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Panama Canal
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A schematic of the Panama Canal, illustrating the sequence of locks and passages
Original Owner La Société internationale du Canal interocéanique
Principal Engineer John Findley Wallace, John Frank Stevens (1906-1908), George Washington Goethals
Date of first use August 15, 1914
Locks 3 sets of locks
Status Open
Navigation Authority Panama Canal Authority
Location of Panama between Pacific (bottom) and Caribbean (top), with canal at top center
.The Panama Canal is a 77 km (48 mi) ship canal that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.^ Ships from the two oceans emerge in this canal making it a conduit of most international shipping.

^ Everyone knows about the Panama Canal, and how it connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

^ The canal is the waterway which joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

.Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in the canal's early days to 14,702 vessels in 2008, displacing a total 309.6 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System (PC/UMS) tons.^ About Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It takes about eight and a half hours for a ship to sail through the entire canal.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ Inquiries respecting transfer should be addressed to the “Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, D.C.” Promotions are made annually, to the highest grade upon satisfactory service.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the canal had an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans, replacing the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America.^ Ships from the two oceans emerge in this canal making it a conduit of most international shipping.

^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean required a dangerous journey around South America that took about two months.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

.A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 miles) route around Cape Horn.^ Sunday editions of The New York Times a century ago included many sections with illustrated features, as well as a picture section.

^ Appointees are furnished free steamship transportation and usually sail from New York City, but under certain conditions may sail from New Orleans or San Francisco.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rate out of San Francisco to Balboa is a reduction of 25 per cent from tariff rates in favor of Canal employees and their dependents.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The concept of a canal near Panama dates to the early 16th century.^ More than 45.THE PANAMA CANAL By Matthew Elton Copyright 2006 Matthew Elton As American interests in international trade over the Pacific Ocean increased in the early 20th century.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ And as always it lingered over possible plots against the future of the dream of four centuries, the Panama Canal.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Great older slides taken in Panama and the Canal Zone in the early 1960's by Mr. Gregory Kennington.
  • Dino's Panama Photos - Pictures of Panama and Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC chagres.com [Source type: General]

.The first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership, but was abandoned after 21,900 workers died, largely from disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides.^ Yellow fever has been extirpated and malaria controlled.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This habitat also is believed to cause the diseases of yellow fever and malaria, which plagued many of the workers in the region as the canal was being built.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States launched a second effort, incurring a further 5,600 deaths but succeeding in opening the canal in 1914. The US controlled the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for the transition of control to Panama.^ Panama was also victorious 1999 it gained full control of the Panama Canal as designated in the Carter-Torrijos Treaty of 1977.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone .
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1979 to 1999 the canal was under joint US-Panamanian administration, and from 31 December 1999 command of the waterway was assumed by the Panama Canal Authority, an agency of the Panamanian government.^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914 : On December 31, 1999, after nearly a century of rule, the United States officially ceded ownership of the Panama Canal to the nation of Panama.
  • Sky & Telescope "Cosmic Trails™" Cruise -- Itinerary Page 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.insightcruises.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the Pacific Ocean is west of the isthmus and the Atlantic to the east, the 8 to 10 hour journey through the canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic is one from southeast to northwest.^ Follow our journey through the Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The canal is the waterway which joins the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

^ It takes about eight and a half hours for a ship to sail through the entire canal.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

.This is a result of the isthmus's "curving back on itself" in the region of the canal.^ There has been a strong desire to have a canal run through the Central American isthmus since the early 16th century when the Spanish dominated the region.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interest of constructing a canal through the isthmus of Central America dates back to when the Spanish conquistadors controlled the region.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bridge of the Americas at the Pacific end is about a third of a degree of longitude east of the end near Colon on the Atlantic.^ Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean required a dangerous journey around South America that took about two months.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ Panama occupies the southeastern end of the isthmus forming the land bridge between North and South America.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone knows about the Panama Canal, and how it connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

[2]
.The maximum size of vessel that can use the canal is known as Panamax.^ These new dimensions will allow post-Panamax vessels to pass through the canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the past year our Naval vessels used the Canal countless times.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These locks will be able to increase the capacity of what the canal can handle, as well as provide enough room so that the post-Panamax ships that cannot fit through the current locks will be able to use the canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An increasing number of modern ships meet this limit. Some even exceed this limit and are known as post-Panamax or super-Panamax vessels.

Contents

History

Early proposals

.The earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama dates back to 1534 when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain ordered a survey for a route through Panama that would ease the voyage for ships traveling to and from Spain and Peru, as well as give the Spanish a tactical military edge over the Portuguese.^ Tomorrow we go through the Panama Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Browse our Panama Canal cruise inventory online, or give us a call - either way, you'll end up with an amazing Panama Canal cruise deal and the best service in the travel industry.
  • Panama Canal Cruises, Cheap Panama Canal Cruises, Discounted Panama Canal Cruises, Panama Canal Cruise Deals, Panama Canal Cruise Reviews 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.americandiscountcruises.com [Source type: News]

[3] .During his expedition of 1788–1793, Alessandro Malaspina demonstrated the feasibility of a canal and outlined plans for its construction.^ Excavation of the Gaillard Cut during the original construction of the Panama Canal exposed lower Neogene sediments of the Panama Canal Basin ( Figures 2 and 3 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Given the strategic situation of Panama and its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other forms of trade links were attempted over the years.^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

^ That nation did not exist when, in the mid-19th century, Europeans first began to explore the possibilities of creating a link between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the narrow but mountainous isthmus; Panama was then a remote and overlooked part of Colombia.
  • Sky & Telescope "Cosmic Trails™" Cruise -- Itinerary Page 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.insightcruises.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panama occupies the southeastern end of the isthmus forming the land bridge between North and South America.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ill-fated Darien scheme was an attempt launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route, but was defeated by the generally inhospitable conditions, and abandoned in July of 1699.[5] Finally, the Panama Railway was built across the isthmus, opening in 1855. This overland link became a vital piece of infrastructure, greatly facilitating trade and largely determining the later canal route.^ Columbia was not willing to give up their land and allow the canal to be built in the Isthmus of Panama.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (B,L,D) Day 7 SUN. CHAGRAS RIVER - Fort San Lorenzo Experience the magnificent Chagres River which was used by the conquistadors to move their gold across the Isthmus of Panama en-route from Peru to Spain and by the gold prospectors who attempted a "short cut" from the US East coast to the gold fields of California.

.Also in 1855, William Kennish, a Manx-born engineer in the employ of the United States government surveyed and issued a report on a route for a proposed Panama Canal.^ United States because The Panama Canal maintains its own supply.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This position is filled through Civil Service examination for clerks in the Canal Zone office, or by transfer from classified post offices in the United States.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .His report was published in a book titled ''The Practicality and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.^ Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean required a dangerous journey around South America that took about two months.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ This one hour railroad trip will allow you to traverse the picturesque trans-isthmian route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.

^ It would be the great ocean thoroughfare between our Atlantic and Pacific shores and virtually a part of the coastline of the United States....
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7].

French construction attempt

.An all-water route between the oceans was still seen as the ideal solution, and the idea of a canal was enhanced by the success of the Suez Canal.^ The Panama Canal serves as the continent’s fastest and only water passage – connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Panama Canal Discounted Cruises | Cheap Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

^ The United States was now a colonial power with holdings in two oceans, and undoubtedly desired, needed, and planned a canal to shorten the travel time between them.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The French, under Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction on a sea-level canal (i.e., without locks) through what was then Colombia's province of Panama, on January 1, 1880. The French began work in a rush with insufficient prior study of the geology and hydrology of the region.^ Another day at sea and then we sail through the Panama Canal!
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tomorrow we go through the Panama Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .In addition, disease, particularly malaria and yellow fever, sickened and killed vast numbers of employees, ranging from laborers to top directors of the French company.^ Yellow fever has been extirpated and malaria controlled.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, yellow fever and malaria, which the medical technology of the eighties could not control, were claiming over a thousand lives a year by 1885.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

Public health measures were ineffective because the role of the mosquito as a disease vector was then unknown. .These conditions made it impossible to maintain an experienced work force as fearful technical employees quickly returned to France.^ Payment for these articles is made by use of coupon books, which may be purchased for cash, or by charge against the employee’s salary.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Even the hospitals contributed to the problem, unwittingly providing breeding places for mosquitoes inside the unscreened wards. Actual conditions were hushed-up in France to avoid recruitment problems.[8] .In 1893, after a great deal of work, the French scheme was abandoned due to disease and the sheer difficulty of building a sea-level canal, as well as lack of French field experience, such as downpours causing steel equipment to rust.^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 28, 1879, Panama was pronounced the proper place for the canal and a sea-level canal was the type of canal that would be built.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The high toll from disease was one of the major factors in the failure; as many as 22,000 workers were estimated to have died during the main period of French construction (1881–1889).^ Panama Canal Come eye-to-eye with one of the most acclaimed engineering marvels in the world, which employs over 9,000 workers.
  • Panama Canal Cruises Costa Rica - Between Two Seas cruise on Cruise West Small Ship 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisewest.com [Source type: General]

^ The Government of Panama expects the project to be a transforming event for Panama that will provide 7,000-9,000 direct new jobs during the peak construction period of 2009-2011 and increase economic opportunities for years to come.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And sometime around that moment the long crusade of Philippe Bunau-Varilla, begun when the old French canal died in 1889, ended.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]

U.S. construction

Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907
.At this time, various interests in the United States were also expressing interest in building a canal across the isthmus, with some favouring a route across Nicaragua (see Nicaragua Canal) and others advocating the purchase of the French interests in Panama.^ Best way to see the Panama Canal?

^ United States because The Panama Canal maintains its own supply.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually, in June 1902, the U.S. Senate voted in favor of pursuing the Panamanian option, provided the necessary rights could be obtained.^ In October 2006, Panamanians voted overwhelmingly in favor of a $5.25 billion Canal expansion project to construct a third set of locks, which is expected to be completed in 2014.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(It is claimed that the vote was swayed by William Nelson Cromwell.^ And on the twenty-seventh William Nelson Cromwell was re-hired.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WILLIAM NELSON CROMWELL .
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[10])
On January 22, 1903, the Hay-Herran Treaty was signed by United States Secretary of State John M. Hay and Dr. Tomás Herrán of Colombia. .It would have granted the United States a renewable lease in perpetuity from Colombia on the land proposed for the canal.^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This position is filled through Civil Service examination for clerks in the Canal Zone office, or by transfer from classified post offices in the United States.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treaty granted rights to the United States "as if it were sovereign" in a zone roughly 10 miles wide and 50 miles long.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .This is often misinterpreted as the "99-year lease" due to misleading wording included in article 22 of the agreement that refers to property within the land but does not pertain to the control of the canal and the right for the United States to renew the lease indefinitely.^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARTICLE XXIII. If it should become necessary at any time to employ armed forces for the safety or protection of the Canal, or of the ships that make use of the same, or the railways and auxiliary works, the United States shall have the right, at all times and in its discretion, to use its police and its land and naval forces or to establish fortifications for these purposes.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLE III. The Republic of Panama grants to the United States all the rights, power and authority within the zone mentioned and described in Article II of this agreement and within the limits of all auxiliary lands and waters mentioned and described in said Article II which the United States would possess and exercise if it were the sovereign of the territory within which said lands and waters are located to the entire exclusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such sovereign rights, power or authority.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .It was ratified by the United States Senate on March 14, 1903, but the Senate of Colombia did not ratify the treaty.^ The treaty granted rights to the United States "as if it were sovereign" in a zone roughly 10 miles wide and 50 miles long.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agreement was overwhelmingly approved in July 2007 by the Panamanian National Assembly, but has yet to be ratified by the United States Congress.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But he labored on valiantly to get a good treaty from the United States while the United States remained in a treaty-making mood.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Philippe Bunau-Varilla, chief engineer of the French canal company, told Roosevelt and Hay of a possible revolt and hoped that the U.S. would support it with troops and money.^ Thus did Philippe Bunau-Varilla get an introduction for which he had long been hoping.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Old French engine on the Canal Zone.
  • PANAMA - Canal Zone - Old Vintage Antique Postcard Postcards 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.postcardman.net [Source type: General]

^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt changed tactics, promising support for Panama's intermittent separatist movement.^ McKinley’s death brought Theodore Roosevelt to the Presidency and changed the terms of the Panama equation.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For these excepted positions persons are selected in the United States through written application to the Washington Office of the Panama Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Republic of Panama is henceforth under the protection of the United States,” Bunau-Varilla shouted.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.On November 2, 1903 U.S. warships blocked sealanes for Colombian troops from coming to put down the revolt, while dense jungles blocked land routes.^ And so, on Thursday afternoon, the fifth of November, the Colombian troops left, and Panama was free.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Panama achieved independence on November 3, 1903 when the United States sent naval forces to encourage Colombia's surrender of the region.^ The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In November 1903, with U.S. encouragement, Panama proclaimed its independence and concluded the Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the United States.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these excepted positions persons are selected in the United States through written application to the Washington Office of the Panama Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States quickly recognized them.^ The trick was a modest revolt—confined largely to the zone of the canal, which must be instantly recognized as a new nation and protected by the United States.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Also in November 6, 1903, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, Panama's ambassador to the United States, signed the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty, granting rights to the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal.^ The Republic of Panama is henceforth under the protection of the United States,” Bunau-Varilla shouted.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States because The Panama Canal maintains its own supply.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 1903, with U.S. encouragement, Panama proclaimed its independence and concluded the Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the United States.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although Bunau-Varilla was serving as Panama's ambassador, he was a French citizen and was not authorized to sign treaties on behalf of Panama without Panamanian review.^ Bunau-Varilla had asked Frank D. Pavey, an American friend and attorney, to come down and help him with the wording of the treaty.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First there had been a New York World story—planted by Cromwell—about the “unrest” in Panama; then a telegram came from Bunau-Varilla, in Paris, to Marroquin, warning him of Panamanian secessionism.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a French engineer named Philippe Bunau-Varilla, whose diplomatic career was beginning and ending with this single episode.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] This treaty would later become a contentious diplomatic issue between the two countries.^ There is also a lateral facies change between these two facies, such that the sandstone beds become thinner and the siltstone beds thicken to the north over 1 km of exposure.
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultural ties between the two countries are strong, and many Panamanians come to the United States for higher education and advanced training.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hay had asked him if he had a choice between two drafts of the treaty, which would permit the construction of an interoceanic canal by the United States.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States, under President Theodore Roosevelt, bought out the French equipment and excavations for US$40 million and began work on May 4, 1904. The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty.^ McKinley’s death brought Theodore Roosevelt to the Presidency and changed the terms of the Panama equation.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States because The Panama Canal maintains its own supply.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.John Frank Stevens, Chief Engineer from 1905 to 1907, argued the case against a sea-level canal like the French had tried to build and convinced Theodore Roosevelt of the necessity of a canal built with dams and locks.^ Old French engine on the Canal Zone.
  • PANAMA - Canal Zone - Old Vintage Antique Postcard Postcards 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.postcardman.net [Source type: General]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stevens' primary achievement in Panama was in building the infrastructure necessary to complete the canal.^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isla Barro Colorado Barro Colorado Island in the middle of man-made Gatún Lake was formed when vast areas of Panama were flooded during the building of the Panama Canal.
  • Panama Beyond the Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows were smashed at the Masonic Temple, the YMCA and the Panama Canal Company buildings.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He rebuilt the Panama Railway and devised a system for disposing of soil from the excavations by rail. He also built proper housing for canal workers and oversaw investment in extensive sanitation and mosquito-control programmes that eliminated disease from the area — particularly malaria and yellow fever, the vector of which had been identified as the mosquito by Cuban physician and scientist Dr. Carlos Finlay in 1881. Finlay's theory and investigative work had recently been confirmed by Dr. Walter Reed while in Cuba with U.S. Army motivation during the Spanish-American War (see also Health measures during the construction of the Panama Canal).
SS Kroonland at the Culebra Cut while transiting the Panama Canal on 2 February 1915.
.With the diseases under control, and after significant work on preparing the infrastructure, construction of an elevated canal with locks began in earnest and was finally possible.^ From 1880 to 1890, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As staggering a concept of digging through the Continental Divide, it also involved constructing the largest earth dam ever built, as well as the most massive canal locks and gates.
  • Panama Canal Cruise Deals - Princess Cruises and Cruisetours|Princess Cruises|Princess cruise line|Princess cruise|Princess Cruise Lines|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

^ In October 2006, Panamanians voted overwhelmingly in favor of a $5.25 billion Canal expansion project to construct a third set of locks, which is expected to be completed in 2014.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans also gradually replaced the old French equipment with machinery designed for a larger scale of work (such as the giant hydraulic crushers supplied by the Joshua Hendy Iron Works), to quicken the pace of construction.^ Graduates of technical engineering schools are especially desired after experience in drafting and on construction work.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New Panama Canal Company was created to inherit and liquidate the machinery, buildings, contracts, and good will (such as it was) of the old.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Graduate of technical institution or with two years’ experience in the Bureau of Water Resources, Interior Department, or other hydraulic work.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .President Roosevelt had the former French machinery minted into medals for all workers who spent at least two years on the construction to commemorate their contribution to the building of the canal.^ To all of you who have followed my blog of this journey through the Panama Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Must have had at least two years’ experience in the maintenance and repair of lead storage batteries for electrical vehicles.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least two years’ experience in construction and maintenance of automatic railway signals.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These medals featured Roosevelt's likeness on the front, the name of the recipient on one side, and the worker's years of service, as well as a picture of the Culebra Cut on the back.^ All of the stratigraphic models that have been proposed for the Gaillard Cut over the past one hundred years can be divided into two groups, which are herein called the (1) Culebra model and the (2) La Boca model ( Figure 5 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With these fundamental differences in view, one can visualize the life of a Canal worker as that of a citizen with steady work, and is living in a model community.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Must have a general knowledge of the handling of railroad passenger transportation terms, preferably one who has had at least one year’s experience as ticket agent or ticket collector in railroad service.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.In 1907 Roosevelt appointed George Washington Goethals as Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal.^ Inquiries respecting transfer should be addressed to the “Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, D.C.” Promotions are made annually, to the highest grade upon satisfactory service.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these excepted positions persons are selected in the United States through written application to the Washington Office of the Panama Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Form 151 The Panama Canal Washington Office .
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The building of the canal was completed in 1914, two years ahead of the target date of June 1, 1916. The canal was formally opened on August 15, 1914 with the passage of the cargo ship SS Ancon.^ On August 15, 1914, the Canal was informally open to commerce.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American occupation of the Canal Zone began on May 4, 1904, and the first ocean steamer passed through the Canal on August 3, 1914.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] Coincidentally, this was also the same month that fighting in World War I (the Great War) began in Europe. .The advances in hygiene resulted in a relatively low death toll during the American construction; still, 5,609 workers died during this period (1904–1914).^ The death and sick rates among American employees and members of their families are low.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American occupation of the Canal Zone began on May 4, 1904, and the first ocean steamer passed through the Canal on August 3, 1914.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most US accounts put the number of Americans killed in these events at four, though others put the death toll at three or five.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] This brought the total death toll for the construction of the canal to around 27,500.
Construction of locks on the Panama Canal, 1913

Later developments

.By the 1930s it was seen that water supply would be an issue for the canal; this prompted the building of the Madden Dam across the Chagres River above Gatun Lake.^ Spend the night in Gatun Lake on Panama Canal waters.

^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

^ (B,L,D) Day 6 SAT. PANAMA CANAL Barro Colorado Prior to the construction of the Panama Canal, the vast jungle area that is now the Gatun Lake was teeming with an overwhelming abundance of wildlife.

