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Palestinian National Authority
السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية
As-Sulta Al-Wataniyya Al-Filastīniyya
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemBiladi (The original one is Mawtiny)
Capital Ramallah and Gaza are administrative centres; Jerusalem is the proclaimed capital of Palestine[1]
Government Semi-presidential;
Parliamentary democracy
 -  President Disputed between Mahmoud Abbas and Aziz Duwaik
 -  Prime Minister Disputed between Salam Fayyad and Ismail Haniyeh
Establishment
 -  Established May 4, 1994 
Population
 -  2009 (July) estimate 4,136,540 (125th)
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $11.95 billion (-)
 -  Per capita $2,900 (-)
HDI (2007) 0.737 (medium) (110th)
Currency Jordanian dinara
Egyptian Poundb
Israeli new sheqelc (JOD, EGP, ILS)
Time zone   (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST)   (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .ps
Calling code +970*
*Abbas's term expired on January 9, 2009, creating a constitutional crisis. Abbas unilaterally extended his term by one year, while Duwaik, as the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, assumed the office as well.

** Haniyeh was dismissed by President Abbas in favor of Fayad, however, along with the Palestinian Legislative Council, Haniyeh does not acknowledge the legitimacy of his dismissal; from 14 June 2007 Haniyeh exercises de facto authority in the Gaza Strip, whereas Fayad's government has authority in the West Bank.
a Used in West Bank from 1950 - Present.
b Used in Gaza Strip from 1951 - Present.
c Used from 1985 - Present.


* +972 is also used.

The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA; Arabic: السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينيةAl-Sulṭa Al-Waṭaniyyah Al-Filasṭīniyyah) is the administrative organization established to govern of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

The Palestinian National Authority was formed in 1994, pursuant to the Oslo Accords between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the government of Israel, as a 5-year interim body during which final status negotiations between the two parties were to take place but never did. According to the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority was designated to have control over both security-related and civilian issues in Palestinian urban areas (referred to as "Area A"), and only civilian control over Palestinian rural areas ("Area B"). The remainder of the territories, including Israeli settlements, the Jordan Valley region, and bypass roads between Palestinian communities, were to remain under exclusive Israeli control ("Area C"). East Jerusalem was excluded from the Accords.

Contents

Overview

The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) is an interim administrative body established in accordance with the Gaza-Jericho Agreement[2] after the Oslo Accords to assume the responsibilities of the Israeli military administration in populated Palestinian centers (Area A) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip until final status negotiations with Israel are concluded.[3][4] The administrative responsibilities accorded to the PNA are limited to civil matters and internal security and do not include external security or foreign affairs.[4] Palestinians in the diaspora and inside Israel do not vote in elections for the offices of the Palestinian National Authority.[5] The PNA should not be confused with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) who continues to enjoy international recognition as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, representing them at the United Nations under the name "Palestine".[6][7]

The PNA has received financial assistance from the European Union and the United States (approximately USD $1 bln. combined in 2005). All direct aid was suspended on 7 April 2006 as a result of the Hamas victory in parliamentary elections.[8][9] Shortly thereafter, aid payments resumed, but were channeled directly to the offices of Mahmoud Abbas in the West Bank.[10] Conflict between Hamas and Fatah later in 2006 resulted in Hamas taking exclusive control over the administration of all PNA institutions in the Gaza Strip. Since January 9, 2009, when Mahmoud Abbas' term as President was supposed to have ended and elections were to have been called, Hamas supporters and many in the Gaza Strip have withdrawn recognition for his Presidency and instead consider Aziz Dweik, who served as the speaker of the house in the Palestinian Legislative Council, to be the acting President until new elections can be held.[11][12] No Western financial assistance is given to the PNA authorities in Gaza and Western governments do not recognize anyone but Abbas to be the President.

The Gaza International Airport was built by the PNA in the city of Rafah, but operated for only a brief period before being razed by Israel following the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000. A sea port was also being constructed in Gaza but was never completed (see below).

The creation of a Palestinian police force was called for under the Oslo Accords.[4] The first Palestinian police force of 9,000 was deployed in Jericho in 1994, and later in Gaza.[4] These forces initially struggled to control security in the areas in which it had partial control which was used an excuse by Israel to delay expansion of the area to be administered by the PNA.[4] By 1996, the PNA security forces were estimated to include anywhere from 40,000 to 80,000 recruits.[13] employing some armored cars, and a limited number carry automatic weapons.[14] Many Palestinians opposed to or critical of the peace process perceive the Palestinian security forces to be little more than a proxy of the State of Israel.[4]

Many Palestinians are dependent on access to the Israeli job market. During the 1990s, Israel began to replace Palestinians with foreign workers. The process was found to be economical and also addressed security concerns. This hurt the Palestinian economy, in particular in the Gaza strip, where 45.7% of the population is under the poverty line according to the CIA World Factbook, but it also affected the West Bank.

Map of territories composing the Palestinian territories

Officials

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Mahmoud Abbas ( His presidency has been extended till January 2010 due to the Palestinian internal turmoil) Fatah 26 January 2005
Prime Minister Salam Fayyad Independent (Ex World Bank high official) Battle of Gaza (2007)
Ismail Haniyeh Hamas (Gaza-based movement) 19 February 2006
Ahmad Qurei 24 December 2005 - 19 February 2006
Nabil Shaath 15 December 2005 - 24 December 2005
Ahmad Qurei 7 October 2003 - 15 December 2005
Mahmoud Abbas 19 March 2003 - 7 October 2003

Recognition of the State of Palestine

History

For the history of the territories currently controlled by the PNA prior to its establishment, see History of Palestine and History of the Palestinian territories.

