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Pamplona / Iruña

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Coordinates: 42°49′1.2″N 1°38′34.08″W / 42.817°N 1.6428°W / 42.817; -1.6428
Country Spain Spain
Autonomous Community Navarre Navarre
Founded 74 BC
Government
 - Mayoress Yolanda Barcina (UPN)
Area
 - City 23.55 km2 (9.1 sq mi)
Elevation 446 m (1,457 ft)
Population (2008)[1]
 - City 197,275
 Density 8,516.73/km2 (22,058.2/sq mi)
 Metro 319,208
  population-ranking: 30th (municipality); 23rd (metro area)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website http://www.pamplona.net

Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña[2]) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain and of the former kingdom of Navarre.

The city is famous worldwide for the San Fermín festival, from July 7 to 14, in which the running of the bulls or encierro is one of the main attractions. This fiesta, known as Sanfermines to the local population, was first brought to widespread attention by Ernest Hemingway in his first novel, The Sun Also Rises.

As of 2007, there were 27 councillors in Pamplona Municipality: 13 of UPN, 8 of NaBai, 4 of PSOE and 2 of ANV.

Contents

Geography

Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre, in a rounded valley known as the Cuenca de Pamplona, that links the mountainous North with the Ebro valley and is 92 kilometres from the town of San Sebastián, and 407 kilometres from the capital city of Madrid. The climate and landscape of the Cuenca is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those very different natural parts of Navarre.

The historical center of Pamplona is on the right bank of the Arga, a tributary of the Ebro. The city has developed on both sides of the river. Its climate is Oceanic with influences of Continental Mediterranean.

History

The city walls of Pamplona

Foundation and Roman times

In the winter of 74–75 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius. He is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo,[3] which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish language. It is thought that it was the chief town of the Vascones, and they called it Iruña, 'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the Ab Asturica Burdigalam, the road from Burdigala (modern Bordeaux) to Asturica (modern Astorga); [4] it was a civitas stipendiaria in the jurisdiction of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (modern Zaragoza).[5] Although it can not be considered one of the outstanding cities of Roman Hispania, recent archaeological excavations have revealed a quite high degree of development.

Early Middle Ages

Side view of the Monumento a los Caídos

After the fall of the Roman Empire and during the Visigothic period (fourth to eighth centuries), the Vascones lived independently, although it is likely that Visigoths controlled, maybe only intermittently, the fortified city of Pamplona. It is known also that several Pamplonese bishops attended the Councils of Toledo. During the eighth century, Moors and Franks intermittently controlled the city. The best-known episode of that obscure period was the destruction of the city walls by Charlemagne after his failed expedition to Zaragoza in 778. He was subsequently defeated in the famous battle of Roncevaux. During the late eighth century, Pamplona and its area of influence oscillated between two powerful states but proved unable to permanently secure its rule over the Basque region. This alternation could reflect also the internal struggles of the Basque warrior nobility. Finally, in 824 Íñigo Arista was crowned as king of Pamplona. This kingdom strengthened its independence from the weakened Frankish empire and Cordoban emirate. Nevertheless, during this period Pamplona was not properly a city but just a kind of fortress.

Three burgos and one city

From the 11th century, reviving economic development allowed Pamplona to recover its urban life. The bishops of Pamplona recovered their ecclesiastical leading role; during the previous centuries isolated monasteries, especially Leyre, had actually held the religious authority. The pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela contributed a lot to revive the commercial and cultural exchanges with Christian Europe beyond the Pyrenees. In the 12th century, the city enlarged with two new separate burgos (independent municipalities): San Cernin and San Nicolás, in which the population of local Navarrese was swelled by French merchants and artisans. Old Pamplona and the new burgos were almost always engaged in quarrels among themselves. The most dramatic episode was the destruction of the Navarrería by the other two boroughs and the massacre of its population in 1276. Its site was abandoned for nearly fifty years. King Charles III decreed the unification of the boroughs in a single city in 1423.

