having ceased eruptive activity about 60,000 years ago.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extensive basaltic lava flows from the summit and some of the more than 100 flank cones and vents blocked drainages against the Tertiary Misaka Mountains on the north side of the volcano, forming the Fuji Five Lakes.^ Mud, rocks and melted snow raced down the valley of the North Fork Toutle River, finally stopping more than 13 miles away.
  • Washington's Mount St. Helens holds her fire - Travel - LATimes.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC travel.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last eruption of this dominantly basaltic volcano in 1707 ejected andesitic pumice and formed a large new crater on the east flank.^ A volcano forms as molten rock and solidified volcanic debris are ejected onto the surface and accumulate near the eruption site.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purple anemone (~6 inches across ~15 cm) on a pumice rock along the east crater wall, West Rota volcano.

^ Michael Rampino of New York University, who has studied many large volcanic eruptions, finds Mason's reasoning intriguing but not convincing.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scientists are saying that there may be some minor volcanic activity in the next few years.^ Some say the locomotive is there, others say it’s not.

^ Next stop is Rotorua, which sits squarely on the Pacific Ring of Fire, so volcanic activity is part of the city's past and present.
  • 14 Days Lord of the Rings Tour Package 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

^ But there were just 11 in 2005, suggesting that year's burst may just be a natural fluctuation.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

Map showing major volcanoes of the Philippines.

Philippines

.The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo is the world's second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century.^ Pinatubo, located 90 km from Manila, had been dormant for 600 years before the 1991 eruption, which ranks as one of the largest eruptions in this century.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Unzen eruptions have caused deaths and considerable local damage, the impact of the June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was global.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Santa Ana Volcano Eruption, El Salvador El Salvador 1/05 Santa Ana Volcano Eruption Geneva, 5 October 2005 El Salvadors largest volcano erupted on 1 October this year after lying dormant for more than a century.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

.Successful predictions of the onset of the climactic eruption led to the evacuation of tens of thousands of people from the surrounding areas, saving many lives, but as the surrounding areas were severely damaged by pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and later, lahars caused by rainwater remobilising earlier volcanic deposits, thousands of houses were destroyed.^ In the northern Rocky Mountains, there are many areas that regularly experience severe wildfires that are not in densely forested areas.

^ Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hot ash and pyroclastic flows from the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano in Colombia, South America, melted snow and ice atop the 5,390-m-high Andean peak; the ensuing mudflows buried the city of Armero, killing 25,000 people.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mayon Volcano overlooks a pastoral scene approximately five months before the volcano's violent eruption in September 1984.
.Mayon Volcano is the Philippines' most active volcano.^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called plate-boundary volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the edge of the Gulf of Alaska, surrounded by serene wilderness, North America's most active volcano regularly builds toward bursting.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hawaiian Islands are composed of linear chains of these volcanoes including Kilauea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii -- two of the world's most active volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The volcano has steep upper slopes that average 35–40 degrees and is capped by a small summit crater.^ Views of the plume coming out of Brimstone Pit crater near the summit of Northwest Rota-1 volcano.

^ Giant smoky plume discovered pouring out of crater near the summit of NW Rota 1 volcano.

^ The steep slope of the East Diamante volcano is seen in this image from the upper left to the lower right-hand side.

.The historical eruptions of this basaltic-andesitic volcano dates back to 1616 and ranges from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian eruptions.^ SHIELD VOLCANOS Volcanoes with broad, gentle slopes and built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava are called shield volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks.^ The volcano began erupting on Saturday afternoon, producing three lava flows, according to officials from the Galapagos National Park.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