The Oslo Accords were signed on 13 September 1993 between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel. The Gaza–Jericho Agreement was signed on 4 May 1994 and detailed the creation of the Palestinian Authority. This was an interim organization created to administer a limited form of Palestinian self-governance in the Palestinian territories for a period of five years during which final-status negotiations would take place.[15][16][17] The Palestine Central Council, itself acting on behalf of the Palestine National Council of the Palestine Liberation Organization, implemented this agreement, making the Palestinian National Authority accountable to the PLO Executive Committee in a meeting convened in Tunis from 10–11 October 1993.[18] General elections were held for its first legislative body, the Palestinian Legislative Council, on 20 January 1996.[18] The expiration of the body's term was 4 May 1999, but elections were not held because of the "the prevailing coercive situation".[18]

Since the beginning of the Second Intifada, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has been undermined both in the Palestinian occupied territories (Gaza strip and West Bank) and abroad. Ariel Sharon and the George W. Bush administration refused to negotiate with Yasser Arafat, leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and then president of the PA, whom they asserted formed "part of the problem" (concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict) and not of its solution[citation needed] — this despite Arafat's signature of the 1993 Oslo Accords. In January 2006, Hamas won the legislative elections, and thus replaced Arafat's Fatah as leading party of the Palestinian people.

Israel has accused the Palestinian Authority of ignoring and covertly sponsoring violence against Israelis.[citation needed] This view has been officially accepted by the United States in summer 2002,[citation needed] which decided then to halt most sorts of negotiations with the current Palestinian authority, pending a fundamental organizational change. The US Council on Foreign Relations think tank has declared the Palestinian Authority under Arafat a haven for terrorism.[citation needed]

During the Intifada, Israel has often targeted Palestinian Authority personnel and resources. In particular, many of the people arrested, assassinated or killed in action because of their alleged terrorist activities, were employees of the Palestinian Authority's securiy forces or militias.[citation needed] In Operation Defensive Shield Israel has captured documents that allegedly proved that the Palestinian Authority officially sponsors terrorist activities, which are carried out by its personnel as "shadow" jobs.[citation needed] For instance, Israel arrested and convicted Marwan Barghouti, a prominent leader of Fatah, for his role as leader of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. Barghouti maintains his innocence, and rejects the impartiality of the Israeli courts.

Israel has also targeted Palestinian Authority infrastructure; in particular it has closed parts of the Palestinian sea and air ports, which Israel alleges have been used to transport terrorists and their equipment.[citation needed] Israel's incursions during the Intifada also led to damage to some of the Palestinian computer infrastructure.

These moves were criticized by the Palestinians, who claim that the Palestinian Authority is nearing collapse, and is no longer able to carry out its internal and external obligations. The UN countered by saying that this was "a good thing". This is because these repeated degradations of PA resources and infrastructure have led to complaints by the PA and some of its European Union funders that Israel is deliberately hobbling the PA to restrict its powers of law enforcement in order to present an image of terrorism and lawlessness in the Palestinian Territories.[citation needed]

On 7 July 2004, the Quartet of Middle East mediators informed Ahmed Qurei, Prime Minister of the PA from 2003 to 2006, that they were "sick and tired" of the Palestinians failure to carry out promised reforms: "If security reforms are not done, there will be no (more) international support and no funding from the international community"[19]

On 18 July 2004, United States President George W. Bush stated that the establishment of a Palestinian state by the end of 2005 was unlikely due to instability and violence in the Palestinian Authority.[20]

In order for there to be a Palestinian state, it is essential for its leaders to be open to reform and be dedicated to their people.

The problem of the Palestinians is a territorial one – they have no state and they have no leaders. Palestinians that want change need to demand that a security force be established. The real problem is that there is no leadership that is able to say 'help us establish a state and we will fight terror and answer the needs of the Palestinians'.

Following Arafat's death on 11 November 2004, Rawhi Fattuh, leader of the Palestinian Legislative Council became Acting President of the Palestinian Authority as provided for in Article 54(2) of the Authority's Basic Law.[21]

If the office of the President of the National Authority becomes vacant due to any of the above cases, the Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council shall assume the powers and duties of the Presidency of the National Authority, temporarily for a period not exceeding (60) sixty days, during which free and direct elections to choose a new president shall take place in accordance with the Palestinian Elections Law.

On 19 April 2005, Vladimir Putin the president of Russia agreed to aid the Palestinian Authority stating, "We support the efforts of President Abbas to reform the security services and fight against terrorism [...] If we are waiting for President Abbas to fight terrorism, he cannot do it with the resources he has now. [...] We will give the Palestinian Authority technical help by sending equipment, training people. We will give the Palestinian Authority helicopters and also communication equipment."[22]

The Palestinian Authority became responsible for civil administration in some rural areas, as well as security in the major cities of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Although the five-year interim period expired in 1999, the final status agreement has yet to be concluded despite attempts such as the Camp David 2000 Summit, the Taba summit, and the unofficial Geneva Accords.

In August 2005, Israeli Prime minister Ariel Sharon began his unilateral disengagement plan from Gaza strip, ceding full effective internal control of the Strip to the Palestinian Authority but retained control of its borders including air and sea (except for the Egyptian border).. This increased the percentage of land in the Gaza strip nominally governed by the PNA from 60 percent to 100 percent.

Palestinian legislative elections took place on 25 January 2006. Hamas was victorious and Ismail Haniyeh was nominated as Prime Minister on 16 February 2006 and sworn in on 29 March 2006. However, when a Hamas-led government was formed, Israel, the United States, Canada, and the European Union froze all funds to the Palestinian Authority, after Hamas refused to recognize Israel's right to exist, renounce violence, and agree to past agreements. These countries view Hamas as a terrorist organization.