.The dam, completed in 1935, created Madden Lake (later Alajuela Lake), which acts as additional water storage for the canal.^ In addition to Panama's man-made marvel, this voyage includes some of nature's most amazing creations in the Panama Canal, Mexico and Central America.
  • Panama Canal Cruise Deals - Princess Cruises and Cruisetours|Princess Cruises|Princess cruise line|Princess cruise|Princess Cruise Lines|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Surrounded by lush flora and overlooking the waters of Gatun Lake, a trip to the all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is unlike none other.

^ Gatun Lake was formed by damming the Chagres valley, and excess water, wasted through the spillway, finds its way to sea through the old course of the lower Chagres.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1939, construction began on a further major improvement: a new set of locks for the canal, large enough to carry the larger warships which the United States was building at the time and had planned to continue building.^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1914, the United States completed the existing 83-kilometer (52 mile) canal, which is one of the world's greatest feats of engineering.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This position is filled through Civil Service examination for clerks in the Canal Zone office, or by transfer from classified post offices in the United States.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The work proceeded for several years, and significant excavation was carried out on the new approach channels, but the project was canceled after World War II.^ Several years’ experience in rush steamship, hotel, and personal laundry work is essential.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only experienced persons, including mechanics who have worked several years as journeymen, receive appointments.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Panama Canal has played a crucial role in World Wars I and II, the Korean War, Vietnam, Desert Storm, and many other conflicts.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16][17]
Problems listening to this file? See media help.
.After the war, U.S. control of the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it became contentious as relations between Panama and the U.S. became increasingly tense.^ The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone .
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panama's political parties, though divided for the upcoming presidential elections, presented a united front for sovereignty over the Canal Zone.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spooner Amendment directed the President to buy the properties of the New Panama Canal Company for forty million and to treat with Colombia for “perpetual control” of a canal zone in Panama, to be secured within a “reasonable” time.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many Panamanians felt that the Canal Zone rightfully belonged to Panama; student protests were met by the fencing in of the zone and an increased military presence.^ The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone .
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

^ But he had demonstrated what had long been a half-formed thought in the minds of many advocates of the Panama Canal.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .The unrest culminated in riots in which approximately 20 Panamanians and 3-5 U.S. soldiers were killed on Martyr's Day, January 9, 1964. Negotiations toward a new settlement began in 1974, and resulted in the Torrijos-Carter Treaties.^ January 9, 1964 is commonly reckoned as the most significant of Panamanian days.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Years later, the wounded Panamanians and the families of the Martyrs were partly compensated with formerly Panama Canal Company housing when, pursuant to the 1977 Carter-Torrijos treaties, it was turned over to Panama.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panamanians did fire shots at other Panamanians on the Day of the Martyrs, and some may have been killed or wounded that way.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Signed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos of Panama on September 7, 1977, this mobilized the process of granting the Panamanians free control of the Canal so long as Panama signed a treaty guaranteeing the permanent neutrality of the Canal.^ The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States because The Panama Canal maintains its own supply.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 20, 1989, President George H.W. Bush ordered the U.S. military into Panama to protect U.S. lives and property, to fulfill U.S. treaty responsibilities to operate and defend the Canal, to assist the Panamanian people in restoring democracy, and to bring Noriega to justice.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The treaty led to full Panamanian control effective at noon on December 31, 1999, and the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) assumed command of the waterway.^ December 31, 1970; U.S. Army Control of Riots and Civil Disturbances in Panama 9-16 January 1964, which was excluded from the routine declassification schedule but declassified sometime in the 1980s.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This study benefited greatly from many newly exposed surface sections made by recent widening of the Panama Canal by the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) and the construction of a second bridge across the canal (Centennial Bridge).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Before this handover, the government of Panama held an international bid to negotiate a 25-year contract for operation of the container shipping ports located at the Canal’s Atlantic and Pacific outlets.^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ships are lifted and lowered a total of 170 feet as they pass from the Panama Canal to the Pacific, crossing over the Isthmus of Panama and straight through the Continental Divide.
  • Panama Canal Cruise Deals - Princess Cruises and Cruisetours|Princess Cruises|Princess cruise line|Princess cruise|Princess Cruise Lines|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The Panama Canal serves as the continent’s fastest and only water passage – connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Panama Canal Discounted Cruises | Cheap Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

.The contract was not affiliated with the ACP or Panama Canal operations and was won by the firm Hutchison Whampoa, a Hong Kong-based shipping concern whose owner is Li Ka Shing.^ "Hutchison Whampoa's chief executive officer is Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-Shing.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both are controlled by a Hong Kong billionaire named Li Ka-Shing.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 2009, the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) awarded the contract to build the locks to an international consortium led by Spain’s Sacyr Vallehermoso.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Layout

USS Missouri passes through the canal
.The canal consists of artificial lakes, several improved and artificial channels, and three sets of locks.^ In October 2006, Panamanians voted overwhelmingly in favor of a $5.25 billion Canal expansion project to construct a third set of locks, which is expected to be completed in 2014.
  • Panama (12/09) 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After an extensive morning approaching the Panama Canal and going thru the three steps of the Gatun Locks; it was time for LUNCH! .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Gatun the sea level section ends in a flight of three pairs of locks, forming the steps to Gatun Lake, with its normal elevation 85 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An additional artificial lake, Alajuela Lake (known during the American era as Madden Lake), acts as a reservoir for the canal. The layout of the canal as seen by a ship passing from the Pacific end to the Atlantic is as follows:[19]
  • From the buoyed entrance channel in the Gulf of Panama (Pacific side), ships travel 13.2 km (8.2 mi) up the channel to the Miraflores locks, passing under the Bridge of the Americas.
  • The two-stage Miraflores lock system, including the approach wall, is 1.7 km (1.1 mi) long, with a total lift of 16.5 meters (54 ft) at mid-tide.
  • The artificial Miraflores Lake is the next stage, 1.7 km (1.0 mi) long, and 16.5 meters (54 ft) above sea level.
  • The single-stage Pedro Miguel lock, which is 1.4 km (0.8 mi) long, is the last part of the ascent with a lift of 9.5 meters (31 ft) up to the main level of the canal.
  • The Gaillard (Culebra) Cut slices 12.6 km (7.8 mi) through the continental divide at an altitude of 26 meters (85 ft), and passes under the Centennial Bridge.
  • The Chagres River (el Río Chagres), a natural waterway enhanced by the damming of Lake Gatún, runs west about 8.5 km (5.3 mi), merging into Lake Gatun.
  • Gatun Lake, an artificial lake formed by the building of the Gatun Dam, carries vessels 24.2 km (15.0 mi) across the isthmus.
  • The Gatún locks, a three-stage flight of locks 1.9 km (1.2 mi) long, drop ships back down to sea level.
  • A 3.2 km (2.0 mi) channel forms the approach to the locks from the Atlantic side
  • Limón Bay (Bahía Limón), a huge natural harbour, provides an anchorage for some ships awaiting passage, and runs 8.7 km (5.4 mi) to the outer breakwater.
Thus, the total length of the canal is 50 mi (80 km).

Lock size

lock gate at Miraflores
Miter lock gate at Gatun
Initially the locks at Gatun had been designed as 28.5 meters (94 ft) wide. .In 1908 the United States Navy requested that the locks should be increased to have a width of at least 36 meters (118 ft) which would allow the passage of US naval ships.^ ARTICLE XXIII. If it should become necessary at any time to employ armed forces for the safety or protection of the Canal, or of the ships that make use of the same, or the railways and auxiliary works, the United States shall have the right, at all times and in its discretion, to use its police and its land and naval forces or to establish fortifications for these purposes.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually it was agreed that people who were stranded at Cativa would be allowed passage to Colon after being searched at the guardia checkpoint for weapons.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next move would be up to the United States.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually a compromise was made and the locks were to be constructed to a width of 33.53 meters (110.0 ft).^ Width of lock chambers, 110 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each lock is 320 meters (1,050 ft) long with the walls ranging in thickness from 15 meters (49 ft) at the base to 3 meters (9.8 ft) at the top. The central wall between the parallel locks at Gatun has a thickness of 18 meters (59 ft) and stands in excess of 24 meters (79 ft) in height. .The lock gates are made from steel and measure an average of 2 meters (6.6 ft) thick, 19.5 meters (64 ft) in width and 20 meters (66 ft) in height.^ Height of lock operating gate leaves, 64 feet 8 inches to 82 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .It is the size of the locks, specifically the Pedro Miguel Locks, along with the height of the Bridge of the Americas at Balboa, that determine the Panamax metric and limit the size of ships that may use the Canal.^ We will soon be approaching the Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 2pm we began our approach to the Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are now coming out of the Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Features

Point Coordinates
(links to map & photo sources)
Notes
Atlantic Entrance 9°23′15″N 79°55′07″W / 9.38743°N 79.91863°W / 9.38743; -79.91863 (Atlantic Entrance)
Gatún Locks 9°16′20″N 79°55′22″W / 9.27215°N 79.92266°W / 9.27215; -79.92266 (Gatún Locks)
Trinidad Turn 9°12′36″N 79°55′27″W / 9.20996°N 79.92408°W / 9.20996; -79.92408 (Trinidad Turn)
Bohío Turn 9°10′42″N 79°52′00″W / 9.17831°N 79.86667°W / 9.17831; -79.86667 (Bohío Turn)
Orchid Turn 9°11′03″N 79°50′42″W / 9.18406°N 79.84513°W / 9.18406; -79.84513 (Orchid Turn)
Frijoles Turn 9°09′33″N 79°48′49″W / 9.15904°N 79.81362°W / 9.15904; -79.81362 (Frijoles Turn)
Barbacoa Turn 9°07′14″N 79°48′14″W / 9.12053°N 79.80395°W / 9.12053; -79.80395 (Barbacoa Turn)
Mamei Turn 9°06′42″N 79°46′07″W / 9.11161°N 79.76856°W / 9.11161; -79.76856 (Mamei Turn)
Gamboa Reach 9°07′04″N 79°43′21″W / 9.11774°N 79.72257°W / 9.11774; -79.72257 (Gamboa Reach)
Bas Obispo Reach 9°05′46″N 79°41′04″W / 9.09621°N 79.68446°W / 9.09621; -79.68446 (Bas Obispo Reach)
Las Cascadas Reach 9°04′36″N 79°40′30″W / 9.07675°N 79.67492°W / 9.07675; -79.67492 (Las Cascadas Reach)
Empire Reach 9°03′40″N 79°39′47″W / 9.06104°N 79.66309°W / 9.06104; -79.66309 (Empire Reach)
Culebra Reach 9°02′51″N 79°39′01″W / 9.04745°N 79.65017°W / 9.04745; -79.65017 (Culebra Reach)
Cucaracha Reach 9°02′01″N 79°38′14″W / 9.03371°N 79.63736°W / 9.03371; -79.63736 (Cucaracha Reach)
Paraiso Reach 9°01′33″N 79°37′30″W / 9.02573°N 79.62492°W / 9.02573; -79.62492 (Paraiso Reach)
Pedro Miguel Locks 9°01′01″N 79°36′46″W / 9.01698°N 79.61281°W / 9.01698; -79.61281 (Pedro Miguel Locks)
Miraflores Lake 9°00′27″N 79°36′09″W / 9.00741°N 79.60254°W / 9.00741; -79.60254 (Miraflores Lake)
Miraflores Locks 8°59′48″N 79°35′31″W / 8.99679°N 79.59182°W / 8.99679; -79.59182 (Miraflores Locks)
Balboa Reach 8°58′22″N 79°34′40″W / 8.97281°N 79.57771°W / 8.97281; -79.57771 (Balboa Reach)
Pacific Entrance 8°53′18″N 79°31′17″W / 8.88846°N 79.52145°W / 8.88846; -79.52145 (Pacific Entrance)

Tolls

RORO carriers, such as this one at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to use the canal
.Tolls for the canal are decided by the Panama Canal Authority and are based on vessel type, size, and the type of cargo carried.^ All appointments shall be made by the Governor of The Panama Canal, or by his authority, except the district judge, district attorney, marshal, clerk of district court, and his assistant.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Conservative Caucus has been working with members of Congress to set up Congressional hearings to highlight the need for American military bases to protect the Panama Canal.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
For container ships, the toll is assessed per the ship's capacity expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units or TEUs. One TEU is the size of a container measuring 20 feet (6.1 m) by 8 feet (2.44 m) by 8.5 feet (2.6 m). .Effective May 1, 2009, this toll is US$72.00 per TEU. A Panamax container ship may carry up to 4,400 TEU. The toll is calculated differently for passenger ships and for container ships carrying no cargo (“in ballast”).^ We all had different boarding group numbers, so it took a while for all 10 of us to get on the ship.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Onboard coupon booklets are valued up to $400, with one per reservation and a maximum of 2 per stateroom.
  • Panama Canal Discounted Cruises | Cheap Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

^ Submitted by Gary D.S. 1/29/09 : Elvis was on time for the pick up, took us to all the places we wanted to go and got us back to the ship on time.
  • Panama Canal shore excursion, Indian Village, Portobelo, Panama City, Old Panama, Panama Colonial, Fishing, Rainforest, El Valle 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myfriendmario.com [Source type: General]

As of May 1, 2009 the ballast rate is US$57.60 per TEU.
.Passenger vessels in excess of 30,000 tons (PC/UMS), known popularly as "cruise ships", pay a rate based on the number of "berths", that is, the number of passengers that can be accommodated in permanent beds.^ Rates for third and fourth passengers are not shown, with the exception of Royal Caribbean & Celebrity Cruises.
  • Cheap, Discount Panama Canal Cruises From CabinCloseouts.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cabincloseouts.com [Source type: General]
  • Crown Cruise Vacations - Discount Cruises and Last Minute Cruise Deals! 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC res.crowncruisevacations.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the phone number for you to find out information on what time of day large Cargo and Cruise ships are going through the Panama Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ Share the canal with towering container ships, cruises, and other unique vessels as you see the canal's history and it's transition into the future.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

The per berth charge is currently $92 for unoccupied berths and $115 for occupied berths. Started in 2007, this has greatly increased tolls for such vessels.[22] .Passenger vessels of less than 30,000 tons or with less than 33 tons per passenger are charged on the same "per ton" schedule as freighters.^ "U.S. officials said the new procedures allowed the military to give away any items valued at less than $1,000.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Appointee must hold a master’s license for tugs not less than 500 gross tons.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Most other types of vessel pay a toll per PC/UMS net ton, in which one "ton" is actually a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3).^ Capacity for discharge of the 14 gates of spillway, 187,572 cubic feet per second.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Employees above the grade of laborer, appointed with rates of pay per hour or per day, will not be employed over eight hours in any one calendar day, except in the case of emergency.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most US accounts put the number of Americans killed in these events at four, though others put the death toll at three or five.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The calculation of tonnage for commercial vessels is quite complex.) .As of fiscal year 2008, this toll is US$3.90 per ton for the first 10,000 tons, US$3.19 per ton for the next 10,000 tons, and US$3.82 per ton for the next 10,000 tons, and US$3.76 per ton thereafter.^ She wanted a flat payment on signing the treaty—a first suggested figure was $7.5 million—and $600,000 annually at some point after the canal had paid off its costs and was earning money from tolls, say, fifteen years after completion.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From Jun.16 to Aug.15 add $100 per person (high season airfares) and from Dec.10 to 24 add US$200 per person.

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As with container ships, a reduced toll is charged for freight ships "in ballast".
Small vessels up to 583 PC/UMS net tons when carrying passengers or cargo, or up to 735 PC/UMS net tons when in ballast, or up to 1,048 fully loaded displacement tons, shall be assessed minimum tolls based upon their length overall, according to the following table[citation needed]:
Length of vessel Toll
Up to 15.240 meters (50 ft) US$1,300
More than 15.240 meters (50 ft) up to 24.384 meters (80 ft) US$1,400
More than 24.384 meters (80 ft) up to 30.480 meters (100 ft) US$1,500
More than 30.480 meters (100 ft) US$2,400
.The most expensive regular toll for canal passage to date was charged on May 16, 2008 to the Disney Magic, which paid US$331,200.[24][25] The least expensive toll was 36 cents to American adventurer Richard Halliburton who swam the canal in 1928.[26] The average toll is around US$54,000. The highest fee for priority passage charged through the Transit Slot Auction System was US$220,300, paid on August 24, 2006 by the Panamax tanker Erikoussa,[27] bypassing a 90-ship queue waiting for the end of maintenance works on the Gatun locks, thus avoiding a 7-day delay.^ May 25, 2008 .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each ship that travels through the canal pays a toll based on its capacity.
  • Panama Canal Discounted Cruises | Cheap Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

^ Thus another magical day on board the Disney Magic came to an end.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The normal fee would have been just US$13,430.[28]

Current issues

Panorama of Pacific entrance of the canal.
Panorama of Pacific entrance of the canal.
.Ninety-five years since its opening, the canal continues to enjoy great success.^ Servicing over 12,000 ships per year, the Panama Canal has seen an approximate 800,000 ships pass through it since its completion.
  • Norwegian Panama Canal Cruise, Panama Canal Norwegian cruise, Norwegian Cruise Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisenetwork.com [Source type: General]

.Even though world shipping — and the size of ships themselves — has changed markedly since the canal was designed, it continues to be a vital link in world trade, carrying more cargo than ever before, with fewer overhead costs.^ It's more than just a Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ It was more than thirty-three years since he had been Brigadier General Morgan, Cavalry, Confederate States of America, but he remembered enough to know that he had been outflanked.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than two hundred Colombian troops arriving on the Atlantic side within five days.” “ URGE VAPOR COLON ,” continued Amador.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] Nevertheless, the canal faces a number of potential problems.

Efficiency and maintenance

There were fears that efficiency and maintenance would suffer following the U.S. withdrawal; however, this does not appear to be the case. .Capitalizing on practices developed during the American administration, canal operations are improving under Panamanian control.^ It was connected to the capital by a Panamanian-controlled corridor which ran from the Panamanian village of Cativa through the Canal Zone entering Colon near Rainbow City (or Arco Iris, the Spanish name for rainbow, as it is now called).
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the poorest laborers to the richest rabiblancos, Panamanians called for an end to American control of the canal and expressed revulsion at the Zonian actions leading up to the violence.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent months she has lobbied Congress with the message that there is nothing sinister in the fact that Hutchison Port Holdings operates huge shipping facilities on the Panama Canal, which the United States turned over to Panamanian control on Jan.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Canal Waters Time (CWT), the average time it takes a vessel to navigate the canal, including waiting time, is a key measure of efficiency; according to the ACP, CWT is decreasing.^ In the past year our Naval vessels used the Canal countless times.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Average time required for transit of Canal, 8 hours.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the Magic did it's first Panama Canal sailing and while I really wanted to go, I couldn't take that much time off from work.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The accident rate during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2008 was 0.29 accidents per 1000 transits, down 66.9 percent from 0.89 accidents per 1,000 transits during the same quarter the year prior.^ During the rainy season, the rain is by no means continuous, the time during which it is actually raining averaging about an hour and a quarter per day, as distributed through the season.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When an employee enters on a leave of absence which consists of or includes annual leave earned in the same year in which he enters on the leave, such annual leave shall be paid for at the rate received by the employee when he entered on the leave.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An official accident is one in which a formal investigation is requested and conducted.^ The International Commission of Jurists, in response to a request from the Panamanian Bar Association (ICJ), conducted an investigation of the events of January 1964.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.Increasing volumes of imports from Asia which previously landed on the U.S. west coast ports are now passing through the canal to the American east coast.^ American occupation of the Canal Zone began on May 4, 1904, and the first ocean steamer passed through the Canal on August 3, 1914.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panama Canal Partial Transit – Experience the canal on board a real ship as it passes through.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ May 16, 2008 Port of Call: Sailing through the Panama Canal Weather: Hot and Humid .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The total number of oceangoing transits increased to 3,157 in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2008 from 3,147 transits year-over-year (the Canal’s fiscal year runs from October to September).^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panama Canal Company/Canal Zone Government report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1964, p.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has been coupled with a steady rise in average ship size and in the numbers of Panamax vessels passing, so that the total tonnage carried has risen steadily from 227.9 million PC/UMS tons in fiscal year 1999 to 309.6 million tons in 2008. The Canal set a traffic record in fiscal year 2007 when 312 million tons transited the waterway.^ Go through the locks just like any vessel as you experience first hand how the trip goes for an average ship making it's pass through the historic canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ I'm very excited to be on the Disney Magic in just a couple days as it sets sail through the Panama Canal on it's way to Los Angeles.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][32] .Despite the reduction in total transits due to the negative impact of vessel size, e.g., the inability of large vessels to cross in the Gaillard Cut), this represents significant overall growth in canal capacity.^ We measured eight stratigraphic sections between the towns of Pedro Miguel and Gamboa along the Gaillard Cut portion of the Panama Canal ( Figure 6 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Geologic map of the study area along the Gaillard Cut portion of the Panama Canal, within the Panama Canal Basin (see rectangle labeled ‘A’ in Figure 2 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Navigate the Gaillard Cut, the narrowest section of the Panama Canal, bisecting the Continental Divide.