^ The release of pressure during eruptions can produce ash clouds that may travel long distances.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas.^ Approximately 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows during the 1902 eruption of Mont Pelee on the Island of Martinique in the Caribbean.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On June 15, Mount Pinatubo spewed ash 40 km into the air and produced huge ash flows (also called pyroclastic flows) and mudflows that devastated a large area around the volcano.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and mudflows, deadly hazards which often accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone volcanoes.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taal Volcano has had 33 recorded eruptions since 1572. A devastating eruption occurred in 1911, which claimed more than a thousand lives.^ According to the US Geological Survey, since 1900 there have been on average 19.4 quakes of 7.0-plus strength on the Ring each year, but more than 30 have been recorded so far this year.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ Less than two months ago the central Indonesian region was hit by a 6.3-magnitude quake that killed more than 5 800 people and increased activity at Mount Merapi volcano which was already on high alert for a major eruption.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction-zone (convergent-boundary) volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The deposits of that eruption consisted of a yellowish, fairly decomposed (non-juvenile) tephra with a high sulfur content. .The most recent period of activity lasted from 1965 to 1977, and was characterized by the interaction of magma with the lake water, which produced violent phreatic explosions.^ Tidal waves are simply the periodic movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tides produced by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the volcano has been dormant since 1977, it has shown signs of unrest since 1991, with strong seismic activity and ground fracturing events, as well as the formation of small mud geysers on parts of the island.^ Seismographs are instruments that measure and record tiny motions of the ground – and provide an instant alert to seismic activity that could mean trouble.
  • Join the Ring of Fire Coaching Club | askHowie.com - AdWords Help, Advice and Tools 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC askhowie.com [Source type: General]

^ Pieces of a puzzle Since the start of the year there has been an increase in seismic activity with dozens of earthquakes in the Ring and the reawakening of Mount Merapi on Java.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ The islands are situated in a Pacific Ocean hotspot sometimes called the Ring of Fire because volcanoes, geysers and earthquakes are commonplace.
  • Motorcycle touring on The Ring of Fire 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.beachs-mca.com [Source type: General]

.Kanlaon is the most active volcano in central Philippines and has erupted 25 times since 1866. Eruptions are typically phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.^ A volcano forms as molten rock and solidified volcanic debris are ejected onto the surface and accumulate near the eruption site.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is easy to see many Icelandic volcanoes erupt non-explosively from fissure vents, in similar fashion to typical Hawaiian eruptions; others, like Hekla Volcano , erupt explosively.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On August 10, 1996, Kanlaon erupted without warning, killing British student Julian Green and Filipinos Noel Tragico and Neil Perez, who were among 24 mountainclimbers who were trapped near the summit.^ He represents the parents of three students who were killed in the Bonfire collapse and two students who were injured and has won settlements against A&M and the redpots.
  • Ring of Fire: Texas Monthly November 2009 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.texasmonthly.com [Source type: General]

Indonesia

Mount Merapi in Central Java.
.The volcanoes in Indonesia are among the most active of the Pacific Ring of Fire.^ This active volcano was visited on the Submarine Ring of Fire 2004 expedition.

^ Pacific Ring of Fire: Volcano locations .
  • Earth Processes Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teams.lacoe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific, particularly along the "Pacific Ring of Fire".

.They are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate.^ They found some telltale evidence in sheltered inlets where salt marshes form between high and low tide.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This newly formed magma rises toward the Earth's surface to erupt, forming a chain of volcanoes (the Cascade Range) above the subduction zone.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along the Cascadia subduction zone, the oceanic Juan de Fuca plate encroaches on North America by about 40 millimeters a year.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883, Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 BP which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter, and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815. The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 caused wide spread harvest failures in Northern Europe, the Northeastern United States, and eastern Canada in 1816, which was known as the Year Without a Summer.^ In part of Europe and in North America, 1816 was known as "the year without a summer."
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, some of the most memorably destructive eruptions in recent times have occurred during the Northern Hemisphere's spring or summer.
  • Season of Fire | Natural Disasters | DISCOVER Magazine 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A similar phenomenon occurred in April of 1815 with the cataclysmic eruption of Tambora Volcano in Indonesia, the most powerful eruption in recorded history.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most active volcanoes are Kelud and Merapi on Java island which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region.^ The Hawaiian Islands are composed of linear chains of these volcanoes including Kilauea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii -- two of the world's most active volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process of volcano growth and death, over many millions of years, has left a long trail of volcanic islands and seamounts across the Pacific Ocean floor.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called "plate-boundary" volcanoes .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since AD 1000, Kelud has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, while Merapi has erupted more than 80 times.^ According to the US Geological Survey, since 1900 there have been on average 19.4 quakes of 7.0-plus strength on the Ring each year, but more than 30 have been recorded so far this year.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ All wood must be no longer than 30 inches in length and must not be allowed to rise above the height of the fire ring more than 2 feet.
  • Oceanside San Diego California Tourist Beaches & Local Activities 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.visitoceanside.org [Source type: General]

