Pakistan and state terrorism: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pakistan has been accused by Bangladesh, India, Afghanistan, Iran and other nations (including the United States,[1][2] and the United Kingdom[3]) of its involvement in the terrorism in Kashmir, India and Afghanistan.[4] Satellite imagery from the FBI which imply the existence of terror camps[5] and data produced by India's Research and Analysis Wing clearly suggest the existence of many terrorist camps in Pakistan with at least one militant admitting the help given by Pakistan in training them.[6] Another terrorist out(only considered terroist group by Indian Government ), the JKLF has openly admitted that more than 3,000 militants from various nationalities were still being trained.[7] Other nonpartisan resources also concur stating that Pakistan’s military and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) both include personnel who sympathize with and help Islamic terrorists adding that "ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed"[8]. Though Pakistan had previously denied involvement in the terrorist activities in Kashmir, President Asif Ali Zardari in a meeting with retired senior officials admitted [9] that the terrorist outfits were "deliberately created and nurtured as a policy to achieve some short-term tactical objectives". Many Kashmir terrorist groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, which is cited as further proof by the Indian Government. Many of the terrorist organisations are banned by the UN, but continue to operate under different names. Even the normally reticent UNO has also publicly increased pressure on Pakistan on its inability to control its Afghanistan border and not restricting the activities of Taliban "leaders" who have been declared by the UN as terrorists (not the taliban organization).[10][11] Both the Federal and State governments in India continue to accuse Pakistan of helping several banned terrorist organizations like ULFA in Assam.[12] Experts believe that the ISI has also been involved in training and supplying Chechen militants.[13]

Contents

Background

Until Pakistan became a key ally in the War on Terrorism, the US Secretary of State included Pakistan on the 1993 list of countries which repeatedly provide support for acts of international terrorism.[1] The recent 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot is also blamed by various sections in the media as being a handiwork of elements in the Pakistani administration. (See Pakistan's role in the plot) Press editorials from around the world have consistently and strongly condemned Pakistan's "terror exports"[14].In fact, many consider that Pakistan has been playing both sides in the fight against terror, on the one hand helping to curtail it while secretly stoking terrorism.[15][16] Even the noted Pakistani journalist, Ahmed Rashid has accused Pakistan's ISI of providing help to the Taliban,[17] a statement echoed by many, including author Ted Galen Carpenter, who states that Pakistan has "assisted rebel forces in Kashmir even though those groups have committed terrorist acts against civilians"[18] Author Gordon Thomas states that whilst aiding in the capture of Al Qaeda members, Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the disputed state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India."</ref> Journalist Stephen Schwartz notes that several terrorist and criminal groups are "backed by senior officers in the Pakistani army, the country's ISI intelligence establishment and other armed bodies of the state."[19] According to one author, Daniel Byman, "Pakistan is probably today's most active sponsor of terrorism."[20] Gordon Brown recently stated that seventy five percent terror plots in UK had links to Pakistan.[21] Writing in The Australian Foreign editor Greg Sheridan commented 'following the terror massacres in Mumbai, Pakistan may now be the single biggest state sponsor of terrorism, beyond even Iran. Yet it has never been listed by the US State Department as a state sponsor ofterrorism.'[22]

Inter-Services Intelligence and terrorism

Pakistan's intelligence agency, the ISI, has often been accused of playing a role in major terrorist attacks across the world including the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States,[23][24][25] terrorism in Kashmir,[26][27][28] Mumbai Train Bombings,[29] London Bombings,[30] Indian Parliament Attack,[31] Varnasi bombings,[32] Hyderabad bombings[33][34] and Mumbai terror attacks[35][36].The ISI is also accused of supporting Taliban forces[37] and recruiting and training mujahideen[37][38] to fight in Afghanistan[39][40] and Kashmir[40]. Based on communication intercepts US intelligence agencies concluded Pakistan's ISI was behind the attack on the Indian embassy in Kabul on July 7, 2008, a charge that the governments of India and Afghanistan had laid previously.[41] The Afghan President Hamid Karzai who has constantly reiterated allegations that militants operating training camps in Pakistan have used it as a launch platform to attack targets in Afghanistan urged western military allies to target extremist hideouts in neighbouring Pakistan.[42] In response to the growing extremism from Pakistani border, the US has started bombing selected terrorist hideouts within Pakistan, as well as raiding villages in Pakistan to capture and kill suspected Al-Qaeda and Taliban members hiding in Pakistan.[43]