A bucket dredge works to deepen and widen the canal.
.The Panama Canal Authority (ACP) has invested nearly US$1 billion in widening and modernising the canal, with the aim of increasing capacity by 20 percent.^ This study benefited greatly from many newly exposed surface sections made by recent widening of the Panama Canal by the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) and the construction of a second bridge across the canal (Centennial Bridge).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All appointments shall be made by the Governor of The Panama Canal, or by his authority, except the district judge, district attorney, marshal, clerk of district court, and his assistant.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "At the signing ceremony of the agreement with the ACP on Monday, the US charge d’affaires in Panama, Frederick Becker, pointed out the need to protect the vessels that dock at US ports ."
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The ACP cites a number of major improvements: included among them are the widening and straightening of the Gaillard Cut to reduce restrictions on crossing vessels; the deepening of the navigational channel in Gatun Lake to reduce draft restrictions and improve water supply; and the deepening of the Atlantic and Pacific entrances of the canal.^ The Atlantic entrance is west of the Pacific.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spend the night in Gatun Lake on Panama Canal waters.

^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

This is supported by new equipment, such as a new drill barge and suction dredger, and an increase of the tug boat fleet by 20 percent. .In addition, improvements have been made to the operating machinery of the canal, including an increased and improved tug locomotive fleet, the replacement of more than 16 km of locomotive track, and new lock machinery controls.^ It's more than just a Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ After the CIA had been taken by surprise by the January 1964 events, Farland said that the agency had been out of control in Panama, more concerned with building a Canal Zone empire than in knowing what was happening in Panama.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then a visit to Miraflores locks to see the famous canal and how it is operated.

.Improvements have been made to the traffic management system to allow more efficient control over ships in the canal.^ 'U.S. naval ships will be at the mercy of Chinese-controlled pilots, and could even be denied passage through the Panama Canal,' Lott said.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]
The withdrawal of the U.S. has allowed Panama to sell excess electricity produced by the canal's dams, which was previously prohibited by the U.S. government[citation needed]. Only 25 percent of the hydroelectric power produced in the canal system is required to run the canal[citation needed]

Capacity

.The canal is presently handling more vessel traffic than had ever been envisioned by its builders.^ It's more than just a Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ No part of the Canal Zone is more than 25 miles from an ocean, and in consequence deep water fishing is well-developed as a recreation.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its economic dependence on the canal is and was far more pronounced than the capital's.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1934 it was estimated that the maximum capacity of the canal would be around 80 million tons per year;[35] as noted above, canal traffic in 2008 consisted of 309.6 million tons of shipping.^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That of a Panama canal would be, to the last penny of the estimate, $144,233,358.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The money would remain the same—a $10,000,000 flat sum, plus $250,000 per year.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

Despite the gains which have been made in efficiency, the canal is soon expected to approach its maximum capacity. .An additional complication is that the proportion of large (close to Panamax-sized) ships transiting the canal is increasing steadily; this may result in a further reduction in the number of transits, even if cargo tonnage rises.^ Panama Canal Partial Transit – Experience the canal on board a real ship as it passes through.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ 'U.S. naval ships will be at the mercy of Chinese-controlled pilots, and could even be denied passage through the Panama Canal,' Lott said.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any case, if the canal is to continue to serve the needs of global shipping, action will be required to increase its capacity.^ This section of the canal is full of history and geological value and you will be able to appreciate the continuous maintenance that this area requires, because it is very susceptible to landslides.

The water that is used to raise and lower vessels in the Canal is fed by gravity from Gatun Lake (pictured above) into each set of locks.

Competition

.Despite having enjoyed a privileged position for many years, the canal is increasingly facing competition from other quarters.^ The Panama Canal has played a crucial role in World Wars I and II, the Korean War, Vietnam, Desert Storm, and many other conflicts.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because Canal tolls are expected to rise, some critics[36] have suggested that the Suez Canal may become a viable alternative for cargo en route from Asia to the U.S. east coast.^ The consul in Colón knew that the Nashville was en route because he had already gotten cabled orders to deliver to her captain.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nasser's Egypt suggested that Panama nationalize the Panama Canal as it had nationalized the Suez Canal.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (It was Crowe who had, with some critical remarks about mixed symbols of sovereignty, upheld Kennedy's executive order on flag protocols in the Canal Zone.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Panama Canal, however, continues to service more than 144 of the world’s trade routes and the majority of Canal traffic comes from the "All-Water Route" (the route from Asia to the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts via the Panama Canal).^ It's more than just a Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

^ See one of the most vital trade routes in the world and the most beautiful link between the Atlantic and Pacific with one of our many Panama Canal cruise deals.
  • Panama Canal Cruise and Panama Canal Cruises with Montrose Travel 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.montrosetravel.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
The increasing rate of melting of ice in the Arctic Ocean has led to speculation that the Northwest Passage or Arctic Bridge may become viable for commercial shipping at some point in the future. .This route would save 9,300 km (5,800 mi) on the route from Asia to Europe compared with the Panama Canal, possibly leading to a diversion of some traffic to that route.^ To all of you who have followed my blog of this journey through the Panama Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicaragua’s government, unlike that of Colombia, indicated a strong interest in dealing with Washington for the canal; so did that of neighboring Costa Rica, which would be involved for part of the route.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And today, nearly 100 years after its completion, the Panama Canal remains one of the most vital trade routes in the world.
  • Panama Canal Cruise Deals - Princess Cruises and Cruisetours|Princess Cruises|Princess cruise line|Princess cruise|Princess Cruise Lines|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

However, such a route is beset by unresolved territorial issues and would still hold significant problems due to ice.[37]

Water issues

.As rain water flows into Gatun Lake at a faster rate, the lake accumulates excess water during wet months and consequently loses a total of 101,000 m3 (26,681,377 US gal; 22,216,894 imp gal) (52 million U.S. gallons)[26][38] of fresh water to the ocean each time a ship transits the canal.^ Spend the night in Gatun Lake on Panama Canal waters.

^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

^ (B,L,D) Day 6 SAT. PANAMA CANAL Barro Colorado Prior to the construction of the Panama Canal, the vast jungle area that is now the Gatun Lake was teeming with an overwhelming abundance of wildlife.

.Thus, during the dry season, when there is less rainfall, there is also a shortfall of water in Gatun Lake.^ Don't take your guests to the falls (on the river) during the dry season.
  • Panama Canal shore excursion, Indian Village, Portobelo, Panama City, Old Panama, Panama Colonial, Fishing, Rainforest, El Valle 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myfriendmario.com [Source type: General]

^ Spend the night in Gatun Lake on Panama Canal waters.

^ Gatun Lake was formed by damming the Chagres valley, and excess water, wasted through the spillway, finds its way to sea through the old course of the lower Chagres.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.As a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact and a member of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the ACP has developed an environmentally and socially sustainable program for expansion, which will protect the aquatic and terrestrial resources of the Canal Watershed.^ The Clinton administration, he added, is 'allowing a scenario to develop where U.S. national security interests could not be protected without confronting the Chinese communists in the Americas.'"
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The defense and use of the Panama Canal is wrapped [inextricably] with the overall global strategy and prosperity of the United States and the security of the free world.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trick was a modest revolt—confined largely to the zone of the canal, which must be instantly recognized as a new nation and protected by the United States.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

After completion, expansion will guarantee the availability and quality of water resources by using unique water-saving basins at each new lock. These water-saving basins will diminish water loss and preserve freshwater resources along the waterway by reutilizing water from the basins into the locks. Each lock chamber will have three water-saving basins, which will reuse 60 percent of the water in each transit. There are a total of nine basins for each of the two lock complexes, and a total of 18 basins for the entire project.[citation needed]
.The Pacific side sea level is about 20 centimeters (8 inches) higher than that of the Atlantic side due to differences in ocean conditions such as water densities and weather conditions.^ More than two hundred Colombian troops arriving on the Atlantic side within five days.” “ URGE VAPOR COLON ,” continued Amador.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 20, 2008 Port of Call: SEA Weather: Warm/hot and Sunny .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water level at this first stop was about 15 feet and seas were calm.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]

The future

.As demand is rising, the canal is positioned to be a significant feature of world shipping for the foreseeable future.^ Share the canal with towering container ships, cruises, and other unique vessels as you see the canal's history and it's transition into the future.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

.However, changes in shipping patterns — particularly the increasing numbers of post-Panamax ships — will necessitate changes to the canal if it is to retain a significant market share.^ Share the canal with towering container ships, cruises, and other unique vessels as you see the canal's history and it's transition into the future.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ This is the phone number for you to find out information on what time of day large Cargo and Cruise ships are going through the Panama Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ On this tour you'll get an up close and personal look at the historically significant changes being made to the famous Panama Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

.It is anticipated that by 2011, 37% of the world's container ships will be too large for the present canal, and hence a failure to expand would result in a significant loss of market share.^ This is the phone number for you to find out information on what time of day large Cargo and Cruise ships are going through the Panama Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ Share the canal with towering container ships, cruises, and other unique vessels as you see the canal's history and it's transition into the future.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

.The maximum sustainable capacity of the present canal, given some relatively minor improvement work is estimated at between 330 and 340 million PC/UMS tons per year; it is anticipated that this capacity will be reached between 2009 and 2012. Close to 50% of transiting vessels are already using the full width of the locks.^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Share the canal with towering container ships, cruises, and other unique vessels as you see the canal's history and it's transition into the future.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ She wanted a flat payment on signing the treaty—a first suggested figure was $7.5 million—and $600,000 annually at some point after the canal had paid off its costs and was earning money from tolls, say, fifteen years after completion.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.An enlargement scheme similar to the 1939 Third Lock Scheme, to allow for a greater number of transits and the ability to handle larger ships, has been under consideration for some time[41] and has been approved by the government of Panama.^ While in Panama, we encountered considerable evidence of efforts by the Red Chinese to supplant Taiwan in terms of official diplomatic recognition by the Taiwan government.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I took some neat pictures of them, with them, and then made a CD for their parents so they can get them printed the next time they travel to Panama City.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ The Canal was truly amazing and Enrique was so patient with us and allow us to take some time to really appreciate it.
  • Panama Canal shore excursion, Indian Village, Portobelo, Panama City, Old Panama, Panama Colonial, Fishing, Rainforest, El Valle 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myfriendmario.com [Source type: General]

[42] This proposal to expand the Canal was approved in a national referendum by approximately 80% on October 22, 2006.[43]

Third set of locks project

.The current plan is for two new flights of locks to be built parallel to, and operated in addition to, the old locks: one to the east of the existing Gatún locks, and one south west of Miraflores locks, each supported by approach channels.^ At the south end of this lake are Miraflores Locks, which, in two steps, lower the ship to the Pacific.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here one lock lowers the ship to Miraflores Lake, a small body about a mile long, with its surface 55 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approaching Miraflores Lock 2:30pm Departng Miraflores Lock 4pm .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each flight will ascend from ocean level direct to the Gatún Lake level; the existing two-stage ascent at Miraflores / Pedro Miguel will not be replicated.^ At the south end of this lake are Miraflores Locks, which, in two steps, lower the ship to the Pacific.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Gatun the sea level section ends in a flight of three pairs of locks, forming the steps to Gatun Lake, with its normal elevation 85 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was little time between the Pedro Miguel Lock and the Miraflores Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new lock chambers will feature sliding gates, doubled for safety, and will be 427 meters (1,400 ft) long, 55 meters (180 ft) wide, and 18.3 meters (60 ft) deep; this will allow the transit of vessels with a beam of up to 49 meters (160 ft), an overall length of up to 366 meters (1,200 ft) and a draft of up to 15 meters (50 ft), equivalent to a container ship carrying around 12,000 20-foot (6.1 m) long containers (TEU).^ Length of lock chambers, 1,000 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Over 13,000 commercial vessels transit the Panama Canal every year with some 190 million long tons of cargo.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In addition to having the largest fleet in the world, Panama also has around 280,000 merchant marines that make up the crews of the different ships, but exercises weak control over both sailors and fleets, according to industry sources.
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new locks will be supported by new approach channels, including a 6.2 km (3.8 mi) channel at Miraflores from the locks to the Gaillard Cut, skirting around Miraflores Lake.^ Instead, all data sets support the Culebra model as being the correct interpretation for the stratigraphy of the formations along the Gaillard Cut ( Figures 6 – 8 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the south end of this lake are Miraflores Locks, which, in two steps, lower the ship to the Pacific.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here one lock lowers the ship to Miraflores Lake, a small body about a mile long, with its surface 55 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each of these channels will be 218 meters (715 ft) wide, which will require post-Panamax vessels to navigate the channels in one direction at a time.^ Little ones, well, even some adults, had a difficult time navigating the waters.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gaillard Cut and the channel through Gatún Lake will be widened to no less than 280 meters (918 ft) on the straight portions and no less than 366 meters (1,200 ft) on the bends.^ In general, such employment will be temporary only, and if the pay of the allied trade is less than that for which one is employed there will be generally no reduction in pay.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The maximum level of Gatún Lake will be raised from reference height 26.7 meters (87.5 ft) to 27.1 meters (89 ft).
.Each flight of locks will be accompanied by nine water reutilization basins (three per lock chamber), each basin being approximately 70 meters (230 ft) wide, 430 meters (1410 ft) long and 5.50 meters (18 ft) deep.^ At Gatun the sea level section ends in a flight of three pairs of locks, forming the steps to Gatun Lake, with its normal elevation 85 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These gravity-fed basins will allow 60% of the water used in each transit to be reused; the new locks will consequently use 7% less water per transit than each of the existing lock lanes.^ No part of the Canal Zone is more than 25 miles from an ocean, and in consequence deep water fishing is well-developed as a recreation.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICE CREAM MAKER. Must have at least three or four years’ experience in the manufacture of ice cream and water ices where output is not less than 500 gallons daily.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The deepening of Gatún Lake, and the raising of its maximum water level, will also provide significant extra water storage capacity. These measures are intended to allow the expanded canal to operate without the construction of new reservoirs.
The estimated cost of the project is US$5.25 billion. The project is designed to allow for an anticipated growth in traffic from 280 million PC/UMS tons in 2005 to nearly 510 million PC/UMS tons in 2025; the expanded canal will have a maximum sustainable capacity of approximately 600 million PC/UMS tons per year. Tolls will continue to be calculated based on vessel tonnage, and will not depend on the locks used.
.The new locks are expected to open for traffic in 2015. The present locks, which will be 100 years old by that time, will then have greater access for maintenance, and are projected to continue operating indefinitely.^ Laurie and Felix spent some time with my 6 year old in the shallower water and he got to see a school of squid.
  • Panama Canal shore excursion, Indian Village, Portobelo, Panama City, Old Panama, Panama Colonial, Fishing, Rainforest, El Valle 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myfriendmario.com [Source type: General]

[40] .An article in the February 2007 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine describes the plans for the canal, focusing on the engineering aspects of the expansion project.^ I took particular interest in this because I wrote a 2500 word feature article about spearfish that will be featured in the February issue of Marlin Magazine, which should be on newsstands in about 3 weeks.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ The resolution of this stratigraphic problem also has important application to geotechnical studies associated with the expansion of the Panama Canal that is planned to occur between 2008 and 2014.
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .There is also a follow-up article in the February 2010 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine .^ I took particular interest in this because I wrote a 2500 word feature article about spearfish that will be featured in the February issue of Marlin Magazine, which should be on newsstands in about 3 weeks.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

[45]

On September 3, 2007, thousands of Panamanians stood across Paraíso Hill in Panama to witness a huge explosion and the launch of the Expansion Program. .The first phase of the project will be dry excavations of the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trench connecting the Culebra Cut with the Pacific coast, removing 47 million cubic meters of earth and rock.^ It was in 1513 that Balboa crossed the Isthmus and discovered the Pacific Ocean, and it was one of Balboa’s companions who first broached the idea of cutting a canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]

Building the new canal

.The Flemish (Northern Belgium) dredging company Jan De Nul has been awarded the major Panama Canal contract, together with a consortium of contractors consisting of the Spanish Sacyr Vallehermoso, the Italian Impregilo and the Panamanian company Cusa.^ Years later, the wounded Panamanians and the families of the Martyrs were partly compensated with formerly Panama Canal Company housing when, pursuant to the 1977 Carter-Torrijos treaties, it was turned over to Panama.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows were smashed at the Masonic Temple, the YMCA and the Panama Canal Company buildings.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 17, a Panama Canal Company work crew rebuilt the Fence of Shame.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The contract will result in 100 million dollars in dredging works over the next few years for the company. .In addition, there will also be a great deal of work in the contract for the company's construction division, with six new locks to be built.^ The New Panama Canal Company was created to inherit and liquidate the machinery, buildings, contracts, and good will (such as it was) of the old.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time it got by me, but when Estella Echeverri told me they had "Colombian independents" working there on "professional service" contracts, that was even enough for someone as dense as me to make the connection.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

The design of the locks is a carbon copy of the Berendrecht lock in the Port of Antwerp, which De Nul helped build in the 1980s and the company still has engineers and specialists who were part of that project. Between six months' and a year's worth of analyses and engineering will be required before construction can effectively start.[47]

