The Full Wiki

Pakistani English: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pakistani English is the term used to describe the English language as spoken in Pakistan.[1]

Contents

History

Although British rule in India lasted for almost two hundred years, the areas which lie in what is now Pakistan, were amongst the last to be annexed. Sind was annexed in 1843, Punjab (which initially included the North-West Frontier Province) in 1849, and parts of Baluchistan, including Quetta and the outer regions in 1879, while the rest of the Baluchistan region became a princely state within the British Indian Empire. As a result English had less time to become part of local culture that it did and is an integral part of the country's social fabric was due to several reasons which will be explored later in the article. In 1947 upon Pakistan's establishment, English became Pakistan's de facto official language, a position which was formalised in the constitution of 1973.

Relationship with Indian English

Pakistani English shares many similarities with Indian English, however since Independence (and also before[citation needed] due to Pakistan being on the fringes of South Asia) there have been some very obvious differences. These include unique idioms and colloquial expressions as well as accents[2] foreign companies find accent neutralisation easier[2] in Pakistan than in India. However like Indian English, Pakistani English has preserved many phrases that are now considered antiquated in Britain.[3]

Use in Pakistan

English is Pakistan's official language. All government documents, military communications, street signs, many shop signs, business contracts and other activities are done in English. The language of the courts is also English.[4] English is taught to all school level Pakistani students, and in many cases the medium of instruction is also in English.[5] At College and University level all instruction is in English.[6] Pakistan boasts a large English language press and (more recently) media. All of Pakistan's major dailies are published in or have an edition in English, while DAWN News is a major English Language News Channel. Code-switching is very common in Pakistan and almost all conversations in whatever language have a significant English component.

Phonology

Pakistani English phonology follows that of British English. It may be rhotic or non-rhotic.

Influences

Pakistani English is heavily influenced by Pakistan's languages as well as the English of other nations. Many words or terms from Urdu, such as 'cummerbund', have entered the global language and are also found in Pakistan. In addition the area which is now Pakistan was home to the largest garrisons of the British Indian Army (such as Rawalpindi and Peshawar) this combined with the post-partition influence of the Pakistan Military has ensured that many military terms have entered the local jargon.

The type of English taught (and preferred) is British English. The heavy influence and penetration of American culture through television, films and other media has brought in great influences of American English.

Pakistani English Terms

Pakistani English contains many unique terms, as well as terms which are utilised somewhat differently in Pakistan. Examples.

  • Open/close the TV (or any object), refers to turning something on or off. This is due to the verbs for to open and to close being the same as the verbs for to turn on and to turn off in Urdu and other Pakistani languages.
  • Shopper, means a shopping bag, rather than a person who is shopping, the latter is referred to as a customer.
  • His/her meter has turned means that the person has lost his/her temper. Usually used for a sudden outburst, one which is construed as unreasonable.
  • Got no lift; received no attention or assistance from the person.
  • On parade; being at work/ at a set activity. Usually (though not always) in the context of starting something for the first time. For example I have been hired by the company, on parade from next Monday .
  • Out of Station; being out of the city.
  • Become a direct Sargent; be promoted out of turn/ given responsibility and authority very early. Often in the context that a person is out of his/her depth. For example, no wonder that team has failed so badly, leader was a direct Sargent. Usually "Sargent" is replaced by "Havildar" the equivalent rank in the Pakistan Army. Also used for upwardly mobile, ambitious or nouveau riche.
  • Auld Lang Sang; as an idiom to denote the end of an event or a matter, often to convey sadness; for example, my last day at the job, Auld Lang Sang,. Less often the first words of the song are used in a similar way, "Lest Auld acquaintance be forgot".
  • First Class; means top quality; often used by shopkeepers and salesmen to donate good quality.
  • Tight; high quality, or aesthetically pleasing and desirable. Often to describe physical attractiveness, usually of females, e.g. Ali is going out with a very tight girl.
  • Miss is used to address or refer to female teachers, whatever their marital status, e.g. yes I have done my homework miss. Less commonly used to refer to women colleagues or subordinates.
  • Madam is used to address and refer to females in positions of authority, usually a superior, e.g. madam has ordered me to get the figures for last years sales.Can also be used as a noun, e.g. she is the madam of that department meaning she is the head of the department, without it being derogatory.
  • Sir; used for a male superior, often combined with their name or used as a noun. E.g. Is Sir in? or Sir Raza wants to see you in his office as soon as possible.
  • Do the needful; perform/complete or abstain from doing the required action. E.g. I have enclosed the instructions in the letter, please follow and do the needful. Also seen in Indian and Sri Lankan English.
  • Eve teasing; harassing women. Seen in Indian English also.
  • Hit for a six; ruined, e.g. I had planned to go to Murree for the weekend, but the blizzard hit that idea for a six. Also seen in Indian and Sri Lankan English.
  • Well left, avoided artfully, often a tricky situation; from cricket, the term "well left" is applied when a batsman chose not to play a potentially dangerous delivery, e.g. I well left that offer, it could have caused many problems.
  • Threw/ received a googly, an unexpected situation arose, a person was surprised, often unpleasantly, e,g had just settled down and then got the googly about the transfer. From googly, a delivery in cricket.
  • Yorker, a sudden, dangerous and potentially devastating situation; similar use to googly, but usually has a certain amount of danger attached to it. my mother's heart attack while we were hiking in the mountains hit like a yorker, we were far from any medical help. From Yorker another type of cricket delivery. Also used in a similar manner; bouncer.
  • Hit middle stump, did the action in such a manner that there is little room for further action, or a decisive blow,e.g. really hit middle stump last year on that contract
  • Master Sahib, usually contracted to Ma'Sahib, used to refer to a master craftsman. The term is now however used more frequently to refer to tailors and carpenters.

See also

Notes

References

Advertisements

Simple English

Pakistani English, is the type of the English Language as it is spoken in Pakistan.

Contents

History

Although British rule in South Asia lasted for almost two hundred years, the areas that are now Pakistan were some of the last places to be taken over by the British. Punjab (which included the North-West Frontier Province) was captured in 1849, Sindh a few years before; while Balochistan was never fully taken over by the British. This meant that English had less time to become part of local culture, however in 1947 when Pakistan became independent English (along with Urdu) became Pakistan's official language - this was written into law in 1973.

Relationship with Indian English

Pakistani English has many similarities with Indian English, however since Independence there have been some very obvious differences. These include words and phrased not used in India as well as accents.[1] Foreign companies find accent naturalisation easier in Pakistan than in India. However like Indian English, Pakistani English has preserved many phrases that are now considered old in Britain.[2]

Use in Pakistan

English is Pakistan's official language. All government documents, military communications, street signs, many shop signs, business contracts and other activities are in English. The language of the courts is also English [3]. English is taught to all school level Pakistani students, and in many cases English is also the language used to teach the students other subjects.[4]. At College and University level all instruction is in English [5]. Pakistan has a large English language press and (more recently) media. All of Pakistan's major dailies are published in or have an edition in English, while DAWN News is a major English Language News Channel.

References


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message