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Islamic Republic of Pakistan
اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان
Islāmī Jumhūrī-ye Pākistān
Flag State Emblem
Mottoاتحاد، تنظيم، يقين مُحکم
Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam  (Urdu)
"Unity, Discipline and Faith"
Anthem"Qaumi Tarana"
Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167
Largest city Karachi
Official language(s) Urdu (National)
English (Government)
Regional languages Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Seraiki and Balochi
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal semi-presidential republic
 -  President Asif Zardari (PPP)
 -  Prime Minister Yousaf Gillani (PPP)
 -  Chair of Senate Farooq Naek (PPP)
 -  House Speaker Fahmida Mirza (PPP)
 -  Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry
Formation
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Declared 14 August 1947 
 -  Islamic republic 23 March 1956 
Area
 -  Total 803,940 km2 (36th)
340,403 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.1
Population
 -  2010 estimate 169,010,500[1] (6th)
 -  1998 census 132,352,279[2] 
 -  Density 210.2/km2 (55th)
496.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $422.392 billion[3] (27th)
 -  Per capita $2,624[3] (133rd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $164.557 billion[3] (48th)
 -  Per capita $1,022[3] (142nd)
Gini (2002) 30.6 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.572[4] (medium) (141st)
Currency Pakistani Rupee (Rs.) (PKR)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Drives on the left[5]
Internet TLD .pk
Calling code 92
.Pakistan (Urdu: پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.^ The clashes broke out after pro-Taliban militants abducted four Pakistan soldiers in South Waziristan on January 1, the official said.
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.It has a 1,046 kilometres (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast.^ US drone attack in South Waziristan Agency near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
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^ Turkmen, some Arabs and Waziri tribal fighters, were killed and several others injured when an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fired four Hellfire missiles on Shnawana village in South Waziristan, along the border with Afghanistan.
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[6] Tajikistan also lies very close to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Thus, it occupies a crossroads position between South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.[7] The region forming modern Pakistan was at the heart of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and then later was the recipient of Vedic, Persian, Indo-Greek, Turco-Mongol, Islamic and Sikh cultures. The area has witnessed invasions and/or settlements by the Indo-Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Afghans, Mongols and the British.[8]
.In addition to the Indian independence movement which demanded an independent India, the Pakistan Movement (led by Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah of the Muslim League), in addition to independent India, sought independent states for the majority Muslim populations of the eastern and western regions of British India as well.^ Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 INDIA PAKISTAN NEPAL BHUTAN BANGLADESH SRI LANKA Terrorism Update Latest S.A.Overview Publication .
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^ Beena Sarwar Jan 9, 2005 interacts: 68 In Pakistan, the demand for Indian visas is as much as 1500 – per day – from around the country - .
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^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
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.The British granted independence and also the creation of one Muslim majority state of Pakistan that comprised the provinces of Sindh, North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, Balochistan and East Bengal.^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
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^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
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^ December 4: In the first such attack of its kind, a female suicide bomber blew herself up in a high security zone in Peshawar, capital of the North West Frontier Province.
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With the adoption of its constitution in 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. .In 1971, a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.^ East Pakistan to Bangladesh .
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.Pakistan's history has been characterized by periods of military rule and political instability.^ Nadeem F Paracha Feb 28, 2008 interacts: 130 Student politics in Pakistan has had a history of mixed fortunes and shades.
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^ Pakistan’s emerging political scenario point to the first signs of an uneasy coexistence between the military regime and the political forces ...
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^ Athar Osama Sep 23, 2007 interacts: 4 Is military rule the solution to Pakistan's problems?
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It is also the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia.[9] Pakistan also has the second largest Shia Muslim population.[10] It is the only Muslim-majority nuclear state. .Pakistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Next Eleven economies, D8, the United Nations, and a Major non-NATO ally of the United States.^ Muhammad Ashraf Nov 7, 2006 interacts: 4 How many votes a party requires to win a majority in National Assembly or Pakistan?
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^ Four children were among six civilians killed in a suspected missile attack from an unmanned United States spy plane on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in North Waziristan.
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Contents

Etymology

The name Pakistan (Urdu pronunciation: [paːkɪsˈtaːn]  ( listen)) means Land of (the) Pure in Urdu and Persian (Farsi). .It was coined in 1934 as Pakstan by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never.^ The Islami Jamiat Talaba (student wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami) alleged that activists of the All Pakistan Mohajir Students Organisation (APMSO) had attacked its workers who were in the bus.
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[11] The name is a portmanteau representing the "thirty million Muslims of PAKISTAN, who live in the five Northern Units of British RajPunjab, Afghania (now known as North-West Frontier Province), Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan."[12]

History

A carved stone statue of a bearded man with a prominent nose wearing a garment with a pattern
"The Priest King" Wearing Sindhi Ajruk, ca. 2500 BC. National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan
image of Menander I
Menander I was one of the rulers of the Indo-Greek Kingdom which existed in present-day Pakistan.
.The Indus region, which covers a considerable amount of Pakistan, was the site of several ancient cultures including the Neolithic era's Mehrgarh and the bronze era Indus Valley Civilisation (2500 BCE – 1500 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.^ Three persons, including a security force personnel, were killed and several others injured in the Swat valley of the NWFP. .
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^ The Afghan army saw Taliban militants firing mortars and rockets from several positions and Pakistans military confirmed three of the firing sites were on their soil, the statement said.
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[13]
Waves of conquerors and migrants from the west — including Harappan, Indo-Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Afghans, Arabs, Turks and Mughals — settled in the region throughout the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them.[14] Ancient empires of the east — such as the Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas, Guptas and the Palas — ruled these territories at different times from Patliputra.[15]
However, in the medieval period, while the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sindh grew aligned with Indo-Islamic civilisation, the western areas became culturally allied with the Iranian civilisation of Afghanistan and Iran.[16] The region served as a crossroads of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road, and as a maritime entreport for the coastal trade between Mesopotamia and beyond up to Rome in the west and Malabar and beyond up to China in the east.[17]
.Modern day Pakistan was at the heart of the Indus Valley Civilisation; that collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which also extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains.^ Beena Sarwar Jan 9, 2005 interacts: 68 In Pakistan, the demand for Indian visas is as much as 1500 – per day – from around the country - .
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Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Achaemenid Persian empire around 543 BCE,[18] the Greek empire founded by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire thereafter.[19]
The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times — the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country's major archaeological sites.[20] The Rai Dynasty (c.489–632) of Sindh, at its zenith, ruled this region and the surrounding territories.[21]
In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab.[22] .The Pakistan government's official chronology states that "its foundation was laid" as a result of this conquest.^ One is based on the government of Pakistan’s state funded educational institutions and modern curricula and other one is based on the centuries old system of madarassas’ religi .
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[23] .This Arab and Islamic victory would set the stage for several successive Muslim empires in South Asia, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire.^ A house came under attack in South Waziristan and four persons, including two Canadians of Arab origin, were killed.
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During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.
image of Badshahi Masjid
.The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.^ September 28: Four soldiers are killed and five others sustain injuries during a remote-controlled landmine explosion in the Shakai area of South Waziristan.
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^ Helicopter gun-ships targeted a cluster of compounds at Salamt village in the Zamzola area, 30km to the east of Razmak in South Waziristan.
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^ India is South Asia’s Natural Hegemon .
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[24] .The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, was the region's last major armed struggle against the British Raj, and it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Indian National Congress in the twentieth century.^ According to the ISPR spokesman, Major General Athar Abbas, "Nearly 55 to 60 Taliban have been killed over the last 24 hours in the Buner operation."
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^ "Our offensive against militants has been continuing since last night and there are reports that 20 to 30 more militants have been killed," military spokesperson Major General Waheed Arshad told AFP .
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^ However, the military spokesman, Major General Athar Abbas, denied the operation in South Waziristan and said SFs had just consolidated their positions in the region.
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In the 1920s and 1930s, a movement led by the Hindu politician Mahatma Gandhi, and displaying commitment to long enshrined Hindu tenet of ahimsa, or non-violence, engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience.[25]
The All India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal's presidential address called for an autonomous "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims, within the body politic of India."[26] Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In early 1947, Britain announced the decision to end its rule in India. .In June 1947, the nationalist leaders of British India — including Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad on behalf of the Congress, Jinnah representing the Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs — agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence.^ Police said Muhammad Sarwar shot dead the minister during a brief power cut during the open court at Pakistan Muslim League House.
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image of first founder and Governor General of pakistan Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
The first Governor General Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivering the opening address on 11 August 1947 to the new state of Pakistan.
.The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar), carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh.^ January 15: A bomb exploded at an Afghan refugee camp in the Nowshera district of North West Frontier Province (NWFP), killing four people and injuring five others.
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^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
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[27] .The controversial, and ill-timed, division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal caused communal riots across India and Pakistan — millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India.^ Yousuf Saeed Nov 2, 1998 interacts: 2 a peace march to Pakistan across the India-Pakistan border .
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^ Rohan Oberoi Jul 2, 1999 interacts: 63 No one in India, it seems, has a clue what people across the border in Pakistan are thinking .
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^ Ali Chishti Oct 15, 2008 interacts: 85 Emigration of Hindus post partition left a vacuum which was filled by the educated Muslim immigrants from India.
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[28] Disputes arose over several princely states including Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, whose Hindu ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun tribal militias, leading to the First Kashmir War in 1948.[29]
From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. .It became a Republic in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by a coup d’état by General Ayub Khan, who was president during 1958–69, a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with a devastating cyclone — which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan — and also face a civil war in 1971. Economic grievances and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political tension and military repression that escalated into a civil war.^ The bombing, reportedly the biggest terrorist attack on the military since Pakistan joined the US-led war on terrorism, occurred at around 8:30am in a ground opposite the PRC fort in Kurkai the area.
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^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
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^ Political agent Pirzada Khan, who was in the office at the time, is reported to have escaped unhurt.
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[30] .After nine months of guerrilla warfare between the Pakistan Army and the Indian backed Bengali Mukti Bahini militia, Indian intervention escalated into the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and ultimately to the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.^ Rahul Ghosh Sep 23, 2001 interacts: 103 There seems to be a lot of acrimony and bad-blood between some Indian and Pakistani contributors ...
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^ Feroz R Khan Apr 12, 2000 interacts: 232 For the Indian war planners, the Pakistan Air Force is their worst fear...
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^ According to the deal signed between the government and militants in September 2006, the army has to take the peace committee into confidence before taking action in the area.
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[31]
The two wings of Pakistan in 1970;
The two wings of Pakistan in 1970; East Pakistan separated from the West wing in 1971 as an independent Bangladesh.
.Civilian rule resumed in Pakistan from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country's third military president.^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
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^ It was the third attack by the US drones in South Waziristan in January 2009 and the first after Barack Obama became the US President.
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^ February 25: A suicide bomber killed eight people, including the Pakistan Armys surgeon general, in Rawalpindi - the highest-ranking military official killed since the country joined the US-led war on terror.
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Zia introduced the Islamic Sharia legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. .With the death of President Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan.^ October 18: A suicide bombing in a crowd welcoming former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto killed 143 persons and injured approximately 550 others in Karachi.
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^ December 27: Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime Minister and PPP Chairperson, was assassinated in a gun and suicide attack as she drove away from a campaign rally just minutes after addressing thousands of supporters at Liaquat Bagh in Rawalpindi.
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.Over the next decade, she fought for power with Nawaz Sharif as the country's political and economic situation worsened.^ Babar Mufti Aug 24, 2007 interacts: 31 Nawaz Sharif’s expected reentry in Pakistan is creating a new power configuration.
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^ Feroz R Khan Nov 3, 1998 interacts: 36 Crisis in the shadows of power: Is Pakistan entering an institutional crisis acknowledging Nawaz Sharif’s imperial designs?
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^ Chowk Press Oct 8, 1997 interacts: 2 Next Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif met with President Clinton.
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.Pakistan got involved in the 1991 Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a U.S.-led coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.^ I was told by a Pakistani consultant living a prosperous life in Saudi Arabia that Pakistan has nothing to offer.
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^ The US-led coalition in Afghanistan said it was not involved.
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^ The US-led coalition said it received permission from Pakistan to attack across the border on August 25, but this was denied by the chief military spokesperson in Islamabad.
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[32]
.Military tensions in the Kargil conflict with India were followed by a Pakistani military coup d'état in 1999 in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed vast executive powers.^ Pervez Hoodbhoy Jun 4, 1999 interacts: 15 India and Pakistan conducted their nuclear tests one year ago.
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^ Feroz R Khan Jan 1, 1999 interacts: 68 Siachen-Kargil: India, Pakistan, Kashmir and forgotton lessons of history .
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^ Abdul Hakim Jun 18, 1999 interacts: 49 Searching for your identity as a second generation Pakistani in Britain.
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[33][34] In 2001, Musharraf became President after the controversial resignation of Rafiq Tarar. .After the 2002 parliamentary elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to the newly-elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 prime-ministerial election by Shaukat Aziz.^ July 30: Seven persons, including the attacker, are killed in a suicide bomb attack on the car of Finance Minister and Prime Minister-designate, Shaukat Aziz, at village Jaffar in Fateh Jang.
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^ Rashid Malik Dec 15, 2009 interacts: 250 The army took over the rein of power again in Pakistan in 1977 and executed the elected Prime minister.
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^ Shaukat Aziz has been foisted on Pakistan as part of post-Musharraf scenario .
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.On 15 November 2007, the National Assembly, for the first time in Pakistan's history, completed its tenure and new elections were called.^ Muhammad Shaikh Jun 15, 2007 interacts: 3 The month of March this year may be considered a turning point in the judicial history of Pakistan, but more so it will be remembered for manifestation of the powerful role played by the media.
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^ Muhammad Ashraf Nov 7, 2006 interacts: 4 How many votes a party requires to win a majority in National Assembly or Pakistan?
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^ Grace Kennedy Jul 12, 2007 interacts: 15 About private adoptions from Pakistan .
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.The exiled political leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were permitted to return to Pakistan.^ Babar Mufti Aug 24, 2007 interacts: 31 Nawaz Sharif’s expected reentry in Pakistan is creating a new power configuration.
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^ Feroz R Khan Nov 3, 1998 interacts: 36 Crisis in the shadows of power: Is Pakistan entering an institutional crisis acknowledging Nawaz Sharif’s imperial designs?
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^ Feroz R Khan May 29, 2000 interacts: 38 Pakistan, as a nation, seems to have entered a political terra incognita from which it is unlikely to return .
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.However, the assassination of Benazir Bhutto during the election campaign in December led to postponement of elections and nationwide riots.^ December 27: Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime Minister and PPP Chairperson, was assassinated in a gun and suicide attack as she drove away from a campaign rally just minutes after addressing thousands of supporters at Liaquat Bagh in Rawalpindi.
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.Bhutto's Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the largest number of seats in the elections held in February 2008 and its member Yousaf Raza Gillani was sworn in as Prime Minister.^ February 18th, 2008-Election Day .
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^ Pakistan Elections 2008 - An analysis .
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^ Yasser Latif Hamdani Feb 22, 2008 interacts: 767 What if instead of a PPP prime minister or PML-N prime minister, ANP’s Asfandyar Wali Khan was to become the Prime Minister of Pakistan?
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[35] .On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned from the presidency when threatened to faced with impeachment,[36] and was succeeded by current president Asif Ali Zardari.^ Pervez Hoodbhoy Apr 21, 2008 interacts: 145 The Musharraf years are over.
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^ Ali Chishti Nov 14, 2008 interacts: 63 Asif Zardari led government today is an extension of Mushraff’s government; authenticating Mushraff’s policies regarding war on terror and shifting the pendulum of power from Punjab to Sindh .
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^ Joe Athialy Dec 11, 2008 interacts: 26 The article 'The Terrorists Want to Destroy Pakistan, Too' by Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari, published in NYT on December 9, 2008 is significant in many ways.
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.By the end of 2009, more than 3 million Pakistani civilians have been displaced by the on going conflict in North-West Pakistan between the government and Taliban militants.^ Taliban were also killed," said the ISPR, adding that six more militants were killed in a search operation at Derai.
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^ The clashes broke out after pro-Taliban militants abducted four Pakistan soldiers in South Waziristan on January 1, the official said.
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^ The dead also included three civilians and a local militant, residents and Taliban sources said.
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[37]

