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Palme d'Or
Presented by Festival International du Film de Cannes
Country France
Location Cannes
First awarded 1955

The Palme d'Or (English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded to competing films at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the organising committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film.[1] From 1964 to 1974 it was replaced again by the Grand Prix du Festival.[2]

Contents

History

The Commune of Cannes coat of arms

Until 1954, the Jury of the Festival de Cannes awarded a "Grand Prix of the International Film Festival" to the best film. The prize was represented to a work by a contemporary artist in vogue, different each year. At the end of 1954, the Festival's Board of Directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the City of Cannes.[3] The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, and the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien.

In 1955, the first Palme d'Or in the history of the Festival was awarded to Delbert Mann for his film Marty. The Palme d'Or was established as the Festival's highest award until 1964, when the Festival temporarily resumed awarding a Grand Prix due to copyright problems with the Palm. In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and became again the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded each and every year since to the director of the Best Feature Film of the Official Competition. The award was presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather, lined with white suede.

Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the Palm, gradually transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned the Palm and its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, the Palm was again modernised by Caroline Scheufele. The present Palm, made of 24-carat gold, is hand cast into a wax mould, then attached to a cushion of a single piece of cut crystal. The award is today presented in a case of blue Morocco leather.

In the nearly 70-year history of the Festival, a female director has only won the top prize once: Jane Campion in 1993 for The Piano. Campion won the prize after her previous film, Sweetie, had been heckled and booed.[4] However, it has been suggested that "at Cannes, movies don't get booed for being bad -- they get booed for being shocking or transgressive".[5] In 2008, films by Lucrecia Martel, Charlie Kaufman, and Wim Wenders were also booed at the festival.[6]

Award winners

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Grand Prix du Festival International du Film (1939-1954)

Year Film Director Nationality of Director
(at time of film's release)
1939 Union Pacific [7] Cecil B. DeMille  United States
1946 Torment (Hets) Alf Sjöberg  Sweden
The Lost Weekend Billy Wilder  United States
The Red Meadows (De røde enge) Bodil Ipsen and Lau Lauritzen Jr.  Denmark
Brief Encounter David Lean  United Kingdom
Portrait of Maria (María Candelaria (Xochimilco)) Emilio Fernández  Mexico
Neecha Nagar (नीचा नगर) Chetan Anand  India
The Turning Point (Великий перелом, Velikiy perelom) Fridrikh Ermler  Soviet Union
La symphonie pastorale Jean Delannoy  France
The Last Chance (Die Letzte Chance) Leopold Lindtberg  Austria
Men Without Wings (Muži bez křídel) František Čáp  Czechoslovakia
Rome, Open City (Roma, città aperta) Roberto Rossellini  Italy
1947 not awarded
1948 not held
1949 The Third Man Carol Reed  United Kingdom
1950 not held
1951 Miss Julie (Fröken Julie) Alf Sjöberg  Sweden
Miracle in Milan (Miracolo a Milano) Vittorio De Sica  Italy
1952 The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice Orson Welles  United States
Two Cents Worth of Hope (Due soldi di speranza) Renato Castellani  Italy
1953 The Wages of Fear (Le salaire de la peur) Henri-Georges Clouzot  France
1954 Gate of Hell (地獄門, Jigokumon) Teinosuke Kinugasa  Japan

Palme d'Or (1955-1963)

Year Film Director Nationality of Director
(at time of film's release)
1955 Marty Delbert Mann  United States
1956 The Silent World (Le monde du silence) Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Louis Malle  France
1957 Friendly Persuasion William Wyler  United States
1958 The Cranes Are Flying (Летят журавли, Letyat zhuravli) Mikhail Kalatozov  Soviet Union
1959 Black Orpheus (Orfeu Negro) Marcel Camus  France
1960 La Dolce Vita Federico Fellini  Italy
1961 The Long Absence (Une aussi longue absence) Henri Colpi  France
Viridiana Luis Buñuel  Spain
1962 O Pagador de Promessas Anselmo Duarte  Brazil
1963 The Leopard (Il gattopardo) Luchino Visconti  Italy

Grand Prix du Festival International du Film (1964-1974)