^ Less than two months ago the central Indonesian region was hit by a 6.3-magnitude quake that killed more than 5 800 people and increased activity at Mount Merapi volcano which was already on high alert for a major eruption.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

.The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Merapi as a Decade Volcano since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity.^ Less than two months ago the central Indonesian region was hit by a 6.3-magnitude quake that killed more than 5 800 people and increased activity at Mount Merapi volcano which was already on high alert for a major eruption.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

^ But where one oceanic plate collided with and is forced deep into the Earth's interior, the subsumed plate encounters high temperatures and pressures that partially melt solid rock.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pieces of a puzzle Since the start of the year there has been an increase in seismic activity with dozens of earthquakes in the Ring and the reawakening of Mount Merapi on Java.
  • Disaster in 'Ring of Fire': News24: SciTech: News 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.news24.com [Source type: General]

New Zealand

Major volcanoes of New Zealand
.New Zealand contains the world's strongest concentration of youthful rhyolitic volcanoes, and voluminous sheets blanket much of the North Island.^ The "Ring of Fire" is an arc stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chains of volcanoes in the island arcs (such as the Aleutian Islands ) and continental margins (such as the Andes ) around much of the ocean form above undersliding oceanic plates.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small Group Adventure New Zealand: South Island Adventure .
  • WT — Trips in the Pacific — Wilderness Travel 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.wildernesstravel.com [Source type: General]

.The earliest historically-dated eruption was at Whakaari/White Island in 1826.[19] Much of the region north of New Zealand's North Island is made up of seamounts and small islands, including 16 submarine volcanoes.^ The Ring of Fire is a huge arc of volcanoes and earthquakes that stretches from New Zealand, up eastern Asia, across Alaska, and down the Pacific Coast of the Americas all the way to the southernmost tip of Chile.
  • Join the Ring of Fire Coaching Club | askHowie.com - AdWords Help, Advice and Tools 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC askhowie.com [Source type: General]

^ Over time, countless eruptions cause the seamount to grow until it finally emerges above sea level to form an island volcano.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the largest volcanoes like Mount St. Helens get the most attention, the Cascades is really made up of a band of thousands of very small, short-lived volcanoes that have built a platform of lava and volcanic debris.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the last 1.6 million years, most of New Zealand's volcanism is from the Taupo Volcanic Zone.^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oldest volcanic rocks on Kauai, the northwesternmost inhabited Hawaiian island, are about 5.5 million years old and are deeply eroded.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to its geographical situation, it is also the country where the most casualties have been claimed in the last thousand years.