Government and politics

Prime Minister's Secretariat, Islamabad
Prime Minister's Secretariat, Islamabad
Pakistan is a semi-presidential federal democratic republic with Islam as the state religion.[38] .The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan.^ Feroz R Khan Sep 9, 2002 interacts: 49 Pakistan will re-take its first fledging steps towards democracy .
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^ Chowk Nov 3, 2007 interacts: 190 As of 6PM on Saturday President General Musharraf has suspended the constitution and declared State of Emergency in Pakistan.
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^ Waqas S Khan Dec 14, 1997 interacts: 9 The first topic of conversation is always Pakistan.
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The Constitution of 1973 — suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985 — is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government.[14]
.The bicameral legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly.^ The bomb was planted to strike Member of the National Assembly, Ahmadan Bugti, the lawmaker, escaped unhurt.
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The President is the Head of State and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. .The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly.^ Muhammad Ashraf Nov 7, 2006 interacts: 4 How many votes a party requires to win a majority in National Assembly or Pakistan?
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^ June 9: Front-ranking leader of Baluchistan National Party (BNP), Mir Aslam Gichki is assassinated along with an associate in Mashkey, Quetta.
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^ Seven persons, including an Awami National Party leader and two Frontier Constabulary personnel, were killed in different parts of the Swat District.
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.Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister.^ Ammara Ahmad Sep 16, 2009 interacts: 2 The chief minister of Punjab recently announced that 32 universities in Punjab adopt the four years honors system.
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Provincial Governors are appointed by the President.[38]
.The Pakistani military has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's history, with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999–2008.[39] The leftist Pakistan Peoples Party, led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, won support after the loss of East Pakistan but was overthrown amidst riots in 1977.[40] Under the military rule of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, during the 1980s, the anti-feudal, pro-Muhajir Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) was started by unorthodox and educated urban dwellers of Sindh and particularly Karachi.^ The advertising agency is located near Bilawal House, office of the Pakistan Peoples Party.
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^ The blast occurred within the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) camp and many of the dead, including three women, were activists of the party.
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^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
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A politically nationalist insurgency in Balochistan was also bloodlessly quelled by military governor Rahimuddin.[41] .The 1990s were characterized by coalition politics dominated by the Pakistan Peoples Party and a rejuvenated Muslim League.^ The advertising agency is located near Bilawal House, office of the Pakistan Peoples Party.
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^ The blast occurred within the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) camp and many of the dead, including three women, were activists of the party.
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^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
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[38]
Pakistan National Symbols of Pakistan[42]
Flag Flag of Pakistan
Emblem Faith, Unity, Discipline
Anthem Qaumi Tarana
Animal Markhor
Bird Chukar
Flower Jasmine
Tree Cedrus deodara
Juice Sugarcane juice
Sport Field hockey
Dress Shalwar Kameez
.Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation, a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world.^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
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^ A suicide bomber targeted the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) office in Islamabad, killing five persons, including a UN diplomat and two women employees.
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[38] .Pakistan is also a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO).^ November 10: A tribal peace committee member, Malik Khan Jan, and his three associates are killed when a bomb hit their vehicle at Shakai in South Waziristan.
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^ The Political-Economy of the South Asian Economic Union .
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[38] .In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States; in the early 1950s, Pakistan was the United States' "most allied ally in Asia"[43] and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO).^ Four children were among six civilians killed in a suspected missile attack from an unmanned United States spy plane on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in North Waziristan.
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.During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s Pakistan was a major U.S. ally.^ Major Zahid of the Pakistan Army was also reported to have been killed during the encounter.
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^ Agha Amin Dec 7, 2007 interacts: 69 The Afghan War started a grand party for Pakistan's ruling elite and even Pakistan.
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[44] But relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were imposed by the U.S. over Pakistan's refusal to abandon its nuclear activities.[45] .However, the American War on Terrorism, as an aftermath of 11 September 2001 attacks in U.S.A., led to an improvement in U.S.–Pakistan ties, especially after Pakistan ended its support of the Taliban regime in Kabul.^ Akmal Hussain Nov 16, 2007 interacts: 112 There is little doubt that Pakistan is under attack by the combined forces of Al Qaeda and Taliban.
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^ Hussain Gadehi Sep 24, 2007 interacts: 3 An overview of the declasified US secret documents, it has been alleged in those documents that the Pakistan is supporting the Taliban .
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^ September 13: Two Taliban militants and a soldier were killed at Kuz Bamakhela near Matta in Swat, when troops conducting a search operation were attacked by the Taliban.
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.Its positive side was evidenced by a major increase in American military aid, providing Pakistan $4 billion more in three years after the 9/11 attacks than before.^ Kamal Siddiqi Mar 8, 2009 interacts: 165 Ironically, more people have been killed by Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Pakistan than by the three “enemies?
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^ All this and more while facing more than 40 years of US trade and financial embargoes.
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^ Military spokesman Major General Athar Abbas confirmed the bombing and said the action was taken as a reaction to the attack of militants on SFs and a rescue team on July 3.
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[46] .On the other hand, Pakistan is presently burdened with nearly 3 million displaced civilians due to the ongoing Afghan war.^ Pervez Hoodbhoy May 23, 2003 interacts: 54 Pakistan cannot bear the shock of nearly a million of its own people being dispossessed .
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^ Agha Amin Dec 7, 2007 interacts: 69 The Afghan War started a grand party for Pakistan's ruling elite and even Pakistan.
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^ Comments on Ongoing Debate about ISI in the Afghan War .
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As of 2004, in contexts of the War on Terrorism Pakistan was been referred to as part of the Greater Middle East by the U.S. under the Bush administration[47]
.On 18 February 2008, Pakistan held its general elections after Benazir Bhutto's assassination postponed the original date of 8 January 2008.[48] The Pakistan Peoples Party won the majority of the votes and formed an alliance with the Pakistan Muslim League (N).^ February 18th, 2008-Election Day .
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^ Pakistan Elections 2008 - An analysis .
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^ The advertising agency is located near Bilawal House, office of the Pakistan Peoples Party.
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.They nominated and elected Yousaf Raza Gilani as Prime Minister of Pakistan.^ Rashid Malik Dec 15, 2009 interacts: 250 The army took over the rein of power again in Pakistan in 1977 and executed the elected Prime minister.
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^ A Letter to the Prime Minister of Pakistan .
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[49] .On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned as President of Pakistan amidst increasing calls for his impeachment.^ Beena Sarwar Aug 18, 2008 interacts: 294 Musharraf’s departure is just one step in the process of democracy, for the continuation of which Pakistan and its allies will need all the patience they can muster.
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^ Chowk Nov 3, 2007 interacts: 190 As of 6PM on Saturday President General Musharraf has suspended the constitution and declared State of Emergency in Pakistan.
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^ Moeed Pirzada Jan 18, 2008 interacts: 567 First it was Ms Bhutto who was conspiring along with the US to destabilise and denuclearise Pakistan.
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[50] .In the presidential election that followed, Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan People's Party won by a landslide majority and became President of Pakistan.^ Beena Sarwar Sep 12, 2008 interacts: 62 Asif Ali Zardari's presidential nomination was widely condemned - but the fact is that he is now the democratically elected President of Pakistan.
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^ The advertising agency is located near Bilawal House, office of the Pakistan Peoples Party.
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^ Riaz Haq Jan 1, 2009 interacts: 133 It began with Bhutto's widower Asif Ali Zardari taking over the reigns of Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan's largest political party, and ended with rising tensions in South Asia.
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[51]

Subdivisions

Provinces and territories of Pakistan
Provinces:
  1. Balochistan
  2. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
  3. Punjab
  4. Sindh
Territories:
  1. Islamabad Capital Territory (IST)
  2. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
  3. Azad Jammu and Kashmir (or simply Azad Kashmir)[6] (AJK)
  4. Gilgit-Baltistan
    .
  • Balochistan and NWFP also have Provincially Administered Tribal Areas.^ January 9: A Bugti tribal chief and his three bodyguards were killed in a landmine explosion in the Bekar area of Dera Bugti District in Balochistan.
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    ^ January 4: Three persons were killed during sectarian clashes in the Jalmai and Meangak area of Kurram Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
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    ^ Three persons were killed and 20 others injured in sectarian clashes at Parachinar in the Kurram Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas..
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    [52](PATA)
.Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, a capital territory and federally administered tribal areas.^ Jungraiz Pukhtunyar Feb 16, 2008 interacts: 338 Election in Tribal Areas and Pukhtunkhua province has been marred by violence.
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^ September 16 : Ten Taliban militants were killed and several others injured when Pakistan Army helicopter gunship and fighter jets fired shells at militant hideouts in Bajaur Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
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^ Tribal and official sources said the jetfighters targeted the hideouts and compounds of the militants in Utmankhel area, killing four militants and targeting three compounds.
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.The government of Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the disputed Kashmir region,[6] organized as two separate political entities (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).^ India, Pakistan and the Kashmir dispute .
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^ March 26: Seven people, including two women, were killed and two others sustained injuries when gunmen ambushed a Government ambulance in the Lower Kurram region.
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^ Amandeep Midha Jul 4, 1999 interacts: 27 I begin the issue right from 1947 when India and Pakistan were planned to be two separate countries .
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.The third tier of government was composed of 26 divisions with two further tiers (districts and tehsils) administered directly from the provincial level.^ Militants reportedly beheaded two followers of rival cleric Pir Sameeullah in the Gwalerai area of Matta tehsil (revenue division).
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^ It was the first incident of its kind in Dir Lower, where SFs in the summer crushed a Taliban-led insurgency concentrated in Maidan and Adinzai tehsil (revenue division) of the Dir Lower District.
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^ March 26: Seven people, including two women, were killed and two others sustained injuries when gunmen ambushed a Government ambulance in the Lower Kurram region.
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.The divisions were abolished in 2001[53] and a new three-tiered system of local government came into effect comprising districts, tehsils and union councils with an elected body at each tier.^ Three Shias, including a union council chief, were killed in Quetta, the Balochistan capital, by unidentified men in a suspected sectarian incident.
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^ Tribal sources told The News that the US drone fired three missiles at a house, which the militants had occupied from Zangi Khan Burki, a local influential trader, and turned it into their 'Markaz' or headquarters.
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^ December 2: The local Taliban killed three people and injured five others in an attack on a cockfight fare at the Shene Ghundae village in the Shabqadar dub-division of Charsadda district of NWFP. .
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.There are currently 107 districts in Pakistan proper, each with several tehsils and union councils.^ Feroz R Khan Jan 28, 2004 interacts: 127 Currently, there are two distinct educational systems in Pakistan.
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.The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises seven districts and Northern Areas comprises six districts.^ November 25: Seven more militants were killed and 10 others arrested as the SFs continued their operations in the Shahukhel area of the Orakzai Agency.
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^ Seven militants were killed and 20 others injured when troops clashed with the LI in Shalobar area of Bara tehsils (revenue unit) in Khyber Agency.
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^ Sources said a landmine planted in the Marwar area of Dera Bugti District exploded, hitting a Frontier Corps vehicle.
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[54]

Demographics

Population density in Pakistan
Population density in Pakistan
.The estimated population of Pakistan in 2009 was over 180,800,000[55][56] making it the world's sixth most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Russia.^ Zafir Zia Jun 26, 2009 interacts: 7 Pakistan today considered to be among the top 20 countries in the world that are gravely endangered to the adverse affects of climate change.
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^ While he will be remembered for his heroism, his global vision and his genuine ambition to transform Pakistan into a world power under his leadership, he will be condemned for making the deal with the devil and .
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^ Umair A Khan Oct 23, 2005 interacts: 180 Spare a scream for the 100,000 dead and 3 million homeless, muted out of world media.
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By the year 2020, the country's population is expected to reach 220 million, owing to a relatively high growth rate.[57] About 20% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[58] Population projections for Pakistan are relatively difficult because of the differences in the accuracy of each census and the inconsistencies between various surveys related to the fertility rate, but it is likely that the rate of growth peaked in the 1980s and has since declined significantly.[59] Life expectancy at birth was 63 for females and 62 for males in 2006.[60] Healthy life expectancy at birth was at 54 for males and 52 for females in 2003.[60] Expenditure on health was at 2% of the GDP in 2006.[60] The mortality below 5 was at 97 per 1,000 live births in 2006.[60]
The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. By population size, Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan.[61] In the northern half, most of the population lives about an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sargodha and Sheikhupura. In the past, the country's population had a relatively high growth rate that has, however, been moderated by declining fertility and birth rates. Dramatic social changes have led to rapid urbanization and the emergence of megacities. .During 1990–2003, Pakistan sustained its historical lead as the most urbanized nation in South Asia, with city dwellers making up 36% of its population.^ November 2: At least 35 persons, including two women and children, were killed and 63 others sustained injuries when a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a branch of the National Bank of Pakistan in Rawalpindi.
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^ Zeemax Jan 8, 2000 interacts: 332 Kashmir does not belong to Pakistan regardless of historical events during partition...
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^ Yasser Latif Hamdani Jan 30, 2003 interacts: 281 Anti-Pakistanism and neo-Indian Nationalism .
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[62]
Pakistan has a multicultural and multi-ethnic society and hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world as well as a young population. .About 8 million Muhajirs—then roughly one-fourth of the country’s population—arrived from India after independence in 1947.[63] The Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up nearly half of Karachi's 17 million residents,[64] with Punjabis and Pashtuns also having sizable communities in the city.^ Beena Sarwar Jan 17, 2009 interacts: 111 As tensions between Pakistan and India continue to see-saw, citizens in both countries are stepping up efforts for peace through initiatives .
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^ Rohan Oberoi Jul 2, 1999 interacts: 63 No one in India, it seems, has a clue what people across the border in Pakistan are thinking .
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^ Amandeep Midha Jul 4, 1999 interacts: 27 I begin the issue right from 1947 when India and Pakistan were planned to be two separate countries .
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[65] .Approximately 1.7 million Afghan refugees remain in the country, about half of them were born and grew up in Pakistan during the last 30 years.^ About the identity of the deceased, the Police said two of them seemed to be Uzbeks or Tajiks while the remaining two were said to be Afghan nationals having long locks and beards.
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^ Mehdi Hasan Sep 14, 1998 interacts: 12 During the last many years, religious intolerance and sectarian fanaticism have created a war-like situation in Pakistan .
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^ Mahmood Jan 27, 2008 interacts: 148 A chopping tool found in Pakistan dates to 2 million years ago, earlier than the earliest hominid remains, the Homo species "Narmada Man," (250,000 years ago).
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[66] .They are not counted in the national census, even the ones born in Pakistan, because they are still considered citizens of Afghanistan.^ Soumitra Bose Feb 21, 1999 interacts: 30 India had never been a Nation, it is still not one .
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Cities by population (2010 estimate)[67]
Rank City Location Population Rank City Location Population
Kar1.jpg
Karachi, Sindh
Badshahi Mosque July 1 2005 pic32 by Ali Imran.jpg
Lahore, Punjab
1 Karachi Sindh 13,205,339 11 Sargodha Punjab 600,501
2 Lahore Punjab 7,129,609 12 Bahawalpur Punjab 543,929
3 Faisalabad Punjab 2,880,675 13 Sialkot Punjab 510,863
4 Rawalpindi Punjab 1,991,656 14 Sukkur Sindh 493,438
5 Multan Punjab 1,606,481 15 Larkana Sindh 456,544
6 Hyderabad Sindh 1,578,367 16 Sheikhupura Punjab 426,980
7 Gujranwala Punjab 1,569,090 17 Jhang Punjab 372,645
8 Peshawar NWFP 1,439,205 18 Rahim Yar Khan Punjab 353,112
9 Quetta Balochistan 896,090 19 Mardan NWFP 352,135
10 Islamabad Capital Territory 689,249 20 Gujrat Punjab 336,727

Languages

.Pakistan is a multilingual country with more than sixty languages being spoken.^ Sadanand Dhume Dec 7, 1998 interacts: 47 Pakistan is more an army with a state than a state with an army.
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^ Kamal Siddiqi Mar 8, 2009 interacts: 165 Ironically, more people have been killed by Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Pakistan than by the three “enemies?
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^ Vivek Balaraman Jul 4, 2009 interacts: 310 What Pakistan urgently needs are more Morpheuses who will awaken the country.
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.English is the official language of Pakistan and used in official business, government, and legal contracts,[14] while Urdu is the national language.^ An unnamed senior Government official claimed the targeted compounds were being used by local militants as a training and transit camp to launch attacks in Afghanistan.
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^ Rizwana Khan Sep 1, 2005 interacts: 9 It is easier to blame Urdu language for all the ails in every area of education in Pakistan.
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Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan
Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan
Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab. .Pashto is the provincial language of North-West Frontier Province.^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
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^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
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^ December 4: In the first such attack of its kind, a female suicide bomber blew herself up in a high security zone in Peshawar, capital of the North West Frontier Province.
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Sindhi is the provincial language of Sindh and Balochi is the provincial language of Balochistan.[68]
Other languages include Aer, Badeshi, Bagri, Balti, Bateri, Bhaya, Brahui, Burushaski, Chilisso, Dameli, Dehwari, Dhatki, Domaaki, Farsi (Dari), Gawar-Bati, Ghera, Goaria, Gowro, Gujarati, Gujari, Gurgula, Hazaragi, Hindko (two varieties), Jadgali, Jandavra, Kabutra, Kachchi (Kutchi), Kalami, Kalasha, Kalkoti, Kamviri, Kashmiri, Kati, Khetrani, Khowar, Indus Kohistani, Koli (three varieties), Lasi, Loarki, Marwari, Memoni, Od, Ormuri, Pahari-Potwari, Pakistan Sign Language, Palula (Phalura), Sansi, Savi, Shina (two varieties), Torwali, Ushojo, Vaghri, Wakhi, Waneci, and Yidgha.[69] Some of these are endangered languages with a relatively small number of speakers and others have hundreds of thousands of speakers. Most of the languages belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. The exceptions are Burushaski, which is a language isolate; Balti, which is Sino-TIbetan; and Brahui, which is Dravidian.