A fortress-city

After the annexation of Navarre to Spain (1512), Pamplona remained as capital of the autonomous kingdom of Navarre, which preserved its own institutions and laws. Pamplona acquired a key role in the military defence of the Pyrenees. The southern side of the city was the weaker and the Navarrese king Louis I built a castle in the early 14th century in the site that is known today as Plaza del Castillo (Castle Square). After the Castilian conquest, king Ferdinand V ordered in 1513 the demolition of the medieval castle and the building of a new one in a very close place. But the progress of artillery demanded a complete renewal of the fortified system. King Philip II ordered the building of a star fort in the southern side of the city and the modernization of all the walls. The walls that exist today date from the late sixteenth to eighteenth centuries.

Estafeta Street
Seconds before the beginning of the San Fermín Festival. Town hall Square. Everybody has its red handkerchief above its head until a firework is exploded at 12 am; putting it around the neck afterwards.

During the eighteenth century, Pamplona was considerably beautified and its urban services improved. A continuous water supply was established and the streets were paved, among many other enhancements. Rich aristocrats and businessmen also built their mansions. In the nineteenth century this fortress-city played a key role in several wars in which Spain was involved. During the Napoleonic Wars French troops occupied the city in 1808 and remained in it until 1813. During the Carlist Wars (1833–1839 and 1872–1876) Pamplona was each time controlled by the liberals, not just because the few liberals that lived in Navarre were mainly Pamplonese, but because of the governmental control over the fortified city. Although Carlist rebels easily ruled the countryside, the government army had no problem in dominating the walled capital of Navarre. Nevertheless, during the last Carlist war, modern artillery operated by Carlists from surrounding mountains showed that the old walls would not be enough in the face of a stronger enemy. Thus, the Government decided to build a fort on the top of mount San Cristóbal, just three kilometers north of Pamplona.

Due to its military role, the city could not grow outside its walled belt. Furthermore, building in the closest area to the walls was banned to avoid any advantage for a besieger; thus the city could only grow by increasing its housing density. Higher and narrower houses were built and courtyards gradually disappeared. During the nineteenth century road transportation improved, and the railway came in 1860. Nevertheless, industry in Pamplona as well as in Navarre as a whole was weak during century of the Industrial Revolution. Anyway, no industrial development was feasible in such a constrained fortress-city.

After a slight modification of the star fort allowed an expansion of just six blocks in 1888, the First World War demonstrated that the fortified system of Pamplona was already obsolete. In 1915, the Army allowed the destruction of the walls and abolished the building ban in the city's surroundings. The southern side of the walls was destroyed and the other three remained as they did not hinder urban growth. The star fort continued to serve as a military facility until 1964, but just as a garrison.

Industrialization and modernization

Demographic evolution (1900-2005)

Freed from its military function, Pamplona could lead the process of industrialization and modernization in which Navarre was involved during the 20th century, especially during its second half. The urban growth has been accompanied by the development of industry and services. Population growth has been the effect of an intense immigration process during the 1960s and 1970s: from the Navarrese countryside and from other less developed regions of Spain, mainly Castile and León and Andalusia. Since the 1990s the immigration is coming mainly from abroad.

Pamplona is listed as a city with one of the highest standards of living and quality of life in Spain.[6] Its industry rate is higher than the national average[citation needed], although it is threatened by delocalization. Crime statistics are lower than the national average but cost of living, especially housing, is considerably higher.[7] Thanks to its small size and an acceptable public transport service, there are no major transport problems. Political life is seriously affected by the Basque Nationalist conflict.

Urbanism

Like many other European cities, it is very easy to distinguish what is so called the "old city" (Casco Viejo) and the new neighborhoods. The oldest part of the old city is Navarrería, which corresponds with the Roman city. During the 12th century, the boroughs of Saint Sernin (San Saturnino or San Cernin) and Saint Nicholas (San Nicolás) were established. Charles III decreed the unification of the three places under a single municipality in 1423.