Links to Islamic terrorist groups

Pakistan is also said to be a haven for terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda,[44] Lashkar-e-Omar, Lashkar-e-Toiba, Sipah-e-Sahaba. Pakistan is accused of sheltering and training the Taliban in operations "which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and on several occasions apparently directly providing combat support," as quoted by the Human Rights Watch.[45] In fact, the US has stated that the next attack on US could originate in Pakistan.[46] Another militant outfit, the JKLF has openly admitted that more than 3,000 militants from various nationalities were still being trained.[7] Other resources also concur stating that Pakistan’s military and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) both include personnel who sympathize with and help Islamic militants adding that "ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including Jaish-e-Mohammed"[47] Pakistan has denied any involvement in the terrorist activities in Kashmir, arguing that it only provides political and moral support to the secessionist groups. Many Kashmiri groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, which is cited as further proof by the Indian Government. The normally reticent UNO has also publicly increased pressure on Pakistan on its inability to control its Afghanistan border and not restricting the activities of Taliban leaders who have been declared by the UN as terrorists.[48][49]

Pakistan is accused of sheltering and training the Taliban in operations "which include soliciting funding for the Taliban, bankrolling Taliban operations, providing diplomatic support as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, recruiting skilled and unskilled manpower to serve in Taliban armies, planning and directing offensives, providing and facilitating shipments of ammunition and fuel, and on several occasions apparently directly providing combat support," as quoted by the Human Rights Watch.[50] In fact, the US has stated that the next attack on US could originate in Pakistan.[51] But this trend seems to have come to a halt as the Pakistan Army continues to mount massive military operations against Taliban & other militants in the country's Tribal Areas. This has resulted in the Taliban regularly attacking Pakistan Army convoys, encampments, even killing civilians that help Pakistan Army. In what was seen as a reversal of trends & failure of NATO forces in Afghanistan, 600 Taliban fighters crossed the border from Afghanistan in to Pakistan on January 11, 2009 but were made to retreat by the Pakistan Army contingent.[52] The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has been branded frequently as a 'Haven for Terrorism', supporting Islamic terrorist organizations and is considered amongst the most dangerous nations in the world. [53][54]. The country, with the second largest Muslim population in the world, harbours some of the most dangerous islamic terrorist organizations in the world, The Lashkar-e-Toiba, The Jaish-e-Mohammed, The Harkat-ul-Mujahideen and The Hizbul Mujahideen [55][56]. The Pakistani intelligence agency, the ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) is believed to be aiding these organizations in eradicating the existing of perceived enemies or those opposed to their cause, including India, Russia, China, Israel, US, UK and other NATO nations [57][58][59][60].

Terrorism in Afghanistan

U.S. intelligence officials claim that Pakistan's ISI sponsored the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul.[61] They say that the ISI officers who aided the attack had not been renegades, indicating that their actions might have been authorized by superiors. The attack was carried out by Jalaluddin Haqqani, who runs a network that Western intelligence services say is responsible for a campaign of violence throughout Afghanistan, including the Indian Embassy bombing and the 2008 Kabul Serena Hotel attack.[61]

Terrorism in India

A DMU train proceeds towards Budgam amid heavy snowfall, as an Indian security personnel guards it from separatists allegedly sponsored by faction is the Pakistani Army and the ISI.

The government of Pakistan has come under fire for the alleged involvements of terrorist organizations operating from their soil in numerous bombings in India killing thousands over the last decade alone. Pakistan denies all allegations, stating that these acts are committed by non-state actors[62][63]. The country has had a history of instability and military coups with General Pervez Musharraf coming to power after overthrowing Nawaf Sharif in 1999 and with Asif Zardari coming to power with the assassination of his wife Benazir Bhutto, allegedly by the Taliban and Al Qaeda, in 2008.[64][65] The country also blames the US and India for inciting terrorism on their soil [66] and supports the cause for Al Qaeda.[67]

India alleged that the recent 2008 Mumbai attacks originated in Pakistan, and that the attackers were in touch with a Pakistani colonel and other handlers in Pakistan[68]. This lead to the UN ban on one such organisation, the Jamaat Ud Dawa(which the Pakistani government has yet to enforce)[69][70]