Religions

Religion in Pakistan
Religion Percent
Islam
  
96%
Hinduism
  
1.85%
Sikhism
  
0.001%
Christianity
  
1.6%
Other
  
0.549%
Pakistan is the second-most populous Muslim-majority country[9][70] and also has the second-largest Shi'a population in the world.[10] About 95% of the Pakistanis are Muslim, of which nearly 75% are Sunni and 20% are Shi'a.[14] .Although the two groups of Muslims usually coexist peacefully, sectarian violence occurs sporadically.^ Although no group claimed responsibility for the incident, the killings are reported to be part of a series of sectarian attacks that started in Quetta a couple of months ago.
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[71]
The religious breakdown of the country is as follows:[14]
.

Military

Pakistan's nuclear capable Babur cruise missile
Pakistan's nuclear capable Babur cruise missile
.The armed forces of Pakistan are an all-volunteer force and the sixth-largest in the world.^ Tariq Aqil Nov 8, 2009 interacts: 76 Time is here for all patriotic forces to band together and demand the return of Jinnah’s Pakistan.
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.The three main services are the Army, Navy and the Air Force, supported by a number of paramilitary forces which carry out internal security roles and border patrols.^ The gun-battle began when the security forces stopped a vehicle they suspected was carrying militants at the Sour Bridge check-post near the Doaba town.
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^ A number of eyewitnesses claimed that a suicide bomber carried out the attack using an IED near the Kanju Bridge.
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^ Air attacks were carried out in Kharkay, Damadola, Gatkai, Irab, Gat Agra, Tarkho and Kass areas.
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.The National Command Authority is responsible for exercising employment and development control of all strategic nuclear forces and organizations.^ Zulfiqar Mehsud, a spokesperson for militant commander Baitullah Mehsud, claimed responsibility for the attacks on the security forces.
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.The Pakistan military first saw combat in the First Kashmir War, gaining control of what is now Azad Kashmir.^ Pakistan’s emerging political scenario point to the first signs of an uneasy coexistence between the military regime and the political forces ...
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^ H P Feb 24, 2008 interacts: 346 Benazir is now remembered as a Rani, a princess and soon will turn in to the first woman Saint in Pakistan.
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^ The Afghan army saw Taliban militants firing mortars and rockets from several positions and Pakistans military confirmed three of the firing sites were on their soil, the statement said.
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.In 1961, the army repelled a major Afghan incursion on Pakistan's western border.^ In Pakistan, only the lives of politicians, feudals, army officers and visiting foreigners (from western Europe or USA) has any value .
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^ Major Zahid of the Pakistan Army was also reported to have been killed during the encounter.
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^ A helicopter gunship fired on a suspicious car that was following an army convoy near the Afghan border, killing four suspected militants.
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[73] .Pakistan and India would be at war again in 1965 and in 1971.^ Feroz R Khan Jan 2, 1999 interacts: 9 India and Pakistan go to war!
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^ Anwar Iqbal Dec 25, 2001 interacts: 359 Looking at the current India, Pakistan conflict as Manto would have .
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^ Umair Raja Aug 11, 2002 interacts: 281 India may actually be helping Pakistan in the long run, not harming it, with its current war hysteria .
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In 1973, the military quelled a Baloch nationalist uprising. .During the Soviet-Afghan war, Pakistan shot down several intruding pro-Soviet Afghan aircraft and provided covert support to the Afghan mujahideen through the Inter-Services Intelligence agency.^ He also claimed that the Taliban have captured seven soldiers of the Afghan National Army and shot down a Nato helicopter, killing its crew.
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^ A spokesman for the BLA claimed responsibility for the attack saying that those killed were spying for the Military Intelligence and the Inter-Services Intelligence.
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^ June 11: The army killed 22 Taliban militants during fierce clashes in South Waziristan, the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) said.
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.In 1999, Pakistan was involved in the Kargil conflict with India.^ Vinod Vyasulu Jun 24, 1999 interacts: 22 Could it be that there is a feeling that India does not accept the existence of Pakistan?
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^ Pervez Hoodbhoy Jun 4, 1999 interacts: 15 India and Pakistan conducted their nuclear tests one year ago.
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^ Rohan Oberoi Jul 2, 1999 interacts: 63 No one in India, it seems, has a clue what people across the border in Pakistan are thinking .
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.Currently, the military is engaged in an armed conflict with extremist Islamic militants in the north-west of the country.^ August 19: At least 15 militants were killed during military operations that targeted militant hideouts near the Mir Ali town in North Waziristan.
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^ December 7: The military spokesman Major General Waheed Arshad confirmed that eight militants were killed and four arrested after a clash in Miranshah, headquarters of North Waziristan.
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^ Cobra helicopters killed three suspected militants, pounding what was believed to be their base, after the firefight in Mir Ali town of North Waziristan, the military said.
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.The Pakistani armed forces contributed to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,700 personnel deployed in 2009,[74] and are presently the largest contributor.^ Kamal Siddiqi Mar 8, 2009 interacts: 165 Ironically, more people have been killed by Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Pakistan than by the three “enemies?
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^ Mushahid Hussain Jun 10, 2001 interacts: 353 Like any institution in a status quo society, the Armed Forces badly need reforms as well.
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^ More than 40 people, including 10 civilians, were killed in the Swat and Shangla districts of the NWFP when gunship helicopters and security forces continued targeting militants hideouts and faced retaliation.
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In the past, Pakistani personnel have volunteered to serve alongside Arab forces in conflicts with Israel. .Pakistan provided a military contingent to the U.N.-backed coalition in the first Gulf War.^ The US-led coalition said it received permission from Pakistan to attack across the border on August 25, but this was denied by the chief military spokesperson in Islamabad.
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[75]
.Pakistan's military employs armaments that include atomic weapons, mobile vehicle ballistic missile systems, laser communication systems, armored cars and tanks, and multi-role fighter/bomber jets.^ October 6: Fighter jets bombed TTP Pakistan strongholds of Makeen and Nawazkot in South Waziristan - killing six militants and injuring three others.
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^ The Pakistan Air Force jet fighters bombed Taliban bunkers in Kotkai, killing three militants in the strike.
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.Since 2004, Pakistani armed forces are engaged in fighting against Pakistani Taliban groups.^ Four Taliban militants were killed in fighting with the security forces in the Bajaur Agency of FATA. .
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^ April 13: Three Taliban militants from the Mullah Nazir group were killed in clashes with SFs in South Waziristan- marking the first intense clashes with the group since April 2007.
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^ H P Nov 18, 2008 interacts: 339 The Pakistani Taliban is not an ideological but an opportunistic anarchic group.
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Ever since the militant groups have been retaliating by suicide bombings in Pakistani cities, killing more than 3,000 civilians and armed personnels only in 2009.[76]

Geography and climate

Toli peer, Azad Kashmir
The Baltoro Glacier, at 62 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions
The Baltoro Glacier, Northern Pakistan, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions.
Astola Island located in the Arabian Sea
Pakistan covers 340,403 square miles (881,640 km2),[77] approximately equalling the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. Its eastern regions are located on the Indian tectonic plate and the western and northern regions on the Iranian plateau and Eurasian landplate. .Apart from the 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) Arabian Sea coastline, Pakistan's land borders total 6,774 kilometres—2,430 kilometres (1,509 mi) with Afghanistan to the northwest, 523 kilometres (325 mi) with China to the northeast, 2,912 kilometres (1,809 mi) with India to the east and 909 kilometres (565 mi) with Iran to the southwest.^ The attack was the first of its kind in Orakzai Agency, the only tribal region out of the total seven regions of the FATA, which does not share its border with Afghanistan.
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^ US drone attack in South Waziristan Agency near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
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^ Four children were among six civilians killed in a suspected missile attack from an unmanned United States spy plane on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in North Waziristan.
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[14]
The northern and western highlands of Pakistan contain the towering Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges, which incorporate some of the world's highest peaks, including K2 (28,250 ft; 8,611 m) and Nanga Parbat (26,660 ft; 8,126 m). The Balochistan Plateau lies to the West, and the Thar Desert in the East. An expanse of alluvial plains lies in Punjab and Sindh along the Indus river. The 1,000-mile-long (1,609-km) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea.[78]
Pakistan has four seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location.[79] Rainfall can vary radically from year to year, and successive patterns of flooding and drought are also not uncommon.[80]

Flora and fauna

Markhor, Pakistan's national animal
Markhor, Pakistan's national animal
The national animal of Pakistan is the Markhor and the national bird is the Chukar, also known as Chakhoor in Urdu.[81] The wide variety of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows for a wide variety of wild animals and birds. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the northern mountains to deciduous trees such as the mulberry-type Shisham in the Sulaiman range in the south. The western hills have juniper and tamarisk as well as coarse grasses and scrub plants. Along the southern coast are mangrove forests which form much of the coastal wetlands.[82]
In the south, there are crocodiles in the murky waters at the mouth of the Indus River whilst on the banks of the river, there are boars, deer, porcupines, and small rodents. In the sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are found jackals, hyenas, wild cats, panthers, and leopards while the clear blue skies abound with hawks, falcons, and eagles. In the southwestern deserts are rare Asiatic cheetahs. In the northern mountains are a variety of endangered animals including Marco Polo sheep, Urial sheep, Markhor and Ibex goats, black and brown Himalayan bears, and the rare Snow Leopard. .During August 2006, Pakistan donated an orphaned snow leopard cub called Leo to the United States.^ Four children were among six civilians killed in a suspected missile attack from an unmanned United States spy plane on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in North Waziristan.
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[83] Another rare species is the blind Indus River Dolphin of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh.[84] In recent years, the number of wild animals being killed for fur and leather trading led to a new law banning the hunting of wild animals and birds as well as the establishment of several wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. The number of hunters have greatly dwindled since then.[85]

Economy

A View of I. I. Chundrigar Road road, Karachi,
A View of I. I. Chundrigar Road road, Karachi, which is the financial hub of pakistan
Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy.[86][87] .The growth poles of the Pakistani economy are situated along the Indus River,[87][88] diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centers, coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country.^ Acting on a tip-off, gunship helicopters targeted the base of militants near River Swat in the Charbagh area, killing six militants and injuring several others.
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[87] .Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan's economic growth rate has been better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990s.^ Amandeep Midha Jul 4, 1999 interacts: 27 I begin the issue right from 1947 when India and Pakistan were planned to be two separate countries .
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^ The subsequent gun battle led to the killing of four Taliban militants.
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[89] Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors.[89] Since the 1990s, there has been great improvement in the foreign exchange position and rapid growth in hard currency reserves.[89]
The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. .However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund and significant debt-relief from the United States.^ October 11: A suspected United States (US) missile strike killed four people while the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) claimed it had killed five Taliban militants inside Pakistan.
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Pakistan's gross domestic product, as measured by purchasing power parity, is estimated to be US$475.4 billion[90] while its per capita income stands at $2,942.[90] The poverty rate in Pakistan is estimated to be between 23%[91] and 28%.[92] GDP growth was steady during the mid 2000s at a rate of 7%;[93][94] however, slowed down during the Economic crisis of 2008 to 4.7%.[14] .A large inflation rate of 24.4% and a low savings rate, and other economic factors, continue to make it difficult to sustain a high growth rate.^ September 7: Five more persons were killed and 14 others sustained injuries as violence continued in the Swat Valley in NWFP. .
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^ May 31: At least 24 worshippers are killed and 34 others sustain injuries when a high-intensity bomb explodes during the evening prayers at a Shia mosque situated on the MA Jinnah Road in Karachi.
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[95][96] .Pakistan's GDP is US$167 billions, which makes it the 48th-largest economy in the world or 27th largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates.^ Failing to Make Direct Contact With the People, The US is Further Alienating Pakistan .
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.Today, Pakistan is regarded as to having the second largest economy in South Asia.^ Riaz Haq Jan 1, 2009 interacts: 133 It began with Bhutto's widower Asif Ali Zardari taking over the reigns of Pakistan Peoples Party, Pakistan's largest political party, and ended with rising tensions in South Asia.
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[97]
GDP by Province
GDP by Province
The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural base to a strong service base. .Agriculture now only accounts for roughly 20% of the GDP, while the service sector accounts for 53% of the GDP.[98] Significant foreign investments have been made in several areas including telecommunications, real estate and energy.^ The SFs continued targeting Taliban hideouts in several areas of the Chaharbagh sub-division, including Coat and Darul Uloom.
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^ Five militants, including a foreigner, were killed when the SFs targeted the militant hideouts in Speen Thall area of Thall sub-division in the Hangu District of NWFP. An Afghan militant was among the dead.
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^ October 8: At least 20 Taliban militants, including eight foreigners, were killed when helicopter gun ships hit their hideouts in the Badaan area of Mamoond tehsil (revenue division) in the Bajaur Agency of FATA. .
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[99][100] Other important industries include apparel and textiles (accounting for nearly 60% of exports), food processing, chemicals manufacture, and the iron and steel industries.[101] Pakistan's exports in 2008 amounted to $20.62 billion (USD).[14] Pakistan is a rapidly developing country.[102][103][104]
.However, the Economic crisis of 2008 led Pakistan to seek more than $100 billion in aid in order to avoid possible bankruptcy.^ Kamal Siddiqi Mar 8, 2009 interacts: 165 Ironically, more people have been killed by Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Pakistan than by the three “enemies?
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^ Ather Naqvi Apr 17, 2008 interacts: 3 Poverty may be more than a silent killer.
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^ Perhaps no where is it more intensely debated than in Pakistan, where Jinnah very clearly and consistently declared t .
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[105][106] This was never given to Pakistan and therefore it had to depend on a more aggressive fiscal policy, backed by the IMF. .A year later Asian Development Bank Reports Pakistan economic crisis easing in 2009.[107] Furthermore it is projected that in 2010 Pakistan economy would grow at least 4 percent and could grow more with strong international economic recovery.^ Ibrahim Malick Jul 11, 2009 interacts: 5 Theme for this year's summit, "International Solidarity for Peace and Development, and the Current Economic and Financial Crisis,” is appropriate but several key regional conflicts will not be debated.
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^ Khalid Sohail Aug 7, 2009 interacts: 129 Pakistan is experiencing a major existential crisis.
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^ Imperatives For Economic Development Of Pakistan .
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[108]

Education

Punjab University Old Campus
Punjab University Old Campus, also known as Allama Iqbal Campus
.Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and advanced degrees.^ The high number of casualties was caused by hurling of grenades and indiscriminate targeted firing by the terrorists, reportedly numbering between six to eight.
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^ How must Pakistan’s higher education system change for it to succeed?
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^ One is based on the government of Pakistan’s state funded educational institutions and modern curricula and other one is based on the centuries old system of madarassas’ religi .
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[109]
.Pakistan also has a parallel secondary school education system in private schools, which is based upon the curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations, in place of government exams.^ Feroz R Khan Jan 28, 2004 interacts: 127 Currently, there are two distinct educational systems in Pakistan.
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^ How must Pakistan’s higher education system change for it to succeed?
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^ Rasheed Talib Dec 26, 2002 interacts: 125 Is this the sort of education we Indians want in our school system?
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Some students choose to take the O level and A level[110] exams through the British Council.
.There are currently 730 technical & vocational institutions in Pakistan.^ Feroz R Khan Jan 28, 2004 interacts: 127 Currently, there are two distinct educational systems in Pakistan.
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[111] The minimum qualifications to enter male vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 8.
Literacy Rate – Pakistan,
Literacy Rate – Pakistan, Sources:[112][113]
The programmes are generally two to three years in length. .The minimum qualifications to enter female vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 5.[114] All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments.^ One is based on the government of Pakistan’s state funded educational institutions and modern curricula and other one is based on the centuries old system of madarassas’ religi .
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The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.
.English medium education is to be extended, on a phased basis, to all schools across the country.^ Professors across the country are clamoring to lift even minimal requirements that could assure quality education.
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[115] Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10.[116]
.Pakistan also has madrassahs that provide free education and also offer free boarding and lodging to students who come mainly from the poorer strata of society.^ The Islami Jamiat Talaba (student wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami) alleged that activists of the All Pakistan Mohajir Students Organisation (APMSO) had attacked its workers who were in the bus.
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[117] After criticism over terrorists using them for recruiting purposes, efforts have been made to regulate them.[118]

