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Pancreatic cancer
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C25.
ICD-9 157
OMIM 260350
DiseasesDB 9510
MedlinePlus 000236
eMedicine med/1712
MeSH D010190
.Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.^ Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When malignant tumor cells grow in the pancreas it is known as Pancreatic Cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: The Facts - Rhode Island Cancer Council, Inc. 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.ricancercouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic Cancer Slideshow Pancreatic cancer: Malignancy of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic cancer definition - Cancer Information (Cancers, Symptoms, Treatment) on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

.Each year in the United States, about 42,470 individuals are diagnosed with this condition and 35,240 die from the disease.^ Each year in the United States, about 42470 individuals are diagnosed with this condition and ...
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This year, 42,470 Americans will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and 35,240 will die from the disease 1 .

^ About 35,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year in the United States.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Genetic Information - AccessDNA 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.accessdna.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .The prognosis is relatively poor but has improved; the three-year survival rate is now about thirty percent, but less than 5 percent of those diagnosed are still alive five years after diagnosis.^ About 10 to 30 percent of people who have had surgery are alive five years after diagnosis.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Prognosis Is Grim : NPR 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Fewer than five percent of patients will survive more than five years after diagnosis.
  • Pancreatic tumors are marked for immunotherapy | Science Blog 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The five-year survival rate is 5 percent.
  • Pancreatic Cancer A Research Orphan 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www2.tbo.com [Source type: News]

.Complete remission is still rather rare.^ Depending on the extent of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, the prognosis is generally regarded as poor, with <5% of those diagnosed still alive five years after diagnosis, and complete remission extremely rare.
  • Researchers Identify Biomarkers of Early-stage Pancreatic Cancer in Mice and Man | Pancreatic Cancer | Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.musclemagfitness.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.About 95% of exocrine pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas (M8140/3).^ Learn about Pancreatic Cancer .
  • Learn about Pancreatic Cancer Video – 5min.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.5min.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 95 percent of pancreatic cancers begin in exocrine cells.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment at Moores UCSD Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer What are exocrine pancreatic tumors?

.The remaining 5% include adenosquamous carcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, hepatoid carcinomas, colloid carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells.^ The remaining 5 percent include other tumors of the exocrine pancreas (e.g., serous cystadenomas), acinar cell cancers, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (such as insulinomas, , ).
  • Pancreatic cancer, Cancer - News - Evri 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Less common types of ductal cancers of the exocrine pancreas include adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and giant cell carcinomas.
  • ACS :: What Is Cancer of the Pancreas? 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research the causes of these diseases that are similar to, or related to, Pancreatic cancer: Adenocarcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Giant cell carcinoma Islet cellcarcinoma Painless jaundice more related diseases...» Medical Textbooks Online about Pancreatic cancer .
  • Pancreatic cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Exocrine pancreatic cancers are far more common than endocrine pancreatic cancers (also known as islet cell carcinomas), which make up about 1% of total cases.^ Follow-up: Pancreatic Cancer .
  • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer is more common in people with this disease.

^ About 95 percent of pancreatic cancers begin in exocrine cells.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment at Moores UCSD Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

[4][5]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Presentation

.Pancreatic cancer is sometimes called a "silent killer" because early pancreatic cancer often does not cause symptoms,[6] and the later symptoms are usually non-specific and varied.^ Pancreatic cancer does not cause symptoms in its early stages.
  • Mount Sinai - Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, pancreatic cancer usually causes no symptoms until the tumor is large.
  • Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms of pancreatic cancer can be caused by a variety of conditions, and ...
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Therefore, pancreatic cancer is often not diagnosed until it is advanced.^ Diagnosing pancreatic cancer can be a challenge.