Canal Pilots

During the last one hundred years, the Autoridad del Canal de Panamá has appointed a few "Panama Canal Honorary Pilots." The most recent of these were Commodore Ronald Warwick [48] a former Master of RMS Cunard's Queen Mary 2, who has traversed the Canal as Captain more than 50 times, and Captain Raffaele Minotauro, Master Senior Grade, of the former Italian governmental navigation company known in the shipping world as the "Italian Line."[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Scott, William R. (1913). The Americans in Panama. New York, NY: Statler Publishing Company. http://www.czbrats.com/AmPan/index.htm. 
  2. ^ a b "Panama Canal Traffic — Fiscal Years 2002 – 2004" (PDF). Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/reports/table01.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  3. ^ "A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. ; Chapter 3, Some Early Canal Plans
  4. ^ Caso, Adolph; Marion E. Welsh (1978). They Too Made America Great. Branden Books. pp. 72. ISBN 0828317143. ; online at Google Books
  5. ^ "Darien Expedition". http://www.kinnaird.net/darien.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  6. ^ "Manx Worthies".
  7. ^ The Practicality and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  8. ^ a b c d Avery, Ralph E. (1913). "The French Failure". America's Triumph in Panama. Chicago, IL: L.W. Walter Company. http://www.czbrats.com/Builders/FRCanal/failure.htm. 
  9. ^ "Read our history: The French Canal Construction". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  10. ^ Overthrow, Stephen Kinzer, 2006.
  11. ^ http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h930.html
  12. ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/pan001.asp
  13. ^ "The Roosevelt Medal". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=195. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  14. ^ "Read our history: American Canal Construction". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  15. ^ "A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/end.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  16. ^ Enlarging the Panama Canal, Alden P. Armagnac, CZ Brats
  17. ^ Enlarging the Panama Canal for Bigger Battleships, notes from CZ Brats
  18. ^ The Martyrs of 1964, by Eric Jackson
  19. ^ "Historical Map & Chart Project". NOAA. http://historicals.ncd.noaa.gov/historicals/histmap.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  20. ^ "The Panama Canal". http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  21. ^ "Maritime Operations — Tolls". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/tolls.html. 
  22. ^ Panama Canal Toll Table http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/tolls.html
  23. ^ Almost all major cruise ships have more than 33 tons per passenger; the rule of thumb for cruiseline comfort is generally given as a minimum of 40 tons per passenger. Note that a ton is not a unit of weight, but displacement, and represents a volume of about 100 cubic feet.
  24. ^ "Crucero paga cifra récord en Canal de Panamá" (in Spanish). Terra Noticias. 2008-06-10. http://noticias.terra.com/noticias/articulo/html/act1287447.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  25. ^ "ACP rectifica récord en pago de peaje" (in Spanish). La Prensa. 2008-06-24. http://mensual.prensa.com/mensual/contenido/2008/06/24/hoy/negocios/1416962.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  26. ^ a b "The Panama Canal; Canal FAQ". http://www.pancanal.com/eng/noticiero/canal-faqs/index.html. 
  27. ^ "''Récord en pago de peajes y reserva''. ''La Prensa''. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edition 2007-04-24". Ediciones.prensa.com. http://ediciones.prensa.com/mensual/contenido/2007/04/24/hoy/negocios/960466.html. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  28. ^ "''Cupo de subasta del Canal alcanza récord''. La Prensa. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edición 25/08/2006 in Spanish". Mensual.prensa.com. http://mensual.prensa.com/mensual/contenido/2006/08/25/hoy/negocios/714407.html. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  29. ^ "A Man, A Plan, A Canal: Panama Rises". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. March 2004. http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues04/mar04/panama.html. 
  30. ^ "News - PanCanal.com; Panama Canal Authority Releases Fiscal Year 2008 Fourth Quarter Metrics". Panama Canal Authority. 2008-11-12. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/pr/press-releases/2008/11/12/pr302.html. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  31. ^ Lipton, Eric (2004-11-22). "New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade". New York Times. http://www.colliers.com/Content/Attachments/Corporate/Services/NewYorkTimes112204.htm. 
  32. ^ "Panama Canal Traffic - Fiscal Years 2006 through 2008". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/reports/table01.pdf. 
  33. ^ Nettleton, Steve (1999). "Transfer heavy on symbolism, light on change". CNN Interactive. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/panama.canal/stories/operation/. 
  34. ^ "Modernisation & Improvements". Panama Canal Authority. http://www.pancanal.com/eng/projects/overview.html. 
  35. ^ Mack, Gerstle (1944). The Land Divided - A History of the Panama Canal and other Isthmian Canal Projects. http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/thirdlocks/tlpage3.htm. 
  36. ^ Jackson, Eric (2007). Shipping industry complains about PanCanal toll hikes. http://www.thepanamanews.com/pn/v_13/issue_06/business_03.html. 
  37. ^ Sevunts, Levon (2005-06-12). "Northwest Passage redux". The Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/jun/12/20050612-123835-3711r/. Retrieved 2009-04-20.  See also: Comte publisher=DefenceNews.com (Agence France-Presse), Michel (2005-12-22). "Conservative Leader Harper Asserts Canada's Arctic Claims". http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?F=1429085&C=america. Retrieved 2006-02-23. 
  38. ^ "The Panama Canal - Frequently Asked Questions". http://www.pancanal.com/eng/noticiero/canal-faqs/physical/14.html. "Each lock chamber requires 101,000 m3 (26,681,377 US gal; 22,216,894 imp gal) of water. An average of 52,000,000 US gal (197,000,000 L; 43,300,000 imp gal) of fresh water are used." 
  39. ^ "Sea Level: Frequently asked questions and answers". Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory. http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/puscience/. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  40. ^ a b "Relevant Information on the Third Set of Locks Project" (PDF). Panama Canal Authority. 2006-04-24. http://www.pancanal.com/esp/plan/documentos/propuesta/acp-proposla-relevant-information.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-25. 
  41. ^ "The Panama Canal". Business in Panama. http://www.businesspanama.com/investing/why_invest/panama_canal.php. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  42. ^ Monahan, Jane (2006-04-04). "Panama Canal set for $7.5bn revamp". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4876322.stm. 
  43. ^ "Panama approves $5.25 billion canal expansion". MSNBC.com. 2006-10-22. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/10627208/. 
  44. ^ Reagan, Brad (February 2007). "The Panama Canal's Ultimate Upgrade". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/transportation/4212183.html. 
  45. ^ Kaufman, Andrew (February 2010). "The Panama Canal Gets a New Lane". Popular Mechanics. http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/transportation/4344444.html?page=1. 
  46. ^ "Work starts on biggest-ever Panama Canal overhaul". Reuters. 2007-09-04. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0334522620070904. 
  47. ^ "De Nul dredging company to build locks in Panama Canal". Flanders Today. 2009-07-17. http://www.mediargus.be/flanderstoday.admin.en/rss/22548040.html?via=rss&language=en. 
  48. ^ Buckinghamcovers.com

Further reading

  • Jaen, Omar. (2005). Las Negociaciones de los Tratados Torrijos-Carter, 1970-1979 (Tomos 1 y 2). Panama: Autoridad del Canal de Panama. ISBN 9962-607-32-9 (Obra completa)
  • Jorden, William J. (1984). Panama Odyssey. 746 pages, illustrated. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292764-69-3
  • McCullough, David. (1977). .The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914.^ Another day at sea and then we sail through the Panama Canal!
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At Sea Disney Magic Panama Canal Cruise - Day 3 .
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Disney Magic Panama Canal Cruise - Day 9 Sea Day .
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Simon & Schuster. .ISBN 0-671-22563-4
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years.^ She wanted to lease the zone to the United States for one hundred years and to keep a specific acknowledgment of her sovereignty.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A United States Army officer on hand was given the honor of raising the Panamanian flag over the city hall.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Must be a graduate of a recognized medical school, whose graduates are eligible for commission in the United States Army, and must have had at least one year’s experience in a hospital since graduation.
    • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.
  • Murillo, Luis E. (1995). The Noriega Mess: The Drugs, the Canal, and Why America Invaded. 1096 pages, illustrated. Berkeley: Video Books. ISBN 0-923444-02-5.
  • Parker, Matthew. (2007). .Panama Fever: The Epic Story of One of the Greatest Human Achievements of All Time - The Building of the Panama Canal.^ This is the phone number for you to find out information on what time of day large Cargo and Cruise ships are going through the Panama Canal.
    • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

    ^ To all of you who have followed my blog of this journey through the Panama Canal.
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They made our trip to Panama one we will be talking about for a long time and we will never forget".
    • Panama Canal shore excursion, Indian Village, Portobelo, Panama City, Old Panama, Panama Colonial, Fishing, Rainforest, El Valle 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.myfriendmario.com [Source type: General]

    New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51534-4
  • Sherman, Gary. "Conquering the Landscape (Gary Sherman explores the life of the great American trailblazer, John Frank Stevens)," History Magazine, July 2008.

External links

.
  • Panama Canal Authority website - Has a simulation showing how the canal works
  • Making the Dirt Fly, Building the Panama Canal Smithsonian Institution Libraries
  • Canalmuseum — History, Documents, Photographs and Stories
  • History of the Canal Zone from CZ Brats
  • Judicial Watch, Inc.^ What a priviledge to watch it cross the Panama Canal.
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The all inclusive Melia Panama Canal is situated on the shores of Gatun Lake and is just ten minutes from the trade zone of Colon, Panama.

    ^ Find this article online Van den Bold WA (1972) Ostracoda of the La Boca Formation, Panama Canal Zone.
    • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    v. .Panama Canal Commission case - archived
  • Freshwater and Marine Image Bank – Panama Canal University of Washington Libraries - ongoing digital collection of images
  • Early stereographic images of the construction University of California
  • A.B. Nichols Panama Canal Collection at the Linda Hall Library Archival collection of maps, blueprints, photographs, letters, and other documents, collected by Aurin B. Nichols, an engineer who worked on the canal project through from 1899 until its completion.
  • 2700 digitised National Archives public domain images Photos of the building and early days of the Panama Canal digitised by GoZonian.org from the US National Archives and Records Administration.^ Another day at sea and then we sail through the Panama Canal!
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Building the Panama Canal was truly an engineering feat.
    • Panama Canal Cruise Deals - Princess Cruises and Cruisetours|Princess Cruises|Princess cruise line|Princess cruise|Princess Cruise Lines|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I hoped you enjoyed sailing through the Panama Canal with us.
    • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Originally from 8 x 10 glass plates

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.PANAMA CANAL. When he crossed the Atlantic, the object Columbus had in view was to find a western passage from Europe to Cathay.^ View of Panama Canal or garden.
  • Country Inn & Suites Panama Canal Hotel In Panama City | TravelXL 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.travelxl.com [Source type: General]

^ The best view to the entrance of the Panama Canal .
  • Country Inn and Suites Hotel Panama Canal -- Home Page 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.panamacanalcountry.com [Source type: General]

^ Find Panama Canal on map » .
  • The Panama Canal - AlfaTravelGuide.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.alfatravelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was with the greatest reluctance, and only after a generation of unremitting toil that the explorers who succeeded him became convinced that the American continent was continuous, and formed a barrier of enormous extent to the passage of vessels.^ It was with the greatest reluctance, and only after a generation of unremitting toil that the explorers who succeeded him became convinced that the American continent was continuous, and formed a barrier of enormous extent to the passage of vessels.

^ It was only with the greatest difficulty that the Spanish commander, Pedro de Orsua, succeeded in defeating him and his valiant band.
  • THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN PANAMA--FROM THE CANAL TO COLON CITY 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.cwo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the major forces behind the project was President Teddy Roosevelt who formed the commission to study ordinate central American routes.
  • The Panama Canal History and Construction – EncycloMedia.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.encyclomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The question of cutting a canal through this barrier at some suitable point was immediately raised.^ The question of cutting a canal through this barrier at some suitable point was immediately raised.

^ Although it is possible to travel all the way through Panama using the canal, many visitors like to take the opportunity to stop off at various points and view some of the local sights.
  • Panama Canal Real Estate and Homes in Panama | Love Panama Real Estate 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.lovepanamarealestate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jump to: navigation , search The Panama Canal is a large canal, 51 miles (82 kilometers) long, that cuts through the isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
  • Panama Canal - Wikimedia Commons 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Panama Canal - Wikimedia Commons 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1550 the Portuguese navigator Antonio Galvao published a book to demonstrate that a canal could be cut at Tehuantepec, Nicaragua, Panama or Darien, and in 1551 the Spanish historian F. L. de Gomara submitted a memorial to Philip II.^ In 1550 the Portuguese navigator Antonio Galvao published a book to demonstrate that a canal could be cut at Tehuantepec , Nicaragua , Panama or Darien , and in 1551 the Spanish historian F. L. de Gomara submitted a memorial to Philip II .

^ Explorador de Panama [Español/Spanish] .

^ The book has a section on the history of the Panama Canal.
  • Amazon.com: Panama Canal by Cruise Ship: The Complete Guide to Cruising the Panama Canal (9780969799184): Anne Vipond: Books 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

urging in forcible language that the work be undertaken without delay. .But the project was opposed by the Spanish Government, who had now concluded that a monopoly of communication with their possessions in the New World was of more importance than a passage by sea to Cathay.^ But the project was opposed by the Spanish Government, who had now concluded that a monopoly of communication with their possessions in the New World was of more importance than a passage by sea to Cathay.

^ Projections showed that if Panama did not move quickly to capture this new market, it could risk losing its key position in world shipping.
  • The Panama Canal: Facts & Information 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.panamareals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American government had the French to thank when, in 1903, it took over the building of the Panama Canal, the largest most audacious and expensive engineering project the world had ever seen.
  • The American Building of the Panama Canal, completing Panama's largest tourist attraction 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.southernexplorations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It even discouraged the improvement of the communications by land.^ It even discouraged the improvement of the communications by land.

.To seek or make known any better route than the one from Porto Bello to Panama was forbidden under penalty of death.^ To seek or make known any better route than the one from Porto Bello to Panama was forbidden under penalty of death.

^ Panama is well known for the Canal and many would like to see more than just the locks.

^ After more than 60 years of operations under U.S. sovereignty, Panama signed the Torrijos-Carter treaties in 1977.

.For more than two centuries no serious steps were taken towards the construction of the canal, if exception be made of William Paterson's disastrous Darien scheme in 1698. In 1771 the Spanish government, having changed its policy, ordered a survey for a canal at Tehuantepec, and finding that line impracticable, ordered surveys in 1779 at Nicaragua, but political disturbances in Europe soon prevented further action.^ Two more proposals were pitched forward for the construction of the Nicaragua Canal.

^ The Panama Canal was constructed in two stages.
  • Panama Canal - Mundy Cruising plc - The UK's oldest and leading, luxury cruise and cruise-only retailer. 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mundycruising.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In 1771 the Spanish government, having changed its policy, ordered a survey for a canal at Tehuantepec, and finding that line impracticable, ordered surveys in 1779 at Nicaragua, but political disturbances in Europe soon prevented further action.

.In 1808 the isthmus was examined by Alexander von Humboldt, who pointed out the lines which he considered worthy of study.^ In 1808 the isthmus was examined by Alexander von Humboldt , who pointed out the lines which he considered worthy of study.

^ Some, such as German explorer Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt, argued that Panama was too wild and mountainous, and that Nicaragua would be a better location.

^ Seven lines, more or less suitable for the passage, have been pointed out, and some of these are situated at a considerable distance from each other.
  • From the archive: The Panama Canal | The Economist 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Central American republics acquired their independence in 1823, there was a decided increase of interest in the canal question.^ After the Central American republics acquired their independence in 1823, there was a decided increase of interest in the canal question.

^ The 1890’s saw an increased interest in American involvement in building a canal.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once Colombia won independence from Spain, European and American interest in the canal began in earnest as Panama remained a province of Colombia.
  • Panama Canal | Definition of Panama Canal | HighBeam.com: Online Dictionary 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1825 the Republic of the Centre, having received applications for concessions from citizens of Great Britain, and also from citizens of the United States, made overtures to the United States for aid in constructing a canal, but they resulted in nothing.^ What was the purpose of the United States’ involvement in the construction of the Panama Canal?
  • Panama Canal | Open Websites 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC ows.edb.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the United States would have to share control of the canal with Great Britain was a great deterrent.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unsurprisingly, they argue that the United States, not Panama, benefited the most from the canal’s construction.
  • The economic impact of the Panama Canal - PSD Blog - The World Bank Group 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC psdblog.worldbank.org [Source type: News]

.In 1830 a concession was granted to a Dutch corporation under the special patronage of the king of the Netherlands to construct a canal through Nicaragua, but the revolution and the separation of Belgium from Holland followed, and the scheme fell through.^ In 1830 a concession was granted to a Dutch corporation under the special patronage of the king of the Netherlands to construct a canal through Nicaragua, but the revolution and the separation of Belgium from Holland followed, and the scheme fell through.

^ Follow our journey through the Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following years of backbreaking effort, landslides, disease and thousands more deaths, the Americans completed construction of the Panama Canal in 1914.
  • The Panama Canal in Panama - Panama Canal Cruises and History 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC gocentralamerica.about.com [Source type: General]

.Subsequently numerous concessions were granted to citizens of the United States, France and Belgium, both for the Nicaragua and the Panama lines, but with the exception of the concession of 1878 for Panama and that of 1887 for Nicaragua, no work of construction was done under any of them.^ Subsequently numerous concessions were granted to citizens of the United States, France and Belgium, both for the Nicaragua and the Panama lines, but with the exception of the concession of 1878 for Panama and that of 1887 for Nicaragua, no work of construction was done under any of them.

^ What was the purpose of the United States’ involvement in the construction of the Panama Canal?
  • Panama Canal | Open Websites 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC ows.edb.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1970 both the United States and Nicaragua decided to abrogate the treaty.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Knowledge of the topography of the isthmus was extremely vague until the great increase of travel due to the discovery of gold in California in 1848 rendered improved communications a necessity.^ Knowledge of the topography of the isthmus was extremely vague until the great increase of travel due to the discovery of gold in California in 1848 rendered improved communications a necessity.

^ The isthmus gained more importance after the United States acquired (1848) California and the gold rush began, and the trans-Panama RR was built (1848-55) with U.S. capital.
  • Panama Canal Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The discovery of gold in California in 1848 and the rush of would-be miners stimulated America’s interest in digging the canal.
  • Panama Canal - Mundy Cruising plc - The UK's oldest and leading, luxury cruise and cruise-only retailer. 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mundycruising.co.uk [Source type: General]

.A railroad at Panama and a canal at Nicaragua were both projected.^ Panama Canal expansion project .
  • The Panama Canal - El Canal de Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.panama1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A railroad at Panama and a canal at Nicaragua were both projected.

^ Reason for the Panama Canal project?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the reason for the Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Instrumental surveys for the former in 1849, and for the latter in 1850, were made by American engineers, and, with some small exceptions, were the first accurate surveys made up to that time.^ Instrumental surveys for the former in 1849, and for the latter in 1850, were made by American engineers, and, with some small exceptions, were the first accurate surveys made up to that time.

^ The first and greatest engineering challenge was cutting a pass through the Continental Divide which made it necessary to dig through the mountain ridge at Culebra.
  • Engineering the Panama Canal Term Papers | Panama Canal Essays | Term Paper Introductions 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.papermasters.com [Source type: General]

^ Various surveys were made between 1850 and 1875 showed that only two routes were practical, the one across Panama and another across Nicaragua.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The work done resulted in geographical knowledge sufficient to eliminate from consideration all but the following routes: (1) Nicaragua; (2) Panama; (3) San Blas; (4) Caledonia Bay; (5) Darien; (6) Atrato river, of which last there were four variants, the Tuyra, the Truando, the Napipi and the Bojaya.^ To all of you who have followed my blog of this journey through the Panama Canal.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the preparation of these plans and all during its construction this work was treated as an engineering problem and not as a theatrical venture, and it is doe to this that such perfect results have been attained.

^ Yellow Fever: A Compilation of Various Publications: Results of the Work of Maj.
  • Open Collections Program: Contagion, Tropical Diseases and the Construction of the Panama Canal, 1904–1914 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC ocp.hul.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1866, in response to an inquiry from Congress, Admiral Charles H. Davis, U.S. Navy, reported that "there does not exist in the libraries of the world the means of determining even approximately the most practicable route for a ship canal across the American isthmus." To clear up the subject, the United States government sent out, between 1870 and 1875, a series of expeditions under officers of the navy, by whom all of the above routes were examined. .The result was to show that the only lines by which a tunnel could be avoided were the Panama and the Nicaragua lines; and in 1876 a United States Commission reported that the Nicaragua route possessed greater advantages and offered fewer difficulties than any other.^ The result was to show that the only lines by which a tunnel could be avoided were the Panama and the Nicaragua lines; and in 1876 a United States Commission reported that the Nicaragua route possessed greater advantages and offered fewer difficulties than any other.