Old city of Pamplona

The city did not expand until the late 19th century. In 1888, a modest modification of the star fort was allowed, but it just permitted the building of six blocks. It was called the I Ensanche (literally, "first widening"). The southern walls were destroyed in 1915 and the II Ensanche ("second widening") was planned. Its plan followed the grid pattern model designed by Ildefons Cerdà for Barcelona. Its blocks were built between the 20s and the 50s. The prevailing housing model is apartment buildings of five to eight floors.

After the Civil War, three new zones of Pamplona began to grow: Rochapea, Milagrosa, and Chantrea. Only the last one was a planned neighborhood, the other two being disorderly growths. In 1957, the municipality designed the first general ordination plan for the city, which established the guidelines for further urban development. According to this, during the 60s and 70s saw the creation of new neighborhoods like San Juan, Iturrama, San Jorge, Echavacoiz, and Orvina.

Old square in Pamplona

The urban growth of Pamplona outgrew the administrative limits of the city and involved municipalities like Barañáin, Burlada, Villava, Ansoain, Berriozar, Noain or Huarte in a larger metropolitan area. During the 1980s and 1990s, new neighborhoods were born: Azpilagaña, Mendebaldea, and Mendillorri. Rochapea was profoundly renewed. The urban development of those new neighborhoods is very similar to other Spanish provincial capitals that experienced a similar intense economic development during the sixties and seventies. Although the grid plan is not applied anymore, the urbanization in Pamplona is previously designed and the apartment buildings are taller: never less than five floors and many taller than that. Industry, which previously coexisted with housing, was moved to industrial parks (the oldest and the only one within municipal limits of Pamplona is Landaben).

In recent years, single-family house neighborhoods have grown in the metropolitan area: Zizur Mayor, Cizur Menor, Mutilva Alta, Mutilva Baja, Olaz, Esquíroz, Artica and Alzuza. New neighborhoods are being building in Buztintxuri, Lezkairu, and Sarriguren. The apartment buildings in those zones tend to be quite shorter, usually not more than six floors and with more room for green areas.

Economy

Burués building, actual Chamber of Commerce of Navarra.

Pamplona has shifted in a few decades from a little administrative and even rural town to a medium-size city of industry and services. The industry sector is diversified although the most important activity is related to automobile industry. Volkswagen manufactures Polo model in its factory of Landaben and there are many auxiliary industries that work for Volkswagen and other companies. Other remarkable industries are building materials, metalworking and food processing. Renewable energy technologies are also an increasing economic sector (wind turbines manufacturing and generation) and neighboring Sarriguren is the seat of the National Centre for Renewable Energies (CENER)[8] and of Acciona Energía.

Pamplona is the main commercial and services center of Navarre. Its area of influence is not beyond the province, except for the University of Navarre and its teaching hospital, which provide private educational and health services nationwide and even internationally.

Education and culture

Casall Palace.

The city is home to two universities: the above mentioned University of Navarre, a corporate work of Opus Dei founded in 1952, which is ranked as the best private university in Spain,[9] and the Public University of Navarre, established by the Government of Navarre in 1987. There is also a local branch of the UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia).

The two most important museums in Pamplona are the Museo de Navarra, devoted to the archaeological and artistic heritage of Navarre, and the Museo Diocesano of religious art, located in the cathedral. Pamplona is the first Spanish city in the French way of the Way of Saint James. Since 2004, Pamplona venues Punto de Vista International Documentary Film Festival, the most important Spanish documentary film festival.