^ How pancreatic cancer is diagnosed .
  • Diagnosis - Pancreatic cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How are pancreatic tumors/cancers diagnosed?
  • Cancer Center (Pancreatic Cancer) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6] Common symptoms include:
.
  • Pain in the upper abdomen that typically radiates to the back[6] (seen in carcinoma of the body or tail of the pancreas)
  • Loss of appetite and/or nausea and vomiting[6]
  • Significant weight loss
  • Painless jaundice (yellow skin/eyes, dark urine)[6] when a cancer of the head of the pancreas (about 60% of cases) obstructs the common bile duct as it runs through the pancreas.^ In the case of pancreatic cancer, jaundice may occur if a tumor on the head of the pancreas obstructs the bile duct, causing this buildup of bilirubin.
    • Women&Cancer Magazine - Pancreatic Cancer Action Network 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.womenandcancermag.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Yellow skin (jaundice) and eyes, and dark urine from Weakness Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Unexplained weight loss.
    • Pancreatic Cancer Prognosis 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Back to top Body weight and exercise .
    • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This may also cause pale-colored stool and steatorrhea.
  • Trousseau sign, in which blood clots form spontaneously in the portal blood vessels, the deep veins of the extremities, or the superficial veins anywhere on the body, is sometimes associated with pancreatic cancer.
  • Diabetes mellitus, or elevated blood sugar levels.^ It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer.
    • Pancreatic Cancer - Pancreatic Cancer Description - Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms - Pancreatic Cancer Prevention - Pancreatic Cancer Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Diabetes may be diagnosed before or after the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    ^ Insulin also controls the levels of sugar in the blood.
    • Pancreatic Cancer Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis Information on eMedicineHealth.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.emedicinehealth.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Many patients with pancreatic cancer develop diabetes months to even years before they are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, suggesting that new onset diabetes in an elderly individual may be an early warning sign of pancreatic cancer.^ Cancer new pancreatic treatment .

    ^ Diagnosing pancreatic cancer can be a challenge.

    ^ How pancreatic cancer is diagnosed .
    • Diagnosis - Pancreatic cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [7]
  • .
  • Clinical depression has been reported in association with pancreatic cancer, sometimes presenting before the cancer is diagnosed.^ Diagnosing pancreatic cancer can be a challenge.

    ^ How pancreatic cancer is diagnosed .
    • Diagnosis - Pancreatic cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diabetes may be diagnosed before or after the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    However, the mechanism for this association is not known.[8]

Causes

Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include:[6][9]
.
  • Age (particularly over 60)[6]
  • Male sex
  • African-American ethnicity[6]
  • Smoking.^ Risk factors for pancreatic cancer are age, being male, African descent or ethnicity, smoking, diets that are high in meat, obesity, diabetes, daily exposure to certain chemicals, dyes and pesticides, a family history, Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic pancreatitis.

    ^ Incidence – 9-10/100,000 Age – peak incidence in 60s Sex – M> F (minimal) Ethnicity – 30-40% higher incidence in African Americans Risk Factors .
    • Pancreatic Cancer - ARUP Consult, Your Online Lab Test Resource 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.arupconsult.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Risk factors include male gender, African American race, family history and diabetes.

    .Cigarette smoking has a risk ratio of 1.74 with regard to pancreatic cancer; a decade of non-smoking after heavy smoking is associated with a risk ratio of 1.2.[10]
  • Diets low in vegetables and fruits[11]
  • Diets high in red meat[12]
  • Diets high in sugar-sweetened drinks (soft drinks) risk ratio 1.87[13]
  • Obesity[14]
  • Diabetes mellitus is both risk factor for pancreatic cancer, and, as noted earlier, new onset diabetes can be an early sign of the disease.
  • Chronic pancreatitis has been linked, but is not known to be causal.^ Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer is more common in people with this disease.

    ^ Non vegetarians have a high risk of getting Pancreatic Cancer, if the intakes of meat & fat are high.
    • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There is controversy as to whether type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
    • Pancreatic carcinoma - Lifespan 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.lifespan.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Pancreatic carcinoma 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with familial pancreatitis is particularly high.
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Family history, 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients have a family history of pancreatic cancer.^ Causes and Risk factors for Pancreatic cancer .
    • Pancreatic Cancer - Complete Guide 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC medsavailable.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Known risk factors for Pancreatic Cancer .
    • Craig's Cause Pancreatic Cancer Society — Pancreatic_Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.craigscause.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Are there any risk factors for pancreatic cancer?
    • Patrick Swayze Has Pancreatic Cancer - MD article 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.valdezlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The genes responsible for most of this clustering in families have yet to be identified.^ Understanding genetic anticipation in familial pancreatic cancer could provide insight into the genes responsible for this disease, improve linkage analysis and prediction of disease occurrence.

    ^ The exact genes responsible have not been fully identified, but changes in DNA that increase a person's risk for other types of cancer may also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
    • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]
    • About Pancreatic Cancer - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Researchers have identified two gene mutations in families with hereditary pancreatitis.