^ Panama.  Each of these routes had its advocates.  The Nicaragua route was the .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These showed only two possible routes, one across Panama, and the other in Nicaragua.
  • The Panama Canal Took Nearly 400 Years to Build 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: News]

.At Panama the isthmus is narrower than at any other point except San Blas, its width in a straight line being only 3 5 m.^ Panama was suggested  because of the narrowness of the isthmus.
  • What is the Panama Canal? - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ At Panama the isthmus is narrower than at any other point except San Blas, its width in a straight line being only 3 5 m.

^ Isthmus of Panama Panama is an isthmus , a narrow strip of land which has water on each side and connects two larger bodies of land.
  • Panama Canal history 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and the height of the continental divide is only .300 ft., which is higher than the Nicaragua summit, but less than half the height on any other route.^ Nicaragua summit, but less than half the height on any other route.

^ Despite a recent raise, district court judges still make less than half the salary of their immediate superiors.
  • JURIST - Panama: Panamanian Law, Legal Research, Human Rights 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC jurist.law.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After driving other routes, Nicaragua decided to launch the operation in Panama , which was at the time a province of Colombia .

.At Nicaragua the distance is greater, being about 156 m.^ At Nicaragua the distance is greater, being about 156 m.

in a straight line, but more than one third is covered by .Lake Nicaragua, a sheet of fresh water with an area of about 3000 sq.^ Lake Nicaragua, a sheet of fresh water with an area of about 3000 sq.

^ For each ship traveling through the canal, 197 million liters (52 million gallons) of fresh water are used, fed by gravity flow from Gatn Lake.
  • Panama Canal Zone  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The canal also relies on the overabundant rainfall of the area to compensate for the loss of the 52 million gallons of fresh water consumed during each crossing.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Panama Canal - Mundy Cruising plc - The UK's oldest and leading, luxury cruise and cruise-only retailer. 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mundycruising.co.uk [Source type: General]

m. and a maximum depth of over .200 ft., the surface being about 105 ft.^ The lake surface is about 26 m (85 ft) above sea level.
  • Lighthouses of the Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: General]

^ The repairs will take about 30 days to complete at a cost of $1.5 million dollars, and is being done by some 200 workers, 150 welders and 50 painters.

above sea-level. .Lake Nicaragua is connected with the Atlantic by a navigable river, the San Juan, and is separated from the Pacific by the continental divide, which is about 160 ft.^ Lake Nicaragua is connected with the Atlantic by a navigable river, the San Juan, and is separated from the Pacific by the continental divide, which is about 160 ft.

^ Plan: To dig two new access channels and build larger locks connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to Gatun Lake, which provides ship passage across Panama.
  • USATODAY.com - Plan to enlarge Canal stirs up controversy 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ The lake surface is about 26 m (85 ft) above sea level.
  • Lighthouses of the Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: General]

above sea-level. .At Nicaragua only a canal with locks is feasible, but at Panama a sea-level canal is a physical possibility.^ Construction of locks on the Panama Canal, 1913.

^ A sea-level canal is not a new idea.
  • Navis.gr - The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.navis.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 with Great Britain, by the treaty of 1846 with New Granada (Colombia), Article XXXV., and by the treaty of 1867 with Nicaragua, Article XV., the United States guaranteed that the projected canal, whether the Panama or the Nicaraguan, should be neutral, and, furthermore, that it be used and enjoyed upon equal terms by the citizens of both countries in each case.^ In 1903 the U.S. and Panama signed a treaty giving authority of the canal to the United States.

^ What country built the panama canal?
  • What country built the panama canal? - Yahoo! Answers 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ After the Treaty, the only decision left was whether to build a canal in Nicaragua or Panama.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A modification of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty being necessary to enable the United States to build the canal, a treaty making such modifications, but preserving the principle of neutrality, known as the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, was negotiated with Great Britain in 1900; it was amended by the United States Senate, and the amendments not proving acceptable to Great Britain, the treaty lapsed in March 1901. A new treaty, however, was negotiated in the autumn, and accepted in December by the U.S. Senate.^ When the United States ceded control of the Panama Canal to Panama there were two treaties, the Neutrality Treaty and the Panama Canal Treaty.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treaty negotiated in Washington, by which the United States was to be .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1901 the second Hay-Pauncefote treaty declared a plan for the United States to build a canal through Central America.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / Why Did We Give Away the Panama Canal? 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, and its subsequent success as a commercial enterprise, drew attention more forcibly than ever to the American isthmus.^ He had completed the Suez Canal in 1869.
  • Navis.gr - The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.navis.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's more than just a Canal.
  • RepublicOfPanama.net - Miraflores Resturant Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.republicofpanama.net [Source type: General]

^ There's more to Panama than the canal.

.In 1876 an association entitled "Societe Civile Internationale du Canal Interoceanique" was organized in Paris to make surveys and explorations for a ship canal.^ In 1876 an association entitled "Societe Civile Internationale du Canal Interoceanique" was organized in Paris to make surveys and explorations for a ship canal.

^ In 1876 an international company was organized; two years later it obtained a concession from the Colombian government to dig a canal across the isthmus.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Panama Canal - Mundy Cruising plc - The UK's oldest and leading, luxury cruise and cruise-only retailer. 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mundycruising.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ On January 7, 1914 the Alexandre La Valley became the first ship to make a complete transit of the Panama Canal .
  • On This Day: The Panama Canal was opened for business 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.examiner.com [Source type: News]

.An expedition under the direction of Lieut.^ An expedition under the direction of Lieut.

.L. N. B. Wyse, an officer of the French navy, was sent to the isthmus to examine the Panama line.^ L. N. B. Wyse, an officer of the French navy, was sent to the isthmus to examine the Panama line.

^ In 1878 Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French engineer who built the Suez Canal, began to dig a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, which was then part of Colombia.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.smplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1808 the isthmus was examined by Alexander von Humboldt , who pointed out the lines which he considered worthy of study.

.In May 1878 Lieut.^ In May 1878 Lieut.

.Wyse, in the name of the association, obtained a concession from the Colombian government, commonly known as the Wyse Concession.^ Wyse, in the name of the association, obtained a concession from the Colombian government, commonly known as the Wyse Concession.

^ In 1838, Augustin Solomon, a French citizen who lived on the Caribbean island of Guadelupe, obtained a concession from the Colombian government to develop a canal, railroad and highway across the isthmus of Panama, which then was part of Colombia.
  • Jews involved in the Panama Canal, Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.jewishsightseeing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. government negotiated with the Colombian government to obtain a strip of land 9.5 km (6 mi) wide across the isthmus, but the Colombian Senate refused to ratify this concession.
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sneadsferry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the concession under which work upon the Panama Canal has been prosecuted.^ How does the Panama Canal work?
  • How does the Panama Canal work? - Yahoo! Answers 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ How does the panama canal works?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the reason for the Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the concession under which work upon the Panama Canal has been prosecuted.

.Its first holders did no work of construction.^ Its first holders did no work of construction.

^ In 2005, the Magic did it's first Panama Canal sailing and while I really wanted to go, I couldn't take that much time off from work.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May 1879 an International Congress composed of 135 delegates from various nations - some from Great Britain, United States and Germany, but the majority First from France - was convened in Paris under the auspices of Ferdinand de Lesseps, to consider the Company. best situation for, and the plan of, a canal.^ The United States could act as a sovereign nation in the Canal Zone.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that the United States would have to share control of the canal with Great Britain was a great deterrent.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first step in the United States building a canal was the negotiations.
  • A Brief History of the Panama Canal - a knol by Bedford Crenshaw 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a session of two weeks the Congress decided that the canal should be at the sea-level, and at Panama.^ A sea-level canal is not a new idea.
  • Navis.gr - The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.navis.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was decided that a lock canal should be constructed.

^ After a session of two weeks the Congress decided that the canal should be at the sea-level, and at Panama.

.Immediately after the adjournment of the Congress the Panama Canal Company was organized under a general law of France, with Lesseps as president, and it purchased the Wyse Concession at the price of 10,000,000 francs.^ Immediately after the adjournment of the Congress the Panama Canal Company was organized under a general law of France, with Lesseps as president, and it purchased the Wyse Concession at the price of 10,000,000 francs.

^ The Melia Panama Canal prices are reasonable.
  • The Melia Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1908 she was bought by the Panama Canal Company.
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC web.me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.seemotive.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An attempt to float this company in August 1879 failed, but a second attempt, made in December 1888, was fully successful, 6,000,000 shares of 500 francs each being sold.^ An attempt to float this company in August 1879 failed, but a second attempt, made in December 1888, was fully successful, 6,000,000 shares of 500 francs each being sold.

^ However, their project failed, thousands of workers died (mainly from disease,) and the company went bankrupt six years later, in 1888.

^ Unfortunately the attempt failed miserably due to high costs, with over 22,000 workers dying from malaria and yellow fever.
  • Panama Canal (Canal de Panam�) Guide | Attraction Travel Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.worldtravelguide.net [Source type: News]

.The next two years were devoted to surveys and examinations and preliminary work upon the canal.^ The next two years were devoted to surveys and examinations and preliminary work upon the canal.

^ Despite this trend, planners anticipate steadily increasing demand for use of the canal for the next 20 years.
  • Panama Canal Zone  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 8 years of work and nearly $235 million spent, the canal was less than half done.
  • On This Day: The Panama Canal was opened for business 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.examiner.com [Source type: News]

.The plan adopted was for a sea-level canal having a depth of 292 ft.^ The plan adopted was for a sea-level canal having a depth of 292 ft.

^ A sea-level canal is not a new idea.
  • Navis.gr - The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.navis.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and bottom width of .72 ft., involving excavation estimated at 157,000,000, cub.^ In all about 72,000,000 cub.

yds. .The cost was estimated by Lesseps in 1880 at 658,000,000 francs, and the time required at eight years.^ The cost was estimated by Lesseps in 1880 at 658,000,000 francs, and the time required at eight years.

^ The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at 525,000,000 francs for the works, not including administration and financing.

^ The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at $200,540,000.

.The terminus on the Atlantic side was fixed by the anchorage at Colon, and that on the Pacific side by the anchorage at Panama.^ Atlantic and Pacific sides of the isthmus.
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The terminus on the Atlantic side was fixed by the anchorage at Colon , and that on the Pacific side by the anchorage at Panama.

^ Balboa (Pacific side) Cristobal (Atlantic side) .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sailwx.info [Source type: Academic]

.Leaving Colon, the canal was to pass through low ground by a direct line for a distance of 6 m.^ A ship passing through the Panama Canal.
  • Panama Canal Map 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.panamaforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leaving Colon, the canal was to pass through low ground by a direct line for a distance of 6 m.

^ Distance through the canal is eighty-two kilometers, and in 1987 transit took about fifteen hours, nearly half of which was spent in waiting.

to .Gatun, where it intersected the valley of the Chagres river; pass up that valley for a distance of 21 m.^ Gatun, where it intersected the valley of the Chagres river; pass up that valley for a distance of 21 m.

^ In dug-out canoes, up the Chagres River across Alajuela Lake, we approach the village.
  • February 2008 Panama & The Canal Scrapbook 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mywtours.com [Source type: General]

^ Shortly after the construction of the Canal had begun, Stevens decided to dam the Chagres River, which flowed into the Atlantic Ocean, to form Gatun Lake.
  • Panama Canal - RitchieWiki 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to .Obispo, where it left the Chagres and ascended the valley of a tributary, the Cumacho; cut through the watershed at Culebra, and thence descend by the valley of the Rio Grande to Panama Bay.^ This valley is known as the Gaillard Cut or Culebra Cut.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obispo, where it left the Chagres and ascended the valley of a tributary, the Cumacho; cut through the watershed at Culebra , and thence descend by the valley of the Rio Grande to Panama Bay.

^ I have yet to mention that at the height of construction of the canal, 200 train loads a day of earth were removed from the Culebra Cut, the man-made path cutting through the major mountain range in Panama.
  • Tips for Paddling Across the Panama Canal in a Canoe 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.his.com [Source type: General]

.Its total length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific was about 47 m.^ The length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific will be about 50 m., or, since the distance from deep water to the shore-line is about 4J m.

^ Its total length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific was about 47 m.

^ Canal Functioning The Panama Canal is 50 miles (80 km) long from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific and runs from northwest to southeast, with the Atlantic side entrance around 33 miles (54 km) North and 27 miles (43 km) west of the pacific mouth.

.It was laid out in such a way as to give easy curvature everywhere; the sharpest curve, of which there was but one, had a radius of 6200 ft., four others had a radius of 8200 ft., and all others had a radius of 9800 ft.^ It was laid out in such a way as to give easy curvature everywhere; the sharpest curve , of which there was but one, had a radius of 6200 ft., four others had a radius of 8200 ft., and all others had a radius of 9800 ft.

^ This is a great location since there are a lot of restaurants and shops all around a five-block radius from the hotel.
  • Panama City - Canal Vacations | Panama City - Canal hotels, sightseeing tours | Flexible trips to Panama City - Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.latindestinations.com [Source type: General]

^ For four years there was a series of problems with the civilian engineers successively in charge, with concept of design—the sea-level canal having been favored by one engineer with the lock system finally winning out—and with costs.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mssu.edu [Source type: Original source]

or more. .To secure this it was necessary to select a point for crossing the watershed where the height was somewhat greater than that of the lowest pass.^ To secure this it was necessary to select a point for crossing the watershed where the height was somewhat greater than that of the lowest pass.

^ But we did notice the menu selections were somewhat smaller than previous Holland America cruises.
  • A Panama Canal Holiday Cruise Report and Pictures 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.fortogden.com [Source type: General]

.The line was essentially the same as that followed by the Panama railroad, the concession for which granted a monopoly of that route; the Wyse Concession, therefore, was applicable only upon condition that the canal company could come to an amicable agreement with the railroad company.^ This is the concession under which work upon the Panama Canal has been prosecuted.

^ Working Conditions Imagine working on the Panama Canal.
  • Panama Canal history 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not free to grant the necessary rights to the United States, except upon condition that an agreement be reached with the New Panama Canal Company.

.The principal difficulties to be encountered in carrying out this plan consisted in the enormous dimensions of the cut to be made at Culebra, and in the control of the Chagres river, the valley of which is occupied by the canal for a large part of its length.^ The principal difficulties to be encountered in carrying out this plan consisted in the enormous dimensions of the cut to be made at Culebra, and in the control of the Chagres river, the valley of which is occupied by the canal for a large part of its length.

^ This valley is known as the Gaillard Cut or Culebra Cut.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a cruise ship that has made a canal appointment far in advance and paid a premium, the Harmony will be allowed to cut to the front of the line.

.This stream is of torrential character, its discharge varying from a minimum of about 350 cub.^ This stream is of torrential character, its discharge varying from a minimum of about 350 cub.

ft. to a maximum of over 100,000 cub. ft. per second. .It rose at Gamboa on the 1st of December 1890, 18$ ft.^ It rose at Gamboa on the 1st of December 1890, 18$ ft.

in twelve hours, its volume increasing from 15,600 cub. ft. to 57,800 cub. ft. per second at the same time; and similar violent changes are not uncommon. .To admit a stream of this character to the canal would be an intolerable nuisance to navigation unless space could be provided for its waters to spread out.^ Panama Canal running out of water .
  • CNN.com - Nature - Lockout? Panama Canal running out of water - November 1, 2000 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ To admit a stream of this character to the canal would be an intolerable nuisance to navigation unless space could be provided for its waters to spread out.

^ The Panama Canal History is extremely important because the Panama Canal is the blood line of Panama providing for importing and exporting goods in and out via cargo ships and freights.

.For a canal with locks the remedy is simple, but for a sea-level canal the problem is much more difficult, and no satisfactory solution of the question was ever reached under the Lesseps plan.^ De Lesseps declared that it would have to be a sea level canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They solved this problem with canal locks.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

.Work under this plan continued until the latter part of 1887, the management being characterized by a degree of extravagance and corruption rarely if ever equalled in the history of the world.^ Work under this plan continued until the latter part of 1887, the management being characterized by a degree of extravagance and corruption rarely if ever equalled in the history of the world.

^ TOUR LEADER: Jean Iron Jean is a very well travelled person who follows her natural history interests to many parts of the world.

^ They want to see actual detailed construction plans for the septic tanks, to make sure they will work in the area where they are being proposed.
  • Canal de Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC canalde-panama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By that time it had become evident that the canal could not be completed at the sea-level with the resources of time and money then available.^ Most time is spent at sea level.
  • Panama Canal Cruise and Costa Rica Vacation from Tauck 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tauck.com [Source type: General]

^ By that time it had become evident that the canal could not be completed at the sea-level with the resources of time and money then available.

^ A sea-level canal is not a new idea.
  • Navis.gr - The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.navis.gr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plan was accordingly changed to one including locks, and work was pushed on with vigour until 1889, when the company, becoming bankrupt, was dissolved by a judgment of the Tribunal Civil de la Seine, dated the 4th of February 1889, a liquidator being appointed by the court to take charge of its affairs.^ Declared bankrupt and dissolved by Tribunal Civil de la Seine, February 4, 1889.
  • Records of the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The Bankruptcy On 4th February 1889, the Tribunal Civile de la Seine lawfully applied for the winding up of the Panama Canal Company in Paris.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His company went bankrupt in 1889.
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.sneadsferry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the more important duties assigned to this official was to keep the property together and the concession alive, with a view to the formation of a new company for the completion of the canal.^ One of the more important duties assigned to this official was to keep the property together and the concession alive, with a view to the formation of a new company for the completion of the canal.

^ After his election, he followed through on this promise and in October 2006 voters approved a plan to expand the canal by adding a new channel and more locks.
  • panama_canal__page_page 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.col-ed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • panama_canal__page_page 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.col-ed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With water an increasingly valuable - and vulnerable - commodity in the region, canal officials say they are willing to explore new methods to conserve the existing water supply.
  • CNN.com - Nature - Lockout? Panama Canal running out of water - November 1, 2000 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.He gradually reduced the number of men employed, and finally suspended the works on the 15th of May 1889. He then proceeded to satisfy himself that the canal project was feasible, a question about which the failure of the company had caused grave doubts, and to this end caused ark inquiry to be held by a commission of French and foreign engineers.^ New Question about the Canal .
  • Panama Canal in The World in History Channel 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

^ He gradually reduced the number of men employed, and finally suspended the works on the 15th of May 1889.

^ He then proceeded to satisfy himself that the canal project was feasible, a question about which the failure of the company had caused grave doubts, and to this end caused ark inquiry to be held by a commission of French and foreign engineers.

.This commission reported on the 9th of May 1890 that a canal with locks, for which they submitted a plan, could be built in eight years at a cost of 580,000,000 francs for the works, which sum should be increased to 900,000,000 francs to include administration and financing.^ Cost of Canal, approximately $373,000,000.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Annual report of the Department of Sanitation of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ...

^ The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at 525,000,000 francs for the works, not including administration and financing.

.They reported that the plant in hand was in good condition and would probably suffice for finishing the canal, and they estimated the value of the work done and of the plant in hand at 450,000,000 francs.^ They reported that the plant in hand was in good condition and would probably suffice for finishing the canal, and they estimated the value of the work done and of the plant in hand at 450,000,000 francs.