In December 2006, Ismail Haniyeh, Prime Minister of the PA, declared that the PA will never recognize Israel: "We will never recognize the usurper Zionist government and will continue our jihad-like movement until the liberation of Jerusalem."[23]

In an attempt to resolve the financial and diplomatic impasse, the Hamas-led government together with Fatah Chairman Mahmoud Abbas agreed to form a unity government. Haniyeh resigned on 15 February 2007 as part of the agreement. The unity government was finally formed on 18 March 2007 under Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh and consisted of members from Hamas, Fatah and other parties and independents.

After the takeover in Gaza by Hamas on 14 June 2007, Palestinian Authority Chairman Abbas dismissed the government and on 15 June 2007 appointed Salam Fayad Prime Minister to form a new government. Though the new government's authority is claimed to extend to all Palestinian territories, in effect it is limited to the Palestinian Authority controlled areas of the West Bank. The Fayad government has won widespread international support. Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia said in late June 2007 that the West Bank-based Cabinet formed by Fayad was the sole legitimate Palestinian government, and Egypt moved its embassy from Gaza to the West Bank.[24] Hamas, which has effective control of the Gaza Strip, faces international diplomatic and economic isolation.

A six-month truce between Hamas and Israel ended on 19 December 2008.[25][26][27] Hamas claimed that Israel broke the truce on 4 November 2008,[28][29] and that Israel had failed to lift the Gaza Strip blockade, and Israel blamed Hamas for the rocket fire directed at southern Israeli towns and cities.[30] The 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict began on 27 December 2008 (11:30 a.m. local time; 9:30 a.m. UTC)[31] when the Israel Defense Forces launched a military campaign codenamed Operation Cast Lead (Hebrew: מבצע עופרת יצוקה‎, Mivtza Oferet Yetzuka) in response to rocket fire from the area, targeting the members and infrastructure of Gaza's governing party, Hamas.

Politics and internal structure

The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) was created by, is ultimately accountable to,[18] and has historically been associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), with whom Israel negotiated the Oslo Accords. The Chairman of the PLO, Yasser Arafat, was elected as President of PNA in a landslide victory in 1996. Subsequent elections were postponed, ostensibly due to the eruption of the Al-Aqsa Intifada and the Israeli military clampdown that accompanied it. However, internal Palestinian strife was also a reason for the disorganization in government. After Arafat's death in 2004, new elections occurred on both presidential and local levels. Although almost 80% of the employees of the PA were local Palestinians, higher posts were occupied mostly by PLO officials who returned from exile once the PNA was established in 1994. To many local Palestinians, these "returnees" were a source of bureaucracy and corruption.[citation needed]

Arafat's administration was criticized for its lack of democracy, widespread corruption among officials, and the division of power among families and numerous governmental agencies with overlapping functions. He established over ten distinct security organizations through various mechanisms in an alleged divide et impera scheme, which is claimed to have guaranteed an atmosphere of power-struggle in the Authority which enabled him to preserve overall control. Both Israel and the US declared they lost trust in Arafat as a partner and refused to negotiate with him, regarding him as linked to terrorism. Arafat denied this, and was visited by other leaders around the world up until his death. However, this began a push for change in the Palestinian leadership. In 2003, Arafat succumbed to domestic and international pressure and appointed Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) as prime minister of the PNA. Abbas resigned four months later because of lack of support from Israel, the US, and Arafat himself. He was later chosen as his Fatah party's candidate for president of the PA in 2004 after the death of Arafat. He won the presidency on January 9, 2005 with 62% of the vote.

According to the Palestinian "Basic Law" which was signed by Arafat in 2002 after a long delay, the current structure of the PA is based on three separate branches of power:[32] executive, legislative, and judiciary. The Judiciary Branch has yet to be properly formalized. The president of the PA is directly elected by the people, and the holder of this position is also considered to be the commander-in chief of the armed forces. In an amendment to the Basic Law approved in 2003 (and which may or may not become part of the Palestinian constitution once independence is established), the president appoints a "prime minister" who is also chief of the national security services. The prime minister chooses a cabinet of ministers and runs the government, reporting directly to the president. Former prime minister Ahmed Qureia formed his government on February 24, 2005 to wide international praise because, for the first time, most ministries were headed by experts in their field as opposed to political appointees.[33]

The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is an elected body of 132 representatives and acts as a parliament. The PLC must approve all government cabinet positions proposed by the prime minister, and must also confirm the prime minister himself upon nomination by the president. As opposed to other Arab countries, the PLC has historically demonstrated considerable power, and has frequently caused changes in government appointments through threats of no-confidence votes. Many critical votes are won in the government's favor without an outright majority. Since the death of Arafat, the PLC has reinvigorated its activity, and commonly summons senior executive officials to testify before it. Parliamentary elections were conducted in January 2006 after the recent passage of an overhauled election law that increased the number of seats from 88 to 132.

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Political parties and elections

From the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1993 until the death of Yasser Arafat in late 2004, only one election had taken place. All other elections were deferred for various reasons.