Culture

Cloth market in Karachi
A sitar workshop in Islamabad
View of Food Street in Lahore
Pakistani society is largely hierarchical, with high regard for traditional Islamic values, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system because of the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system.[119] .Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Peshawar that wish to move in a more centrist direction, as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs.^ The attack was the first of its kind in Orakzai Agency, the only tribal region out of the total seven regions of the FATA, which does not share its border with Afghanistan.
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^ April 8: 16 more persons were killed in the Kurram Agency of FATA as sectarian clashes spread to most parts of the tribal region bordering Afghanistan.
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Increasing globalization has resulted in ranking 46th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.[120]
The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. .In addition Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar, who is also well known in Indian Punjab.^ Armed assailants on a motorcycle gunned down, Yousuf Ali and Mohammad Alam, who were going to their homes in the Hazara Town.
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^ S C Sep 30, 2009 interacts: 300 Well-researched, demolishes many myths and presents an intriguing perspective on India Pakistan Partition .
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However, majority of Pakistanis listen to Indian music produced by Bollywood and other Indian film industries. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad.[121]
.State-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels.^ "All of my family members are safe and are in Lahore," he told a private television channel after a suicide bomber exploded an explosives-laden car outside his residence.
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^ According to a private TV channel, a man who claimed to be a spokesman for the Baloch Republican Army phoned various media organisations and claimed responsibility for the attack.
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.Various American, European, and Asian television channels and films are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via private television networks, cable, and satellite television.^ "All of my family members are safe and are in Lahore," he told a private television channel after a suicide bomber exploded an explosives-laden car outside his residence.
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There are also small indigenous film industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood). And while Bollywood films have been banned from being played in public cinemas since 1965 they have remained popular in popular culture.[122]
.The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be designated to four distinct periods—pre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial and post-colonial.^ They said that three missiles landed in the Civil Colony, one fell near a check post in Fajja and one hit the Siddiqabad area.
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^ Three Pakistan Army soldiers were killed and four others wounded when militants attacked the troops in the Angamal area near Razmak.
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With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C.,[123] an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day.[124] Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot Diji belong to the pre-Islamic era settlements. The rise of Buddhism and the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province.
The arrival of Islam in today's Pakistan meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture.[125] However, a smooth transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of the Hindustani art. .Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums.^ "It seems to be a sectarian attack, but we are still investigating," Dera Ismail Khan police chief Salahuddin Khan said.
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^ October 10: Five people are killed and six others sustain injuries as a suicide bomber blows himself up at a Shia mosque in the Mochi Gate area of Lahore.
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Also the Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the epoch of the Mughals. In the British colonial period, predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. .Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid.^ May 13, 2004 interacts: 21 A case for Pakistan's new computerised national identity card .
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A Kalash man dances during the Uchau Festival.
A Kalash man dances during the Uchau Festival.
.The literature of Pakistan covers the literatures of languages spread throughout the country, namely Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pushto, Baluchi as well as English[126] and Persian as well.^ Rizwana Khan Sep 1, 2005 interacts: 9 It is easier to blame Urdu language for all the ails in every area of education in Pakistan.
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Prior to the 19th century, the literature mainly consisted of lyric poetry and religious, mystical and popular materials. During the colonial age the native literary figures, under the influence of the western literature of realism, took up increasingly different topics and telling forms. Today, short stories enjoy a special popularity.[127]
.The national poet of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, suggested the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.^ Muhammad Ashraf Nov 7, 2006 interacts: 4 How many votes a party requires to win a majority in National Assembly or Pakistan?
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^ Anwar Iqbal Dec 25, 2001 interacts: 359 Looking at the current India, Pakistan conflict as Manto would have .
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^ Amandeep Midha Jul 4, 1999 interacts: 27 I begin the issue right from 1947 when India and Pakistan were planned to be two separate countries .
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However, Iqbal had also wrote the Tarana-e-Hind which stated the belief of a strong united India. His book The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a major work of modern Islamic philosophy. The most well-known representative of the contemporary Urdu literature of Pakistan is Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Sufi poets Shah Abdul Latif, Bulleh Shah and Khawaja Farid are also very popular in Pakistan.[128] Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose.[129]

Tourism

PTDC Motel at Malam Jabba Ski Resort.
PTDC Motel at Malam Jabba Ski Resort.
Despite having an image problem, hyped particularly in the West, and once alleged as one of the most dangerous countries in the world by the British magazine "The Economist",[130] tourism is still a growing industry in Pakistan because of its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes.[131] The variety of attractions ranges from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill-stations, that attract those interested in field and winter sports. Pakistan also has several mountain peaks of height over 8,000 metres (26,250 ft), that attract adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially to K2.[132] .Starting in April to September, domestic and international tourists visit these areas helping tourism become a source of income for the local people.^ April 19: Local Taliban in South Waziristan Agency publicly executed three people who had allegedly killed a teenager, Intezar Mehsud.
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^ Officials and local people said the jets had attacked militants positions in Wuchabibi and Madahkel areas of Dattakhel sub-division, at about 3:30pm.
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^ The sources added these areas were heavily shelled and SFs on the ground continued search and cordon operations.
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In Balochistan there are many caves for cavers and tourists to visit especially the Juniper Shaft Cave, the Murghagull Gharra cave, Mughall saa cave, and naturally decorated cave. .Pakistan is a member country through Hayatullah Khan Durrani to the Union International de Spéléologie (UIS).^ May 4: Members of the Baluchistan Students Federation (BSF) hijack a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft and attempt to land in India.
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[133]
The 1872-built Noor Mahal (Diamond Palace), is one of several palaces in the city of Bahawalpur
.The northern parts of Pakistan are home to several historical fortresses, towers and other architecture including the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic Animist community.^ Nine persons, including five militants, were killed and dozens of others sustained injuries in the ongoing military operation in Swat Valley.
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^ Three persons, including a security force personnel, were killed and several others injured in the Swat valley of the NWFP. .
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^ January 29: 14 people, including 10 militants, three Pakistan Army soldiers and a civilian, were killed and several others injured in heavy fighting and bombing by fighter aircraft in South Waziristan.
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[134] Punjab is also the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered Pakistan's cultural centre and has many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort.[135] The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) also helps promote tourism in the country.[136] However, tourism is still limited because of the lack of proper infrastructure and the worsening security situation in the country. .The recent militancy in Pakistan's scenic sites, including Swat in NWFP province, have dealt a massive blow to the tourism industry.^ Local peace volunteers killed 10 Taliban militants, including 'commander' Momin alias Malang, in the Barikot tehsil (revenue unit) of Swat District in NWFP. A volunteer was also killed in the clash.
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^ June 24: SFs killed seven Taliban militants in clashes in parts of the Dir and Swat Districts, while six soldiers, including two officers, were also killed.
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^ Nine persons, including five militants, were killed and dozens of others sustained injuries in the ongoing military operation in Swat Valley.
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Many of the troubles in these tourist destinations are also blamed on the frail travel network, tourism regulatory framework, low prioritization of the tourism industry by the government, low effectiveness of marketing and a constricted tourism perception.[137][138] .After these areas were being cleared off the militant groups in late 2009, the government of Pakistan with the financial support from the USAID have started a campaign to reintroduce tourism in Swat valley.^ The military stated that troops had cleared Spinkai Raghzai, Nawazkot and the adjoining area of Tiarza and taken over some strongholds and hideouts of the militants.
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^ June 7: During clashes between two groups of militants in the Mamond area of Bajaur Agency, four combatants were killed.
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^ September 3: The SFs claimed to have killed about 30 militants and wounded 35 others in a ground assault backed by gunship helicopters in the militants-infested Koza Bandai area of Swat Valley in the NWFP. .
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Pakistan receives 500,000 tourists annually, and almost half of them head to northern Pakistan.[139]

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan
Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan
The national sport of Pakistan is field hockey, although cricket is the most popular game across the country. .The national cricket team has won the Cricket World Cup once (in 1992), were runners-up once (in 1999), and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996).^ Haider Nizamani Oct 4, 2000 interacts: 182 A physically injured leader has won hands down against the leader of a psychologically injured nation in the world of diplomacy .
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Pakistan were runners-up in the inaugural 2007 ICC World Twenty20 held in South Africa and are the champions of 2009 ICC World Twenty20 held in England. .However, cricket here has suffered heavily due to teams refusing to tour Pakistan fearing terrorism; no team having toured Pakistan since March 2009, when militants attacked the touring Sri Lankan cricket players.^ Seven Sri Lankan players were among the wounded.
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^ Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 INDIA PAKISTAN NEPAL BHUTAN BANGLADESH SRI LANKA Terrorism Update Latest S.A.Overview Publication .
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^ January 16: Pakistan Army helicopter gun-ships attacked a suspected militant hideout in South Waziristan, killing at least 20 militants.
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[140] Squash is another sport that Pakistanis have excelled in. .Successful world-class squash players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan won the World Open several times during their careers.^ Shera G Feb 17, 2006 interacts: 4 India is a good side, and they have world class players.
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Polo is regarded as a traditional sport and played widely in the northern areas
Polo is regarded as a traditional sport and played widely in the northern areas
At an international level, Pakistan has competed many times at the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, athletics, swimming, and shooting. Pakistan's medal tally remains at 10 medals (3 gold, 3 silver and 4 bronze) while at the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games it stands at 61 medals and 182 medals respectively. Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful at the Olympics, with three gold medals in (1960, 1968, and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994). The Motorsport Association of Pakistan is a member of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile.[141] .In caving and adventure sports, Pakistan is member country to UIS (Union of International Speleology)[133] The Freedom Rally is a yearly off-road race which takes place during the Independence celebrations.^ May 4: Members of the Baluchistan Students Federation (BSF) hijack a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft and attempt to land in India.
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Pakistan also qualified for the Golf World Cup for the first time in 2009.[142]

Transportation

The Makran Coastal Highway starts from Karachi and goes all the way to Gwadar
Rail services in Pakistan are provided by the state-run Pakistan Railways, under the supervision of the Ministry of Railways. Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation in Pakistan, catering to the large-scale movement of people and freight. The railway network comprises 8,163 km[143] of which 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) (broad gauge) forms 7,718 km including 293 km of electrified track. Pakistan Railways carry 65 million passengers annually and daily operates 228 mail, express and passenger trains. Pakistan Railways also operate special trains for various occasions. .The Freight Business Unit with 12000 personnel operates over 200 freight stations on the railway network.^ As the military personnel were busy in the rescue operation and stopping people from getting close to the scene of the first bombing, a second suicide bomber detonated his explosives.
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Pakistan has also planned or had many Mass Transit Systems. The Karachi Circular Railway, which opened in the early 1940s, is the only functioning Mass Transit System in Pakistan as of date. In 1976, Karachi was slated to begin work on an underground metro system, but plans have been put on hold since. The Lahore Metro is another proposal still in planning and is scheduled to be completed by 2020. Pakistan has been successful in foreign trade using Railway. .Pakistan has successfully traded with countries such as Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Turkmenistan and China[144] During the 1990s, Pakistan began an ongoing project to rebuild all national highways throughout the country specifically to important financial, cargo and textile centers.^ Amandeep Midha Jul 4, 1999 interacts: 27 I begin the issue right from 1947 when India and Pakistan were planned to be two separate countries .
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^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
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^ Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar, all of whom are looking to tap the ready markets in Pakistan and India for the export of their gas.
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.The National Highway Authority or NHA is responsible for the maintenance of all national highways in Pakistan.^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
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The construction of motorways began in the early 1990s with the idea building a world class road network and to reduce the load off the heavily used national highways throughout the country. The first motorway to be completed was File-M-1logo.png M1 in 1997 from Peshawar to Islamabad.
Later on, Highways such as File-File-M-2logo.png M2 from Islamabad to Lahore, M3motorwaypakistanlogo.jpg M3 from Pindi Bhattian to Faisalabad, M9motorwaypakistanlogo.jpg M9 from Hyderabad to Karachi, M10motorwaypakistanlogo.jpg Karachi Northern Bypass from Hyderabad to Karachi, Pakistan motorway symbol.svg Lahore ring road project[145]. .The waterway network in Pakistan is in its infancy with Karachi being the only major city situated next to the Arabian Sea.^ "The air strikes are part of a major offensive being planned against the terror network," sources told.
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Still plans are being proposed for the development of the waterways in the country along the Indus River and through the Punjab as it would boost employment opportunities and the economic and social development of Pakistan. [146]. .Pakistan has About 139 Airports in all together.^ Tariq Aqil Nov 8, 2009 interacts: 76 Time is here for all patriotic forces to band together and demand the return of Jinnah’s Pakistan.
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.Out of 139, only 10 of them are International[147].^ Ahsan Shahbaz Dec 10, 2007 interacts: 21 Only 5 out 33 parties in APDM want to participate in elections.
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Outline of Pakistan

See also

References

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    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jun 8, 2009 interacts: 6 ..recent global survey about political rights and civil liberties, Pakistan was ranked as "Partly Free" and "Not Free" in the 2009 version of Freedom of the Press.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nadia Khan May 8, 2009 interacts: 12 On 12th May 2007 with the help of press, electronic media, and Internet blogs, the real face of MQM was exposed.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Man Who Divided India: An Insight into Jinnah's Leadership and its Aftermath. Popular Prakashan. 2001. ISBN 81-7154-892-X.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a country in South Asia, marking the region where South Asia converges with Central Asia and the Middle East. It is the sixth most heavily populated country in the world.

Sourced

Flag of Pakistan.svg
  • Pakistan was once called the most allied ally of the United States.^ Chowk Nov 3, 2007 interacts: 190 As of 6PM on Saturday President General Musharraf has suspended the constitution and declared State of Emergency in Pakistan.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Asif Naqshbandi Oct 10, 2007 interacts: 81 It is my view that in the not too distant future Pakistan too will go through its own version of an Islamic revolution.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Emma Alam Feb 19, 2007 interacts: 12 Enthralling and enchanting locations of Pakistan beckon not only domestic but also foreign tourists to great extent.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We are now the most non-allied.
  • This is not a letter on Pakistan.^ He’s the most experienced player on Pakistan team right now.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Adil Najam Jan 10, 1998 interacts: 22 An analysis of the New York Time’s analysis of Benazir Bhutto and Asif Zardari’s Trail of Corruption.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Remembered .
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    If it were, I could have written a small book entitled "Glimpses of Pakistan's history". Time does not permit it. The nation is gripped in her worst crisis, standing in the middle of the road between survival and disintegration. Since the birth of Pakistan, crisis has followed crisis in rapid escalation. Millions of lives were sacrificed to create this country. .Pakistan is said to be the dream of Mohammad Iqbal and the creation of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Quaid-e-Azam.^ "The men were killed when they were leaving the mosque after offering Asr (afternoon) prayers," SITE Town Superintendent of Police Muhammad Ali Wasan said.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Beena Sarwar Jul 18, 2005 interacts: 63 The Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah's August 11, 1947 speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, in which he talked about freedom of religion, is no longer censored, as it was for years.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pervez Hoodbhoy Aug 13, 2007 interacts: 363 What did Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, want for the country he was destined to create in 1947?
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Was anything wrong with the dream or with the one who made the dream come true? Opinions have differed and continue to differ. .The next few years will most probably decide the issue, perhaps once and for all, and not without bloodshed.^ There was one pharmacy in my neighborhood a few years ago, but now the small street is sprawling with five pharmacies and all are doing “wonderful business”.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chowk Staff Oct 8, 2005 interacts: 102 This earthquake is perhaps the most intense one seen in this region for over 100 years.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This process is not inevitable but the present policies of the ruling junta are driving this country towards a sad inevitability
    • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, letter to his daughter (1978), p.^ Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Remembered .
      • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .37.
  • Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but the Muslim Ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope other will share with us.^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • We have proclaimed that if the Government of Pakistan would work for our people and our country the Khudai Khidmatgars would be with them.^ Muhammad Tariq Oct 18, 2009 interacts: 2 The atmosphere in Pakistan seems to be getting ripe for a situation, where, if the government does not regain the full confidence and trust of the people, it would be difficult to stabilize the situation again.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jamal A Rasheed Dec 1, 1997 interacts: 3 In today’s Pakistan, the word Contempt is what the Government of Pakistan thinks of the people of Pakistan.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Absar Khan Jun 1, 2009 interacts: 2 We can develop our country – our city sometime in near future as well, but presently, the unfortunate 3 million people should be the governments priority.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I repeat that I am not for the destruction of Pakistan. In destruction lies no good. Neither Hindus nor Muslims, nor the Frontier, not Punjab, Bengal or Sindh stands to gain from it. There is advantage only in construction. .I want to tell you categorically I will not support anybody in destruction.^ Rehan Ansari Jan 12, 1999 interacts: 66 3 pages of Manto tells you what you want to know [about Partition] .
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    If any constructive programme is before you, if you want to do something constructive for our people, not in theory, but in practice, I declare before this House that I and my people are at your service? .
    • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (February 1948) quoted in Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp -188 ?^ The assailants opened fire on a shop in the main bazaar of DI Khan town and fled on a motorbike, local police Chief Abdul Ghaffar Qaisarani said.
      • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

      .190.
  • It is commonly and, I believe, accurately said of Pakistan that her women are much more impressive than her men.^ Kamal Siddiqi Mar 8, 2009 interacts: 165 Ironically, more people have been killed by Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Pakistan than by the three “enemies?
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unconfirmed reports said the death toll was more than 40 and it was increasing due to the continuing clashes and the spread of fighting to hitherto peaceful villages.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Some other sources said that more than 80 militants were killed.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

  • [Pakistan] will be a steadfast partner….^ Feroz R Khan Nov 3, 1998 interacts: 36 Crisis in the shadows of power: Is Pakistan entering an institutional crisis acknowledging Nawaz Sharif’s imperial designs?
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A force for freedom and moderation in the Arab world.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : Pakistan
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:pk-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Islamabad
Government Islamic Republic
Currency Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Area 803,940 km2
Population 162,419,946 (July 2006 est.)
Language Urdu (official, national) 8%, English (official, government), Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki 10%, Pashtu 8%, , Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, Burushaski, and other 8%
Religion Muslim 97%, Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, Sikhs and other 3%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (Europlug & Old British Plug)
Calling Code +92
Internet TLD .pk
Time Zone UTC+5.0 (UTC + 6.0 in summer)
.Pakistan [1] (Urdu: پاکستان) is a country in South Asia.^ News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Mogul Empire dominated most of South Asia, including much of present-day Pakistan.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Located along the Arabian Sea, it is surrounded by Afghanistan to the west and northwest, Iran to the southwest, India to the east, and China to the northeast.^ Accordingly, on August 14, 1947 Pakistan, comprising West Pakistan with the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), and East Pakistan with the province of Bengal, became independent.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said the SFs had surrounded Kotkai, the hometown of Qari Hussain reportedly the "mentor of suicide bombers" - and secured Tor Ghundai (east of Kotkai) and Shishwarm (northeast of Kotkai).
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

It is strategically located astride the ancient trade routes of the Khyber and Bolan passes between Asia and Europe.

