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Dried green paint

Paint is any liquid, liquifiable, or mastic composition which after application to a substrate in a thin layer is converted to an opaque solid film.

Contents

History

Cave paintings drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide, and charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago.

Ancient painted walls at Denerdera, Egypt, which were exposed for many ages to the open air, still possess a perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy substance, and applied them separated from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge.

Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.

Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and stick onto the surface applied. Pigments were made from plants, sands, and different soil types.

Components

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Pigment

Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint to contribute color, toughness, texture or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments.

Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others.

Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually made of cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, baryte, clay, etc. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may even contain fine quartz sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand some paints contain very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder.

Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, titanium white (titanium dioxide), even before lead was functionally banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film.

Binder or vehicle

The binder, commonly referred to as the vehicle, is the actual film forming component of paint. It is the only component that must be present; other components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film.

The binder imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness.

Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils.

Binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing mechanism. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative crosslinking, catalyzed polymerization, and coalescence. There are others.

Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to evaporation of the solvent or thinner,[1] whereas curing refers to polymerization of the binder. (The term "vehicle" is industrial jargon which is used inconsistently, sometimes to refer to the solvent and sometimes to refer to the binder.) Depending on chemistry and composition, any particular paint may undergo either, or both processes. Thus, there are paints that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those that do not depend on drying for curing.[2]

Paints that dry by simple solvent evaporation and contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent are known as lacquers. A solid film forms when the solvent evaporates, and because the film can re-dissolve in solvent lacquers are not suitable for applications where chemical resistance is important. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent and more modern acrylic based coatings such as 5-ball Krylon aerosol. Performance varies by formulation, but lacquers generally tend to have better UV resistance and lower corrosion resistance than comparable systems that cure by polymerization or coalescence.

Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometre polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it. Residual surfactants in the paint as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water.

Paints that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings that when applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category. Oxidative cure coatings are catalyzed by metal complex driers such as cobalt napthanate.

Paints that cure by catalyzed polymerization are generally two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and hardener, and which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.[2]

Still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they will resoften or liquify if reheated.

Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for industrial purposes. In UV curing paints, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings there is little or no solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after electrostatic application of the dry powder.

Solvent

The main purposes of the solvent are to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It also controls flow and application properties, and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. In order to spread heavier oils (i.e. linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint, a thinner oil is required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the solvent has evaporated or disintegrated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface.

This component is optional: some paints have no diluent.

Water is the main diluent for water-borne paints.

Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of solvents as the diluent, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and white spirit. These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents. Such solvents are used when water resistance, grease resistance, or similar properties are desired.

Additives

Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in very small amounts and yet give a very significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance, increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like.

Additives normally do not significantly alter the percentages of individual components in a formulation[3]

Color changing paint

Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in fishtanks. Photochromic paints and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV light, and so they change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses.

Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint for use in its vehicles, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body.[4] Electrochromic paints can be applied to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passenger airplane windows.

Art

Watercolors as applied with a brush

Since the time of the Renaissance, siccative (drying) oil paints, primarily linseed oil, have been the most commonly used kind of paints in fine art applications; oil paint is still common today. However, in the 20th century, water-based paints, including watercolors and acrylic paints, became very popular with the development of acrylic and other latex paints. Milk paints (also called casein), where the medium is derived from the natural emulsion that is milk, were popular in the 19th century and are still available today. Egg tempera (where the medium is an emulsion of egg yolk mixed with oil) is still in use as well, as are encaustic wax-based paints. Gouache is a variety of opaque watercolor which was also used in the Middle Ages and Renaissance for manuscript illuminations. The pigment was often made from ground semiprecious stones such as lapis lazuli and the binder made from either gum arabic or egg white. Gouache, also known as 'designer color' or 'body color' is commercially available today.

Poster paint has been used primarily in the creation of student works, or by children.

The "painter's mussel", a European freshwater mussel. Individual shell valves were used by artists as a small dish for paint.

Application

Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired.

As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being painted). This is commonly referred to as "powder coating" an object.

As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. The paint sticks to the object. This is commonly referred to as "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include:

  • The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object ever touches the object being painted;
  • The distribution of the paint is very uniform so there are no sharp lines;
  • It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint;
  • A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object being painted;
  • Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules.

In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers.

Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, which results in the paint being turned into small droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted.

Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles which can be attached to allow for painting at different heights. Generally, roller application takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush.