A single election for president and the legislature took place in 1996. The next presidential and legislative elections were scheduled for 2001, but were delayed following the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Following Arafat's death, elections for the President of the Authority were announced for January 9, 2005. The PLO leader Mahmoud Abbas won 62.3% of the vote, while Dr. Mustafa Barghouti, a physician and independent candidate, won 19.8%.[34]

e • d Summary of the 9 January 2005 Palestinian presidential election results
Candidates - Nominating parties Votes %
Mahmoud Abbas - Fatah or Liberation Movement of Palestine (Harakat al-Tahrâr al-Filistini) 501,448 62.52
Mustafa Barghouti - Independent 156,227 19.48
Taysir Khald - Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (Al-Jabhah al-Dimuqratiyah Li-Tahrir Filastin) 26,848 3.35
Abdel Halim al-Ashqar - Independent 22,171 2.76
Bassam al-Salhi - Palestinian People's Party (Hizb al-Sha'b al-Filastini) 21,429 2.67
Sayyid Barakah - Independent 10,406 1.30
Abdel Karim Shubeir - Independent 5,717 0.71
Invalid Ballots 30,672 3.82
Blank Ballots 27,159 3.39
Total (turnout  %) 802,077 100.0
Source: Central Elections Commission

On May 10, 2004 the Palestinian Cabinet announced that municipal elections would take place for the first time. Elections were announced for August 2004 in Jericho, followed by certain municipalities in the Gaza Strip. In July 2004 these elections were postponed. Issues with voter registration are said to have contributed to the delay. Municipal elections finally took place for council officials in Jericho and 25 other towns and villages in the West Bank on December 23, 2004. On January 27, 2005, the first round of the municipal elections took place in the Gaza Strip for officials in 10 local councils. Further rounds in the West Bank took place in May 2005.

Elections for a new Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) were scheduled for July 2005 by Acting Palestinian Authority President Rawhi Fattuh in January 2005. These elections were postponed by Mahmoud Abbas after major changes to the Election Law were enacted by the PLC which required more time for the Palestinian Central Elections Committee to process and prepare. Among these changes were the expansion of the number of parliament seats from 88 to 132, with half of the seats to be competed for in 16 localities, and the other half to be elected in proportion to party votes from a nationwide pool of candidates.

e • d Summary of the 25 January 2006 Palestinian Legislative Council election results
Alliances and parties Votes (Proportional) % (Proportional) Seats (Proportional/District seats)
Change and Reform 440,409 44.45 74 (29/45)
Fatah, harakat al-tahrīr al-filastīnī (Liberation Movement of Palestine) 410,554 41.43 45 (28/17)
Martyr Abu Ali Mustafa (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) (al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrīr filastīn) 42,101 4.25 3 (3/0)
The Alternative (al-Badeel) 28,973 2.92 2 (2/0)
Independent Palestine 26,909 2.72 2 (2/0)
Third Way 23,862 2.41 2 (2/0)
Freedom and Social Justice 7,127 0.72 0 (0/0)
Freedom and Independence 4,398 0.44 0 (0/0)
Martyr Abu Abbas 3,011 0.30 0 (0/0)
National Coalition for Justice and Democracy (Wa'ad) 1,806 0.18 0 (0/0)
Palestinian Justice 1,723 0.17 0 (0/0)
Independents - - 4 (0/4)
Total (turnout: 74.6%) 990,873 100.0% 132 (66/66)
Source: Central Election Commission, Preliminary results,Final tally amendments, 2006-01-29, Final results

The following organizations, listed in alphabetic order, have taken part in recent elections inside the Palestinian National Authority:

October 2006 polls have shown that Fatah and Hamas have equal strength.[35]

On June 14, 2007, after the Battle of Gaza (2007), Palestine president Mahmoud Abbas has dismissed the Hamas led government, leaving the government under his control for 30 days, after which the temporary government has to be approved by the Palestinian Legislative Council.[36]

Law

Violence against civilians

The Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group reports "everyday disagreements and clashes between the various political factions, families and cities that a complete picture of Palestinian society is painted. These divisions have during the course of the al Aqsa Intifada also led to an increasingly violent ‘Intrafada’. In the 10 year period from 1993 to 2003, 16% of Palestinian civilian deaths were caused by Palestinian groups or individuals."[37]

Erika Waak reports in The Humanist "Of the total number of Palestinian civilians killed during this period by both Israeli and Palestinian security forces, 16 percent were the victims of Palestinian security forces." Accusations of collaboration with Israel are used to target and kill individual Palestinians: "Those who are convicted have either been caught helping Israelis, spoken out against Arafat, or are involved in rival criminal gangs, and these individuals are hanged after summary trials. Arafat creates an environment where the violence continues while silencing would-be critics, and although he could make the violence impossible, he doesn't stop it."

Freedom House's annual survey of political rights and civil liberties, Freedom in the World 2001-2002, reports "Civil liberties declined due to: shooting deaths of Palestinian civilians by Palestinian security personnel; the summary trial and executions of alleged collaborators by the Palestinian Authority (PA); extrajudicial killings of suspected collaborators by militias; and the apparent official encouragement of Palestinian youth to confront Israeli soldiers, thus placing them directly in harm's way."[38]

Palestinian security forces have, as of March 2005, not made any arrests for the October 2003 killing of three American members of a diplomatic convoy in the Gaza Strip. Moussa Arafat, head of the Palestinian Military Intelligence and a cousin of then Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat has stated that, regarding the United States pressure to arrest the killers; "They know that we are in a very critical position and that clashing with any Palestinian party under the presence of the occupation is an issue that will present many problems for us". Since the October 2003 attack, United States diplomats have been banned from entering the Gaza Strip.[39]

It is claimed that some of the smuggling tunnels connecting Egypt and the Gaza Strip are controlled by one of the Palestinian Authority security services under Moussa Arafat's command. He is accused of receiving a portion of the profits derived from the smuggling tunnels.[40]

During 2007 many Western and Christian targets were attacked in the West Bank and Gaza. Members of local gangs and terror cells blew up and destroyed institutions linked to Western culture such as American schools, church libraries and dozens of Internet cafes. These events were largely ignored by the media.[41]

Violence against officials (2003-2004)

On October 15, 2003, three members of a United States diplomatic convoy were killed and additional members of the convoy wounded three kilometers south of the Erez Crossing into the Gaza Strip by a terrorist bomb. The perpetrators remain at large.