    .Pancreatic cancer has been associated with the following syndromes; autosomal recessive ataxia-telangiectasia and autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene and PALB2 gene, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome due to mutations in the STK11 tumor suppressor gene, hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome), familial adenomatous polyposis, and the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome (FAMMM-PC) due to mutations in the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene.^ Follow-up: Pancreatic Cancer .
    • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These include inherited mutations in the BRCA2, FAMMM, PalB2 or Peutz-Jeghers genes.
    • What Causes Pancreatic Cancer? 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC pathology.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Familial pancreatic cancer: a review.

    [2][15]
  • Gingivitis or periodontal disease[16]
.Australia and Canada being members of International Cancer Genome Consortium are leading efforts to map pancreatic cancer's complete genome.^ Pancreatic cancer is the number 4 leading cancer killer.
  • Pancreatic cancer online resources - Make a difference! 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC deckerfund.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members related to pancreatic cancer .
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Incidents have dropped in the last 15-25 years, but pancreatic cancer remains the fourth leading cause of cancer death .
  • Pancreatic Cancer - OrganizedWisdom Health 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: Academic]

Alcohol

.It is controversial whether alcohol consumption is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.^ There is controversy as to whether type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic carcinoma 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include the following: .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Prognosis for Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Information -- Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis Missouri 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.siteman.wustl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.jamesline.com/cancertypes/gi/about/pancreatic/ 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.jamesline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - AOL Health 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] | NYU Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC ci.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC healthpromotionresearch.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The following are possible risk factors for pancreatic cancer: Smoking.

.Drinking alcohol excessively is a major cause of chronic pancreatitis, which in turn predisposes to pancreatic cancer, but "chronic pancreatitis that is due to alcohol doesn't increase risk as much as other types of chronic pancreatitis".[17] Overall, the association is consistently weak and the majority of studies have found no association.^ But chronic pancreatitis that is due to alcohol doesn't increase risk as much as other types of chronic pancreatitis.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having a stomach ulcer may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not clear what causes pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Pancreatic Cancer Description - Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms - Pancreatic Cancer Prevention - Pancreatic Cancer Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: Academic]

[18][19][20][21]
.Some studies suggest a relationship,[22] with risk increasing with increasing amount of alcohol intake.^ Dietary Fat Linked to Pancreatic Cancer High intake of dietary fats from red meat and dairy products was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, according to a new study published online June 26 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

^ Some of the other risk factors scientists are currently studying include diabetes, chronic and hereditary pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), obesity, physical activity, and diet.
  • Women&Cancer Magazine - Pancreatic Cancer Action Network 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.womenandcancermag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diet: A diet high in meats and fat increases the risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas eating more fruits and vegetables appears to offer some protection.

[23][24] .Risk is greatest in heavy drinkers[25][26][27] mostly on the order of four or more drinks per day.^ Writing in the journal Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, the researchers said taking more than 400 IU a day did not reduce the risk further.
  • Pancreatic Cancer diet, foods, supplements and natural treatment by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Eating more raw vegetables every day, especially yellow and dark green ones and cauliflower, lowers the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer diet, foods, supplements and natural treatment by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A trend in risk was observed with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day among current smokers at baseline.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

[28] But there appears to be no increased risk for people consuming up to 30g of alcohol a day,[21][29] so most of the U.S. consumes alcohol at a level that "is probably not a risk factor for pancreatic cancer".[27]
.Several studies caution that their findings could be due to confounding factors.^ But another study finding suggests insulin treatment could boost the risk .
  • pancreatic cancer - News - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Findings confirm that cigarette smoking is an important predictor of pancreatic cancer mortality, and identify several other factors that may contribute to increased risk.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, “residual confounding” by smoking and other known risk factors may have accounted for the findings.
  • Diseased gums raise risk of pancreatic cancer - Cancer- msnbc.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

[26][30] .Even if a link exists, it "could be due to the contents of some alcoholic beverages"[31] other than the alcohol itself.^ But chronic pancreatitis that is due to alcohol doesn't increase risk as much as other types of chronic pancreatitis.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately, the prognosis for this form of cancer is better than some other forms of pancreatic cancer.