Transportation

Pamplona is linked by motorways with neighbouring Zaragoza (1978), San Sebastián, Vitoria (1995) and Logroño (2006). Since 2007 buses use a new bus station in the city centre that replaces the old one (1934). The airport (1972), operated by Aena and located in Noain, schedules several flights daily to Madrid and Barcelona.[10] There are railway (1861) links with Madrid, Zaragoza and northern Spain, operated by Renfe. High speed train link with Saragossa, Madrid and Barcelona is not expected before 2014. A new railway station will be built in the southern part of the city. There are 23 daytime lines and 10 night lines of public buses, operated by TCC La Montañesa, the chartered company of the Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona.

Architecture and places of interest

Several notable churches, most of its sixteenth to eighteenth century fortified system and other civil architecture buildings belong to the historic-artistic heritage of Pamplona.

Religious architecture

Pamplona Cathedral

The most important religious building is the fourteenth century Gothic Cathedral, with an outstanding cloister and a Neoclassical façade. There are another two main Gothic churches in the old city: Saint Sernin and Saint Nicholas, both built during the thirteenth century. Two other Gothic churches were built during the sixteenth century: Saint Dominic and Saint Augustine. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century were built the Baroque chapels of Saint Fermin, in the church of Saint Lawrence, and of the Virgin of the Road (Virgen del Camino), in the church of Saint Sernin, the convents of the Augustinian Recolect nuns and the Carmelite friars, and the Saint Ignatius of Loyola basilica in the place where he was injured in the battle and during the subsequent convalescence he decided to be a priest. The most remarkable twentieth century religious buildings are probably the new diocesan seminary (1931) and the classical-revival style memorial church (1942) to the Navarrese dead in the Nationalist side of the Civil War and that is used today as temporary exhibitions room.

San Lorenzo Church

Military and civil architecture

From the prominent military past of Pamplona remain three of the four sides of the city walls and, with little modifications, the citadel or star fort. All the mediaeval structures were replaced and improved during 16th, 17th and 18th centuries in order to resist artillery sieges. Completely obsolete for modern warfare, they are used today as parks.

The oldest civil building today existing is a fourteenth century house that was used as Cámara de Comptos (the court of auditors of the early modern autonomous kingdom of Navarre) from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. There are also several medieval bridges on the Arga: Santa Engracia, Miluce, Magdalena, and San Pedro. The medieval palace of Saint Peter, which was alternatively used by Navarrese kings and Pamplonese bishops, was used during the early modern age as the Viceroy's palace and later was the seat of the military governor of Navarre; since the Civil War it was ruinous and it was recently rebuilt to be used as the General Archive of Navarre.

Plaza del Castillo
San Saturnino Church
San Nicolás Church

The most outstanding Baroque civil architecture is from the eighteenth century: town hall, episcopal palace, Saint John the Baptist seminary, and the Rozalejo's, Ezpeleta's (today music school), Navarro-Tafalla's (today, the local office of PNV), and Guenduláin's (today, a hotel) mansions. The provincial government built its own Neoclassical palace, the so-called Palace of Navarre, during the nineteenth century.

Late nineteenth and early twentieth century Pamplonese architecture shows the tendencies that are fully developed in other more important Spanish cities: La Agrícola building (1912), several apartment buildings with some timid modernist ornamentation, etc. The most notable architect in twentieth century Pamplona was Víctor Eusa (1894-1979), whose designs were influenced by the European expressionism and other avant-garde movements.

Parks

Pamplona has many parks and green areas. The oldest is the Taconera park, whose early designs are from the seventeenth century. Taconera is today a romantic park, with wide pedestrian paths, parterres, and sculptures.

The Media Luna park was built as part of the II Ensanche and is intended to allow relaxing strolling and sightseeing over the northern part of the town. After its demilitarization, the citadel (Ciudadela) and its surrounding area (Vuelta del Castillo) shifted into a park area with large lawns and modern sculptures.

The most remarkable parks of the new neighborhoods include the Yamaguchi park, between Iturrama and Ermitagaña, which includes a little Japanese garden; the campus of the University of Navarre; the Parque del Mundo in Chantrea; and the Arga park.

Sports

CA Osasuna is the local football team. Their home stadium is called Estadio Reyno de Navarra, known as El Sadar until January, 2006.