In February 2004 Ghassan Shaqawa (the mayor of Nablus) filed his resignation from office in protest of the Palestinian Authority's lack of action against the armed militias rampaging the city and the multiple attempts by some Palestinians to assassinate him. Gaza's police chief, General Saib al-Ajez, later would say: "This internal conflict between police and the militants cannot happen. It is forbidden. We are a single nation and many people know each other and it is not easy to kill someone who is bearing a weapon to defend his nation."[42]

Through the first three months of 2004, a number of attacks on journalists in the West Bank and Gaza Strip have been blamed on the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, most clearly the attack on the Arab television station Al-Arabiya's West Bank offices by masked men self-identifying as members of the Brigades. Palestinian journalists in Gaza called a general strike on February 9 to protest this rising violence against journalists.

Karen Abu Zayd, deputy commissioner general for the UN Relief and Works Agency in the Gaza Strip stated on February 29, 2004: "What has begun to be more visible is the beginning of the breakdown of law and order, all the groups have their own militias, and they are very organized. It's factions trying to exercise their powers."[43]

Ghazi al-Jabali, the Gaza Strip Chief of Police, since 1994 has been the target of repeated attacks by Palestinians. In March 2004, his offices were targeted by gunfire. In April 2004, a bomb was detonated destroying the front of his house. In July 17, 2004, he was kidnapped at the at gunpoint following an ambush of his convoy and wounding of two bodyguards. He was released several hours later.[44] Less than six hours later, Colonel Khaled Abu Aloula, director of military coordination in the southern part of Gaza was abducted.

On July 17 eve, Fatah movement members kidnapped 5 French citizens (3 men and 2 women) and held hostage in Red Crescent Society building in Khan Yunis:

Palestinian security officials said that the kidnapping was carried out by the Abu al-Rish Brigades, accused of being linked to Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction.[45]

On July 18, Arafat replaced Ghazi al-Jabali, with his nephew Moussa Arafat, sparking violent riots in Rafah and Khan Yunis in which members of the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades burned PA offices and opened fire on Palestinian policemen. During the riots at least one Palestinian was killed and dozen more seriously wounded.

On July 20, 2004 David Satterfield, the second-in-charge at the United States Department of State Near East desk stated in hearing before the Senate that the Palestinian Authority has failed to arrest the Palestinian terrorists who murdered three members of an American diplomatic convoy traveling in the Gaza Strip on October 15, 2003. Satterfield states:

There has been no satisfactory resolution of this case. We can only conclude that there has been a political decision taken by the chairman (Yasser Arafat) to block further progress in this investigation.

On July 21, Nabil Amar, former Minister of Information and a cabinet member and a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council, was shot by masked gunmen, after an interview to a TV channel in which he criticized Yasser Arafat and called for reforms in the PA.[46]

Regarding the descent into chaos Cabinet minister Qadura Fares stated on July 21, 2004:

Every one of us is responsible. Arafat is the most responsible for the failure. President Arafat failed and the Palestinian government failed, the Palestinian political factions failed.[47]

On July 22, 2004, The United Nations elevated its threat warning level for the Gaza Strip to "Phase Four" (one less than the maximum "Phase Five") and plans to evacuate non-essential foreign staff from the Gaza Strip.[48]

The firing of Qassam rockets from the Gaza Strip into Israel is strongly opposed by those living closest to the firing location due to frequent Israeli military responses to Qassam rocket launches. On July 23, 2004, an Arab boy was shot and killed by Palestinian terrorists of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades after he and his family physically opposed their attempt to set up a Qassam rocket launcher outside the family's house. Five other individuals were wounded in the incident.[49][50][51][52]

On July 25, 2004, 20 members of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades seized the governor's office in the Gaza Strip town of Khan Yunis. Among their demands are that Yasser Arafat's cousin, Moussa Arafat be dismissed from his post as chief of general security in Gaza. In a separate attack, unidentified persons stormed a police station and burned the structure causing extensive damage.

On July 31, Palestinian kidnappers in Nablus seized 3 foreign nationals, an American, British and Irish citizen. They were later released. Also, a PA security forces HQ building was burnt down in Jenin by the al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades. A leader of Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades said they torched the building because new mayor Qadorrah Moussa, appointed by Arafat, had refused to pay salaries to Al Aqsa members or to cooperate with the group.[53]

On August 8, 2004 the Justice Minister Nahed Arreyes resigned stating that he has been stripped of much of his authority over the legal system. The year before, Yasser Arafat created a rival agency to the Justice Ministry and was accused of continuing to control the judiciary and in particular the state prosecutors.[54]

On August 10, 2004, a report by an investigation committee Palestinian Legislative Council for the reasons for the anarchy and chaos in the PA was published by Haaretz daily newspaper. The report puts the main blame on Yasser Arafat and the PA's security forces, which "have failed to make a clear political decision to end it". The report states,

"The main reason for the failure of the Palestinian security forces and their lack of action in restoring law and order" ...
"is the total lack of a clear political decision and no definition of their roles, either for the long term or the short."