^ Unfortunately the plant required to construct the canal was is in short supply, there were too few dredgers, the French excavators were too light and were stopped by large boulders and too much work was being done by hand.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With water an increasingly valuable - and vulnerable - commodity in the region, canal officials say they are willing to explore new methods to conserve the existing water supply.
  • CNN.com - Nature - Lockout? Panama Canal running out of water - November 1, 2000 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.The time within which the canal was to be completed under the Wyse Concession having nearly expired, the liquidator sought and obtained from the Colombian government an extension of ten years.^ The time within which the canal was to be completed under the Wyse Concession having nearly expired, the liquidator sought and obtained from the Colombian government an extension of ten years.

^ Wyse, in the name of the association, obtained a concession from the Colombian government, commonly known as the Wyse Concession.

^ The canal itself was constructed under U.S. leadership and completed in 1914.
  • The Expansion of Panama's Economy and Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.nuwireinvestor.com [Source type: News]

.Twice subsequently the time was extended by the Colombian government, the date ultimately fixed for the completion of the canal being the 31st of October 1910. For each of these extensions the Colombian government exacted heavy subsidies.^ For each of these extensions the Colombian government exacted heavy subsidies.

^ Twice subsequently the time was extended by the Colombian government, the date ultimately fixed for the completion of the canal being the 31st of October 1910.

^ As representative of the new government of Panama in the United States, Bunau-Varilla then negotiated the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which enabled the US to acquire the Panama Canal Zone and subsequently build the Panama Canal, which was completed in 1914.
  • Log #39 - The Panama Canal 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.karlbuhl.com [Source type: General]

.The liquidator finally secured the organization of a new company on the 10th of October 1894. The old company and the liquidator had raised by the sale of stock and bonds the sum of 1,271,682,637 francs.^ The old company and the liquidator had raised by the sale of stock and bonds the sum of 1,271,682,637 francs.

^ The liquidator finally secured the organization of a new company on the 10th of October 1894.

^ As he proceeded to convince his countrymen of such, stock for his new company, the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interoceanique, was sold (after much press coverage had been purchased to boost the company's name) with unnerving results : the company had only managed to raise 8% of what Lesseps had hoped for - 30 million francs of his requested 400 million francs.
  • "The Panama Canal : A Brief History", paper by Tyler Jones 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.june29.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The securities issued to raise this money had a par value of 2,245,151,200 francs, held by about 200,000 persons.^ The securities issued to raise this money had a par value of 2,245,151,200 francs, held by about 200,000 persons.

^ Over the past decade and a half, the amount of cargo shipped annually through the canal has soared to 4.6 million containers from about 200,000 in 1995.
  • For Panama Canal, a new era of trade is coming - USATODAY.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

^ He once even held a lottery to raise money.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mssu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In all about 72,000,000 cub.^ In all about 72,000,000 cub.

^ In all, about $4,500,000 had been expended.

yds. had been excavated, and an enormous quantity of machinery and other plant had been purchased and transported to the isthmus at an estimated cost of 150,000,000 francs. .Nearly all of the stock of the Panama railroad-68,534 of the 70,000 shares existing - also had been purchased, at a cost of 93, 268,186 francs.^ Nearly all of the stock of the Panama railroad-68,534 of the 70,000 shares existing - also had been purchased, at a cost of 93, 268,186 francs.

^ Completed nearly 100 years ago, the Panama Canal took more than three decades to build — at a cost of 30,000 lives.

^ These were to revert to the liquidator, but the company had the privilege of purchasing them for 20,000,000 francs in cash and half the net annual profits of the road.

.The new company was regularly organized under French law, and was recognized by the Colombian government.^ The new company was regularly organized under French law, and was recognized by the Colombian government.

^ From 1880 to 1900, a French company under Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted unsuccessfully to construct a sea-level canal on the site of the present Panama Canal.

^ The international company failed, and in 1880 a French company was organized by Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was technically a private corporation, but the great number of persons interested in the securities of the old company, and the special legislation of the French Chambers, gave it a semi-national character.^ It was technically a private corporation, but the great number of persons interested in the securities of the old company, and the special legislation of the French Chambers, gave it a semi-national character.

^ In addition, disease, particularly malaria and yellow fever, sickened and killed vast numbers of employees, ranging from laborers to top directors of the French company.
  • GKWeb.net : Structures : Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.gkweb.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Clinton administration, he added, is 'allowing a scenario to develop where U.S. national security interests could not be protected without confronting the Chinese communists in the Americas.'"
  • Return U.S. military bases at the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.conservativeusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the law of the 8th of June 1888, all machinery and tools used in the work must be of French manufacture, and raw material must be of French origin.^ By the law of the 8th of June 1888, all machinery and tools used in the work must be of French manufacture, and raw material must be of French origin.

^ Must furnish all tools necessary in this work.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All wiremen must furnish tools.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its capital stock consisted of 650,000 shares of loo francs each, of which 50,000 shares belonged to Colombia.^ Its capital stock consisted of 650,000 shares of loo francs each, of which 50,000 shares belonged to Colombia .

^ An attempt to float this company in August 1879 failed, but a second attempt, made in December 1888, was fully successful, 6,000,000 shares of 500 francs each being sold.

^ This resulted in the signing of several subscriptions for 600.000 stock certificates of 500 gold Francs each, for the planned Panama Canal Company.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It succeeded to all the rights of the old company in the concessions, works, lands, buildings, plant, maps, drawings, &c., and shares of the Panama railroad.^ It succeeded to all the rights of the old company in the concessions, works, lands, buildings, plant, maps, drawings, &c., and shares of the Panama railroad.

^ The Nicaraguan government turned to other means, by entering into a contract with Cornelius Vanderbilt which enabled his company the exclusive right to build a canal for 12 years.

^ The appraisal of the company's belongings - including equipment, maps, and the value of the land already excavated - was very high, and in 1894, a new company, the Compagnie Nouvelle du Canal de Panama, was created in France to attempt to finish the canal.
  • "The Panama Canal : A Brief History", paper by Tyler Jones 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.june29.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the contingency that the canal should not be completed, special conditions were made as to the Panama railroad shares.^ For the contingency that the canal should not be completed, special conditions were made as to the Panama railroad shares.

^ Working Conditions Imagine working on the Panama Canal.
  • Panama Canal history 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Panama Railroad was completed in 1855, but not by Solomon.
  • Jews involved in the Panama Canal, Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.jewishsightseeing.com [Source type: Original source]

.These were to revert to the liquidator, but the company had the privilege of purchasing them for 20,000,000 francs in cash and half the net annual profits of the road.^ These were to revert to the liquidator, but the company had the privilege of purchasing them for 20,000,000 francs in cash and half the net annual profits of the road.

^ When the Canal company fell in 1889 after the loss of 20,000 lives, it brought down the government of France.
  • Voyage Report - Royal Princess: Panama Canal Partial Transit 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.susanmilne.com [Source type: General]

^ An attempt to float this company in August 1879 failed, but a second attempt, made in December 1888, was fully successful, 6,000,000 shares of 500 francs each being sold.

.The Panama railroad retained its separate organization as an American corporation.^ The Panama railroad retained its separate organization as an American corporation.

^ During the period of draft restriction, some customers of the Panama Canal had the chance to decide on alternative routes like the North American coast-to-coast railroad or the Suez Canal.
  • The Case of the 1997-98 El Nino 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ccb.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isthmus may be transferred to and retained in the service of The Panama Canal without examination, whenever any work now performed independently by the Panama Railroad is consolidated with similar work performed by The Panama Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Immediately after its organization in 1894 the new company took possession of the property (except the Panama railroad shares, which were held in trust for its benefit), and proceeded to make a new study of the entire subject of the canal in its engineering and commercial aspects.^ Immediately after its organization in 1894 the new company took possession of the property (except the Panama railroad shares, which were held in trust for its benefit), and proceeded to make a new study of the entire subject of the canal in its engineering and commercial aspects.

^ A Panama Canal cruise lets you experience nature and soak up dramatic history as you travel along one of man’s finest feats of engineering.
  • The Cruise Specialists - Cheap Panama Canal Cruises, Panama Canal Cruise Vacation Travel Deals 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC the-cruise-specialists.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2007, 312 million tons of commercial shipping passed through the Panama Canal in 13,223 ships or about 36 container ships a day.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It resumed the work of excavation, with a moderate number of men sufficient to comply with the terms of the concession, in a part of the line - the Emperador and Culebra cuts - where such excavation must contribute to the enterprise if completed under any plan.^ By December 1905, approximately 2,600 men were working on the Culebra Cut.
  • Panama Canal - RitchieWiki 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ritchiewiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It resumed the work of excavation, with a moderate number of men sufficient to comply with the terms of the concession, in a part of the line - the Emperador and Culebra cuts - where such excavation must contribute to the enterprise if completed under any plan.

^ By December 1905 there were 2,600 men at work in the Culebra cut.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the middle of 1895, about 2000 men had been collected, and since that time the work progressed continuously, the number of workmen varying between 1900 and 3600. The amount of material excavated to the end of 1899 was about 5,000,000 cubic yards.^ By the middle of 1895, about 2000 men had been collected, and since that time the work progressed continuously, the number of workmen varying between 1900 and 3600.

^ The amount of material excavated to the end of 1899 was about 5,000,000 cubic yards.

^ The average toll for ships using the canal is about $48,000.00 but many save about ten times this figure by eliminating the journey round the Horn.

.The amount expended to the 30th of June 1899 was about 35,000,000 francs, besides about 6,500,000 francs advanced to the Panama Railroad Company for building a pier at La Boca.^ The amount expended to the 30th of June 1899 was about 35,000,000 francs, besides about 6,500,000 francs advanced to the Panama Railroad Company for building a pier at La Boca.

^ Completed nearly 100 years ago, the Panama Canal took more than three decades to build — at a cost of 30,000 lives.

^ When the Canal company fell in 1889 after the loss of 20,000 lives, it brought down the government of France.
  • Voyage Report - Royal Princess: Panama Canal Partial Transit 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.susanmilne.com [Source type: General]

.The charter provided for the appointment by the company and the liquidator of a special engineering commission of five members, to report upon the work done and the conclusions to be drawn therefrom, this report to be rendered when the amounts expended by the new company should have reached about one-half its capital.^ The charter provided for the appointment by the company and the liquidator of a special engineering commission of five members, to report upon the work done and the conclusions to be drawn therefrom, this report to be rendered when the amounts expended by the new company should have reached about one-half its capital.

^ One of the more important duties assigned to this official was to keep the property together and the concession alive, with a view to the formation of a new company for the completion of the canal.

^ In consequence of this offer, the commission in a supplementary report issued on the 18th of January 1902 reversed the conclusion it had stated in its main report, and advised the adoption of the Panama route, with purchase of the works, &c., of the French company.

.The report was to be made public, and a special meeting of the stockholders was then to be held to determine whether or not the canal should be completed, and to provide ways and means.^ For the contingency that the canal should not be completed, special conditions were made as to the Panama railroad shares.

^ The report was to be made public, and a special meeting of the stockholders was then to be held to determine whether or not the canal should be completed, and to provide ways and means.

^ France determined it could not complete the canal.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.mssu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The time for this report and special meeting arrived in 1898. In the meanwhile the company had called to its aid a technical committee composed of fourteen engineers, European and American, some of them among the most eminent in their profession.^ In the meanwhile the company had called to its aid a technical committee composed of fourteen engineers, European and American, some of them among the most eminent in their profession.

^ The time for this report and special meeting arrived in 1898.

^ Some lines operate Central American/Panama Canal cruises throughout the year, but September through April is the most popular season for these itineraries.
  • Panama Canal Cruise : CruiseRewards.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruiserewards.com [Source type: News]

.After a study of all the data available, and of such additional surveys and examinations as it considered should be made, this committee rendered an elaborate report dated the 16th of November 1898. This report was referred to the statutory commission of five, who reported in 1899 that the canal could be built according to that project within the limits of time and money estimated.^ All prices and dates may not be available at time of booking.

^ After a study of all the data available, and of such additional surveys and examinations as it considered should be made, this committee rendered an elaborate report dated the 16th of November 1898.

^ According to the ACP, the project is on time and within budget.
  • The Panama Canal: A plan to unlock prosperity | The Economist 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: News]

.The special meeting of stockholders was called immediately after the regular annual meeting of the 30th of December 1899. It is understood that the liquidator (who held about one-fourth the stock) refused to take part in it, and that no conclusions were reached as to the expediency of completing the canal or as to providing ways and means.^ It is understood that the liquidator (who held about one-fourth the stock) refused to take part in it, and that no conclusions were reached as to the expediency of completing the canal or as to providing ways and means.

^ The report was to be made public, and a special meeting of the stockholders was then to be held to determine whether or not the canal should be completed, and to provide ways and means.

^ The special meeting of stockholders was called immediately after the regular annual meeting of the 30th of December 1899.

.The engineering questions had been solved to the satisfaction of the company, but the financial questions had been made extremely difficult, if not insoluble, by the appearance of the United States government in the field as a probable builder of an isthmian canal.^ The engineering questions had been solved to the satisfaction of the company, but the financial questions had been made extremely difficult, if not insoluble, by the appearance of the United States government in the field as a probable builder of an isthmian canal.

^ Only the United States came in question as purchaser of the company.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second important question, is the Canal a vital interest to the United States?
  • Panama Canal | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The company continued to conduct its operations in a provisional way, without appealing to the public for capital.
.The plan adopted by the company involved two levels above the sea-level - one of them an artificial lake to be created by a dam at Bohio, to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and the other, the summit-level, to be reached by another flight of two locks from the preceding.^ The plan adopted by the company involved two levels above the sea-level - one of them an artificial lake to be created by a dam at Bohio, to be reached from the Atlantic by a flight of two locks, and the other, the summit-level, to be reached by another flight of two locks from the preceding.

^ The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You'll marvel as you watch the locks lower the ship 85 feet down to sea level, while mules hold the ship in place.

.The summit-level was `,to have its surface at high water 102 ft.^ The summit-level was `,to have its surface at high water 102 ft.

^ The lake and the river above the dam constitute the summit-level, which would have varied in height at different seasons from 104 to 110 ft.

^ This high-level span, 1647 m (5425 ft) long, was dedicated in 1962.
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea, and to be supplied with water by a feeder leading from an artificial reservoir to be constructed at .Alajuela in the upper Chagres valley; the ascent on the Pacific side to be likewise by four locks.^ Alajuela in the upper Chagres valley; the ascent on the Pacific side to be likewise by four locks.

^ In order to accomplish this, the Panama Canal is adding two locks; one Southwest of the Miraflores locks on the Pacific side and another East of the Gatun locks on the Atlantic side.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four groups submitted bids for the work completing a 6.7-kilometer-long access channel on the canal's Pacific side.
  • kleph.com - Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.kleph.com [Source type: News]

.The canal was to have a depth of 292 ft.^ The canal was to have a depth of 292 ft.

^ It recommended that the canal at Panama have a depth of 35 ft.

^ The minimum bottom width of the canal will thus be 300 ft., the average being 649 ft., while the minimum depth will be 41 ft.

and a bottom width of about 98 ft., with an increased width in certain specified parts. .Its general plan was the same as that adopted by the old company.^ Its general plan was the same as that adopted by the old company.

.The locks were to be double, or twin locks, the chambers to have a serviceable length in the clear of 73B ft., with a width of 82 ft.^ Length of lock chambers, 1,000 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Width of lock chambers, 110 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The locks were to be double, or twin locks, the chambers to have a serviceable length in the clear of 73B ft., with a width of 82 ft.

and a depth of 32 ft. 1 0 in., with lifts varying from 20 to 33 ft., according to situation and stage of water. .The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at 525,000,000 francs for the works, not including administration and financing.^ The cost was estimated by Lesseps in 1880 at 658,000,000 francs, and the time required at eight years.

^ The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at 525,000,000 francs for the works, not including administration and financing.

^ The cost of digging the Nicaragua canal was estimated at about $190,000,000.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The occupation of the Panama route by Europeans, and the prospect of a canal there under foreign control, was not a pleasing spectacle to the people of the United States.^ When the United States ceded control of the Panama Canal to Panama there were two treaties, the Neutrality Treaty and the Panama Canal Treaty.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reality the United States, and not Panama, will now be .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Until 1979, it was under the exclusive control of the United States.

.The favour with which the Nicaragua route had been considered since 1876 began to assume a partisan character, and the movement to construct a canal on that line to assume a practical shape.^ The favour with which the Nicaragua route had been considered since 1876 began to assume a partisan character, and the movement to construct a canal on that line to assume a practical shape.

^ After discussions, the Nicaragua route was chosen, and construction began.
  • "The Panama Canal : A Brief History", paper by Tyler Jones 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.june29.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Source: Panama The Nicaragua Canal panama Like the Panama Canal, ideas for the construction of trans-oceanic canal through Nicaragua had been proposed by Spanish colonial administrations.
  • Panama � The Nicaragua Canal | BrokenControllers.com 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC brokencontrollers.com [Source type: General]

.In 1884 a treaty, known as the Frelinghuysen-Zarala Treaty, was negotiated with Nicaragua, by the terms of which the United States Government was to build the canal without cost to Nicaragua, and after completion it was to be owned and managed jointly by the two governments.^ When the United States ceded control of the Panama Canal to Panama there were two treaties, the Neutrality Treaty and the Panama Canal Treaty.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States, for its own protection, must be the .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Treaty negotiated in Washington, by which the United States was to be .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.The treaty was submitted to the United States Senate, and in the vote for ratification, on the 29th of January 1885, received thirty-two votes in its favour against twenty-three.^ The treaty was submitted to the United States Senate, and in the vote for ratification, on the 29th of January 1885, received thirty-two votes in its favour against twenty-three.

^ Ratification of a new treaty is effected by agreement of two-thirds of the Senate.
  • The Canal Zone: Panama and the United States 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the Republic of Panama and the United States of America agreed to sign the Torrijos/Carter Treaty, which eliminated the Canal Zone as of October 1, 1979.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The necessary two-thirds vote not having been obtained, the treaty was not ratified, and a change of administration occurring soon afterwards, it was withdrawn from further consideration.^ The necessary two-thirds vote not having been obtained, the treaty was not ratified, and a change of administration occurring soon afterwards, it was withdrawn from further consideration.

^ The treaty was submitted to the United States Senate, and in the vote for ratification, on the 29th of January 1885, received thirty-two votes in its favour against twenty-three.

^ In 1771 the Spanish government, having changed its policy, ordered a survey for a canal at Tehuantepec, and finding that line impracticable, ordered surveys in 1779 at Nicaragua, but political disturbances in Europe soon prevented further action.

.This failure led to the formation in New York by private citizens in 1886 of the Nicaragua Canal Association,for the purpose of obtaining the necessary concessions, making surveys, laying out the route, and organizing such corporations as should be required to construct the canal.^ This failure led to the formation in New York by private citizens in 1886 of the Nicaragua Canal Association,for the purpose of obtaining the necessary concessions, making surveys, laying out the route, and organizing such corporations as should be required to construct the canal.

^ It was decided that a lock canal should be constructed.

^ It was then necessary for Congress to choose between Nicaragua or Panama as the route for the canal.
  • Panama Canal Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They obtained a concession from Nicaragua in April 1887, and one from Costa Rica in August 1888, and sent parties to survey the canal.^ They obtained a concession from Nicaragua in April 1887, and one from Costa Rica in August 1888, and sent parties to survey the canal.

^ Various surveys made between 1850 and 1875 indicated that only two routes were practical, the one across Panama and that across Nicaragua.
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time within which the canal was to be completed under the Wyse Concession having nearly expired, the liquidator sought and obtained from the Colombian government an extension of ten years.