^ Even if your attack of pancreatitis is not due to alcohol, it is wise to avoid alcohol during the 6-12 months immediately after.
  • Pancreatic Surgery 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.allps.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One Dutch study even found that drinkers of white wine had lower risk.^ Studies have found the following risk factors: .
  • Columbia Health Care Consortium -Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.columbiahealthnet.org [Source type: Academic]
  • healthyNJ--Information for Healthy Living--Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.healthynj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (HealthDay News) -- People with a family member who had pancreatic cancer before age 50 face a greatly increased risk for the disease, a new study has found.
  • With Pancreatic Cancer, Age Factors Into Familial Risk 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.dentalplans.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumption of Vitamin D tablets was found to cut the risk of pancreatic cancer nearly in half, according to a study led by researchers at Northwestern and Harvard universities.
  • pancreatic cancer news and articles 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: Academic]

[32]
A pooled analysis concluded, "Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day".[33]

Diagnosis

.Most patients with pancreatic cancer experience pain, weight loss, or jaundice.^ Pancreatic cancer is one of the most serious of cancers.
  • Pancreatic Cancer,Pancreatic Cancer Information,Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms,Pancreatic Cancer Prevent,Pancreatic Cancer Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.peoples-health.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most patients with pancreatic cancer will have an elevated CA 19-9 at diagnosis.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Pain, weight loss, jaundice, and vomiting are some typical symptoms.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the Digestive System: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Pain is present in 80 to 85 percent of patients with locally advanced or advanced metastic disease.^ Unfortunately, though the majority of patients have advanced disease when they are diagnosed, there is no simple, cost effective, low-risk screening available.

^ Jaundice, which causes’ yellowing of the skin is present in approximately 50% of patients at the time of diagnosis and may be associated with less-advanced disease.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned to receive either concurrent chemoradiation therapy followed by gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

.The pain is usually felt in the upper abdomen as a dull ache that radiates straight through to the back.^ Pain is most commonly located in the epigastrium or left upper quadrant of the abdomen; it has a dull, aching nature and can radiate to the back.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a knol by flexity 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most patients have severe upper abdominal pain, which usually radiates to the back.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the GI Tract: Merck Manual Professional 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pain may be a dull persistent pain in the mid-abdomen or often in the back.
  • gihealth.com - built for patient satisfaction 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.gihealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.It may be intermittent and made worse by eating.^ Other problems may include nausea, vomiting, and pain that tends to be worse after eating.

^ The pain may become worse after the person eats or lies down.
  • Pancreatic Cancer (Cancer of the Pancreas) Symptoms, Signs, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Diagnose Pancreatic Cancer | Oncology and Neuroscience Blog from Elekta 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC blog.elekta.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

.Weight loss can be profound; it can be associated with anorexia, early satiety, diarrhea, or steatorrhea.^ Weight loss may be caused or exacerbated by anorexia, diarrhea, or early satiety.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And those symptoms — diarrhea, nausea, abdominal bloating or swelling, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, weight loss and jaundice or yellowing of the eyes and skin — can point in many directions.
  • Greater awareness of pancreatic cancer may increase research dollars - St. Petersburg Times 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.tampabay.com [Source type: News]

^ Abdominal pain and discomfort Vomiting and nausea Blood in stool or vomit Weakness and fatigue Loss of appetite and weight loss Earlier satiety .
  • Pancreatic and Stomach Cancer Treatment – La Jolla, North County, and San Diego 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.lajollasurgical.com [Source type: Academic]

.Jaundice is often accompanied by pruritus and dark urine.^ Pruritus may accompany and often precedes clinical obstructive jaundice.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This blockage causes bile to build up in the body, which leads to a yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) and can turn the urine dark.
  • ACS :: What Is Cancer of the Pancreas? 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The jaundice is progressive and rarely regresses, is painless in up to one-third of cases, and is likely to be accompanied by pruritus.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a knol by flexity 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Painful jaundice is present in approximately one-half of patients with locally unresectable disease, while painless jaundice is present in approximately one-half of patients with a potentially resectable and curable lesion.^ Palliative measures such as surgical bypass procedures or endoscopic placement of stents may be undertaken in patients with unresectable or metastatic lesions.

^ "Approximately 5-10 percent of individuals with pancreatic cancer report having one or more first- or second-degree relatives with the disease.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Action Network-AACR Pilot Grant Recipients 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aacr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is difficult to diagnose in its early stages, and most patients have incurable disease by the time they present with symptoms.
  • Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The initial presentation varies according to location of the cancer.^ These symptoms are initially present in 35-45% of patients with pancreatic cancer.