The report also calls to stop shooting Qassam rockets and mortar shells on Israeli settlements because of it hurts "Palestinian interests". Hakham Balawi said:

"... It is prohibited to launch rockets and to fire weapons from houses, and that is a supreme Palestinian interest that should not be violated because the result is barbaric retaliation by the occupying army and the citizenry cannot accept such shooting. Those who do it are a certain group that does not represent the people and nation, doing it without thinking about the general interest and public opinion in the world and in Israel. There is no vision or purpose to the missiles; the Palestinian interest is more important"[55]

Despite the criticism against Yasser Arafat, the troubles continued. On August 24, the Lieutenant Commander of the Palestinian General Intelligence in the Gaza Strip, Tareq Abu-Rajab, was shot by group of armed men. He was seriously injured.[56]

On August 31, the Jenin Martyrs Brigades, the armed wing of the Popular Resistance Committees, threaten to kill Minister Nabil Shaath for participating in a conference in Italy attended by Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, declaring "He will be sentenced to death if he enters. The decision cannot be rescinded, we call upon his bodyguards to abandon his convoy in order to save their lives."[57]

On September 8, Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei, threatens to resign, again. Three weeks have elapsed since he retracted is resignation, originally tendered six weeks ago.[58]

On October 12, Moussa Arafat, cousin of Yasser Arafat and a top security official in the Gaza Strip, survived a car bomb assassination attempt. Recently the Popular Resistance Committees threatened Moussa Arafat with retaliation for an alleged attempt to assassinate its leader, Mohammed Nashabat.[59]

On October 14, Palestinian Prime Minister Ahmed Qurei stated that the Palestinian Authority is unable to stop the spreading anarchy. While routinely blaming Israel for the PA's problems, he pointed out that the many PA security forces are hobbled by corruption and factional feuding. Due to the lack of governmentals reforms demanded by international peace mediators, Palestinian legislators demanded Qurei present a report on the matter by October 20, at which point they will decide upon holding a no-confidence vote.[60]

On October 19, a group of Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades members, led by Zakaria Zubeidi, seized buildings belonging to the Palestinan Finance ministry and Palestinian parliament in Jenin.[61]

Current Palestinian measures to keep law and order

In 2006, after the Hamas victory, the Palestinian interior minister formed an Executive Force for the police. However, the PA president objected and after clashes between Hamas and Fatah, a redeployment of the force was made and efforts started in order to integrate it with the police force.

Administrative divisions

After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the West bank and the Gaza Strip were divided into areas (A, B, and C) and governorates. Area A refers to the area under PNA security and civilian control. Area B refers to the area under Palestinian civilian and Israeli security control. Area C refers to the area under full Israeli control such as settlements.

Since the Battle of Gaza (2007) most of the Gaza Strip is in control of the Hamas with the PA stating it is officially no longer in control of the Gaza Strip.[36]

Map showing governorates and areas of formal Palestinian control (Areas A and B in deep green)

The PNA divides the Palestinian territories into 16 governorates

,

Economy

2006 conditions

Following the 2006 legislative elections, won by Hamas, Israel has ceased transferring the $55 million tax-receipts to the PA; since the PA has no access point (ports, airports, etc.) to receive taxes, it is Israel that is charged with this duty. These funds accounted for a third of the PA's budget, two thirds of its proper budget, and ensure the wages of 160,000 Palestinian civil servants (among them 60,000 security and police officers), on which a third of the Palestinian population is dependent.[citation needed] Israel has also increased controls on check-point, which has been a main cause of the 2001-2002 economic recession since the beginning of the Second Intifada, which the World Bank has compared to the 1929 economic crisis. Furthermore, the US and the EU have stopped direct aid to the PA, while the US imposed a financial blockade on PA's banks, impeding some of the Arab League's funds (e.g. Saudi Arabia and Qatar) from being transferred to the PA.[62] On May 6 and 7, 2006, hundreds of Palestinians demonstrated in Gaza and the West Bank demanding payment of their wages. Tension between Hamas and Fatah has increased with the "economic squeeze" on the PA.[63] The UN institution underlines that unemployment, which was estimated to 23% in 2005, would increase to 39% in 2006, while poverty, estimated at 44%, would increase to 67% in 2006.[62]

2007 - present

In 2007, the economy in the West Bank improved gradually. The economy of the West Bank has shown a course of development entirely distinct from that of the Gaza Strip. Economic growth for the occupied areas reached about 4-5% and unemployment dropped about 3%. Israeli figures indicated that wages in the West Bank rose more than 20% in 2008 and trade rose about 35%. Tourism in Bethlehem increased to about twice its previous levels, and tourism increased by 50% in Jericho. [64] The International Monetary Fund report for the West Bank forecasted a 7 percent growth rate for 2009. Car sales in 2008 were double those of 2007. The first planned Palestinian city named Rawabi will be built north of Ramallah, with the help of funds from Qatar.[65] The Israeli military removed nearly 200 checkpoints and roadblocks in a series of reductions in security measures. [66]

International businesses based in the West Bank are expected to benefit from a state of the art web-based system for tracking goods coming in and out of the area, launched in August 2009 by Palestinian customs in partnership with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.[67]

Various efforts have begun through the Peace Valley plan to estabish industrial parks through help by Israeli officials and European governments. The Bethlehem Small Enterprise Center opened in early 2008 with funding from Germany, and has helped Palestinian small businesses in various areas, such as helping printers to improve software and olive wood craftsmen to market their products. [64]

Joint economic cooperation between Israeli officials in Gilboa and Palestinian officials in Jenin has begun to have major results and benefits. In October 2009, a new project got underway promoting tourism and travel between the two areas. New business efforts and tourist attractions have been initiated in Jenin. [68] The two regions are planning a joint industrial zone which would bridge the border. Palestinians would produce locally-made handicrafts and sell them through Gilboa to other regions of the world. [69]

In 2009, an economic boom began with growth reaching 7 percent, higher than in Israel or the West. Tourism to Bethlehem, which had doubled to 1 million in 2008, rose to nearly 1.5 million in 2009. New car imports increased by 44 percent. New shopping malls opened in Jenin and Nablus. Palestinian developers are planning to build the first modern Palestinian city, Rawabi. [70]