.Mount Ruapehu at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, is one of the most active volcanoes.^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yikes, first thing I would be doing is looking for another island to live on besides the one right around an active volcano!
  • Ring of Fire ,7.2 Quake hits Samoa, w/tsunami - Vancouver Forum 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.discovervancouver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .It began erupting at least 250,000 years ago.^ More than 3000 vents erupted during the most recent volcanic episode that began 5 million years ago.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kohala , at the northwestern corner of the island, is the oldest, having ceased eruptive activity about 60,000 years ago.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than five million years ago, the range that we now know as the Sierra Nevada began to rise along its eastern margin.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recorded history, major eruptions have been about 50 years apart,[20] in 1895, 1945 and 1995–1996. Minor eruptions are frequent, with at least 60 since 1945. Some of the minor eruptions in the 1970s generated small ash falls and lahars (mudflows) that damaged skifields.^ We found that the average age of a single stem was about 90 years, and each shrub contained third generation stems.
  • Laboratory of Tree-Ring Science Projects 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC web.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction-zone (convergent-boundary) volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This progress may seem slow, but it represents a considerable shortening--about 20 meters in a typical 500-year-long stretch between giant earthquakes.
  • Giant Earthquakes of the Pacific Northwest 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC nats101.geo.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] Between major eruptions, a warm acidic crater lake forms, fed by melting snow. Major eruptions may completely expel the lake water. .Where a major eruption has deposited a tephra dam across the lake's outlet, the dam may collapse after the lake has refilled and risen above the level of its normal outlet, the outrush of water causing a large lahar.^ Often the first signs of a tsunami are a receding water level caused by the trough of the wave.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few years ago, a flooding rainfall caused the dam in Hope Mills, North Carolina, to breach, draining the Hope Mills Lake.
  • Laboratory of Tree-Ring Science Projects 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC web.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 2000, the ERLAWS system was installed on the mountain to detect such a collapse and alert the relevant authorities.
.The Auckland volcanic field on the North Island of New Zealand, has produced a diverse array of explosive craters, scoria cones, and lava flows.^ The "Ring of Fire" is an arc stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We proceed to Sirius Point, Kiska Island where a huge lava flow from the Kiska Volcano juts out in to the sea and is the home to one of the largest seabird colonies of seabirds that one will ever see.
  • The Ring of Fire - KAMCHATKA & ALASKA June 2004 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC home.btconnect.com [Source type: General]

^ Television images show the massive lava flows, although it has not yet been determined whether the island's plant and animal life have been affected.
  • Ring of Fire Waking Up? - Communitites @ The Anomalies Network 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC communities.anomalies.net [Source type: News]

.Currently dormant, the field is likely to erupt again with the next "hundreds to thousands of years", a very short timeframe in geologic terms.^ For whatever that number 700 billion dollars a year to countries with oil that don't like it very much and in terms of the where you have.
  • 5/23/2009 Ring of Fire | play.it 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC multimedia.play.it [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the largest volcanoes like Mount St. Helens get the most attention, the Cascades is really made up of a band of thousands of very small, short-lived volcanoes that have built a platform of lava and volcanic debris.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though plates tend to move less than 10cm a year, such movement can be unpredictable and is why even dormant volcanoes can erupt suddenly.
  • Ring of fire@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .The field contains at least 40 volcanoes, most recently active about 600 years ago at Rangitoto, erupting 2.3 cubic kilometers of lava.^ To island residents, Hilo is most famous for its rainfall (about 120 inches per year), hence agriculture is the dominant industry in the surrounding area.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We found that the average age of a single stem was about 90 years, and each shrub contained third generation stems.
  • Laboratory of Tree-Ring Science Projects 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC web.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Antarctica

.The southernmost end of the Pacific Ring of Fire is the continent Antarctica,[23] which includes many large volcanoes.^ Pacific Ring of Fire: Volcano locations .
  • Earth Processes Links 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC teams.lacoe.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ring of Fire , caused by shifting of tectonic plate s, can be considered to run virtually the entire perimeter of the Pacific Ocean , including along South America 's western coast, Antarctica 's Pacific coast, Oceania , the Far East and Central America .
  • Ring of fire@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ring of Fire is a huge arc of volcanoes and earthquakes that stretches from New Zealand, up eastern Asia, across Alaska, and down the Pacific Coast of the Americas all the way to the southernmost tip of Chile.
  • Join the Ring of Fire Coaching Club | askHowie.com - AdWords Help, Advice and Tools 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC askhowie.com [Source type: General]

.The makeup and structure of the volcanoes in Antarctica change largely from the other places around the ring.^ The Ring of Fire was largely formed by the Pacific tectonic plate being forced underneath or over other tectonic plate s.
  • Ring of fire@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ring of Fire is a place where advanced marketers and beginners can co-exist – and benefit each other!
  • Join the Ring of Fire Coaching Club | askHowie.com - AdWords Help, Advice and Tools 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC askhowie.com [Source type: General]