After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time." The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings.

Paint may also be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by dipping an object in paint.

Interior/exterior house paint tends to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat wooden stick or a paint mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Paint stores have machines for mixing the paint by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few minutes.

The opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a drawdown card.

Oil-based paints when dry tend to be very durable, washable, and long-lasting. The paint would take about almost 1 day to dry.

Water-based paints tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using—the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water.

It is difficult to reseal the paint container and store the paint well for a long period of time. It should be stored upside down, for a good seal. Storage should be in a cool dry place, protected from freezing.

Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color.

If it is necessary to dispose of paint, one approach is to dry it, either by leaving the lid off until it solidifies (which tends to work well only for small quantities), or by pouring it into a disposable drying device, such as a piece of plywood surrounded by a lip. Once dry, the paint may be discarded with normal trash. Wet oil-based paint should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations.[5][6]

Old paint can chip off the surface and become a "paint chip".

Product variants

A collection of cans of paint and variants
  • Primer is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted. It can also be used to block and seal stains, or to hide a color that is to be painted over.
  • Emulsion paint is a water-based paint used for painting interior or exterior surfaces.
  • Varnish and shellac provide a protective coating without changing the color. They are paints without pigment.
  • Wood stain is a type of paint that is very "thin," that is, low in viscosity, and formulated so that the pigment penetrates the surface rather than remaining in a film on top of the surface. Stain is predominantly pigment or dye and solvent with little binder, designed primarily to add color without providing a surface coating.
  • Lacquer is usually a fast-drying solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish.
  • An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Enamel paints sometimes contain glass powder or tiny metal flake fragments instead of the color pigments found in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint is sometimes mixed with varnish or urethane to increase shine as well as assist its hardening process.
  • A glaze is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency, as in faux painting and Art Painting.
  • A roof coating is a fluid applied membrane which has elastic properties that allows it to stretch and return to their original shape without damage. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used as part of a roof restoration system.
  • Fingerpaint is a kind of paint intended to be applied with the fingers; it typically comes in pots and is used by small children, though it has very occasionally been used by adults either to teach art to children, or for their own independent use.
  • Inks are similar to paints, except they are typically made using finely ground pigments or dyes, and are designed so as not to leave a thick film of binder.
  • Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house paint and artist's paint, because it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment accounts for the largest use of the element. Titanium paint is an excellent reflector of infrared, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor seeing conditions.
  • Anti-graffiti coatings are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti vandals. There are two categories, sacrificial and non-bonding. Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by pressure washing the surface with high-pressure water, removing the graffiti, and the coating (hence, sacrificed). They must be re-applied afterward for continued protection. This is most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean. Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that allow the graffiti very little to bond to. After the graffiti is discovered, it can be removed with the use of a solvent wash, without damaging the underlying substrate or protective coating. These work best when used on smoother surfaces, and especially over other painted surfaces, including murals.
  • Anti-climb paint is a non-drying paint that appears normal while still being extremely slippery. It is usually used on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.

Dangers

  • Non-toxic paints – Average household paint contains up to 10,000 chemicals, of which about approximately 300 are toxins, and 150 are harmful and have been linked to kidney damage, liver damage, or cancer.[7] Even after application and drying, paints and finishes continue to release these toxic emissions into the air for many years to come. The source of those toxins are VOCs. Up until recently very high levels of VOC's were widely utilized in paint products and finishes.[8] Non-Toxic paints do not contain as many volatile organic compounds, which makes enclosed air safer to breath for people vs. regular paint. It also has a less damaging effect on the environment as it reduces landfill, groundwater and ozone depleting contaminants. VOC's are the second largest source of emissions into the atmosphere after automobiles.

See also

References

  1. ^ * Berendsen, A. M., & Berendsen, A. M. (1989). Marine painting manual. London: Graham & Trotman. ISBN 1853332860 p. 113.
  2. ^ a b Berendsen, A. M., & Berendsen, A. M. (1989). Marine painting manual. London: Graham & Trotman. ISBN 1853332860 p. 114.
  3. ^ "FORMULATIONS Fundamentals, Manipulation, Calculation and Data Management" p. 61.
  4. ^ DailyTech - Nissan Develops Color Changing Paint for Vehicles
  5. ^ "Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Paint"
  6. ^ "Storage and Disposal of Paint Facts"
  7. ^ HowStuffWorks - How Low-VOC Paint Works
  8. ^ EearthEasy - Non-Toxic Paints

Further reading

  • Bently, J. (Author) and Turner, G.P.A. (Author) (1997). Introduction to Paint Chemistry and Principles of Paint Technology. Unk.. ISBN 0412723204. 
  • Talbert, Rodger (2007). Paint Technology Handbook. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. ISBN 1574447033. 
  • Woodbridge, Paul R. (Editor) (1991). Principles of Paint Formulation. Unk.. ISBN 0412029510. 

