Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Wikis

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Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
Organization overview
Formed Sometime in March 1956
Preceding agency Atomic Energy Commission Act
Jurisdiction Pakistan's government
Headquarters Islamabad
Employees Classified
Annual budget Classified
Agency executive Dr. Ansar Pervaiz, Chairman
Website
www.paec.gov.pk/

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) (Urdu: ادارہ جوہری توانائی پاکستان) is a civilian-controlled scientific agency of Pakistan who is responsible for nuclear applications and development in Pakistan. PAEC was established by a Parliamentary act of 1956 under the Government of Prime Minister of Pakistan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. The primary purpose of PAEC is to control the peace time development of atomic/nuclear science and technology. PAEC is an independent and autonmous scientific agency of Pakistan which is responsible to control country's civilian and military nuclear program.

Contents

History

The history of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission goes back to 1956, when the Atomic Energy Research Council was established. Its first chairman was Dr. Nazir Ahmed, a renowed experimental physicist who played a major role in the development of heavy water reactors. In 1964, 1965 and 1973 reorganization took place and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission was incorporated as a statutory body under an Act, with considerable autonomy.

In January of 1972, the commission was transferred from the Science and Technology Research Division to the Prime minister's Secretariat. PAEC was also responsible of sending 500 scientists into the universities of United Kingdom and United States to earn degrees in nuclear science and nuclear application; only 106 of them returned home. In early 60s, PAEC established the research reactor and particle accelerator in East Pakistan and West Pakistan, where many scientist and engineers were trained. After the Bangladesh liberation war, a vast majority of scientist and engineers at Dhaka particle accelerator flew back to Pakistan.

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Research and Education

PAEC is now the largest science and technology organization of the country, both in terms of scientific/technical manpower and the scope of its activities. Starting with a nuclear power reactor at Karachi (KANUPP) and an experimental research reactor at Nilore, Islamabad (PARR-I); a neutron particle accelerator at PARR-II, the emphasis in the early years remained focused on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Consequently research centres in: Agricultural engineering, nuclear engineering, nuclear medicine, nuclear technology, nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, astrophysics, astrochemistry, astrobiology biochemistry, biophysics, biological sciences, biotechnology, theoretical physics mathematical physics, computational physics, experimental physics, geophysics and other scientific and mathematical disciplines were set up all over the country. As the emphasis shifted towards concerns for national security, important projects were also initiated in this area. PAEC is one of the most well known and oldest research institute in Pakistan, where country's most prominent scientist have worked, including Pakistani Nobel laureate, Dr. Abdus Salam (late), Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad, Mr. Munir Ahmad Khan and many other Pakistani scientists.

Expansion of Nuclear Power Plants

PAEC envisions setting up power plants with a capacity of 8800 MW by the year 2030. In this context CHASHNUPP project was initiated in the early 1990s, with the aim of establishing a complex of 4 units each having a 325 MW reactor. Expansion plans for KANNUP have also been launched. By 2008, studies were being conducted to identify new sites for further nuclear plants.

PAEC's Contribution to CERN

Pakistan has a long history of participating with CERN and has a long tradition of wonderful physicists who are working around the world. Pakistan has been contributing and regularly participating in CERN's project, nuclear experiments, etc. A prime example would be Dr. Abdul Salam; dr. Salam was the first man to be accredited with all the collaboration with CERN which continues till to date when he convinced CERN to give Pakistan stacks of nuclear emulsion exposed for further study of pions, kaons and antiprotons in 1960s[1]. Some theoretical physicists from Pakistan had the opportunity to work at CERN through short visits. During the 1980s, some of the experimental physicists from Pakistan, specializing in the technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD), also benefited from CERN by exposing the stacks in the beam at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS)[2].

PAEC Contribution to Compact Muon Solenoid

In 1997, a well-known Pakistani nuclear physicist Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad was able to sign a contract between PAEC and CERN after elaborate discussions an in-kind contribution worth one million Swiss francs for the construction of eight magnet supports for the CMS detector[1].