^ In the past 25 years, scientists developed a theory called plate tectonics explaining the locations of volcanoes and other large-scale geologic features.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, the Antarctic Plate is almost completely surrounded by extensional zones, with several mid-ocean ridges which encircle it, and there is only a small subduction zone at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, reaching eastward to the remote South Sandwich Islands.^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The balance is global only: the formation of lithosphere at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is compensated by subduction primarily in the western Pacific.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet scientists have estimated that about three quarters of the material erupted on Earth each year originates at spreading mid-ocean ridges .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The most well known volcano in Antarctica is Mount Erebus, which is also the world's southernmost active volcano.^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called "plate-boundary" volcanoes .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is composed over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.The volcanoes of the Victoria Land area are the most well-known in Antarctica,[23] most likely because they are the most accessible.^ But when people make personal attacks against each other (like telling a Muslim his turban is wrapped too tight) because they disagree with each other's views, then we all suffer.
  • Prophetic Messenger Service - RING OF FIRE - Powered by ForumCo.com - The Forum Company 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC mm2001.forumco.com [Source type: General]

^ Most active volcanoes are strung like beads along, or near, the margins of the continents, and more than half encircle the Pacific Ocean as a "Ring of Fire" .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Areas near the epicenter of earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activity are most vulnerable to the effects of a tsunami as they cannot be properly warned by the Tsunami Warning Center of the coming danger.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of Victoria Land is mountainous, developing the eastern section of the Transantarctic Mountains, and there are several scattered volcanoes including Mount Overlord and Mount Melbourne in the northern part.^ In the northern Rocky Mountains, there are many areas that regularly experience severe wildfires that are not in densely forested areas.

^ Most Beautiful Mountains in the World: Some of the most conspicuous and beautiful mountains in the world are composite volcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Shasta in California, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Ring" provides excellent examples of "plate-boundary" volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Farther south are two more well-known volcanoes, Mount Discovery and Mount Morning, which are on the coast across from Mount Erebus and Mount Terror on Ross Island.^ Added to this, the two islands of Roi-Namur were hardly more than over grown sand spits.

^ Mauna Loa and Kilauea , on the island of Hawaii, are known as shield volcanoes , because they resemble the wide, rounded shape of an ancient warrior's shield.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting craters, some of which are more than 30 miles (50 kilometers) across, are known as volcanic calderas .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The volcanism in this area is caused by rifting along a number of rift zones increasing mainly north-south similar to the coast.^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Ring of Fire" is an arc stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1975 to 1984, numerous episodes of rifting (surface cracking) took place along the Krafla fissure zone.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Marie Byrd Land contains the largest volcanic region in Antarctica, covering a length of almost 600 miles (960 km) along the Pacific coast.^ Pacific madrone is a common associate in a variety of other major cover types in the region.

^ Vegetation history of the Pacific coast states and the "central" significance of the KIamath region.
  • Environmental Issues in Pacific Northwest Forest Management 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The whole coast along a 25-mile stretch had been hammered continuously for three days to make the enemy believe an invasion was imminent.
  • Korean War Educator: Brief History - Pacific Stars & Stripes 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.koreanwar-educator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The volcanism is the result of rifting along the vast West Antarctic Rift, which extends from the base of the Antarctic Peninsula to the surrounding area of Ross Island, and the volcanoes are found along the northern edge of the rift.^ However, this phenomenon is mainly restricted to the Pacific basin, an area surrounded by volcanic island arcs, mountain chains and subduction zones earning the nickname the "ring of fire", as it is the most geologically active area on the planet.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To island residents, Hilo is most famous for its rainfall (about 120 inches per year), hence agriculture is the dominant industry in the surrounding area.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Island-Arc Volcanics -- [Graphic,30K,GIF] Oceanic Volcanics: In a typical "oceanic" environment , volcanoes are alined along the crest of a broad ridge that marks an active fracture system in the oceanic crust.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Protruding up through the ice are a large number of major shield volcanoes, including Mount Sidley, which is the highest volcano in Antarctica.^ These fires all burned through areas that included large portions of land that were not composed of dense forests.