Understand

History

.The history of Pakistan traces back to the beginnings of human life in South Asia.^ During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Mogul Empire dominated most of South Asia, including much of present-day Pakistan.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 highlighted the common interest of Pakistan and the United States in peace and stability in South Asia.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pakistan is home to the Indus Valley civilization, which is amongst the oldest in the world.^ Archeological explorations have revealed impressive ruins of a 4,500-year old urban civilization in Pakistan's Indus River valley.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ PEOPLE The majority of Pakistan's population lives in the Indus River valley and in an arc formed by the cities of Faisalabad, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, and Peshawar.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the 1900's the area of Pakistan was the area from which the Muslims ruled over Central and Southern Asia for over 300 years.^ Muqam, who is also provincial president of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League, escaped unhurt.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ The ruling Muslim League Party opposed both the idea of creating a theocracy in Pakistan and the “theo-democratic” activities of Jama’at-i-Islami.
  • Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Opiates exit from Pakistan's southern Makran coastal area through cargo shipments and from international airports located in Pakistan's major cities.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Today Pakistan is made up of people from various races including Arabs from after the Islamic expeditions, Persians from Bukhara and Samarkand, Turks from Central Asia and the native Sindhus who were converted to Islam.^ The blast occurred within the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) camp and many of the dead, including three women, were activists of the party.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Xari Jalil Jan 2, 2007 interacts: 1 In Pakistan, since the past few years, there have been a number of missing persons who have been picked up by “law enforcement agencies” and these people have had a clear record.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, two suicide bombers entered the mosque and blew themselves up, killing 36 people, who were offering the Friday prayers.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.The official name of Pakistan was used after the partition of (British) India into the 2 nation-states of India and Pakistan in 1947. However, the word Pakistan was first used by Ch.^ Pakistan and Partition The idea of a separate Muslim state in British India first emerged in the 1930s.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, armed incursions into the state by tribesman from the NWFP led him to seek military assistance from India.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1947, the British Government declared that it would bestow full dominion status upon two successor states--India and Pakistan, formed from areas in the subcontinent in which Muslims were the majority population.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rehmat Ali back in 1933 in his declaration, Now or Never - calling for its separation from the Empire. .Afterwards, British-ruled India was divided into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and secular India.^ In June 1947, the British Government declared that it would bestow full dominion status upon two successor states--India and Pakistan, formed from areas in the subcontinent in which Muslims were the majority population.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan and Partition The idea of a separate Muslim state in British India first emerged in the 1930s.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some progress has been made in recent times, with the October 2008 opening of the Muzzafarabad road, allowing for increased two-way Pakistan-India trade.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A third war between these countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan seceding and becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.^ East Pakistan later became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 26, 1971, following a bloody crackdown by the Pakistan Army, Bengali nationalists declared an independent People's Republic of Bangladesh.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a bloody civil war and the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, the National Assembly approved a new constitution in 1973, portions of which embodied the legal and political machinery of the Shari’a as espoused by the orthodox religious clergy.
  • Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A dispute over the state of Jammu and Kashmir is ongoing between India and Pakistan.^ India, Pakistan and the Kashmir dispute .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sino-Pak nuclear cooperation will need NSG approval, says US 'India has an important role in helping Pakistan' India slams Pakistan's comments on Jammu and Kashmir polls .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ Pakistan and Partition The idea of a separate Muslim state in British India first emerged in the 1930s.
  • Pakistan (03/09) 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Terrain

.Pakistan is one of those few countries in the world which has every kind of geological structure.^ As one of only a few Muslim countries to accept fully the provisions of the UDHR, it is ironic that Pakistan would endorse a proposition, advanced by Saudi Arabia, that it once condemned vociferously: that freedom of conscience is antithetical to the Shari’a .
  • Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Load-shedding of electricity for a few hours daily is the norm, all over the country, but consumers will see a minimum raise of one thousand rupees on their monthly bills.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan certainly has a future; it is every single one of us.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has the sea, desert (Sindh & Punjab), green mountains (North West Provice), dry mountains (Balochistan), mountains covered with ice, rivers, rich land to cultivate (Punjab & Sindh), water resources, water falls, forests etc.^ The mountain areas which are cultivated suffer from soil and water erosion, as well as limited infrastructure and marketing facilities.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Decision-Making Structure: The institutions responsible for this sector are the Governments of Azad Jammu & Kashmir; North West Frontier Province; Northern Area; Punjab and Sindh.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The North West Frontier Province and Gilgit-Baltistan contain the mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakoram, and the Hindu Kush.^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ December 4: In the first such attack of its kind, a female suicide bomber blew herself up in a high security zone in Peshawar, capital of the North West Frontier Province.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.Pakistan's highest point is K2, at 8,611 meters, which is the second highest peak in the world.^ While Pakistan has been reducing its opium production, neighboring Afghanistan has become the world's second largest producer.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the nine most populous countries in the world, Pakistan is second in relative growth rate and third in population density.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain whose rivers eventually join the Indus River and flow south to the Arabian Sea. Sindh lies between the Thar Desert the Rann of Kutch to the east, and the Kirthar range to the west. The Balochistan Plateau is arid and surrounded by dry mountains. Pakistan experiences frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe, especially in north and west.

Climate

Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north. Flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August). Fertile and sub humid heat in the Punjab region.
.
  • Eid-ul-Fitr - the largest holiday of the year, it celebrates the end of the holy month of Ramadan.^ During the year 2001, the Government released an undisclosed number of prisoners (estimated to be in the hundreds) to commemorate the Islamic holiday of Eid-ul-Azha.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Food is the highlight, and if you're lucky you'll be invited into a private home for a feast. .Businesses close for at least a couple days if not a week.
  • Eid-ul-Azha - the festival of sacrifice, commemorates Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son
  • Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi - Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, varies according to Hijera calendar
  • Pakistan Day - March 23
  • May Day - May 1
  • Independence Day - August 14
  • Quaid-e-Azam's deathday - September 11
  • Quaid-e-Azam's birthday - December 25
  • Ramadan - the 9th and holiest month in the Islamic calendar, Muslim's fast everyday for its duration and most restaurants will be closed until the fast breaks at dusk.^ August 27: A suicide bomber blew himself up as Security Force personnel gathered at sunset to break their daily fast (Muslims keep fast from dawn to dusk in the holy month of Ramadan), killing at least 22 soldiers and injuring 10 others at Torkham in the Khyber Agency of FATA near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, said hospital and official sources.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Son of Swat peace negotiator killed in Pak shelling Pakistan may collapse in three months, warns expert Pak in all-out war against Taliban; 14 militants killed Musharraf unlikely to return to Pakistan 'JuD not linked to Taliban' Afghan, Pak leaders committed to crushing Taliban: Clinton .
    • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

    ^ A suicide blast in Lahore killed at least nine persons and injured more than 35, targeting policemen standing guard on the eve of the Independence Day.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    Nothing (including water and cigarettes) are supposed to pass through the lips from dawn to sunset. Foreigners and travellers are exempt from this, but you should still refrain from doing it in public.
Map of Pakistan
Map of Pakistan
Azad Kashmir
Pakistan-administered portion of the disputed Kashmir region
Balochistan
the largest and most remote province, its lack of infrastructure can make for rough traveling. Most foreign visitors here are just passing through from Iran, stopping briefly in Quetta
.Federally Administered Tribal Areas
this area is mostly off-limits to foreigners, and is not under the control of Provicial Government instead affairs are federally administered through Governor of NWFP. Home to the legendary Khyber Pass, and the gun making city of Darra Adam Khel.^ Many of those killed and injured were passengers of a mini-bus that was passing through the area at the time of the blast.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Five Taliban militants were killed and 27 arrested by the security forces (SFs) during an operation in the Darra Adam Khel area of NWFP. They said that the SFs pounded suspected Taliban hideouts in Tor Chapar, Akhurwal and Peerwal Khel areas, killing five and arresting 27 others.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Pakistan, especially under United States prodding, has attempted to cut back the cultivation of poppies, but the government's influence has not extended effectively into tribal areas.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Gilgit-Baltistan (formerly known as the Northern Areas)
home to some of the world's tallest mountains, it's brimming with dramatically fantastic landscapes and can easily compete with Nepal for trekking opportunities
Islamabad & Rawalpindi
The capital area encompasses Islamabad, Rawalpindi, the Margalla Hills and the ancient ruins of Taxila
.North-West Frontier Province
Home of the rugged Pashtuns, for some it's forbidding and mysterious...^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ December 4: In the first such attack of its kind, a female suicide bomber blew herself up in a high security zone in Peshawar, capital of the North West Frontier Province.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

yet below the surface are some of the most hospitable people in the country
Punjab
The most populous and agriculturally fertile region in the country, and home to many historical shrines and mosques
Sindh
Most visitors head for Karachi or the ancient ruins of Moenjodaro.
Ramadan dates
  • 2010 (1431): Aug 11 - Sep 9
  • 2011 (1432): Aug 1 - Aug 29
  • 2012 (1433): Jul 20 - Aug 18
The festival of Eid ul-Fitr is held after the end of Ramadan and may last several days. Exact dates depend on astronomical observations and may vary from country to country.
Pakistan has many cities and towns. Below are nine of the most notable. Other cities are listed under their specific regions.
.
  • Islamabad - The Federal capital, a relatively new planned city with a much more laidback feel than the rest of the country's cities
  • Karachi - the Financial capital and the largest city of the country, it's an industrial port city and the provincial capital of Sindh
  • Lahore - City of the Mughals, it's a bustling and a very historical city that shouldn't be missed.
  • Multan - The City of Saints, famous for blue pottery, ornamental glasswork, and Khussa - a type of shoes
  • Quetta - a large, beautiful and slightly unruly city in the southern state of Balochistan, you'll pass through here en route to or from Iran
  • Sialkot - The City of sports goods, famous for its exports industry, one of the oldest city in the region
  • Hunza Valley – one of the more stunning and popular parts of the high mountain areas, some liken it to paradise on Earth.^ Mian Channu near Multan city in Punjab province.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Peshawar, the NWFP capital.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The tunnel connects the southern parts of the NWFP with capital Peshawar through the Indus Highway.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    Supposedly the setting for James Hilton's Shangri-La, and the valley lives up to that reputation.
  • Skardu - Popular for its Shangrila resort.
  • Murree is a popular Himalayan hill station, one hours drive from Islamabad.
  • Mountain peaks and glaciersGilgit-Baltistan is home to some of the highest mountains in the world, including K2, Rakaposhi and Nanga Parbat, and offer incredible trekking opportunities. .In an area of about 500 kms in width and 350 kms in depth, is found the most dense collection of some of the highest and precipitous peaks in the world, boasting more than 700 peaks above 6000 metres, and more than 160 peaks above 7000 metres.
  • Kalasha Valleys – witness the decline of a truly unique culture in Chitral District
  • Deserts – Pakistan is home to the Thar desert in Sindh and the Cholistan desert in the Punjab, which it shares with neighboring India.
  • Beaches – Pakistan is home to some of the worlds most beautiful beaches located between Karachi and Gwadar along Makran coastal highway.^ World leaders contact Pakistani leadership to discuss Mumbai fallout Pakistan proposes joint mechanism to probe Mumbai attack India should share evidence of Pak link to terror: Sharif The consequences of the Mumbai attacks .
    • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Disputes between Sunnis and Shia, ethnic disturbances in Karachi between Pakhtuns and muhajirs, increased animosity toward Ahmadiyyas, and the revival of Punjab-Sindh tensions--can all be traced to the loss of Islam as a common vocabulary of public morality.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pak spy worked in mobile shop in Delhi: Police Pakistan has more nuclear weapons than India: Report Cleared Taliban from S Waziristan, claims Pakistan .
    • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

    French Beach, Hawksbay to name a few.
  • Archaelogical treasures – the country's rich history has left many things to explore; Taxila, Moenjodaro, Thatta and Harappa are some of the more famous

Get in

Visas

.Almost all nationalities require visas.^ Punjab, with almost 60 percent of the population, dominates almost all aspects of national life.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These are usually easier to obtain in your home country, though recently the individual missions around the world have been given more authority to issue visas without checking in with Islamabad, which should help in getting applications turned around quicker.^ Islamabad also claimed that these groups were receiving help from India in their quest to establish a "Sindhudesh," or independent homeland for Sindhis.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Recently a list of 24 "Tourist Friendly Countries" (TFC) was announced that are eligible for one month visas on arrival if they travel through a designated/authorized [2] tour operator who will assume responsibility for them while in the country. Any extensions on this type of visa must also be done through the tour operator. They include: Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, the UK and the USA.
.Nationals of most other countries (and those not wanting to travel with a tour operator and group) need to apply in advance for a visa, which are usually issued for 30-90 days depending on nationality and where you apply.^ The Musharraf Government created the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) and special accountability courts to try corruption cases; the National Accountability Ordinance initially permitted those suspected of corrupt practices to be detained for 90 days without charge.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ October 30: 14 Taliban militants and two soldiers were killed on the 14 th day of the Operation Rah-e-Nijat in South Waziristan Agency.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Double-entries are sometimes given, but be clear and persistent when applying that you need this.
.A handful of countries are issued visas on arrival: Iceland, Maldives and Zambia for 3 months, Hong Kong, Nepal and Western Samoa for 1 month, while Tonga and Trinidad and Tobago nationals can stay for an unlimited amount of time.^ The management of the Jamia Imdadul Alum Mullah Bakhtair Adda suspects that an Afghan national who had stayed in the seminary overnight might have a hand in the explosion.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.Nationals of Israel are not allowed entry as it is not recognized as a nation by Pakistan (and most other Muslim countries), but there is not any restriction on Jews holding passports from other nations.^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Saima Shah Jan 3, 2006 interacts: 114 Pakistan is a brave attempt to answer humanity’s most divisive and difficult questions such as ‘Is there a God?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan's attitude toward terrorism is somewhat more ambivalent than that of most other countries.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite much online information to the contrary, Israeli stamps and visas would usually pose no problems for entry into Pakistan, though you may be subject to more stringent questioning by immigration officers.^ CIA gives Pakistan PM charge-sheet against ISI Top ISI officers may be behind Kabul attack: Report ISI: Rogue, responsible, or both?
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ However, no information was given as to when the plan would enter into force.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite continued trouble in Sindh, observers have discerned what appears to be a genuine interest by the current government in addressing some of the more egregious human rights problems endemic in Pakistan today.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Indian nationals can apply for 30 day tourist visas but must travel in a group through an authorized tour operator.^ Beena Sarwar Jan 9, 2005 interacts: 68 In Pakistan, the demand for Indian visas is as much as 1500 – per day – from around the country - .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law stipulates that detainees must be brought to trial within 30 days of their arrest.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ October 30: 14 Taliban militants and two soldiers were killed on the 14 th day of the Operation Rah-e-Nijat in South Waziristan Agency.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

Visitor visas to meet relatives or friends are more easy to obtain, and come with some restrictions. .Religious visas are granted for groups of 10 or more for 15 days.^ October 10: The PAF warplanes continued attacking localities of Mir Ali subdivision in North Waziristan, killing 15 more persons.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ He said that 10 Afghan soldiers had been killed in a gun battle with his group at the Torkham border earlier in the day.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Maximum stay in Pakistan: 30 days Group discounts Submit Pakistan business visa application Add Pakistan to Selection, and apply for more visas Pakistan visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest Pakistan embassy .
  • Pakistan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Pakistani Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nationals of Afghanistan are refused entry if their passports or tickets show evidence of transit or boarding in India.
Holders of Taiwan passports are refused entry except in airport transit.
.Business visas are now being issued for up to 5 years, multiple entry, as soon as 24 hours before arrival.^ Meanwhile, the All Combined Bazaar Association has given a 24-hour ultimatum to the CD shop owners in the district to wind up their businesses to avoid action by the association.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