.Malignancies in the pancreatic body or tail usually present with pain and weight loss, while those in the head of the gland typically present with steatorrhea, weight loss, and jaundice.^ Their principal complaints are pain, jaundice, and weight loss, usually developing insidiously.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a knol by flexity 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pain, weight loss, jaundice, and vomiting are some typical symptoms.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the Digestive System: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery for tumors in the pancreatic tail and body.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

.The recent onset of atypical diabetes mellitus, a history of recent but unexplained thrombophlebitis (Trousseau sign), or a previous attack of pancreatitis are sometimes noted.^ Recent onset of diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Hormonal imbalance .
  • Pancreatic Cancer: The Facts - Rhode Island Cancer Council, Inc. 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.ricancercouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation of the pancreas, usually from excessive alcohol intake or gallstones Diabetes mellitus and Adult-onset diabetes can be both a symptom of pancreatic cancer and a risk factor for developing the disease.

^ Those at greater risk include men, African-Americans, people older than 50, diabetics and those with a family history of pancreatic cancer.
  • USATODAY.com - Apple CEO Steve Jobs brings pancreatic cancer to the fore 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.Courvoisier sign defines the presence of jaundice and a painlessly distended gallbladder as strongly indicative of pancreatic cancer, and may be used to distinguish pancreatic cancer from gallstones.^ Biological therapy may be used to treat pancreatic cancer .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiation therapy may be used to treat pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer?
  • WikiAnswers - What causes pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Academic]

Tiredness, irritability and difficulty eating due to pain also exist. .Pancreatic cancer is usually discovered during the course of the evaluation of aforementioned symptoms.^ Pancreas Foundation What are the symptoms of pancreatic cancer?
  • Pancreatic cancer online resources - Make a difference! 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC deckerfund.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn about pancreatic cancer symptoms » .
  • Pancreatic Cancer (Cancer of the Pancreas) Symptoms, Signs, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic cancer is usually fatal.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the Digestive System: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Liver function tests can show a combination of results indicative of bile duct obstruction (raised conjugated bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase levels).^ Elevation of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin indicate bile duct obstruction or liver metastases.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the GI Tract: Merck Manual Professional 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a result of this aggressive disease affecting the bile duct and liver.
  • Pancreatic and Stomach Cancer Treatment – La Jolla, North County, and San Diego 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.lajollasurgical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as the cancer progresses, it causes increasingly more noticeable symptoms, such as yellow jaundice (often with little or no associated pain), which stems from the obstruction of the main duct that drains the liver's bile.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Treatment Areas - Reno CyberKnife 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC renocyberknife.com [Source type: Academic]

.CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer.^ The cancer marker CA 19-9 is sometimes elevated in early cases of pancreatic cancer.

^ Most patients with pancreatic cancer will have an elevated CA 19-9 at diagnosis.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ How are pancreatic tumors/cancers diagnosed?
  • Cancer Center (Pancreatic Cancer) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, it lacks sensitivity and specificity.^ However, this test is not sensitive or specific enough to be used for population screening.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the GI Tract: Merck Manual Professional 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease for which the available biomarkers, such as CA19-9, lack the desired sensitivity and specificity for early detection [1] .
  • PLoS Medicine: A Compendium of Potential Biomarkers of Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.When a cutoff above 37 U/mL is used, this marker has a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 87% in discerning benign from malignant disease.^ His research team used a blood test called CA19-9 -- a test to detect a tumor marker most often used to monitor disease progress and predict survival rates.
  • Beer Drinking May Speed Pancreatic Cancer Onset - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.usnews.com [Source type: News]

^ In this document, the term pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor is used to mean both benign and malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors.
  • ACS :: What Is Cancer of the Pancreas? 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this test is not sensitive or specific enough to be used for population screening.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the GI Tract: Merck Manual Professional 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.CA 19-9 might be normal early in the course, and could be elevated due to benign causes of biliary obstruction.^ Since my surgery my CT scans have shown "no evidence of disease" and my CA 19-9 marker tests have all been normal.
  • pancreatic cancer | Cancer Survivors Network 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC csn.cancer.org [Source type: General]

^ The cancer marker CA 19-9 is sometimes elevated in early cases of pancreatic cancer.

^ Decompression of the biliary duct is indicated for relief of symptoms due to obstruction.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - a knol by flexity 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.Imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT scan) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can be used to identify the location and form of the cancer.^ Endoscopic ultrasound will detect small pancreatic cancers not detected by CT scans.