Pamplona's bull ring was rebuilt in 1923. It seats 19,529, and is the third largest in the world, after the bull ring of Mexico and Madrid.

Other sports with some of the top clubs in Pamplona include handball (Portland San Antonio, Europe's championship winner 2001), futsal (MRA Xota) and water polo (Larraina).

Pamplona's favourite son may well be Miguel Indurain, five time Tour de France winner. Also Arsenal Goalkeeper Manuel Almunia is also from Pamplona

The Caisse d'Epargne Cycling Team, the direct descendent of Indurain's Banesto team, is based in Egüés, a municipality in the metropolitan area of Pamplona.[11]

Pamplona is also home to the headquarters of The International Federation of Basque Pelota (FIPV). Basque pelota is principally practiced in France, Spain, and South America.

Sister cities

Pamplona townhall façade
Cordero al chilindrón, is one of the originated foods in Pamplona

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) is a city in Navarra (Basque: Nafarroa), Spain. It is most famous world-wide for its San Fermín festival also known as "The Running of the Bulls" held each year from July 6th - 14th, which features the daily bullrun or "Encierro" in spanish. Pamplona is a beautiful green city and ranks the higgest in enviroment and recycling citys in Spain & Europe. There are many interesting things to do and explore in Pamplona for traveler as it is a main city on the route of St. James (Camino de Santiago), Wine routes & tours, Roman mosiacs and buildings and it is a city with beautiful parks and river running through it also. There city has three universities, Public: Universidad Pública de Navarra & Private: Universidad de Navarra, and two campus´ located in different parts of the city.

In the arena after the Running of the Bulls
In the arena after the Running of the Bulls

Get in

By plane

Pamplona has a little airport connected with several cities (Iberia fly several times a day from Madrid and Barcelona; TAP from Lisbon). Nearby, there are international airports like Bilbao (156 km), Zaragoza (170 km), or Biarritz, France (115 km) with several flights from the UK, Ireland, or Germany.

By train

Daily trains from and to Madrid, Barcelona, Vitoria, Galicia, and Asturias. Urban busses links train station and downtown.

By car

Hire a car and drive from Madrid 4 hrs. - Barcelona 4 hrs. - Biarritz 1.5 hrs. - Bilbao 1.5 hrs.

Underground parking is widely available.

By bus

The cheapest way to get in Pamplona. Several daily services from Madrid, Barcelona, San Sebastián, Bilbao, Vitoria, Zaragoza and other towns.

Get around

A great place to walk the streets, with live music and wonderful people. Lots of alcohol and dancing in the streets all night long and, by 6AM, you'd better go get a good place to watch the running of the bulls. It's at 8AM, and after that, a good breakfast and run to sleep.

See

Besides the evening bullfights, at 11AM some mornings during San Fermin, there is a chance to enter the bullring for free, and watch student bullfighters hone their craft. Pamplona's bullring is the second largest in Spain.

July 5th is becoming an extra day of fun, as PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) has a "running of the nudes" to protest the bullfights. Sadly though no one is totally naked, it's against the law.

Opening Ceremony of San Fermin celebration
Opening Ceremony of San Fermin celebration
  • Sanfermines, city-wide. July 6 - July 14. The city festival of Pamplona. The festival begins with the txupinazo: a rocket fired from the city council's balcony at 12PM of the 6th. A large street party ensues that night and for the rest of the week. The best-known feature is the encierro (running of the bulls), which is done every day at 8AM. 6 bulls run through the town center towards the plaza de toros (bull ring); the adventurous and foolhardy run in front of them. Note that in July 6 there is not encierro as allegedly the festival starts at noon.

If you are wanting to run with the bulls, then arrive at the track at about 7:30AM. You will form up behind a line of police that will be glad to take you out of the crowd if you are drunk. Also having a camera when you run is not allowed.