The Pakistan Consulate in Istanbul does not issue visas unless you are a resident of Turkey, although it may be possible in Ankara.
.The consulate in Zahedan in Iran no longer issues visas, head for the embassy in Tehran.^ Upon contacting the embassy confirm the required documents, the time it takes to process the visa and whether the consulate accepts applications by mail.
  • Pakistan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Pakistani Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The High Commission for Pakistan in New Delhi issues visas with varying degrees of difficulty, taking at least 1 day (and sometimes several) to process the application.^ Advani to take up issue of Pakistani prisoners in India Pakistan has given me a Diwali gift: Sarabjit's sister Sarabjit shifted from death row cell: Report .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ Why Miliband tried to rationalise Mumbai attack Pak: Indian High Commission cancels R-Day event .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ PM-Zardari meeting likely in New York Pakistan to build national consensus on Kashmir issue Advani calls Zardari, extends support to talks .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

Applications are only accepted in the mornings from around 9-11AM. Arrive early and expect the process to take a few hours, and possibly a few return visits. Window 5 is for foreign tourist and business visas (under the big white sign).
.People of Pakistani origin living overseas are granted 5 year multiple entry visas (along with their spouses), good for single stays of up to 1 year.^ STATUS REPORT: In 1995, the population of Pakistan was 128.1 million people, of whom 31% live in the cities, a figure which is expected to rise to 50% by the year 2020.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Visas aren't required at all if they are holding a Pakistan Origin Card (POC) or a National Identity Card for Overseas Pakistanis (NICOP).^ The villagers found a national identity card with the body identifying him as Irshadul Haq, son of Niaz Muhammad, of Targhao area in Bajaur Agency.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Asim Hayat Feb 22, 1998 interacts: 29 The constitution defines Pakistan as an Islamic nation and guarantees freedom to all other religion.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 13, 2004 interacts: 21 A case for Pakistan's new computerised national identity card .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

.Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad are the main gateways to Pakistan by air.^ He complied, Mr Jinnah approved the lyrics, and the anthem went on air on Radio Pakistan Karachi the day Pakistan was born.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specific Destinations Pakistan - 4.5¢/min » Islamabad - 4.5¢/min » Karachi - 4.5¢/min » Lahore - 4.5¢/min » Lahore - CELL - 4.5¢/min » CELL - 9.0¢/min .
  • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

However, there are 134 airfields in Pakistan. .Six other international airports are in Quetta,Gawadar, Peshawar, Sialkot, Multan and Faisalabad.^ May 30: Six youths were shot dead and four others sustained injuries in an ambush by the insurgents on the Samungli Road in Quetta, capital of Balochistan.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.
  • Jinnah International Airport in Karachi [3] is served by many international airlines, including Air Arabia, Air China, Biman Bangladesh Airlines, Cathy Pacific, Etihad, Emirates, Gulf, Qatar Airways, Saudi Arabian Airlines, Syrian Arab Airlines, SriLankan Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Iran Air, Malaysia Airlines, Thai Airways , China Airways and Turkish Airlines .^ He complied, Mr Jinnah approved the lyrics, and the anthem went on air on Radio Pakistan Karachi the day Pakistan was born.
    • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are approximately 1,000 such children in Qatar, and there are reports of such children in Saudi Arabia.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It's also the main hub of the national carrier "PIA"and 2 private airlines (Air Blue and Shaheen Air).
  • Allama Iqbal International Airport in Lahore [4] has been completely renovated with a new terminal for international arrivals and departures. .Many airlines are currently operating to the airport including Emirates, Etihad Airways, Indian Airlines, Mahan Air, Qatar Airways, Gulf Air, Singapore Airlines, Pakistan International (PIA), Saudi Arabian Airlines, Thai Airways, Kuwait Airways, Uzbekistan Airways and two private airlines from Pakistan.
  • Benazir Bhutto International Airport (Islamabad International Airport)[5] is currently in review to be expanded and modernized to meet the needs of the future passenger numbers as demand for air travel has increased dramatically.^ Pakistan remembers Benazir Bhutto .
    • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Pakistan has many wetlands of international importance, but so far, few could be identified for listing in the Wetlands Conventions.
    • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "The security forces carried out search operation in Akhund Killay near Kabal and killed eight militants, including two foreigners.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    There are many airlines operating into Islamabad including many of the above with Ariana Afghan Airlines, British Airways and China Southern Airlines. The only problem is that the airport is also used by Government officials as well as arrivals from foreign diplomats so the airport may shut down as security is increased so flights are delayed.

By train

.Pakistan has train links with India and Iran, though none of these trains are the fastest or most practical way to enter Pakistan.^ The principal of the Institute for Jail Staff Training in Lahore stated in a July 1999 press interview that fettering is the most convenient way to administer an overcrowded jail.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Crypto Jun 5, 2000 interacts: 76 there was no way for it [India] to convincingly prove that Pakistan indeed harbored territorial ambitions on i-Kashmir .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkmenistan, Iran and Qatar, all of whom are looking to tap the ready markets in Pakistan and India for the export of their gas.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Should speed be a priority it is better to take the bus, or if you are really in a hurry, to fly, however the trains are sights in their own right.
From India:
  • The Samjhauta Express runs on Tuesdays and Fridays between Delhi and Lahore via the Attari/Wagah border crossing. .This is the most common option chosen by travellers, however, tourists should be aware that after recent terrorist attacks on the train, which caused many a casualty and strained relationships between the two neighbors, it is strongly advised that you take taxis or buses to and from the border instead.
  • The Thar Express runs from Munabao in the Indian state of Rajasthan to Khokrapar in Pakistan's Sindh province.^ The high number of casualties was caused by hurling of grenades and indiscriminate targeted firing by the terrorists, reportedly numbering between six to eight.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ In the early 1990s, the principal challenge in civil unrest came from Sindh, Pakistan's second most populous province, where the indigenous population was under increasing pressure from non-Sindhis who had migrated there.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The legal system of Pakistan is based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    This route restarted in February 2006 after 40 years out of service, but is not currently open to foreign tourists.
From Iran: There is only one link, from Zahedan to Quetta.

By car

.From ancient times people have been travelling through Pakistan using the Grand Trunk Road and the Silk Road that run through Pakistan and into the Indian subcontinent.^ 'UK will stand by Pakistan through thick and thin' Al Qaeda fears its time is up, says book .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ Over time, the Sunni sect divided into four major schools of jurisprudence; of these, the Hanafi school is predominant in Pakistan.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ June 27: Three militants were killed when a bomb they were planting on a road used by the Pakistan army detonated prematurely at Datta Khel in North Waziristan.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

It's a rewarding but time consuming way to see this part of the world. .New highways have been developed and the country is due for an expansion in its highway network.^ Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.A world-class motorway connects the cities of Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore, and Faisalabad.^ On World Press Freedom Day, it chose to thrash journalists in Islamabad and Lahore.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From China: Pakistan is connected to China by the Karakoram Highway, a modern feat of engineering that traverses a remarkably scenic route through the Karakoram and Himalayan mountains.^ The tunnel connects the southern parts of the NWFP with capital Peshawar through the Indus Highway.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ STATUS REPORT: Pakistan has five significant mountain systems: Western Himalayas, Karakoram, Hindukush, Suleman and Kirthar.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Plans are in place for this highway to be expanded from it's current width of 10m to 30m as a result of the increase in trade traffic due to Gwader port opening.
.
  • The Khyber Pass connects Peshawar to Jalalabad and Kabul and requires an armed escort and a permit to travel through the tribal regions between Peshawar and the border.^ The attack was the first of its kind in Orakzai Agency, the only tribal region out of the total seven regions of the FATA, which does not share its border with Afghanistan.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The tunnel connects the southern parts of the NWFP with capital Peshawar through the Indus Highway.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ April 8: 16 more persons were killed in the Kurram Agency of FATA as sectarian clashes spread to most parts of the tribal region bordering Afghanistan.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    Onward travel from the border to Kabul is of questionable safety, check the current situation locally.
  • The Bolan Pass connects Quetta to Kandahar and is considered very dangerous. This route is not currently open to foreign tourists, and is only open to locals and aid workers.

By bus

From India: While there is international service running from Delhi to Lahore it is just as fast, much more flexible, and much cheaper to take the journey by stringing together local transport and crossing the border on foot. As of October 2009, the bus was Rs. 1500. The journey details can be found here: http://dtc.nic.in/lahorebus.htm. .You cannot buy the ticket on the spot, rather you will need to show up a few days before at Delhi Gate with photocopies of your Pakistani and Indian visas.^ The suicide bombers on a pick-up rammed through the gate of the building, running over a policeman before blowing up the vehicle.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Pakistan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Pakistani Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steps that you can take: Check the current validity of your passport and the availability of blank visa pages All travelers will need a valid passport for their travels to Pakistan.
  • Pakistan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Pakistani Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bus leaves at 6 a.m. but you will need to be at Delhi Gate at 4 a.m. to check in for it.
.From China: You can take a bus from Kashgar over the Karakoram Highway to Pakistan.^ Steps that you can take: Check the current validity of your passport and the availability of blank visa pages All travelers will need a valid passport for their travels to Pakistan.
  • Pakistan Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Pakistani Visas Online. 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Iran: Via the Mijva border in Iran which is half an hours drive from Zahedan. .The Pakistani border town is called Taftan and has facilities of immigration, customs, hotels etc.^ The border police, immigration officers, customs officials, police, and other officials (including members of the judiciary), reportedly sometimes facilitate trafficking in return for bribes.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Get around

.Getting around the country has become much easier in recent years with the completion of some motorways, and an increase in private airlines.^ Beena Sarwar Jan 9, 2005 interacts: 68 In Pakistan, the demand for Indian visas is as much as 1500 – per day – from around the country - .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

.Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) [6] serves numerous domestic destinations and is the only airline to serve the three airports in the north of interest to trekkers or climbers: Chitral, Gilgit, and Skardu.^ Opiates exit from Pakistan's southern Makran coastal area through cargo shipments and from international airports located in Pakistan's major cities.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ March 10: Security forces killed three militants who were trying to enter Pakistan from Afghanistan in Dwatoi of North Waziristan.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ May 4: Members of the Baluchistan Students Federation (BSF) hijack a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft and attempt to land in India.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.There are usually two flights from Islamabad to these cities daily, but they are often canceled due to bad weather, and often over-booked &mash; show up early to guarantee a seat.^ There are also reports that senior militant commanders, including their leader Baitullah Mehsud, have fled the tribal region due to continuous flights of the US drones.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

Other domestic carriers include Aero Asia International [7], Shaheen Air International [8] and Airblue [9].

By train

Pakistan Railway [10] provides passenger rail service. The stations tend not to have their timetables in English, but sales agents can usually explain everything to you. There are several different classes of fares depending on amenities. .Foreign tourists and students with an ISIC card can get 25% and 50% discounts, respectively, by first visiting the PTDC (Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation) office, getting q verification certificate there, and bringing it with them to the train's commercial ticket office (which is different from the regular ticket office, but usually close by).^ In Pakistan, only the lives of politicians, feudals, army officers and visiting foreigners (from western Europe or USA) has any value .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emma Alam Feb 19, 2007 interacts: 12 Enthralling and enchanting locations of Pakistan beckon not only domestic but also foreign tourists to great extent.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ S Haroon Ahmed and Saleem Asmi Apr 6, 2008 interacts: 25 Dr Haroon Ahmed and Saleem Asmi, two stalwarts of the first student movement in Pakistan, the Democratic Students Federation (DSF) write to set the record straight about DSF. .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By bus

.A large portion of travel between cities in Pakistan is carried out by bus.^ Surgical strikes can't be carried out, says Musharraf Why the world is silent on Jammu and Kashmir, asks Pakistan Did Sabahuddin meet Kayani?
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ Pakistani envoy meets Chidambaram 'NDA would carry out surgical strikes in Pakistan' 26/11: Pak asks media not to speculate on probe .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ A water survey and analysis was carried out in Quetta, Pakistan.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Travelling between Karachi and any of the country's other major cities by bus may take days, and is usually advised against, because of highway robbery, known locally as 'dacoitry'. With that exception, however, travel by bus is often the cheapest and most convenient alternative.^ In Karachi there were fewer killings between rival political factions during the year 2001; however, there was an increase in violence and killings between rival religious sects.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Military sources said the strikes came a day after TTP chief Hakeemullah Mehsud vowed to launch attacks against the SFs in the country.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: Non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders such as local communities have been involved in mass awareness campaigns in the media.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Dae-Woo company runs a regular bus service between several major cities, with air-conditioned buses and seats booked one day ahead. .While rather unexpensive, they are still almost five times as expensive as the cheap and uncomplicated rides offered by minibuses or larger buses between the major bus stations of the cities.^ They said militants also destroyed five houses of the militia identified as Subedar Major Pasham Gul, Sultan, Zahir Shah, Baghdad Shah and Rozi Shah.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ They said the ensuing encounter between the two sides continued for quite a while that left five of the attackers dead.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.Fares are often (though not always) paid directly on the bus, there is no aircondition, and sometimes very little knee space, but you get where you are going all the same, and I have never met with anything but kind interest and friendly conversation on my many rides.^ While the officers responsible for such abuses sometimes were transferred or suspended for their actions, no officer has been convicted and very few have been arrested.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Buses leave almost incessantly from the major bus stations for all the major cities, and many smaller locations, so booking ahead is neither possible nor necessary on the simpler buses.^ Opiates exit from Pakistan's southern Makran coastal area through cargo shipments and from international airports located in Pakistan's major cities.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

When travelling between major cities, smaller buses are to be preferred over the larger ones, as the larger ones tend to take up passagers along the way, and therefore travel more slowly.
The situation is similar for local transport. .While the organization of local transport may look a little different between cities, there is usually an active bus service running through the city, with varying levels of government control.^ There has been a national debate linking population and environment at the Government level.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Between December 31, 2000, and August 2, local elections were held in five phases on a nonparty basis; on August 14, the Government announced that elections on the national and provincial level are scheduled to take place between October 1 and 11, 2002.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Decision-Making Structure: The Ministry of Environment, Local Government and Rural Development is responsible for policy decisions on various issues concerning the environment.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

By rickshaw

For local transport within cities, auto rickshaws are a cheap and flexible alternative. .A development of the bicycle rickshaw, the auto rickshaw is a small vehicle powered by a two-stroke or four-stroke engine.^ A Policeman and two passers-by were killed and 13 people wounded when a suicide attacker exploded an auto-rickshaw near a Police checkpoint in Dera Ismail Khan.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ They said two soldiers were killed and four others injured in the bombing, which also destroyed the vehicle.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Four security force personnel were injured and two vehicles were damaged.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

The original gasoline versions constantly emit a stuttering noise and foul blue-black smoke, but many are opting for the CNG(compressed natural gas) versions, which are less polluting and a little quieter. .Blue-and-yellow auto rickshaws take passengers, other colors tend to be privately owned.^ Mubashir Butt Apr 15, 2004 interacts: 74 When good comes calling, we Pakistanis tend to take the other path opposing sanity.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Always negotiate a price before entering the rickshaw.
Rickshaws are banned in the capital Islamabad.