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Jezebel "painted her face" (2 Kings 9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter (42:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Paint is a type of creativity game. This genre contains games where you can paint or color pictures.



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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|225px|Dried green paint]]

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:
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Paint is the general term for stuff that is used to add colour to the surface of an object by covering it with a pigmented (coloured) coating. As a verb, painting means "applying paint" (putting paint onto something). Someone who paints is called a painter.

Paint is made from a coloured pigment which is usually a powder. The powder is made from different chemicals. Some of the pigments come straight from natural things like clay. The pigment must be made wet with something that will make it stick onto the surface and not come off easily. The wet stuff is called the "medium". Some paints are just mixed with water. Other paints are mixed with oils or chemicals of different sorts. Most painters buy paint that is already mixed. House-painters use paint already mixed in large cans. Artists buy paint in tubes. Some artists buy dry pigment and mix it for themselves.

The paint is usually put onto the surface with a paint brush. Paint brushes are use by painters of all sorts. House painters also use rollers and spray-guns to put on paint. A modern invention is paint in a pressurized can which can be sprayed on. Some modern artists also use spray paint. In factories there are machines which spray paint onto objects. Cars are usually painted in this way.

Paint must be allowed to dry. Some paints such as watercolour, dries in a few minutes. Other paints, such as artist's oil paint, can take days or even weeks to dry. Most other types of paints fit between these two. Many types of paint are best if they are put on in several layers. The painter must first prepare the surface so it is smooth, clean and dry. The first layer of paint is often an "undercoat" or "ground" which is smooth and sticks very well. The coloured paints are put on over the top. A house-painter who is using oil paint on a wooden window frame might used three layers of paint to give very good protection from the weather. Other types of modern house paint only need one layer, particularly on the inside. Artists using oil paint and tempera often use many layers to get just the right effect.

Contents

Uses of paint

[[File:|thumb|200px|Painting the exterior of a building]] Paint has four important uses

Protection

Paint is used to protect all sorts of buildings and structures from the effects of water and sun. Wooden buildings such as houses are usually painted because a coat of paint prevents water seeping into the wood and making it rot. The paint also helps to prevent the wood from drying out in the hot sun.

Metal structures and objects of all sorts are painted to stop them from rusting. A very large steel structure such as a bridge must have a team of painters who keep the paint in good condition all the time.

File:Jotun paints
A shop showing the many colours of house paint

Decoration

Paint is used to decorate all sorts of objects. Since pre-historic times, people have painted the inside walls of their houses to make them look attractive.[1] Painting and decorating the exterior (outside) and interior (inside) of houses is an important industry in many countries. There are many types and colours of paint to chose from.

All sorts of other objects are painted to make them attractive. This includes furniture, toys, tools and utensils, and street fittings. Sometimes things made of wood such as furniture are painted in decorative patterns. In some countries, many people enjoy decorating furniture and other small things like trays and boxes. This is often called Folk art. In other countries such as Japan, painting furniture is a very skilled profession and an antique piece of decorated furniture is very valuable. Other people enjoy the hobby of painting small objects such as model planes or soldiers.

Art

[[File:|thumb|200px|The artist Peter Graham in his studio]] Paintings are pictures that are done in paint. Many different types of paint are used for paintings. They include fresco, tempera, oil paint, gouache and watercolour. The paintings are usually done on board, canvas or paper. Many other famous paintings are done on the walls and ceilings of buildings, such as the Sistine Chapel ceiling which was painted by Michelangelo.

Many artists are famous for their painted pictures. Old, beautiful and famous paintings are very valuable and are sometimes sold for millions of dollars. Famous painters include Giotto, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian and Rembrandt.

Information

Paint is a very good way to give important information to people, using painted signs. Painted signs include lane markings on the road, street signs of all sorts, advertising signs and warning signs.

References

  1. The families that lived in the town of Catal Huyuk in Anatolia, 7,000 years ago, white-washed their walls every year.

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