PAEC Support to Large Hadron Collider

In 2000, CERN signed another agreement which doubled the Pakistani contribution from one to two million Swiss francs. And with this new agreement Pakistan started construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. While more recently, a protocol has been signed enhancing Pakistan’s total contribution to the LHC programme to $10 million. Pakistan with all these efforts is already hoping to become an observer state at CERN[1][2]. In 2006 PAEC and CERN agreed on expanded cooperation, including contributions by PAEC valued at 5 million Swiss francs.[3]

World's Largest Energy Experiment at CERN

On September 10, 2008, PAEC, along with the Universities of Pakistan, send a large team of physicists and engineers to CERN. Pakistani scientists were heavily involved and participated in Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator[4].

Composition

The Commission consists of the following members appointed by the Federal Government namely:-

Full-Time members

  • a) Chairman
  • b) A Finance member, being representative of the Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan.
  • c) Technical members of whom one may be a member for Administration.

Part-Time members

  • a) A scientist in the service of the Federal Government of any organization setup by the Federal Government.
  • b) Two scientists.
  • c) Chief Scientific Adviser to the President, ex-officio.

The Commission meets not less than four times every year, and it has the mandate to take decisions on all matters, including research work, promotion of peaceful uses of atomic energy in the fields of agriculture, medicine and industry and for the execution of development projects involving nuclear power stations and the generation of electric power.

Following is the list of PAEC chairmen

Numbers Name Term Start Term End Alma Mater Field Educational Background
1 Dr. Nazir Ahmed March 11, 1956 May 21, 1960 University of Manchester, United Kingdom Experimental Physics Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
2 Ishrat Hussain Usmani July 15, 1960 January 10, 1972 Imperial College of Science and Technology, United Kingdom Atomic Physics Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
3 Munir Ahmad Khan January 20, 1972 March 20, 1991 INSC, Argonne National Laboratory, United States Nuclear Engineering Master of Science (M.Sc.)
4 Ishfaq Ahmad 13 March 1991 December 19, 2001 Université de Montréal and Montreal Laboratory, Canada Nuclear Physics Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)
5 Parvez Butt December 29, 2001 April 5, 2006 University of Toronto, Canada Nuclear Engineering Master of Science (M.Sc.)
6 Anwar Ali May 01, 2006 March 31, 2009 Nuclear Technology Education Consortium, United Kingdom Nuclear Physics Master of Science (M.Sc.)
7 Ansar Pervaiz April 07, 2009 Present Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States Nuclear Reactor Technology Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)

Current Full-Time members

Name Designation Role
Dr. Ansar Pervaiz Minister of State, senior scientist, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman
Ghulam Nabi Member, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Member (Technical)
Zia-ul-Hasan Siddique Member, PAEC Nuclear Power Division Member (Technical)
Waqar Butt Member, PAEC Nuclear Engineering Division Member (engineer)
Khalid Mushtaq Cabinet Secretary Member (Cabinet)
Mansoor Ali Sheikh Finance Secretary, Ministry of Finance (Pakistan) Member (Finance)
Dr. Shoaib Ahmed Member, PAEC Physics Science Department Member (Physical Science)
Muhammad Naeem Member, PAEC Radiation and Waste Department Member (Fuel Cycle)

Functions

  • Programmes to develop nuclear power and fuel-cycle facilities.
  • Promotion of use of radiation and radio-isotopes in agriculture, medicine and industry.
  • Research, development and training of manpower to support the programmes of nuclear power and radio-isotope applications.

Nuclear Power Programme

The task of nuclear power is divided between the Nuclear Power Generation and Nuclear Power Projects Divisions. The former overlooks the operational units while the latter is concerned with design and construction of planned units.

Projects

CHASHNUPP

  • 4 x 325 MW Units
  • CHASCENT Full Scope Training Simulator

Operational Units

  • CHASHNUPP 1

Planned Units

  • CHASNUPP 2,3,4

KANUPP

  • 1 x 125 MW
  • 2 x 325 MW

Operational Units

  • KANUPP 1

Planned Units

  • KANUPP 2,3,4,5

See also

References

External links


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