Learn

Many people are surprised to learn that San Fermin has a nightly fireworks show. Each night a different company (many international) competes for a prize. This happens nightly near the ciudadela or fortress, former citadel to defend the city and nowadays the biggest park of all.

Pamplona has many old palaces, most of them in the heart of the city. One of them, on the outskirts of town in Gorraiz used to belong to Sir Lancelot (of King Arthur fame). He received this palace upon marrying a Spaniard. The palace has a nice upper class bar and restaurant, and an excellent wine cellar below.

Buy

You can buy good wine, Patxaran, ham, and tins of peppers the best are from Lodosa, and of course sparragus from Navarra. And as a present you can buy small bulls, also you can find the Shop of shirts from Urmeneta: Kukuxumusu, the shop situated at the beginning of Estafeta Street.

Eat

Outside Sanfermines day, many eateries close at 3:30PM. Dinner is served up from 9 P.M. There is plenty of restaurants in the old city, from budget menús del día for lunch to more expensive and renown venues. Navarra's cuisine stands out for the quality of its vegetables, e.g. sparragus, artichokes, piquillo red peppers. Plus, visitors can always try typical spanish dishes.

In Pamplona, tapas are called "pintxos", and in contrast with other places in the south of Spain do not come free of charge with drinks. However, most of these "pintxos" are small-sized nouvelle cuisine dishes, so it is really worth to try. Remember that going out to a bar to have a drink and some "pintxos" is pretty much a social event, and there is not a settled time for it. Normally, the same bars that offer "pintxos" prepare menús del día and dinner at spanish lunch and dinner time.

  • San Nicolas bar, San Nicolas 13, 948 221319. Several tables of the restaurant are hidden in the depths, behind a door after the bar. Tried and recommended: coffee. Not recommended: fish soup, grilled salmon, flan (all from menu del dia). Same owners as Cafe Ciudadela. menu del dia: €15.  edit
  • Bar La Bodeguica, Aldapa 4, 948 227969. In the old town near central market (Burgo de Navarreria) . Tried and recommended: lasagna vegetable, cider. (all from menu del dia). Small, quite and nice place. menu del dia: €12.  edit

Drink

In Pamplona you can find good wine from Navarra, try it! it's really good. You can order it in every bar as "tinto" (red wine) or as "clarete" or "rosado" (rose wine). Besides there's a liquor called "Patxaran" that should be tried.

You should also make sure you try the Sangria. It's a red wine punch, usually with some fruit, red wine, and some honey to sweeten. The alcoholic content can vary greatly from place to place.