Foreign aid and budget deficit

Due to conditions in the territory it administers, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has received unprecedented financial support from the international community. According to the World Bank, USD $929 million were given by the international community to the PNA in 2001, $891 million in 2003 and $1.1 billion in 2005 (representing 53% of the budget in 2005). The main objectives are support to the budget, development aid and public health. In 2003, the US funded $224 million, the EU $187 million, the Arab League $124 million, Norway $53 million, the World Bank $50 million, the United Kingdom $43 million, Italy $40 million, and the last $170 million by others.[citation needed] According to the World Bank, the budget deficit was about of $800 million in 2005, with nearly half of it financed by donors. "The PA's fiscal situation has become increasingly unsustainable mainly as a result of uncontrolled government consumption, in particular a rapidly increasing public sector wage bill, expanding social transfer schemes and rising net lending," said the World Bank report. Government corruption is widely seen as the cause of much of the PA financial difficulties.[citation needed]

Economic sanctions following January 2006 legislative elections

Following the January 2006 legislative elections, won by Hamas, the Quartet (the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations) threatened to cut funds to the Palestinian Authority. On February 2, 2006, according to the AFP, the PNA accused Israel of "practicing collective punishment after it snubbed US calls to unblock funds owed to the Palestinians." Prime minister Ahmed Qorei "said he was hopeful of finding alternative funding to meet the budget shortfall of around 50 million dollars, needed to pay the wages of public sector workers, and which should have been handed over by Israel on the first of the month." The US Department criticized Israel for refusing to quickly unblock the funds. The funds were later unblocked.[71] However, the New York Times alleged on February 14, 2006 that a "destabilization plan" of the United States and Israel, aimed against Hamas, winner of the January 2006 legislative elections, centered "largely on money" and cutting all funds to the PA once Hamas takes power, in order to delegitimize it in the eyes of the Palestinians. According to the news article, "The Palestinian Authority has a monthly cash deficit of some $60 million to $70 million after it receives between $50 million and $55 million a month from Israel in taxes and customs duties collected by Israeli officials at the borders but owed to the Palestinians." Beginning March 2006, "the Palestinian Authority will face a cash deficit of at least $110 million a month, or more than $1 billion a year, which it needs to pay full salaries to its 140,000 employees, who are the breadwinners for at least one-third of the Palestinian population. The employment figure includes some 58,000 members of the security forces, most of which are affiliated with the defeated Fatah movement." Since January 25 elections, "the Palestinian stock market has already fallen about 20 percent", while the "Authority has exhausted its borrowing capacity with local banks."[72]

Use of European Union assistance

In February 2004, it was reported that the European Union (EU) anti-fraud office (OLAF) was studying documents suggesting that Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian Authority had diverted tens of millions of dollars in EU funds to organizations involved in terrorist attacks, such as the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades. However, in August 2004, a provisional assessment stated that "To date, there is no evidence that funds from the non-targeted EU Direct Budget Assistance to the Palestinian Authority have been used to finance illegal activities, including terrorism."[73]

A separate EU "Working Group" also issued a report in April 2004, adopted by a 7-6 vote, which covers the period from the end of 2000 to the end of 2002, stating that EU aid has not been siphoned off to Palestinian militants carrying out attacks on Israelis: "There is no conclusive evidence, to date, that the EU non-targeted direct budgetary support was used to finance illegal activities, including the financing of terrorism".

Furthermore, the EU has changed the way it funded the Palestinians and now uses targeted aid for specific purposes. From April 2003, money is only handed over if various conditions are met, such as the presentation of invoices for bills the Palestinians need to pay. The EU remains the biggest donor to the Palestinian Authority.

Payments to Palestinian prisoners in Israeli prisons

On July 22, 2004, Salam Fayyad, PNA Minister of Finance, in an article in the Palestinian weekly, The Jerusalem Times, detailed the following payments to Palestinians imprisoned by the Israeli authorities:[74]

  1. Prisoner allowances increased between June 2002 and June 2004 to $9.6m monthly, an increase of 246 percent compared with January 1995-June 2002.
  2. Between June 2002 and June 2004, 77 million shekels were delivered to prisoners, compared to 121 million between January 1995 and June 2002, which is an increase of 16 million shekels yearly. The increase of annual spending between the two periods registers 450 percent, which is much higher than the percentage of increase of the number of prisoners.
  3. Between 2002 and 2004, the PNA paid 22 million shekels to cover other expenses — lawyers’ fees, fines, and allocations for released prisoners. This includes lawyers’ fees paid directly by the PNA and fees paid through the Prisoners Club.

Demographics

West Bank

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

The population in the West Bank is 2,407,681, excluding Israeli settlers.[2] This figure includes 209,000 Arabs in east Jerusalem, also counted as Israeli residents (and in the Israeli population statistics), as 98% of east Jerusalem Palestinians have either Israeli residency or Israeli citizenship.[75]

Total population 2,771,681, including 187,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank and 177,000 in east Jerusalem (July 2008 est.)

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 38% (male 469,754, female 445,999)
  • 15–64 years: 58.3% (male 719,267, female 684,790)
  • 65 years and over: 3.6% (male 36,606, female 51,265) (2008 est.) World fact book

Population growth rate

2.225% (2008 est.)[3]

Birth rate

25.95 births per 1,000 population (2008 est.)

Mortality rate

3.85 deaths per 1,000 population (2006 est.)

Gaza Strip

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

1,482,405 (June, 2007)[76]

Age structure

  • 0–14 years:44.7% (male 343,988, female 325,856)
  • 15–64 years:52.7% (male 403,855, female 386,681)
  • 65 years and over:2.7% (male 16,196, female 23,626) (2008 est.)

Population growth rate

3.422% (2008 est. see also: Demographic trap)

Birth rate

39.45 births per 1,000 population (2006 est.)

Mortality rate

3.8 deaths per 1,000 population (2006 est.)