.An act for the incorporation of an association to be known as the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua passed Congress and was approved on the 10th of February 1889, and on the 4th of May 1889 the company was organized.^ An act for the incorporation of an association to be known as the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua passed Congress and was approved on the 10th of February 1889, and on the 4th of May 1889 the company was organized.

^ While his efforts were valiant, on February 4, 1889, the shareholders of the original company assigned a liquidator and the French effort was brought to an end.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The international company failed, and in 1880 a French company was organized by Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps, the builder of the Suez Canal.
  • PANAMA CANAL, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It took over the concessions and, acting through a construction company, began work upon the canal in June 1889. Operations upon a moderate scale and mainly of a preliminary character were continued until 1893, when the financial disturbances of that period drove the construction company into bankruptcy and compelled a suspension of the work.^ In 1881 a French company began constructing the canal, but the enterprise collapsed in 1889.
  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It took over the concessions and, acting through a construction company, began work upon the canal in June 1889.

^ This is the concession under which work upon the Panama Canal has been prosecuted.

It has not since been resumed. .At that time the canal had been excavated to a depth of 17 ft.^ The canal was to have a depth of 292 ft.

^ At that time the canal had been excavated to a depth of 17 ft.

^ Panama Canal Grand Adventure - Vancouver to Ft Lauderdale Duration:  18 Days / 17 Nights Priced From: $2,148 pp Dbl.
  • Princess Cruises Panama Canal Cruise Tour Vacations 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and a width of 280 ft. for a distance of about 3000 ft. inland from .Greytown; the canal line had been cleared of timber for a distance of about 20 m.; a railroad had been constructed for a distance of about 11 m.^ Greytown ; the canal line had been cleared of timber for a distance of about 20 m.; a railroad had been constructed for a distance of about 11 m.

^ The canal then proceeds for a distance of 11.5 miles to the Gatun Locks.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the Canal's construction by the U.S., 50,000 people (of whom about 10% were Americans) were employed.
  • Sealetter Cruise Magazine Columnist Alan Walker's column on the Panama Canal Transit 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.sealetter.com [Source type: General]

inland from .Greytown; a pier had been built for the improvement of Greytown harbour and other works undertaken.^ Greytown; a pier had been built for the improvement of Greytown harbour and other works undertaken.

.In all, about $4,500,000 had been expended.^ In all about 72,000,000 cub.

^ The amount expended to the 30th of June 1899 was about 35,000,000 francs, besides about 6,500,000 francs advanced to the Panama Railroad Company for building a pier at La Boca.

^ In all, about $4,500,000 had been expended.

.Congress continued to take an interest in the enterprise, and in 1895 provided for a board of engineers to inquire into the possibility, permanence, and cost of the canal as projected by the Maritime Canal Company.^ Congress continued to take an interest in the enterprise, and in 1895 provided for a board of engineers to inquire into the possibility, permanence, and cost of the canal as projected by the Maritime Canal Company.

^ In the early 19th century the books of the German scientist Alexander von Humboldt revived interest in the project, and in 1819 the Spanish government formally authorized the construction of a canal and the creation of a company to build it.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1902, Congress authorized the purchase of the failed French company's assets, setting the stage for the construction of a canal.

.The report of this board, dated April 1895, severely criticized the plans and estimates of the company, and led to the appointment in 1897 of another board, to make additional surveys and examinations, and to prepare new plans and estimates.^ The report of this board, dated April 1895, severely criticized the plans and estimates of the company, and led to the appointment in 1897 of another board, to make additional surveys and examinations, and to prepare new plans and estimates.

^ Nicaragua Canal Board, also known as the Ludlow Commission after its chairman, Col. William Ludlow, appointed by President Grover Cleveland, April 25, 1895, to ascertain the feasibility of completing the Nicaragua Ship Canal begun by the Maritime Canal Company.
  • Records of the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ This resulted in the signing of several subscriptions for 600.000 stock certificates of 500 gold Francs each, for the planned Panama Canal Company.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second board recommended some radical changes in the plans, and especially in the estimates, but its report was not completed when the revival of the Panama scheme attracted the attention of Congress, and led to the creation in 1899 of the Isthmian Canal Commission.^ Official site of the Panama Canal Commission.
  • Panama Beyond the Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ Superseded by the Panama Canal Commission, 1979.
  • Records of the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Annual report of the Department of Sanitation of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the year ...

.In the meanwhile the property of the Maritime Canal Company has become nearly worthless through decay, and its concession has been declared forfeited by the Nicaraguan government.^ In the meanwhile the property of the Maritime Canal Company has become nearly worthless through decay, and its concession has been declared forfeited by the Nicaraguan government.

^ One of the more important duties assigned to this official was to keep the property together and the concession alive, with a view to the formation of a new company for the completion of the canal.

^ The French company started to run into financial difficulties during 1885 and even applied to the French government to issue lottery bonds, as this had been successful during the construction of the Suez canal when that project was at the point of failure through lack of money.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.eclipse.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The interest of the United States in an isthmian canal was not essentially different from that of other maritime nations down to about the middle of the 19th century, but it assumed great strength when California was acquired, and it has steadily grown as the importance of the Pacific States has developed.^ The United States showed interest in a canal as early as 1826.
  • Panama.Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.vivapanama.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Panama Canal is of great importance to the welfare and development of the state of Panama.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interest of the United States in an isthmian canal was not essentially different from that of other maritime nations down to about the middle of the 19th century, but it assumed great strength when California was acquired, and it has steadily grown as the importance of the Pacific States has developed.

.In 1848 and again in 1884, treaties were negotiated with Nicaragua authorizing the United States to build the canal, but in neither case was the treaty ratified.^ There have been four treaties by the United States relating to the Panama Canal.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treaty negotiated in Washington, by which the United States was to be .
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1848 and again in 1884, treaties were negotiated with Nicaragua authorizing the United States to build the canal, but in neither case was the treaty ratified.

.The Spanish War of 1898 gave a tremendous impetus to popular interest in the matter, and it seemed an article of the national faith that the canal must be built, and, furthermore, that it must be under American control.^ The Spanish War of 1898 gave a tremendous impetus to popular interest in the matter, and it seemed an article of the national faith that the canal must be built, and, furthermore, that it must be under American control.

^ To the American people the canal appears to be not merely a business enterprise from which a direct revenue is to be obtained, but rather a means of unifying and strengthening their national political interests, and of developing their industries, particularly in the Pacific States; in short, a means essential to their national growth.

^ The Panama Canal Commission gave notice to all three yacht clubs located on Commission land that their current leases will not be renewed and they must therefore relocate.
  • Noonsite: Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.noonsite.com [Source type: General]

.To the American people the canal appears to be not merely a business enterprise from which a direct revenue is to be obtained, but rather a means of unifying and strengthening their national political interests, and of developing their industries, particularly in the Pacific States; in short, a means essential to their national growth.^ To the American people the canal appears to be not merely a business enterprise from which a direct revenue is to be obtained, but rather a means of unifying and strengthening their national political interests, and of developing their industries, particularly in the Pacific States; in short, a means essential to their national growth.

^ Prompted by the strategic naval concerns highlighted by the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the challenges of trying to fight in both the Atlantic (Cuba) and the Pacific (Philippines), the United States seized on the need for an isthmian canal.
  • Jones | Panama, the Canal, and the USA: Briefly (Re)visited 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.unc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roughly 65% of the goods sailing through the canal go to or from U.S. shores, and American ports and rail yards that compete with the canal will fight to retain as much business as they can.
  • For Panama Canal, a new era of trade is coming - USATODAY.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.The Isthmian Canal Commission created by Congress in 1899 to examine all practicable routes, and to report which was the most practicable and most feasible for a canal under the control, management and ownership of the United States, reported that there was no route which did not present greater disadvantages than those of Panama and Nicaragua.^ We came from all over the United States.
  • "Lost Paradise" The Canal Zone in Panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official site of the Panama Canal Commission.
  • Panama Beyond the Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ Superseded by the Panama Canal Commission, 1979.
  • Records of the Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

.It recommended that the canal at Panama have a depth of 35 ft.^ Panama Canal - Sail between Ft.
  • Princess Cruises|Princess Panama Canal Cruise Deals from $95 a Day!|Princess Cruise Tours|Princess Discount Cruises and Deals|Alaska Cruises, Alaska Cruisetours, Cruises to the Caribbean, Europe, Hawaii, Mexico, Mediterranean, Europe,the Panama Canal|Prin 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisedirectonline.com [Source type: General]

^ The canal was to have a depth of 292 ft.

^ It recommended that the canal at Panama have a depth of 35 ft.

and a bottom width .150 ft., the locks to be double, the lock chambers to have a length 740 ft., width 84 ft.^ Length of lock chambers, 1,000 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Width of lock chambers, 110 feet.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The locks were to be double, or twin locks, the chambers to have a serviceable length in the clear of 73B ft., with a width of 82 ft.

and depth 3 5 ft. in the clear. .The cost of a canal with these dimensions, built essentially upon.^ The cost of a canal with these dimensions, built essentially upon.

^ The canal was built by the United States from 1904 to 1914 at a cost of $350 million.
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.boyds.org [Source type: News]

^ These new dimensions will allow post-Panamax vessels to pass through the canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .French plans, was estimated at $156,378,258. A plan, however, was recommended in which the height of the Bohio dam was increased about 20 ft., the level of Lake Bohio raised by that amount, the lake made the summit-level, and the Alajuela dam omitted.^ French plans, was estimated at $156,378,258.

^ A plan, however, was recommended in which the height of the Bohio dam was increased about 20 ft., the level of Lake Bohio raised by that amount, the lake made the summit-level, and the Alajuela dam omitted.

^ Three locks are located at each end that raise ships 54 feet to the lake level and then lower them back down to sea level.
  • Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.boyds.org [Source type: News]

The cost upon this plan was estimated at $143,971,127.
.According to the plan recommended by the Commission for Nicaragua the line began at Greytown on the Caribbean Sea, where an artificial harbour was to be constructed and follow the valley of the San Juan for 100 m.^ According to the plan recommended by the Commission for Nicaragua the line began at Greytown on the Caribbean Sea, where an artificial harbour was to be constructed and follow the valley of the San Juan for 100 m.

^ Brito on the Pacific, where also an artificial harbour was to be constructed.

^ San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua .
  • Crown Cruise Vacations - Discount Cruises and Last Minute Cruise Deals! 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC res.crowncruisevacations.com [Source type: General]

to .Lake Nicaragua; thence across the lake about 70 m.^ Lake Nicaragua; thence across the lake about 70 m.

^ Lake Nicaragua, a sheet of fresh water with an area of about 3000 sq.

^ Lake Nicaragua is connected with the Atlantic by a navigable river, the San Juan, and is separated from the Pacific by the continental divide, which is about 160 ft.

to the mouth of .Las Lajas river; then up the valley of that stream through the watershed, and down the valley of the Rio Grande, 17 m.^ Las Lajas river; then up the valley of that stream through the watershed, and down the valley of the Rio Grande, 17 m.

^ Gatun, where it intersected the valley of the Chagres river; pass up that valley for a distance of 21 m.

^ Obispo, where it left the Chagres and ascended the valley of a tributary, the Cumacho; cut through the watershed at Culebra , and thence descend by the valley of the Rio Grande to Panama Bay.

to .Brito on the Pacific, where also an artificial harbour was to be constructed.^ Brito on the Pacific, where also an artificial harbour was to be constructed.

^ According to the plan recommended by the Commission for Nicaragua the line began at Greytown on the Caribbean Sea, where an artificial harbour was to be constructed and follow the valley of the San Juan for 100 m.

.The distance from ocean to ocean is 187 m.^ The distance from ocean to ocean is 187 m.

.About midway between the lake and the Caribbean the San Juan receives its most important affluent, the San Carlos, and undergoes a radical change in character.^ About midway between the lake and the Caribbean the San Juan receives its most important affluent, the San Carlos, and undergoes a radical change in character.

^ The canal’s route would be parallel the San Juan River and enter Lake Nicaragua, after which locks and tunnels would be built in order to link the lake to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Lake Nicaragua is connected with the Atlantic by a navigable river, the San Juan, and is separated from the Pacific by the continental divide, which is about 160 ft.

.Above the junction it is a clear water stream, capable of improvement by locks and dams.^ Above the junction it is a clear water stream, capable of improvement by locks and dams.

.Below, it is choked with sand, and not available for slack-water navigation.^ Below, it is choked with sand , and not available for slack-water navigation.

.A dam across the San Juan above the mouth of the San Carlos was to maintain the water of the river above that point on a level with the lake.^ A dam across the San Juan above the mouth of the San Carlos was to maintain the water of the river above that point on a level with the lake.

^ Another large river, the Chagres, rises in central Panama and is dammed into the artificial Gatún Lake that forms an important section of the Panama Canal.
  • PANAMA, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lake, formed by Gatún Dam on the Chagres River and supplemented by waters from Alajuela Lake ( Lake Madden; formed by the Madden Dam), covers an area of 425 square km (164 square miles).
  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The line of the canal occupied essentially the bed of the river from the lake to the dam; from the dam to the Caribbean it followed the left bank of the river, keeping at a safe distance from it, and occasionally cutting through a high projecting ridge.^ The line of the canal occupied essentially the bed of the river from the lake to the dam; from the dam to the Caribbean it followed the left bank of the river, keeping at a safe distance from it, and occasionally cutting through a high projecting ridge.

^ Caribbean to high tide in the lake.

^ The lake, formed by Gatún Dam on the Chagres River and supplemented by waters from Alajuela Lake ( Lake Madden; formed by the Madden Dam), covers an area of 425 square km (164 square miles).
  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The lake and the river above the dam constitute the summit-level, which would have varied in height at different seasons from 104 to 110 ft.^ The lake and the river above the dam constitute the summit-level, which would have varied in height at different seasons from 104 to 110 ft.

^ The lake, formed by Gatún Dam on the Chagres River and supplemented by waters from Alajuela Lake ( Lake Madden; formed by the Madden Dam), covers an area of 425 square km (164 square miles).
  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another large river, the Chagres, rises in central Panama and is dammed into the artificial Gatún Lake that forms an important section of the Panama Canal.
  • PANAMA, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above mean sea-level. .It would have been reached from the Caribbean side by five locks, the first having a lift of 362 ft., and the others a uniform, lift of 182 ft.^ From the Pacific side the summit would have been reached by four locks having a uniform lift of 282 ft.

^ It would have been reached from the Caribbean side by five locks, the first having a lift of 362 ft., and the others a uniform, lift of 182 ft.

^ The beaches of the Caribbean side of Panama, world historic sites, deep-sea fishing, rainforests and mountains are all within reach in this exotic locale.

each, making a total lift of 1102 ft. from low .tide in the Caribbean to high tide in the lake.^ Caribbean to high tide in the lake.

^ Pacific to high tide in the lake.

.From the Pacific side the summit would have been reached by four locks having a uniform lift of 282 ft.^ From the Pacific side the summit would have been reached by four locks having a uniform lift of 282 ft.

^ It would have been reached from the Caribbean side by five locks, the first having a lift of 362 ft., and the others a uniform, lift of 182 ft.

^ The lift at Miraflores actually varies due to the extreme tides on the Pacific side, between 13.1 m (43 ft) at extreme high tide and 19.7 m (64.5 ft) at extreme low tide; the tides on the Atlantic side, however, are very small.
  • Panama.Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.vivapanama.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

each, or a total lift of 114 ft. from low tide in the .Pacific to high tide in the lake.^ Pacific to high tide in the lake.

^ Caribbean to high tide in the lake.

The time required to build the canal was estimated at ten years, and its cost at $200,540,000.
.The report of the commission, transmitted to Congress at the end of 1900, ended thus: The Panama Canal, after completion, would be shorter, have fewer locks and less curvature than the Nicaragua Canal.^ It was then necessary for Congress to choose between Nicaragua or Panama as the route for the canal.
  • Panama Canal Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official site of the Panama Canal Commission.
  • Panama Beyond the Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ The Panama Canal has six locks, three near either end.

.The measure of these advantages is the time required for a vessel to pass through, which is; estimated for an average ship at 12 hours for Panama and 33 hours for Nicaragua.^ The first ships passed through in 1914.
  • The Panama Canal: A plan to unlock prosperity | The Economist 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: News]

^ Average time required for transit of Canal, 8 hours.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The measure of these advantages is the time required for a vessel to pass through, which is; estimated for an average ship at 12 hours for Panama and 33 hours for Nicaragua.

.On the other hand, the distance from San Francisco to New York is 377 m., to New Orleans 579 m.^ On the other hand, the distance from San Francisco to New York is 377 m., to New Orleans 579 m.

^ A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 mi) route around Cape Horn.
  • Panama Canal Cruise, Cruise Panama Canal, Cruises to Panama Transcanal voyages specials Cruiserewards.Canal, Cruises Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruiserewards.com [Source type: General]
  • Panama Canal Cruises and Discount Panama Canal Cruise Deal Vacations || Discount Cruises - Cruisewin.com 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruisewin.com [Source type: General]

^ Our Panama Canal cruises offer tours of leading destinations including San Francisco, Fort Lauderdale, Acapulco, Los Angeles, New York, Miami and Cartagena.
  • Panama Canal Cruises | Cheap Panama Canal Cruise Offers 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.cruise.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and to Liverpool 386 m. greater via .Panama than via Nicaragua.^ Panama than via Nicaragua.

^ The report of the commission, transmitted to Congress at the end of 1900, ended thus: The Panama Canal, after completion, would be shorter, have fewer locks and less curvature than the Nicaragua Canal.

^ The two options for possible studies were routes via Panama and Nicaragua.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The time required to pass over these distances being greater than the difference in the time of transit through the canals, the Nicaragua line, after completion, would be somewhat the more advantageous of the two to the United States, notwithstanding the greater cost of maintaining the longer canal.^ At Nicaragua the distance is greater, being about 156 m.

^ The time required to pass over these distances being greater than the difference in the time of transit through the canals, the Nicaragua line, after completion, would be somewhat the more advantageous of the two to the United States, notwithstanding the greater cost of maintaining the longer canal.

^ Two more proposals were pitched forward for the construction of the Nicaragua Canal.

.The government of Colombia, in which lies the Panama Canal, has granted an exclusive concession, which still has many years to run.^ The government of Colombia, in which lies the Panama Canal, has granted an exclusive concession, which still has many years to run.

^ After many years of dreaming of going to the Panama Canal, we finally planned to do it.
  • Panama Canal Trip 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.biz2web.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So how is the Panama Canal run today?

.It is not free to grant the necessary rights to the United States, except upon condition that an agreement be reached with the New Panama Canal Company.^ Excursion companies Panama Canal darchess .

^ There have been four treaties by the United States relating to the Panama Canal.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The treaty does not establish that the United States has the right to intervene in Panama."
  • The Panama Canal Sellout 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.czimages.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Commission believes that such agreement is impracticable.^ The Commission believes that such agreement is impracticable.

.So far as can be ascertained, the company is not willing to sell its franchise, but will allow the United States to become the owner of part of its stock.^ So far as can be ascertained, the company is not willing to sell its franchise , but will allow the United States to become the owner of part of its stock.

^ This report caused the New Panama Canal Company to view the question of selling its property in a new light, and in the spring of 1901 it obtained permission from the Colombian government to dispose of it to the United States.

^ They allowed the United States of America to build the canal in a ten-mile wide strip of land called the Canal Zone.000 workers.
  • The Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

.The Commission considers such an arrangement inadmissible.^ The Commission considers such an arrangement inadmissible.