  • Many sleep in the open for free in the parks throughout Pamplona.
  • The El Molino campground is nearby Pamplona. It has campsites, cabins and rooms. Definitely requires booking during San Fermín festival. Is about 25 min from the center of Pamplona and there are standard 40 Euro per shuttle rides, and there are always others around keen to share.
  • A good camp close to Pamplona is Lizarra at Estella. Approx. 1/2 away by coach. Has bar, restaurant, shop, showers, & pool.
  • Camp in Tali Mendi, Zarautz (on the coast) Approx. 1hr 15 minutes away by coach. Few hundred metres from the beach.
  • Some people rent their apartments in sanfermines. Booking in advance is a must. Prices can vary quite a lot.
  • There are a number of Hotels/Hostels in the city, although you will need to book very early.
  • NH El Toro, Ctra. de Guipúzcoa, km. 5, 31195 Berrioplano, Pamplona, E-mail: nhtoro@nh-hotels.com Tel.: +34 94 8302211 Fax: +34 94 8302085 [1]. This hotel is 5km out of Pamplona- good for families. There are two other NH hotels in Pamplona [2], nearere the centre.
  • Oasis Pamplona, Plaza Europa, 8, Imarcoin, 31110, Navarra, +948 314 444 (, fax: +948 314 445). [3] On the doorstep of industrial areas - Navarra Ciudad del Transporte, Talluntxe, and Landazabal.  edit
  • For emergencies dial 112.
  • Pamplona's official web site [4]
  • Navarra's tourism office [5]
  • Festival of San Fermín [6]
  • Watch out for the bulls!
  • There is quite a lot of pickpockets at sanfermines time, experts at spotting visitors, so try to be careful, do not leave things unattended. Suspect from those gypsies that just want to talk to you or do palm reading.
  • At sanfermines do not wear flip-flops or sandals, as streets are quite filthy and there can be broken glass pieces on the ground. Traditionally locals wear white t's and pants, a red neckerchief and some kind of red scarf round their waist. You can buy this outfit at street shops and mingle with the crowd.
  • Luggage There is a place near the bus station where knapsacks, luggage, and items can be stored free. This is expected to be moved after the 2007 San Fermines as the existing bus station is going to be torn down, the new one is nearby where the "barracas" or carnival. The new bus station opened in November 2007.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PAMPLONA, or Pampeluna, the capital of the Spanish province of Navarre, and an episcopal see; situated 1378 ft. above sea-level, on the left bank of the Arga, a tributary of the Ebro. Pop. (1900), 28,886. Pamplona has a station on the Ebro railway connecting Alsasua with Saragossa. From its position it has always been the principal fortress of Navarre. The old outworks have been partly demolished and replaced by modern forts, while suburbs have grown up round the inner walls and bastions. The citadel, south-west of the city, was constructed by order of Philip II. (1556-1598), and was modelled on that of Antwerp. The streets of the city are regular and broad; there are three fine squares or plazas. The most attractive of these is the arcaded Plaza del Castillo, flanked by the hall of the provincial council and by the theatre. The cathedral is a late Gothic structure begun in 1397 by Charles III. (El Noble) of Navarre, who is buried within its walls; of the older Romanesque cathedral only a small portion of the cloisters remains. The fine interior is remarkable for the peculiar structure of its apse, and for the choir-stalls carved in English oak by Miguel Ancheta, a native artist (1530). The principal facade is Corinthian, from designs of Ventura Rodriguez (1783). The same architect designed the superb aqueduct by which the city is supplied with water from Monte Francoa, some nine miles off. The beautiful cloisters on the south side of the cathedral, and the chapter-house beyond them, as well as the old churches of San Saturnino (Gothic) and San Nicolas (Romanesque), are also of interest to the student of architecture. There are also the bull-ring, capable of accommodating 8000 spectators, the pelota court (el Trinquete) and several parks or gardens. The city is well provided with schools for both sexes; it has also a large hospital.

Pamplona has a flourishing agricultural trade, besides manufactures of cloth, linen stuffs, flour, soap, leather, cards, paper, earthenware, iron and nails. The yearly fair in connexion with the feast of San Fermin (July 7), the patron saint of the city, attracts a large concourse from all parts of northern Spain.

Originally a town of the Vascones, Pamplona was rebuilt in 68 B.C. by Pompey the Great, whence the name Pompaelo or Pompelo (Strabo). It was captured by Euric the Goth in 466 and by the Franks under Childebert in 542; it was dismantled by Charlemagne in 778, but repulsed the emir of Saragossa in 907. In the 14th century it was greatly strengthened and beautified by Charles III., who built a citadel on the site now occupied by. the Plaza de Toros and by the Basilica de S. Ignacio, the church marking the spot where Ignatius de Loyola received his wound in defending the place against Andre de Foix in 1521. From 1808 it was occupied by the French until taken by Wellington in 1813. In the Carlist War of 1836 -40 it was held by the Cristinos, and in 1875-76 it was more than once attacked, but never taken, by the Carlists.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Pamplona

  1. A city in Navarre of northern Spain famous for the running of the bulls.

Translations


Filipino

Proper noun

Pamplona

  1. A city in Camarines Sur, Philippines.

Spanish

Proper noun

Pamplona f.

  1. Pamplona







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