Talk

.Urdu is the national language and is spoken throughout Pakistan as lingua franca.^ Rizwana Khan Sep 1, 2005 interacts: 9 It is easier to blame Urdu language for all the ails in every area of education in Pakistan.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to Urdu most Pakistanis speak their regional languages or dialects such as Punjabi, Pothohari, Sindhi, Pashto (Pushtun), Balochi, Saraiki, Shina, Burushaski, Khowar, Wakhi, Hindko etc.^ Ali Chishti Oct 2, 2008 interacts: 128 The Mohajir-Sindhi alliance provided the only real chance to thwart the Punjabi dominance in Pakistani politics.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English is the official language used in all government and most educational and business entities, and is also understood and spoken at varying levels of competence by many people around Pakistan, especially the upper classes and people who have gone through higher levels of education, and those residing in the larger cities.^ Pakistan, especially under United States prodding, has attempted to cut back the cultivation of poppies, but the government's influence has not extended effectively into tribal areas.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How must Pakistan’s higher education system change for it to succeed?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ahmad Bilal Sep 12, 2009 interacts: 97 Two decades have gone by, and the kids who lived through that day have all grown older.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See

.Observe the wonders of Karachi, Pakistan's former capital and its largest city, situated on the shores of the Arabian Sea.^ It has also proposed to set up a computerized database on the quality of air for the six largest cities in Pakistan.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The magnificent Quaid-e-Azam's Mazar, the mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, is made entirely of white marble with impressive north African arches.^ Pervez Hoodbhoy Aug 13, 2007 interacts: 363 What did Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, want for the country he was destined to create in 1947?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other places to visit are the National Museum and the beach at Clifton.
.Witness the Shah Faisal Masjid (mosque) in Islamabad, which can accommodate 10,000 worshippers.^ The mosque is located next to the former Ministers home and was packed with more than 1,000 worshippers at the time of the attack.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ The suicide bomber targeted policemen deployed at a rally observing the first year anniversary of an army raid on the Lal Masjid (Red mosque) in Islamabad.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

The majestic white building comprises four 88m (288ft) minarets and a desert tent-like structure, which is the main prayer chamber.
.See some of the highest mountains in the world in Kashmir, including the famous Nanga Parbat and the second-highest mountain in the world, K2. The Baltoro Glacier and the Batura Glacier are the largest outside the polar regions.^ While Pakistan has been reducing its opium production, neighboring Afghanistan has become the world's second largest producer.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In This Multi-polar World NAM Must Address Regional Issues .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visit Peshawar, the capital of the North West Frontier Province.^ October 20: A powerful bomb explodes in a crowded market on near the headquarters of a paramilitary force at Peshawar in the North West Frontier Province killing nine people and injuring more than 30.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ "The attackers then opened fire and the policemen did not have a chance to retaliate," the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) police chief Malik Naveed told AFP. "It appears to be a terrorist attack," he added.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ The convoy was going from Dosali to Bannu in the North West Frontier Province.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

The city is surrounded by high walls with 20 entry gates. .Much of the surrounding area is still under the jurisdiction of tribal law.^ Pakistan, especially under United States prodding, has attempted to cut back the cultivation of poppies, but the government's influence has not extended effectively into tribal areas.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The court system and the provisions of criminal law do not extend into the tribal areas along the Afghan border.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Occasional stonings for adultery have always taken place in tribal and other rural areas, but no sentence of stoning under the 1979 hudood laws has been carried out.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

These areas can only be visited with a permit from the relevant authorities.
.In the land of the Afridis, view the Khyber Pass, the 1,067m- (3,501ft-) high break in the sheer rock wall separating Afghanistan and Pakistan.^ Afghanistan is the primary source of opiates passing through Pakistan.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

• See the wild and beautiful area of Chitral in the Hindu Kush Mountains north of Peshawar. It is inhabited by the Kalash people, the last of the non-Islamic tribes of Kafiristan. This valley is noted for its hot springs and trout-filled rivers.
.Discover the beautiful Swat Valley, east of Chitral, an area of wild mountains and fantastic alpine scenery.^ The ISPR said SFs carried out action in the Shangla District, situated to the east of the Swat valley, killing 10 militants in Chakesar.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ May 25: The SFs claimed to have secured the training centre and logistic base of militants in the Malam Jabba area of Swat Valley.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ SFs claimed to have killed an important Taliban commander in the Banpur Sar area while three bodies, believed to be of militants, were found dumped in Barikot in Swat valley.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.In ancient times, it was home to the famous Gandhara school of sculpture, a manifestation of Greek-influenced Buddhist forms.^ The Indo-Greek descendants of Alexander the Great saw the most creative period of the Gandhara (Buddhist) culture.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The ruins of great Buddhist stupas, monasteries and statues remain. It also boasts popular mountain retreats such as Miandam and Mingora.
• Watch a cricket or polo match. Polo is particularly popular in the northern towns of Gilgit and Chitra

Do

Go and see the Silk Road

Buy

The national currency of Pakistan is the rupee (PKR). .Coins are issued in 1, 2, and 5 rupee denominations while banknotes come in 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 rupee values.^ Select Amount $5 $10 $20 $50 $100 $250 2 hr 14 min .
  • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Select Amount $5 $10 $20 $50 $100 $250 (pay$230) 3 hr 44 min .
  • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Select Amount $5 $10 $20 $50 $100 $250 2 hr 27 min .
  • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

ATMs exist in most areas and accept major credit cards.
.
  • You can buy very cheap garments, bed sheets, shirts, T-shirts, It is to be mentioned that many world renowned brands like Adidas, Levis, Slazenger, HangTen, Wal-Mart etc get their products prepared from Faisalabad which has got one of the largest textile industries of the world.^ While Pakistan has been reducing its opium production, neighboring Afghanistan has become the world's second largest producer.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, recommendations towards the promotion of cleaner industrial production, general recycling, waste trading networks, businesses etc.
    • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    You can find cheap products of these brands at local stores. You can get a pair of Levis jeans (or any other good brand for that matter) for just 800 PKR (10 USD).
  • Buy leather goods like shoes, jackets and bags.
  • Buy sports goods like cricket bats, balls, kits, footballs, sports wear and almost anything related to sports you can imagine. .You will not find such high quality equipment at such low cost anywhere else.^ Try our quality Pakistan calling cards and Pakistan phone cards which offer the low rates you need to save money on international calls.
    • Pakistan Calling Cards - Calling Cards To Pakistan - Prepaid Calling Card To Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.callingcards.com [Source type: News]

    .To mention, Sialkot produces 90 percent of the world’s sports goods and is the largest provider of sports equipment to FIFA for the World cup.
  • Pakistan produces economical and high quality musical instruments.^ While Pakistan has been reducing its opium production, neighboring Afghanistan has become the world's second largest producer.
    • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .You can even get an acoustic guitar for as low as 2000 PKR (34 USD).
  • Buy surgical instruments
  • Buy computer accessories
  • Buy Chinese goods especially Electronics & Cameras which are re-exported from Pakistan and is cheaper than other parts of the world.
  • Buy Arabian, Afghan, Iranian and Pakistani carpets
  • Buy Wood Carvings such as decorative wooden plates, bowls, artwork, furniture, and other miscellaneous items.
  • Buy Jewellery such as necklaces, bracelets etc are very inexpensive in Pakistan.
  • Buy gems, handicrafts (Ajrak from Sindh, Blue pottery from Multan, Clay pottery from Karachi), glassware, brassware, marble products, crystal works and antiques Also buy pashmina, rugs, wool-shawls or wraps, which can cost anywhere between $15 to as much as $700. Remember to bargain.
  • Buy Books
  • Buy souvenirs such as decorative items from Sea Shells.
  • For food stuffs go to any super store like Dmart, Makro, Metro; especially buy Swat honey, Biscuits, Mitchells chocolate which are the best in the world.
  • Buy home accessories
  • Buy Kitchen Utensils and Cutlery
  • For art lovers, get in touch with a local to take you around.^ You're looking for a reliable phone card, but want the cheapest rates for calling to Pakistan and you want a prepaid Pakistan phone card that releases your calling card pin online so you can call to Pakistan right away.
    • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The others were tribesmen belonging to the nearby villages, Pakistani and Afghan civilians traveling between Peshawar and Torkham, and drivers and conductors of trucks carrying goods to neighbouring Afghanistan.
    • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Pak spy worked in mobile shop in Delhi: Police Pakistan has more nuclear weapons than India: Report Cleared Taliban from S Waziristan, claims Pakistan .
    • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

    .There are so many art galleries in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad that are worth visiting and each will offer a completely different range of artwork, style and pricing.^ Cellular (7.4¢) , Islamabad (8¢) , Karachi (8¢) , Lahore (8¢) .
    • Pakistan Calling Cards - Calling Cards To Pakistan - Prepaid Calling Card To Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC pakistan.callingcards.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Specific Destinations Pakistan - 4.5¢/min » Islamabad - 4.5¢/min » Karachi - 4.5¢/min » Lahore - 4.5¢/min » Lahore - CELL - 4.5¢/min » CELL - 9.0¢/min .
    • Call to Pakistan with Pakistan calling card. Pakistan calling from abroad with lowest rates 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

    All the facilities should be visited if you are an art lover.

Eat

Pakistani food mainly consists of various kinds of kababs eaten with either flatbread or rice. Food tends range from mild to spicy depending on where you are and who your cook is. So state your preference before beginning to eat. .In general, most of the food that you find in the high end hotels is also available in the markets (but European-style food is generally reserved for the former).^ Small numbers of escaped victims of trafficking end up in shelters run by NGO's that assist trafficking victims, but most do not because there are few such shelters available.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.
  • The types of flatbread (collectively referred to as Naan are:
    • Naan - A soft and thick flat bread that often requires special clay ovens (tandoor) and cannot be properly made on home stoves.
    • Roti/Chapatti - A homemade bread, much thinner then naan and usually made out of unrefined flour, and which is ready in minutes.
    • Paratha - An extremely oily version of the roti.^ Police are not required to notify anyone when an arrest is made and often hold detainees without charge until a court challenges them.
      • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Without money to pay for bail, trafficking victims often are bailed out by their pimps, who require them to return to prostitution.
      • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      Usually excellent if you're going out to eat, but beware of health concerns; often it is literally dripping with oil because it is meant to be part of a rich meal. Paratha is more declicious if you cook it in pure oil like "desi ghee".
    • Sheer Mal - This is a slightly sweetened, lightly oiled bread that has waffle-like squares punched in it. It is often considered the most desirable bread and is a delicacy to most people. Often paired with nihari. Another breakfast version of sheermal is very much like the Italian Panettone (albeit in a flat naan-like shape) with added dried fruits and candy.
    • Taftan - Much like the 'sheer mal' but with a puffed-up ring around it.
As you might have noticed, 'Naan' is usually used to pick up liquid and soft foods like shorba and beans. Forks and knives not commonly used during meals in Pakistan (unless someone is eating rice or is dining out). Attempting to cut a naan with a knife may elicit some amusement around you. Watching others may help.
  • Types of 'kababs' (mainly made of Beef or Lamb):
    • Seekh Kabab (سيخ کباب) - A long skewer of minced beef mixed with herbs and seasonings.
    • Shami Kabab (شامي کباب) - A round patty of seasoned beef and lentils, softer than seekh kababs.
    • Chapli Kabab (چپلي کباب) - A spicy round kabab that is a specialty of Peshawar.
    • Chicken Kabab (مرغ کباب) - A popular kabab that is found both with bone and without.
    • Lamb Kabab (کبابِ برہ گوشت) - The all lamb meat kabab is usually served as cubes.
  • More Pakistani Foods:
    • Roasted Chicken (whole) (مرغ بريان) - A whole chicken roasted. Very famous around Pakistan. You'll see them on the rotisserie while driving on Lahore streets. Also known as 'charga' locally.
    • Biryani (برياني) - A dish with mixed pieces of chicken and rice. It smells nice from the saffron and other seasonings added.
    • Chicken Tikka - Barbequed chicken with a spicy exterior. Looks like a huge, red chicken leg and thigh. For all meat lovers. Is available most anywhere.
    • Haleem - Thick stew-like mix of tiny chunks of meat, lentils and wheat grains.
There are too many shorbas, or sauces/soups, to enumerate. However, you should know of the most common ones.
  • Vegetarian
    • Daal - Yellow (made of yellow/red lentils) or brown (slightly sour) lentil "soup". Usually unspiced. Common to all economic classes.
    • X + ki sabzi - A vegetarian mixture with 'X' as the main ingredient.
  • With Meat
Meat is a major ingredient in most dishes. The variety is endless, but here are a few examples:
    • Aloo Gosht (Potatoes and Meat) - Chunks of potato and goat meat in gravy. Levels of spice vary. One example of a generic dish that includes most things + Gosht(meat).
    • Nihari- Beef simmered for several hours. A delicacy often eaten with Nan, Sheer Mal, or Taftan. Few people will have this available without spice. Eat with lemon, fried onion and caution: it is one of the spiciest curries.
    • Paye - or 'Siri Paye' is a stew of goat/beef/mutton bones (typically hooves, skull) and bone marrow. Extremely nutritious and generally eaten for breakfast with naan.
  • Desserts
    • Enjoy a variety; ice cream can be found in an abundance of flavors such as the traditional pistachio flavoured Kulfi;
    • Falooda (فلودہ) is tasty rosewater dessert. Traditional ice-cream known as 'kulfi' mixed with vermicelli, pistachio nuts and flavored with rose-water. .Most ice-cream shops have their own versions.
    • Shirini or Mithai: is the generic name for a variety of sweet treats in Pakistan.^ Asif Naqshbandi Oct 10, 2007 interacts: 81 It is my view that in the not too distant future Pakistan too will go through its own version of an Islamic revolution.
      • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .The sweets are extremely popular in Pakistan and called different things depending on where you go.^ Pakistan also has an on-going research-project which aims at assessing the water requirements of different species.
      • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

      Eat small chunks at a time, eating large pieces can be rude and will generally be too sweet.
    • Kulfi is a very traditional made ice-cream mixed with cream and different types of nuts.
    • If you want to go to some ice-cream parlors, there are some good western ice-cream parlors in Lahore like "Polka Parlor" "Jamin Java" "Hot Spot". For traditional ice creams, the 'Chaman' ice cream parlor across town is quite popular.
.A part from local restaurants, international fast food chains have also popped up throughout Pakistan.^ Over 3000 Educational Environmental Clubs have been set up in various parts of Pakistan.
  • Country Profile - Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

They include, KFC, Pizza Hut, McDonalds, Subway, Nandos, Mr.Cod, Papa Johns, Dominoes etc. .You are also prone to finding more European chains than North American.^ Sep 5, 2004 interacts: 110 Notwithstanding the fact that Musharraf has done more than enough for the Americans, he is still considered unreliable by them.
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^ Rozaiba Jun 26, 2004 interacts: 196 Show us that you are more than just a docile ‘teddy bear’!
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Drink

Tap water can be unsafe for drinking. However, some establishments have water filters/purifiers installed, in which case the water is safe to drink. Packed drinking water (normally called mineral water in Pakistan) is a better choice.
.The taste of the water is said to be very good in the north-eastern side of Pakistan, especially in the district of Sialkot.^ Sources said some militants were fleeing to North Waziristan from the Srarogha side and via the Shawal Road from Makeen due to increased pressure from the advancing troops.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ District Police chief Fakhar Sultan said the attack killed six civilians and two Pakistan Air Force personnel.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

Ask for bottled water wherever possible, and avoid anything cold that might have water in it.
  • Tea (or Chai as it is referred to in Pakistan) is popular throughout the country.
    • Both black and green tea (Sabz chai or qahvah) are common and are traditionally drunk with cardamom and lots of sugar. Lemon is optional but recommended with green tea.
    • Kashmiri chai is a milky tea with almonds and nuts added to give additional flavour. This tea is very popular during weddings and in the cold season.
  • Coffee is also available in all cities.
In the warmer southern region, sweet drinks are readily available throughout the day. Look for street vendors that have fruits (real or decorations) hanging from their roofs. Also, some milk/yogurt shops serve lassi. Ask for meethi lassi for a sweet yogurt drink and you can also get a salty lassi which tastes good and is similar to the Arabic Laban if you are having "bhindi" in food or some other rich dish. There is also a sweet drink called Mango Lassi which is very rich and thick, made with yogurt, mango pulp, and pieces of mango.
.Alcohol (both imported and local) is available to non-Muslim foreigners at off licenses and bars in most top end hotels.^ Sameer Jan 9, 2003 interacts: 213 Muslim extremists generally dislike non-Muslims and they hate various people at local level .
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^ Small numbers of escaped victims of trafficking end up in shelters run by NGO's that assist trafficking victims, but most do not because there are few such shelters available.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The local alcoholic beer is called 'Murree Beer. It is illegal for Muslims to buy, possess or consume alcohol in Pakistan. There is a huge black market across the country and the police tend to turn a blind eye to what is going on in private.

Sleep

Hotels are usually found around busy transportation hubs like bus and train stations. Don't be fooled by an impressive lobby - ask to see the room and check the beds, toilets, lights, etc before checking in. .If you have a big enough wallet you may want to try the reputable luxury hotels such as the Pearl Continental [11], Holiday Inn and others located in all major cities as well as many tourist destinations.^ May 8, 2009 interacts: 154 Islam has become a sort of Pandora Box; you take out of the box whatever you want and call it Islamic.
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^ Like the others, he too is given the food confiscated from the UN and other aids which came in frequently at different locations in the city.
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^ Opiates exit from Pakistan's southern Makran coastal area through cargo shipments and from international airports located in Pakistan's major cities.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

With the exception of these upper-end hotels, the term "hotel" in Pakistan is reserved for simpler establishments, with "Guest House" referring to medium-sized establishments where the standard is typically higher. Also note that restaurants are also called "hotels", creating a fun potential for confusion.