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ The Palestine Basic Law, approved by the PLC in May 2002, states unambiguously "Jerusalem is the Capital of Palestine" (source: [1]). Ramallah is the administrative capital and the location of government institutions as well as the foreign representative offices of Australia, Brazil, Canada) Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Malta, the Netherlands, South Africa, and Switzerland. Jerusalem's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (see "Negotiating Jerusalem", University of Maryland). The United Nations and most countries do not accept Israel's claim over the whole of Jerusalem (see Kellerman 1993, p. 140) and maintain their embassies to Israel in other cities (see the CIA Factbook).
  2. ^ Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities Between Israel and the PLO, Article 1
  3. ^ Martijn Schoonvelde (26 June 2009). "Palestinian Territories". http://www.europeanforum.net/country/palestinian_territories. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Eur, 2003, p. 521.
  5. ^ Rothstein, 1999, p. 63.
  6. ^ Brown, 2003, p. 49.
  7. ^ Watson, 2000, p. 62.
  8. ^ "US suspends aid to Palestinians". BBC News. April 7, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4889668.stm. Retrieved 2006-04-07. 
  9. ^ "Abbas warns of financial crisis". BBC News. February 20, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4730568.stm. Retrieved 2006-02-19. 
  10. ^ Akiva Eldar. "U.S. to allow PA funds to be channeled through Abbas office". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=712624. 
  11. ^ Patrick Martin (July 18, 2009). "Fancy that, a moderate in Hamas". http://www.theglobeandmail.com/blogs/mideast-notebook/fancy-that-a-moderate-in-hamas/article1200923/. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  12. ^ "Hamas Says Dweik “Real President” until Elections are Held". Al-Manar. June 25, 2006. http://www.almanar.com.lb/NewsSite/NewsDetails.aspx?id=91562&language=en. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  13. ^ David Hirst, "The New Oppressor of the Palestinians," Guardian (London), 6 July 1996, reprinted in World Press Review, October 1996, p. 11. Hirst suggests that there are 40,000-50,000 security officers. For Israeli press reports about there being 40,000 officers, see Steve Rodan, "Gov't: PA Has 16,000 More Policemen than Permitted by Oslo," Jerusalem Post (international edition), 2 May 1998, p. 3. According to The Jerusalem Post, Israeli defense sources said in September 1996 that the number of armed men in the PA had risen to 80,000. See Steve Rodan, "Palestinians Have 80,000 Armed Fighters," Jerusalem Post, 27 September 1996, p. 5.
  14. ^ "The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip". JewishVirtualLibrary.org. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/iaannex1.html. Retrieved 2006-02-19. 
  15. ^ Oslo Accords, Article I
  16. ^ Oslo Accords, Article V
  17. ^ Gaza–Jericho Agreement, Article XXIII, Section 3
  18. ^ a b c d Pages 44-49 of the written statement submitted by Palestine, 29 January 2004, in the International Court of Justice Advisory Proceedings on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, referred to the court by U.N. General Assembly resolution A/RES/ES-10/14 (A/ES-10/L.16) adopted on 8 December 2003 at the 23rd Meeting of the Resumed Tenth Emergency Special Session.
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  23. ^ "Palestinian prime minister vows not to recognize Israel". Associated Press. 2006-12-08. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-12-08-palestinian-pm_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA. 
  24. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/874106.html
  25. ^ Jacobs, Phil (2008-12-30). "Tipping Point After years of rocket attacks, Israel finally says, ‘Enough!’". Baltimore Jewish Times. http://www.jewishtimes.com/index.php/jewishtimes/news/jt/cover_story/tipping_point/9631. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  26. ^ New York Times (18 June 2008). "Israel Agrees to Truce with Hamas on Gaza". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. http://www.webcitation.org/5dSojRrRE. Retrieved December 28, 2008. 
  27. ^ "TIMELINE - Israeli-Hamas violence since truce ended". Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKTRE50423320090105. 
  28. ^ Gaza truce broken as Israeli raid kills six Hamas gunmen, The Guardian, November 5, 2008.
  29. ^ Why Israel went to war in Gaza, The Guardian, January 4, 2008.
  30. ^ "Hamas declares Israel truce over". BBC News. December 22, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7791100.stm. Retrieved January 3, 2010. 
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  32. ^ "Palestine In Brief". POGAR.org. http://www.pogar.org/countries/index.asp?cid=14. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
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  35. ^ http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=113212
  36. ^ a b http://edition.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/06/14/gaza/index.html
  37. ^ "The 'Intra'fada". PHRMG.org. http://www.phrmg.org/intrafada.htm. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
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  43. ^ "Palestinian Authority Broke and In Disarray". WashingtonPost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A17536-2004Feb29?language=printer. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
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  45. ^ "4 French aid workers, Palestinian officials seized in Gaza". Haaretz.com. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/452469.html. Retrieved July 17, 2004. 
  46. ^ "Israel halts funds for Palestinians, Abbas slams move". News. Yahoo.com. http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/nm/mideast_dc. Retrieved February 19, 2006. h
  47. ^ "Title". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/international/AP-Palestinians-Parliament.html. Retrieved Year. 
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  49. ^ "Attempted Kassam Launch Leads to the Death of an Arab Child". IsraelNN.com. http://www.israelnn.com/news.php3?id=66197. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
  50. ^ "Group Says New Israeli Expansion Breaks Vow". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/23/international/middleeast/23CND-MIDE.html?hp. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
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  65. ^ New Palestinian city to be built
  66. ^ Signs of hope emerge in the West Bank, New York Times
  67. ^ New Customs System
  68. ^ Jenin now open to Arab-Israeli and foreign tourists, By RON FRIEDMAN, jpost.com, 10/9/09.
  69. ^ Mutually assured prosperity, By RON FRIEDMAN, jpost.com, 10/15/09.
  70. ^ Can West Bank improvements hold in 2010?, By Leslie Susser, jta.org, January 11, 2010.
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Bibliography

External links

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