Year Film Director Nationality of Director
(at time of film's release)
1964 The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (Les parapluies de Cherbourg) Jacques Demy  France
1965 The Knack …and How to Get It Richard Lester  United Kingdom
1966 A Man and a Woman (Un homme et une femme) Claude Lelouch  France
The Birds, the Bees and the Italians (Signore e signori) Pietro Germi  Italy
1967 Blow-Up Michelangelo Antonioni  Italy
1968 cancelled due to events of May 1968
1969 if.... Lindsay Anderson  United Kingdom
1970 MASH Robert Altman  United States
1971 The Go-Between Joseph Losey  United States
1972 The Working Class Goes to Heaven (La classe operaia va in paradiso) Elio Petri  Italy
The Mattei Affair (Il caso Mattei) Francesco Rosi  Italy
1973 The Hireling Alan Bridges  United Kingdom
Scarecrow Jerry Schatzberg  United States
1974 The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola  United States

Palme d'Or (1975-present)

Year Film Director Nationality of Director
(at time of film's release)
1975 Chronicle of the Years of Fire (Chronique des années de braise) Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina  Algeria
1976 Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese  United States
1977 Padre Padrone Paolo Taviani and Vittorio Taviani  Italy
1978 The Tree of Wooden Clogs (L'albero degli zoccoli) Ermanno Olmi  Italy
1979 Apocalypse Now Francis Ford Coppola  United States
The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel) Volker Schlöndorff  West Germany
1980 All That Jazz Bob Fosse  United States
Kagemusha (影武者) Akira Kurosawa  Japan
1981 Man of Iron (Człowiek z żelaza) Andrzej Wajda  Poland
1982 Missing Costa-Gavras  Greece
The Way (Yol) Yılmaz Güney and Şerif Gören  Turkey
1983 The Ballad of Narayama (楢山節考 / Narayama bushiko) Shohei Imamura  Japan
1984 Paris, Texas [unanimously] Wim Wenders  West Germany
1985 When Father Was Away on Business (Otac na službenom putu) [unanimously] Emir Kusturica  Yugoslavia
1986 The Mission Roland Joffé  United Kingdom
1987 Under the Sun of Satan (Sous le soleil de Satan) [unanimously] Maurice Pialat  France
1988 Pelle the Conqueror (Pelle erobreren) Bille August  Denmark
1989 Sex, Lies, and Videotape Steven Soderbergh  United States
1990 Wild at Heart David Lynch  United States
1991 Barton Fink [unanimously] Joel and Ethan Coen  United States
1992 The Best Intentions (Den goda viljan) Bille August  Denmark
1993 Farewell My Concubine (霸王別姬 / Bàwáng bié jī) Chen Kaige  China
The Piano Jane Campion  New Zealand
1994 Pulp Fiction Quentin Tarantino  United States
1995 Underground (Подземље, Podzemlje) Emir Kusturica  FR Yugoslavia
1996 Secrets & Lies Mike Leigh  United Kingdom
1997 Taste of Cherry (طعم گيلاس /Ta'm-e gīlās) Abbas Kiarostami  Iran
The Eel (''うなぎ, Unagi) Shohei Imamura  Japan
1998 Eternity and a Day (Μια αιωνιότητα και μια μέρα / Mia aioniotita kai mia mera) [unanimously] Theo Angelopoulos  Greece
1999 Rosetta Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne  Belgium
2000 Dancer in the Dark Lars von Trier  Denmark
2001 The Son's Room (La stanza del figlio) Nanni Moretti  Italy
2002 The Pianist Roman Polanski  Poland
2003 Elephant Gus Van Sant  United States
2004 Fahrenheit 9/11 [unanimously] Michael Moore  United States
2005 The Child (L'enfant) Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne  Belgium
2006 The Wind That Shakes the Barley Ken Loach  United Kingdom
2007 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days (4 luni, 3 săptămâni şi 2 zile) Cristian Mungiu  Romania
2008 The Class (Entre les murs) [unanimously] Laurent Cantet  France
2009 The White Ribbon (Das weiße Band) Michael Haneke  Austria

Repeat winners

See also

References

External links


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