Work

Many Pakistani companies are looking for Sales representatives and usually all manner of companies will be happy to speak to a well-dressed Westerner about business.
.Many tourists are known to buy leather goods and other curios in Pakistan sell them in Goa India or somehow get them shipped back to the West.^ War is not an option, says Pakistan LeT backed Taliban to destabilise Pak: Malik 'India is not helping the Baloch freedom struggle' Why not a military option against Pakistan?
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ On the other hand, however, Pakistan has had no qualms about supporting insurgents in India, some of whom were engaged in activities that can only be described as terrorist.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ S C Sep 30, 2009 interacts: 300 Well-researched, demolishes many myths and presents an intriguing perspective on India Pakistan Partition .
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.Otherwise your best way of working is contact the numerous Aid agencies that work out of Peshawar, Islamabad and Rawalpindi.^ The clashes, which broke out late on January 17, occurred as the SFs cleared a road linking Bajaur Agency with Peshawar, an unnamed official said.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

Stay safe

.Pakistan has endured several bomb attacks over the last few years against security forces, so called western institutions (e.g the Marriott Hotel in Islamabad) and has seen the public assassination of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto upon her return from exile.^ Pakistan remembers Benazir Bhutto .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ December 27: Benazir Bhutto, the former Prime Minister and PPP Chairperson, was assassinated in a gun and suicide attack as she drove away from a campaign rally just minutes after addressing thousands of supporters at Liaquat Bagh in Rawalpindi.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ During the year 2001, Jehangir Badr, Chaudhary Pervez Elahi, Sheikh Rashid, Mehtab Abbasi, and Javed Hashmi were arrested by the NAB. A published list of persons charged with corruption by the NAB included former Prime Ministers Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Currently this attacks are increasing due to increased military action against the Taliban.^ June 20: At least 22 suspected militants and six soldiers were killed in a daylong military action against the Baitullah Mehsud-led Taliban in South Waziristan as the troops cleared a portion of the Wana-Jandola Road.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Suicide attack in Peshawar kills 5, injures 21 US asks Pakistan to expand military campaign against Taliban Again, Pak court adjourns 26/11 trial for a week .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ June 1: SFs claimed to have killed 37 militants in the Swat Valley and the Buner District during the ongoing military operation against Taliban.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

For the ordinary traveller it's a fairly hospitable country but social protests tend to turn violent and political demonstrations are always sensitive. .Before traveling you should check with your embassy about off-limits areas, the latest political & military developments and keep an close eye on current issues with independent news sources.^ Military sources said the FC launched a ground assault in the Shahukhel area (bordering Hangu District of NWFP) early in the morning.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ The militant death toll could not be confirmed independently as the area is sealed off under military operations.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ About 3.5 kilograms of explosives were used in the device planted at the eatery situated in the Hummark area, officials from the Bomb Disposal Squad told Geo News .
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

Use common sense and a healthy dose of courtesy when in conversation with Pakistanis. Kashmir is a particularly sensitive topic and best avoided altogether. .Discussion about religion and Islam should remain respectful and positive — some Pakistanis are not tolerant of other religions, and if theirs is spoken about negatively, it could result in violence.^ On the other hand, however, Pakistan has had no qualms about supporting insurgents in India, some of whom were engaged in activities that can only be described as terrorist.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians, Hindus, and members of other religions each account for about 1 percent of the population.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The line of control between Azad Kashmir and the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir is off-limits for foreign tourists, though domestic tourists can visit Azad Kashmir without any restriction (but should keep their identity cards with them).^ Emma Alam Feb 19, 2007 interacts: 12 Enthralling and enchanting locations of Pakistan beckon not only domestic but also foreign tourists to great extent.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Kashmiris in Pakistani-held Azad (Free) Kashmir probably envision a future independent of Pakistan, but their attentions have been absorbed by the problems of Indian-held Kashmir.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Local human rights activists report few restrictions to their access to prisons, even though the Government has continued to deny prison visits by the ICRC. .
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Federally Administered Tribal Areas & all regions near the sensitive Afghan border should not be visited at any time by foreign tourists, as the Pakistan government has little to no authority in these areas and cannot aid you in an emergency.^ Why Clinton should visit Pakistan .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier, a battle between foreign militants, most of them Uzbeks, and ethnic Pashtun tribesmen erupted in the remote area near the Afghan border on March 6, when militants tried to kill a pro-Government tribal leader, in which seventeen people, most of them Uzbeks, were killed.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Sources said about 15 militants attacked a security post in the Mattak area near the Afghan border on October 25 and killed a Junior Commissioned Officer and three other SF personnel.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

If you do have reason to visit, seek expert guidance, including that of your embassy, who can advise you on the special permissions required.
.Swat Valley is currently the epicenter of fierce fighting between the Pakistan army and the Taliban and even the locals are evacuating due to increased violence.^ Taliban strikes a blow to Pak army in Swat valley .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ September 7: Five more persons were killed and 14 others sustained injuries as violence continued in the Swat Valley in NWFP. .
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ In Karachi there were fewer killings between rival political factions during the year 2001; however, there was an increase in violence and killings between rival religious sects.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Northern and Western Balochistan are considered dangerous and not fit for travellers.
Prostitution has no legal recognition in Pakistan. Moreover despite growth of male prostitution, homosexuality is outlawed in the nation. .Under Section 377 of the Pakistan Penal Code, whoever voluntarily has "carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal" shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than two years nor more than ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.^ Introduced in 1986 by Zia, the law, referred to as "the blasphemy trap," states that "whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation or by any imputation, innuendo, or insinuation, directly or indirectly, defiles the sacred name of the Prophet Muhammad shall be punished with death or imprisoned for life and shall be liable to fine."
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pak spy worked in mobile shop in Delhi: Police Pakistan has more nuclear weapons than India: Report Cleared Taliban from S Waziristan, claims Pakistan .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Pakistan home page 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ According to the Criminal Procedures Code, the accused in bailable offenses must be granted bail, and those charged with nonbailable offenses should be granted bail if the alleged crime carries a sentence of less than 10 years.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section. .Pakistani law is greatly influenced by the Penal Code drawn up by the British in 1892. This remains a major element of the current Pakistani law.^ Stoning and amputation, it should be noted, had not been carried out as of early 1994--at least not outside of the tribal area where tribal custom, rather than the Pakistani penal code, is the law of the land.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1997 cases filed under Section 295 (a) of the Penal Code, one of the so-called blasphemy laws, were transferred to the antiterrorist courts.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A controversial law, Section 295-C of the Pakistan Penal Code, drew a great deal of attention from critics associated with the Human Rights Commission in 1993-94.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

While arrests are not common for homosexuality evidenced by a vibrant gay nightlife existing in metropolitan areas.

Stay healthy

Visitors are strongly advised to refrain from drinking tap water; many Pakistani locals themselves drink boiled or purified water. Take every precaution to drink only boiled, filtered or bottled water. Tap water is known to contain many impurities. Ice is usually made from regular tap-water, and may be even harder to avoid. Fresh milk from the carrier should be boiled and cooled before consumption. Non-pasteurized dairy can spread tuberculosis. Be careful of the people with a hacking cough. Nestle Milk Pak, Haleeb Milk, and others are trusted brands and are available at most grocery stores.
Take precautions against malaria, which is spread by mosquitoes. .The first and most effective way is to avoid getting bitten, but if you plan to stay in a place where malaria is common, you may need to eat prophylactic medicine as well.^ Well, I hope you aren’t feeling too sleepy after that hefty meal… our patient needs our full attention.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s still developing but it’s taken the first step towards that goal, and its well on its way.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The risk of getting Malaria decreases with higher altitudes.
In the summer it gets very hot. Be careful to stay hydrated. Temperature ranges between 40C to 50C in June-July. But as soon as Monsoon rains set in during Aug-Sept months, it gets to around 30C but with high level of humidity.
Do not eat food that has been lying out for some time, as high temperatures speed up deterioration. Avoid posh but unfrequented restaurants.
Some Pakistani dishes can be very spicy! Always notify your host, cook or waiter if you can not take very spicy food.

Respect

Pakistanis pride themselves on their tradition of hospitality to guests (mehmanawazi in Urdu, milmastia in Pashtu, puranadari in Punjabi). When entering a house, you will often be showered with tea, sweets and gifts — it's considered ungrateful to refuse these. Finishing a meal involves a delicate balance.... cleaning your plate will invite more to be served, while leaving too much may be a sign you didn't care for it. Aim for leaving just a little, announcing you're full, and heavily praising the food.
Business tends to move slowly, and will often be preceded by a lot of socializing, tea drinking, and meeting of the family. Rushing to the point may be considered rude, and even sour the deal.
.Pakistan is a conservative country and it is advisable for women to wear long skirts or trousers in public (Pakistani women wear the traditional shalwar kameez).^ Some women sold in shops in Karachi reportedly are sent to Persian Gulf countries, where they are slaves; women sent to rural Pakistan reportedly are de facto slaves.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wasiq N Khan Feb 15, 2009 interacts: 4 Finally, a major publication by a talented young Pakistani with an eye for Pakistan's rural society and an ear for its rural dialects.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation, but more significantly, for use as bonded labor.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Dress codes for men are more lax, though shorts are uncommon. Men should never shake hands with or touch a woman they don't know very well.
.As with most of South Asia, you should use your right hand for eating, shaking hands and giving or receiving everything (including money), and reserve your left hand for handling shoes and assisting in toilet duties.^ During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Mogul Empire dominated most of South Asia, including much of present-day Pakistan.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contact

The country code for Pakistan is +92 if you are calling from outside the country. .Phone numbers are seven digits long with two digit city code in larger districts, and six digits long with three digit city code in smaller districts, for a total of nine digits as a standard nationwide (except for Azad Kashmir).^ June 24: SFs killed seven Taliban militants in clashes in parts of the Dir and Swat Districts, while six soldiers, including two officers, were also killed.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Two planes made six sorties around 3pm (PST) and dropped 12 bombs on Ipi village, three kilometers east of Mirali.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

^ Three soldiers were killed and six injured after two separate remote controlled bombings targeted SFs convoys in the Waziristan tribal agencies.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

All mobile numbers, however, are seven digits long and begin with a four digit city code "03XX", where XX indicates the cellular provider. .Thus Pakistani mobile numbers are linked to one particular cellular provider, NOT one particular city as in some other countries.^ Apr 2, 2009 interacts: 20 Is there some one from among the Pakistani leaders who can stop this calamitous down slide and reverse the dreadful drift?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Therefore the city prefix should not be dialled in addition to the cellular prefix. As in many countries, omit the initial zero when dialing a city or cell code from outside Pakistan and prefix the '92' country code after dialling your country's international access code. Thus Telenor™ cell number 7654321 dialled from the USA/Canada would be 011-92-345-7654321 and Peshawar landline 2345678 dialled from France or the UK would be 00-92-91-2345678. The int'l access code for outgoing calls from Pakistan is 00.
.PTCL [12] offers landline and wireless phone services.^ Feb 3, 2009 interacts: 12 The mobile phone company was responsible for providing me a service for Rs.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Public Call Offices can be found all over the country. .You will find a PCO in nearly 50% of the general stores where there is usually someone who operates the phone and fax.^ According to the ISPR spokesman, Major General Athar Abbas, "Nearly 55 to 60 Taliban have been killed over the last 24 hours in the Buner operation."
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

.Fees will be charged according to the time spent, and you will pay when you have finished your call.^ Feroz Qutabshahi Jun 12, 2009 interacts: 9 If you are pressed for time, you can get the latest news and race results on your Blackberry, and do banking on your cell phone.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Calling from Price Syntax Example
Same city Local number 12345678
Same circle Local 92-area code-number 92-51-12345678
Different circle STD 0-area code-number 051-12345678
Overseas ISD +92-area code-number +92-51-12345678
Major providers of mobile phone service (GSM) are:
.One very convenient feature is that all Pakistani cellular operators use the GSM platform, so that cellular handsets nationwide are freely interchangeable between providers.^ The suspended Constitution provided for the right of private businesses to operate freely in most sectors of the economy and there continued to be a strong private sector.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Internet

.Cybercafes can be found on virtually every street corner and the rates are as low as Rs.15-20 per hour.^ Raiya Hashmi Nov 20, 2009 interacts: 4 No corner,no street,no abode Stands safe from these merciless fiends .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "After the exchange of fire that lasted for several hours, more than 20 troops went missing but today we found 15 dead bodies at the site," Noor Rehman, a police officer in Kabal, said.
  • Major incidents of terrorist violence in Pakistan, 1988-2009 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: News]

They usually don't have a very fast operating system so don't be too impatient. They usually use 14" monitors, Windows 2000, Windows 98, Windows XP are usually installed on these machines. Most of the cafes have a decent speed internet connection.
Internet Access can be obtained easily on notebook computers with the help of GPRS enabled mobile connections, supported by almost all of the 5 mobile operators. Mobilink provides EDGE based connection in very limited areas of Karachi, however Telenor's coverage of EDGE is wider. .The standard cost of GPRS/EDGE usage is Rs 15 - Rs 18/MB data transfer but Zong offers Rs 15/hour, however if you wish to download much more you may want to use unlimited packages, provided only by Mobilink and Telenor at this time.^ May 8, 2009 interacts: 154 Islam has become a sort of Pandora Box; you take out of the box whatever you want and call it Islamic.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It could be argued that the military has only intervened when the political situation has deteriorated hopelessly and that the threat is in fact from much more deepseated problems.
  • Comparative Criminology | Asia - Pakistan 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lalit Mohan May 27, 2000 interacts: 95 ...you will find that in the course of time Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims...
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

World Call and Ufone also offers USB Modem.
There are several Wi-Fi hotspots in Pakistan, in hotels, malls, and cafes/restaurants.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ Sindhyar Talpur Apr 8, 2008 interacts: 1 You really need to be a bad administrator or power usurper that people are so full of hatred for you that they can’t help but beat you.
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects. .This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Pakistan" as an educational resource.^ One is based on the government of Pakistan’s state funded educational institutions and modern curricula and other one is based on the centuries old system of madarassas’ religi .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World Bank Help For Pakistan’s Education – A Poisoned Chalice?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.
Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Pakistan at Wikipedia.
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.This is a special learning project about the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.^ The Islamic Republic of Pakistan’s Destiny?
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Flag of Pakistan"

Contents

Pakistan

.Pakistan is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and converges with Central Asia and the Middle East.It has a border with Afghanistan, Iran , India and China.Its area is about 803,940 km².^ Yousuf Saeed Nov 2, 1998 interacts: 2 a peace march to Pakistan across the India-Pakistan border .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is about clipping the wings of a strong Pakistani military, denying space for China in Pakistan, squashing the ISI, stirring ethnic unrest...
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rohan Oberoi Jul 2, 1999 interacts: 63 No one in India, it seems, has a clue what people across the border in Pakistan are thinking .
  • Chowk: India Pakistan Ideas Identities 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Learning resources

Universities

External Links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Etymology

.From Urdu and Persian پاکستان "Land of the Pure", from پاک (pak), pure, holy, immaculate, chaste, undefiled).^ The name Pakistan is derived from the Urdu words Pak (meaning pure) and stan (meaning country).
  • Pakistan: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 11 September 2009 9:11 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the League's president, opted to call the proposed country, "Pakistan," which means "land of the pure" in Urdu.

^ Word Pakistan also means holy, Sacred, Clean, Free and Independent in Urdu, Punjabi and Persian languages.
  • Pakistan Basic Facts 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.mazhar.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word was coined by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, who published it in the pamphlet Now or Never issued on January 28, 1933 as an acronym of the names of the "Muslim homelands" of western India — Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan.^ Pakistan name was coined by Choudhary Rahmat Ali (1893-1951) in 1933 using the suffix istan from Baluch istan preceded by the initial letters of P unjab, A fghanistan, and K ashmir.
  • Pakistan Basic Facts 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.mazhar.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 14, 2003 - News - Press Release - Pakistan : Pamphlet Urges Pakistani Muslims to Kill Westerners and Christians January 14, 2003 - CONCERN - Posted the December edition of the CONCERN Newsletter.
  • Pakistan - Christian Persecution in Pakistan 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, India, who claimed to be the same Messiah foretold by Prophet Muhammad and awaited eagerly by all Muslims.
  • Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.law.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

An i was later added to the English rendition of the name to ease pronunciation.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈpækɪsˌtæn/, SAMPA: /"p{kIs%t{n/

Proper noun

Singular
Pakistan
Plural
-
Pakistan
.
  1. Country in South Asia.^ Countries in South Central Asia: Afghanistan .
    • Pakistan - Islamic Republic of Pakistan - Country Profile 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان‎), is a country located in South Asia and the Greater Middle East.
    • Sky News - Pakistan In Depth 28 January 2010 0:37 UTC indepth.news.sky.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NEWS ALERT: The sixth most populous country in the world, Pakistan has a per capita income of about 870 dollar, which is right on average for South Asia.

    Official name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Translations

See also


Bosnian

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

Croatian

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

Danish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Pakistan
Wikipedia da

Proper noun

Pakistan
  1. Pakistan (country in south Asia)

Related terms

  • pakistansk

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Pakistan
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Pakistan
  1. Pakistan

Declension

Derived terms


French

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

Derived terms


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Pakistan
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Pakistan n.
  1. Pakistan

Derived terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Pakistan
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Pakistan
  1. Pakistan

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /paˈkʲistan/

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Pakistan
Genitive Pakistanu
Dative Pakistanowi
Accusative Pakistan
Instrumental Pakistanem
Locative Pakistanie
Vocative Pakistanie

Derived terms


Serbian

Proper noun

Pakistan m.
  1. Pakistan

See also


Swedish

Proper noun

Pakistan
  1. Pakistan

Tatar

Proper noun

Pakistan
  1. Pakistan

Declension


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Pakistani Studies article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents

Pakistan - The land of the pure.png

Overview

Culture


Simple English

Redirecting to Pakistan


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 03, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Pakistan, which are similar to those in the above article.