References

  1. ^ a b International Terrorism: Threats and Responses: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary By United States Congress House Committee on the Judiciary, ISBN 0-16-052230-7, 1996, pp482
  2. ^ Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism April 30, 2001 U.S. State Department
  3. ^ Daily Times Story
  4. ^ Pakistan's link to Afghan terrorism
  5. ^ FBI identifies terror camp in Pakistan through satellite pictures
  6. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_14-6-2005_pg1_4
  7. ^ a b 'Pak feared exposure of militant camps' - Rediff October 16, 2005
  8. ^ Terrorism Havens: Pakistan - Council on Foreign Relations
  9. ^ Zardari says Pak created and nurtured militants - CNN IBN News
  10. ^ Pakistan should crack down on Taliban, UN official says
  11. ^ BBC Story
  12. ^ Assam accuses Pakistan High Commission of helping ULFA
  13. ^ Who Is Osama Bin Laden? by Michel Chossudovsky Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa hosted on Centre for Research on Globalisation
  14. ^ Editorial: Terror exports made in Pakistan- The Australian
  15. ^ Pakistan said to play both sides on terror war October 02, 2006, Christian Science Monitor
  16. ^ Dangerous game of state-sponsored terror that threatens nuclear conflict May 25, 2002, Guardian Unlimited
  17. ^ Die Zeit - Kosmoblog » Mustread: Rashid über Afghanistan
  18. ^ Terrorist Sponsors: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, China by Ted Galen Carpenter November 16, 2001 Cato Institute
  19. ^ Stephen Schwartz (19 August 2006). "A threat to the world". The Spectator. http://www.spectator.co.uk/archive/features/24639/a-threat-to-the-world.thtml. Retrieved 2007-09-20.  
  20. ^ Deadly Connections: States That Sponsor Terrorism By Daniel Byman, ISBN 0-521-83973-4, 2005, Cambridge University Press, pp 155
  21. ^ Brown: Pakistan linked to most UK terror plots, CNN, 2008-12-14
  22. ^ Asia's Islamism engine, The Australian, 2008-12-04
  23. ^ Michael Meacher: The Pakistan connection | World news | The Guardian
  24. ^ Centre for Research on Globalisation (CRG)
  25. ^ BBC News | SOUTH ASIA | Pakistan spy service 'aiding Bin Laden'
  26. ^ Terrorism Havens: Pakistan - Council on Foreign Relations
  27. ^ Indian minister ties ISI to Kashmir
  28. ^ Kashmir Militant Extremists - Council on Foreign Relations
  29. ^ BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistan 'role in Mumbai attacks'
  30. ^ The Pakistani Connection: The London Bombers and "Al Qaeda's Webmaster"
  31. ^ Terrorist Attack on the Parliament of India - December 13, 2001
  32. ^ ISI now outsources terror to Bangladesh
  33. ^ Hyderabad blasts: The ISI hand
  34. ^ ISI may be behind Hyderabad blasts: Jana Reddy
  35. ^ U.S. official: Indian attack has Pakistani ties
  36. ^ Rice tells Pakistan to act ‘or US will’
  37. ^ a b BBC NEWS | South Asia | Pakistan's shadowy secret service
  38. ^ Nato's top brass accuse Pakistan over Taliban aid - Telegraph
  39. ^ At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge - New York Times
  40. ^ a b A NATION CHALLENGED: THE SUSPECTS; Death of Reporter Puts Focus On Pakistan Intelligence Unit - New York Times
  41. ^ Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials say
  42. ^ Karzai wants action by allied forces in Pakistan August 11, 2008 Dawn, Pakistan
  43. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/09/12/asia/pakistan.php
  44. ^ Zee News - Pakistan has al-Qaeda training camp: US officials
  45. ^ Crisis of Impunity - Pakistan's Support Of The Taliban
  46. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C09%5C12%5Cstory_12-9-2008_pg7_51
  47. ^ Terrorism Havens: Pakistan - Council on Foreign Relations
  48. ^ Pakistan should crack down on Taliban, UN official says
  49. ^ BBC Story
  50. ^ Crisis of Impunity - Pakistan's Support Of The Taliban
  51. ^ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C09%5C12%5Cstory_12-9-2008_pg7_51
  52. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7822722.stm
  53. ^ http://www.cfr.org/publication/9514/
  54. ^ http://www.newsweek.com/id/57485
  55. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/2001/20011217/main1.htm
  56. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ISI_still_helping_terror_groups_against_India_Narayanan/articleshow/2902592.cms
  57. ^ http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/lashkar_e_toiba.htm
  58. ^ http://www.cfr.org/publication/17882/
  59. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3181925.stm
  60. ^ http://www.harkatulmujahideen.org/
  61. ^ a b Pakistanis Aided Attack in Kabul, U.S. Officials Say, Mark Mazzetti and Eric Schmidt, New York Times, 2008-08-01
  62. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/news/2008/11/sec-081128-irna02.htm
  63. ^ http://www.ndtv.com/convergence/ndtv/mumbaiterrorstrike/Story.aspx?ID=NEWEN20080076673&type=News
  64. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22416009/
  65. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4797762.stm
  66. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/3330186.cms
  67. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/07/11/al.qaeda.report/index.html
  68. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/feb/26/mumbai-terror-attacks-india
  69. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Pakistan_not_to_ban_Jamaat-ud-Dawa/articleshow/3838907.cms
  70. ^ http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/rssarticleshow/3823910.cms

See also

Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message