^ The "Ring" provides excellent examples of "plate-boundary" volcanoes , including Mount St. Helens .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Ring" provides excellent examples of "plate-boundary" volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens .
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Although a number of the volcanoes are relatively young and are potentially active (Mount Berlin, Mount Takahe, Mount Waesche, and Mount Siple), others such as Mount Andrus and Mount Hampton are over 10 million years old, yet maintain uneroded constructional forms.^ During passage through the granite layer, magmas are commonly modified or changed in composition and erupt on the surface to form volcanoes constructed of nonbasaltic rocks.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than a hundred hotspots beneath the Earth's crust have been active during the past 10 million years.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process of volcano growth and death, over many millions of years, has left a long trail of volcanic islands and seamounts across the Pacific Ocean floor.
  • CVO Website - Plate Tectonics and Sea-Floor Spreading 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC vulcan.wr.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The desert-like surroundings of the Antarctic interior, along with a very thick and stable ice sheet which encloses and protects the bases of the volcanoes, which decreases the speed of erosion by an issue of perhaps a thousand relative to volcanoes in moist temperate or tropical climates.^ Another way to kill trees was to surround the base with fire, allowing the bark and/or the trunk to burn causing the tree to die (much like girdling) and eventually topple over.
  • American Indian Use of Fire in Ecosystems References 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.wildlandfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Remember, tsunamis travel at very fast speeds across the ocean; therefore once a warning has been issued you should evacuate immediately.
  • The Pacific Tsunami Museum FAQ 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC tsunami.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the largest volcanoes like Mount St. Helens get the most attention, the Cascades is really made up of a band of thousands of very small, short-lived volcanoes that have built a platform of lava and volcanic debris.
  • RingofFireGridWorkPerformedbyStardoves 10 January 2010 10:38 UTC www.stardoves.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Land areas in the Ring

Eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://geography.about.com/cs/earthquakes/a/ringoffire.htm
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes FAQ.
  3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes Visual Glossary.
  4. ^ Moving slabs [This Dynamic Earth, USGS].
  5. ^ Latest Earthquakes in the USA - Past 7 days, USGS.
  6. ^ Schulz, Sandra S., and Robert E. Wallace, "The San Andreas Fault", USGS.
  7. ^ Earthquakes in the Queen Charlotte Islands Region 1984-1996 Retrieved on 2007-10-03
  8. ^ "Magnitude 8.8 - OFFSHORE MAULE, CHILE". February 27, 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2010tfan.php. Retrieved Freruary 27, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b DESCRIPTION: Mexico Volcanoes and Volcanics Retrieved on 2007-10-14
  10. ^ http://www.avo.alaska.edu/volcanoes/about.php
  11. ^ a b c Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyond: Alaska and Northwest Canada Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  12. ^ CAT.INIST: Canadian volcanoes Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  13. ^ Volcanoes of Canada Retrieved on 2007-06-24
  14. ^ a b c Calalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  15. ^ Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes: Mount Meager Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  16. ^ a b Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Chilcotin Plateau basalts Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  17. ^ a b c Catalogue of Canadian volcanoes - Anahim Volcanic Belt Retrieved on 2007-07-31
  18. ^ a b c Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyond: Kamchatka & Kuril Islands Retrieved on 2007-08-01
  19. ^ CVO Menu - New Zealand Volcanoes and Volcanics Retrieved on 2007-10-15
  20. ^ a b New Zealand Department of Conservation. "Crater Lake". http://www.doc.govt.nz/parks-and-recreation/tracks-and-walks/tongariro-taupo/ruapehu-area/mt-ruapehu-crater-climb/. Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  21. ^ New Zealand Department of Conservation. "Central North Island Volcanoes". http://www.doc.govt.nz/parks-and-recreation/national-parks/tongariro/features/central-north-island-volcanoes/. Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  22. ^ Contingency Plan for the Auckland Volcanic Field (from the Auckland Regional Council website)
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Skiing the Pacific Ring of Fire and Beyong: Antarctica Retrieved 2007-07-31

External links


Simple English

on July 22, 1980.]] 

The Pacific Ring of Fire is an arc around the Pacific Ocean where many volcanoes and earthquakes are formed. About three quarters of the world's dormant (sleeping) and active volcanoes are here. The ring is 40000km long, and there are 452 volcanoes.[1]

About 90% of the world's earthquakes and 80% of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.[2][3]

The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates.[4]

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Pacific Ring of Fire, which are similar to those in the above article.








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