.The Governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, on the other hand, are untrammelled by concessions, and are free to grant to the United States such privileges as may be mutually agreed upon.^ The Governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, on the other hand, are untrammelled by concessions, and are free to grant to the United States such privileges as may be mutually agreed upon.

^ And, while the United States was free to take any measures in order to protect a canal, it agreed that there would be “entire equality” in the treatment of ships of all nations with respect to “conditions and charges of traffic.” In the Thompson-Urrutia Treaty of 1914, the government-owned vessels of Colombia were exempted from paying tolls.
  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America) :: International status -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result, the Republic of Panama and the United States of America agreed to sign the Torrijos/Carter Treaty, which eliminated the Canal Zone as of October 1, 1979.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In view of all the facts, and particularly in view of all the difficulties of obtaining the necessary rights, privileges and franchises.^ In view of all the facts, and particularly in view of all the difficulties of obtaining the necessary rights, privileges and franchises.

^ This meant that the United States now held all the necessary rights and authorizations for the construction and running of the Panama canal under its own sovereignty.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

on the .Panama route, and assuming that Nicaragua and Costa Rica recognize the value of the canal to themselves, and are prepared to grant concessions on terms which are reasonable and acceptable to the United States, the Commission is of the opinion that "the most practicable and feasible route for" an isthmian canal, to be "under the control, management and ownership of the United States," is that known as the Nicaragua route.^ It was then necessary for Congress to choose between Nicaragua or Panama as the route for the canal.
  • Panama Canal Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the United States ceded control of the Panama Canal to Panama there were two treaties, the Neutrality Treaty and the Panama Canal Treaty.
  • About Panama | Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.abpanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until 1979, it was under the exclusive control of the United States.

.This report caused the New Panama Canal Company to view the question of selling its property in a new light, and in the spring of 1901 it obtained permission from the Colombian government to dispose of it to the United States.^ This report caused the New Panama Canal Company to view the question of selling its property in a new light, and in the spring of 1901 it obtained permission from the Colombian government to dispose of it to the United States.

^ Only the United States came in question as purchaser of the company.
  • panama 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ak190x.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excursion companies Panama Canal darchess .

.It showed itself, however, somewhat reluctant to name a price to the Canal Commission, and it was not till January 1902 that it definitely offered to accept $40,000,000. In consequence of this offer, the commission in a supplementary report issued on the 18th of January 1902 reversed the conclusion it had stated in its main report, and advised the adoption of the Panama route, with purchase of the works, &c., of the French company.^ On January 17, a Panama Canal Company work crew rebuilt the Fence of Shame.
  • Eric Jackson, The beginning of the end of the Panama Canal Zone 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It showed itself, however, somewhat reluctant to name a price to the Canal Commission, and it was not till January 1902 that it definitely offered to accept $40,000,000.

^ In consequence of this offer, the commission in a supplementary report issued on the 18th of January 1902 reversed the conclusion it had stated in its main report, and advised the adoption of the Panama route, with purchase of the works, &c., of the French company.

.A few days previous to this report the Hepburn bill authorizing the Nicaragua canal at a cost of $180,000,000, had been carried in the House of Representatives by a large majority, but when it reached the Senate an amendment - the so-called Spooner bill - was moved and finally became law on the 28th of June 1902. This authorized the president to acquire all the property of the Panama Canal Company, including not less than 68,869 shares of the Panama Railroad Company, for a sum not exceeding $40,000,000, and to obtain from Colombia perpetual control of a strip of land 6 m.^ Melia Panama Canal & Royal Decameron - 7 days from including airfare..!!

^ Take a day cruise on the Panama Canal.
  • Panama Canal Cruises; 9-Day $995 All Inclusive Packages 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.caravan.com [Source type: General]

^ The Spooner Amendment directed the President to buy the properties of the New Panama Canal Company for forty million and to treat with Colombia for “perpetual control” of a canal zone in Panama, to be secured within a “reasonable” time.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

wide; while if he failed to come to terms with the company and with .Colombia in a reasonable time and on reasonable terms, he was by treaty to obtain from Costa Rica and Nicaragua the territory necessary for the Nicaragua canal.^ Colombia in a reasonable time and on reasonable terms, he was by treaty to obtain from Costa Rica and Nicaragua the territory necessary for the Nicaragua canal.

^ The Spooner Amendment directed the President to buy the properties of the New Panama Canal Company for forty million and to treat with Colombia for “perpetual control” of a canal zone in Panama, to be secured within a “reasonable” time.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Nicaragua, the Federal Republic of Central America — composed of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica — made the proposal in 1825 to the United States.

.Negotiations were forthwith opened with Colombia, and ultimately a treaty (the Hay-Herran treaty) was signed in anuary 1903. The Colombian Senate, however, Declaration of Panama refused ratification, and it seemed as if the Panama Independ= scheme would have to be abandoned when the ence. complexion of affairs was changed by Panama revolting from Colombia and declaring itself independent in November 190 3. Within a month the new republic, by the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, granted the United States the use, occupation and control of a strip of land 10 m.^ However, the most important support that Bunau-Varilla sought to acquire was that of United States.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty had always been a source of tension for the Panamanians.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Panama declared itself independent of Spain in 1821 and voluntarily became a part of Colombia.
  • PANAMA, 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

wide for the purposes of the canal. .A few days after the ratification of this treaty by the United States Senate in February 1904 - the concession of the French company having been purchased - a commission was appointed to undertake the organization and management of the enterprise, and in June Mr J. F. Wallace was chosen chief engineer.^ A few days after the ratification of this treaty by the United States Senate in February 1904 - the concession of the French company having been purchased - a commission was appointed to undertake the organization and management of the enterprise, and in June Mr J. F. Wallace was chosen chief engineer.

^ The engineering questions had been solved to the satisfaction of the company, but the financial questions had been made extremely difficult, if not insoluble, by the appearance of the United States government in the field as a probable builder of an isthmian canal.

^ While his efforts were valiant, on February 4, 1889, the shareholders of the original company assigned a liquidator and the French effort was brought to an end.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Work was begun without delay, but the commission's methods of administration and control soon proved unsatisfactory, and in April 1905 it was reorganized, three of its members being constituted an executive committee which was to be at Panama continuously.^ Work was begun without delay, but the commission's methods of administration and control soon proved unsatisfactory, and in April 1905 it was reorganized, three of its members being constituted an executive committee which was to be at Panama continuously.

^ In connexion with the reorganization of the commission a board of consulting engineers, five being nominated by European construe- governments, was appointed in June 1905 to consider tion the question, which so far had not been settled, Problems.

^ Any attempt to win control of Panama depended entirely upon the railroad, the only possible method of moving troops and materiel between Colon and Panama City.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly afterwards, at the end of June, Mr Wallace resigned his position as chief engineer and was succeeded by Mr John F. Stevens.^ Shortly afterwards, at the end of June, Mr Wallace resigned his position as chief engineer and was succeeded by Mr John F. Stevens.

^ A few days after the ratification of this treaty by the United States Senate in February 1904 - the concession of the French company having been purchased - a commission was appointed to undertake the organization and management of the enterprise, and in June Mr J. F. Wallace was chosen chief engineer.

^ George Washington Goethals succeeded Stevens as chief engineer in 1907 during the construction phase of the Canal.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In connexion with the reorganization of the commission a board of consulting engineers, five being nominated by European construe- governments, was appointed in June 1905 to consider tion the question, which so far had not been settled, Problems. whether the canal should be made at sea-level, without locks (at least except tidal regulating locks at or near the Pacific terminus), or should rise to some elevation above sea-level, with locks.^ The real question is whether the U.S. can control the canal without owning it.
  • The Panama Canal Sellout 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.czimages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The board reported in January 1906. The majority (eight members out of thirteen) declared in favour of a sea-level canal as the only plan "giving reasonable assurance of safe and uninterrupted navigation"; and they considered that such a canal could be constructed in twelve or thirteen years' time, that the cost would be less than $250,000,000, and that it would endure for all time.^ The board reported in January 1906.

^ Most time is spent at sea level.
  • Panama Canal Cruise and Costa Rica Vacation from Tauck 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tauck.com [Source type: General]

^ Cost of Canal, approximately $373,000,000.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The minority recommended a lock canal, rising to an elevation of 85 ft.^ The minority recommended a lock canal, rising to an elevation of 85 ft.

^ Because the Canal is not at sea level (Lake Gatun is 85 feet above sea level), the ships are elevated by a system of three sets of locks.
  • The Case of the 1997-98 El Nino 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ccb.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacific terminus), or should rise to some elevation above sea-level, with locks.

above mean sea-level, on the grounds that it would cost about $100,000,000 less than the proposed sea-level canal, that it could be built in much less time, that it would afford a better navigation, that it would be adequate for all its uses for a longer time, and that it could be enlarged if need should arise with greater facility and less cost. .The chief engineer, Mr Stevens, also favoured the lock or high-level scheme for the reasons, among others, that it would provide as safe and a quicker passage for ships, and therefore would be of greater capacity; that it would provide, beyond question, the best solution of the vital problem how safely to care for the flood waters of the Chagres and other streams, that provision was made for enlarging its capacity to almost any extent at very much less expense of time and money than could be provided for by any sea-level plan; that its cost of operation, maintenance and fixed charges would be very much less than those of any sea-level canal; and that the time and cost of its construction would be not more than one-half that of a canal of the sea-level type.^ Saving water by means of ship transit in tandem through the locks (more than one ship per lock).
  • The Case of the 1997-98 El Nino 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ccb.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most time is spent at sea level.
  • Panama Canal Cruise and Costa Rica Vacation from Tauck 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.tauck.com [Source type: General]

.These conflicting reports were then submitted to the Isthmian Canal Commission for consideration, with the result that on the 5th of February, it reported, one member only dissenting, in favour of the lock canal recommended by the minority of the board of consulting engineers.^ Isthmian Canal Commission, Annual Report 564–582.
  • PLoS ONE: Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only one more lock to go.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The minority recommended a lock canal, rising to an elevation of 85 ft.

.Finally this plan was adopted by Congress in June 1906. Later in the same year tenders were invited from contractors who were prepared to undertake the construction of the canal.^ Finally this plan was adopted by Congress in June 1906.

^ After many years of dreaming of going to the Panama Canal, we finally planned to do it.
  • Panama Canal Trip 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.biz2web.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in the same year tenders were invited from contractors who were prepared to undertake the construction of the canal.

These were opened in January 1907, but none of them was regarded as entirely satisfactory, and Seale. i:30o.000 English Miles ' =Dams * Locke +.? Panama Railway (old /ocalion) Panama Railway (new location) -o- Canal Zone boundary -  ?
.President Roosevelt decided that it would be best for the government to continue the work, which was placed under the more immediate control of the U.S.A. Corps of Engineers.^ President Roosevelt decided that it would be best for the government to continue the work, which was placed under the more immediate control of the U.S.A. Corps of Engineers.

^ Work under this plan continued until the latter part of 1887, the management being characterized by a degree of extravagance and corruption rarely if ever equalled in the history of the world.

^ Under this treaty, the United States was committed to the return of complete control of the Canal to the government of the Republic of Panama on 31 December 1999.
  • The Case of the 1997-98 El Nino 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.ccb.ucar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time the Isthmian Canal Commission was reorganized, Major G. W. Goethals, of the Corps of Engineers, becoming engineer in chief and chairman, in succession to Mr J. F. Stevens who, after succeeding Mr T. P. Shonts as chairman, himself resigned on the 1st of April.^ George Washington Goethals succeeded Stevens as chief engineer in 1907 during the construction phase of the Canal.
  • A Panama Guide 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC guidetopanama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time the Isthmian Canal Commission was reorganized, Major G. W. Goethals, of the Corps of Engineers, becoming engineer in chief and chairman, in succession to Mr J. F. Stevens who, after succeeding Mr T. P. Shonts as chairman, himself resigned on the 1st of April.

^ He then proceeded to satisfy himself that the canal project was feasible, a question about which the failure of the company had caused grave doubts, and to this end caused ark inquiry to be held by a commission of French and foreign engineers.

.The following are the leading particulars of the canal, the course of which is shown on the accompanying map.^ The following are the leading particulars of the canal, the course of which is shown on the accompanying map .

^ The railroad formerly followed the course of the Chagres from Gatun to Gamboa, and was for the most part of the west route of the Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific will be about 50 m., or, since the distance from deep water to the shore-line is about 4J m.^ Its total length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific was about 47 m.

^ The length from deep water in the Atlantic to deep water in the Pacific will be about 50 m., or, since the distance from deep water to the shore-line is about 4J m.

^ The Panama Canal serves as the continent’s fastest and only water passage – connecting the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Panama Canal Discounted Cruises | Cheap Cruises | Red Tag Cruises 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.redtag.ca [Source type: General]

in Limon Bay and about 5 m. at .Panama, approximately 402 m.^ Panama, approximately 402 m.

from shore to shore. The summit level, regulated between 82 and 87 ft. above sea-level, will extend for 312 m. from a large earth dam at .Gatun to a smaller one at Pedro Miguel, and is to be reached by a flight of 3 locks at the former point.^ Gatun to a smaller one at Pedro Miguel, and is to be reached by a flight of 3 locks at the former point.

^ We will soon be approaching the Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Gatun that had 3 steps of the lock, Pedro Miguel has only one step.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gatun dam will be 7200 ft.^ The Gatun dam will be 7200 ft.

long along the crest including the spillway, will have a maximum width at its base of 2000 ft., and will be uniformly 100 ft. wide at its top, which will rise 115 ft. above sealevel. .The lake (Lake Gatun) enclosed by these dams will be 1644 sq.^ The lake (Lake Gatun) enclosed by these dams will be 1644 sq.

^ (Library of Congress, "Gatun Lake, looking south with dam to the right, Panama Canal," 1913.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These consist of kayaking or sailing on Gatun Lake, which is intersected by the Panama Canal.

m. in area, and will constitute a reservoir for receiving the floods of the .Chagres and other rivers as well as for supplying water for lockage.^ Chagres and other rivers as well as for supplying water for lockage.

^ The month of November, which was usually the month of the strongest storms, the Chagres river basin could be filled with two to three feet of water throughout the month.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A smaller lake (Lake Miraflores), with a surface elevation of 55 ft.^ Area of Miraflores Lake at elevation 55 feet, 1.88 square miles.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here one lock lowers the ship to Miraflores Lake, a small body about a mile long, with its surface 55 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and an area of about 2 sq. m. will extend from a lock at .Pedro Miguel to Miraflores, where the valley of the Rio Grande is to be closed by an earth dam on the west and a concrete dam with spillway on the east, and the canal is to descend to sea-level by a flight of two locks.^ The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will soon be approaching the Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was little time between the Pedro Miguel Lock and the Miraflores Lock.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the locks are to be in duplicate, each being 110 ft.^ All the locks are to be in duplicate, each being 110 ft.

wide with a usable length of woo ft. divided by a middle gate. .The channel leading from deep water in the Caribbean sea to Gatun will be about 7 m.^ The channel leading from deep water in the Caribbean sea to Gatun will be about 7 m.

^ The beaches of the Caribbean side of Panama, world historic sites, deep-sea fishing, rainforests and mountains are all within reach in this exotic locale.

^ The water level at this first stop was about 15 feet and seas were calm.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

long and 500 ft. broad, increasing to loon ft. from a point 4000 ft. north of the locks in order to form a waiting basin for ships. From Gatun locks, o 6 m. in length, the channel is to be loon ft. or more in width for a distance of nearly 16 m. to San Pablo. Thence it narrows first to 800 ft., and then for a short distance to 700 ft., for 32 m. to mile 27 near Juan Grande, and to 500 ft. for 44 m. from Juan Grande to Obispo (mile 314). .From this point through the Culebra cut to Pedro Miguel lock, it will be only 300 ft.^ With only one chamber at Pedro Miguel we were quickly through.

^ I was amazed at how easy it was to motor the three of us together while burning only 5.5 gallons per hour on our way to the Pedro Miguel lock.

^ U.S.S. "Arkansas" in Pedro Miguel Locks, showing sailors getting shore leave, Panama Canal.  Published by Maduro - 85B. Unused postcard.
  • PANAMA - Canal Zone - Old Vintage Antique Postcard Postcards 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.postcardman.net [Source type: General]

wide, but will widen again to 500 ft. through Miraflores lake, '1 m. long, to .Miraflores locks, the total length of which including approaches will be nearly a mile, and will thence maintain the same width for the remaining 8 m.^ The project will also install 18 total water reutilization basins, including three at each of the new locks.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here one lock lowers the ship to Miraflores Lake, a small body about a mile long, with its surface 55 feet above the sea.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approaching Miraflores Lock 2:30pm Departng Miraflores Lock 4pm .
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

to deep water on the Pacific. .The minimum bottom width of the canal will thus be 300 ft., the average being 649 ft., while the minimum depth will be 41 ft.^ Width in Cut (bottom), 300 feet, 600 feet at north approach to Pedro Miguel Lock.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1909 it was estimated that the construction of the canal would be completed by the 1st of January 1915, and that the total cost to the United States would not exceed $375,000,000 including $50,000,000 paid to the French Canal Company and the Republic of Panama, $7,382,000 for civil administration, and $20,053,000 for sanitation.^ Cost of Canal, approximately $373,000,000.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excursion companies Panama Canal darchess .
  • Panama Canal - Cruise Critic Message Boards 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC boards.cruisecritic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Strange Affair of THE TAKING OF THE Panama Canal Zone 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The last was one of the most necessary expenditures of all, since without it disease would have greatly retarded the work or perhaps prevented it altogether.^ We all gathered at dinner and most of us were pretty tired from traveling, work and everything else.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We all agreed that had it not been the first night, most of us would have skipped dinner.
  • Deb's Digest: Panama Canal Cruise WB 2008 Archives 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC land.allears.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With these new improvements added, the competitiveness of the canal will increase greatly and solidify it as one of the most integral routes to sea trade.
  • Inventory of Conflict and Environment: Panama Canal 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See W. F. Johnson, Four Centuries of the Panama Canal (New York, 1906); Report of the Board of Consulting Engineers for the Panama Canal (Washington, 1906); Annual Reports of the Isthmian Canal Commission (Washington); Vaughan Cornish, The Panama Canal and its Makers (London, 1909).^ Inquiries respecting transfer should be addressed to the “Chief of Office, The Panama Canal, Washington, D.C.” Promotions are made annually, to the highest grade upon satisfactory service.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An upbeat annual report by the Isthmian Canal Commission was released yesterday by the War Department, and included an explanation for the increase in the project’s estimated cost, to about $375 million from $144 million.

^ For these excepted positions persons are selected in the United States through written application to the Washington Office of the Panama Canal.
  • Manual of Information Concerning Employments for the Panama Canal Service: Rev. 1 December 1920 14 January 2010 6:43 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Singular
Panama Canal
Plural
-
  1. A major man-made canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

Related terms

Translations


Simple English

File:Panama Canal Rough
A map of the Panama Canal.

The Panama Canal is a waterway in the country of Panama (Central America), that connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The Panama Canal uses three locks for lifting and lowering the ships on different water levels. Each year, about 14,000 ships come through the canal. By 2002, around 800,000 ships came through. The French tried building it in 1880, but failed, it was finally finished in 1914 by the United States who spent ten years on building it. The canal is 77 km (48 miles) long, cutting across the Isthmus of Panama, and saves ships 15,000 km. If a ship is too big to go through the Panama Canal it has to go around South America.

It is an interesting fact that, because of the way Panama twists, the entrance to the Pacific Ocean is east of the entrance to the Atlantic Ocean. This is the opposite of what one would expect.

Other websites

rue:Панамскый канал


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Panama Canal, which are similar to those in the above article.








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