^ Pancreatic cancer, CT scan .
  • Pancreatic Cancer | Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www2.wfubmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ You will probably have an ultrasound or CT scan.
  • Pancreatic cancer - information, symptoms and treatments 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, percutaneous needle biopsy of the cancerous pancreatic tissue is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis.^ Pancreatic cancer continues to be an illusive diagnosis.
  • Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer - Gundersen Lutheran 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.gundluth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ FNA biopsy is one of the procedure that can provide definitive diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer, The Cancer Information Network 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerlinksusa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Definitions of Pancreatic cancer: .
  • Pancreatic cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Endoscopic ultrasound is often used to visually guide the needle biopsy procedure.^ Biopsy can also be performed by endoscopic ultrasound.
  • Diagnosis - Pancreatic cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors use x-rays or ultrasound to guide the placement of the needle.
  • Diagnose Pancreatic Cancer | Oncology and Neuroscience Blog from Elekta 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC blog.elekta.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An ultrasound or CT scan is often used to guide the needle's placement.
  • Craig's Cause Pancreatic Cancer Society — Pancreatic_Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.craigscause.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pancreas / pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: General]

[36]
.In the September 2009 issue of the journal Cancer Prevention Research, scientists from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center identified microRNAs associated with pancreatic cancer from blood samples of pancreatic cancer patients, leading to a new and minimally invasive approach to early detection.^ Pancreatic cancer is the number 4 leading cancer killer.
  • Pancreatic cancer online resources - Make a difference! 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC deckerfund.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alert me to new issues of the journal .
  • Cannabinoids Induce Apoptosis of Pancreatic Tumor Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Genes -- Carracedo et al. 66 (13): 6748 -- Cancer Research 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DIET AND PANCREATIC CANCER: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY -- NORELL et al. 124 (6): 894 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What tests detect pancreatic cancer?
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Expression of higher levels of miR-155 circulating in blood was identified as a potential early stage biomarker, and expression of miR196a was shown to increase during disease progression.^ Because symptoms tend not to appear until the disease has progressed, the cancer is rarely detected in its early stages, which is a major reason why it s a leading cause of cancer death.
  • http://www.ewoss.info/auctions.aspx?k=pancreatic%20cancer&mkt=us&orig=900903 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.ewoss.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Ultimately, we are seeking biomarkers that are consistently present at higher (or lower) levels in the blood of individuals harboring early stage pancreatic cancer relative to disease-free individuals.

^ We are using proteomics approaches to characterize the proteins found in very early stage pancreatic tumors as a means to discover candidate biomarkers for early stage pancreatic cancer.

.Using a panel of 4 miRNA biomarkers, miR-21, miR-210, miR-155, and miR-196a, the study achieved 64% sensitivity and 89% specificity in a sample of 28 pancreatic cancer patients and 19 healthy controls.^ The following stages are used for pancreatic cancer: .
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Medpedia 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • FUDA CANCER HOSPITAL GUANGZHOU 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.orienttumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Information -- Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis Missouri 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.siteman.wustl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.jamesline.com/cancertypes/gi/about/pancreatic/ 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.jamesline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - AOL Health 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] | NYU Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC ci.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC healthpromotionresearch.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient Surveys for Pancreatic cancer .
  • Pancreatic cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of this study do not support use of regional chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]

Prevention

.According to the American Cancer Society, there are no established guidelines for preventing pancreatic cancer, although cigarette smoking has been reported as responsible for 20–30% of pancreatic cancers.^ Up to 1 in 5 (20%) of pancreatic cancers may be linked to smoking.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. There is no single "miracle food" for pancreatic cancer.
  • Savvy Natural Healer: Alternative Pancreatic Cancer Treatments (With Updated FAQs) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.savvynaturalhealer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there any risk factors for pancreatic cancer?
  • Patrick Swayze Has Pancreatic Cancer - CBS News 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.The ACS recommends keeping a healthy weight, and increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while decreasing red meat intake, although there is no consistent evidence that this will prevent or reduce pancreatic cancer specifically.^ Recent studies have indicated that reducing intake of well-cooked meat and fish and increasing the intake of fruit and vegetables might be important for preventing pancreatic cancer.

^ Are there healthy foods to eat for pancreatic cancer?
  • Savvy Natural Healer: Alternative Pancreatic Cancer Treatments (With Updated FAQs) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.savvynaturalhealer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Carcinoma - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Pancreatic Carcinoma - NY Times Health Information 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pancreatic Cancer | Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www2.wfubmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39][40] .In 2006 a large prospective cohort study of over 80,000 subjects failed to prove a definite association.^ The study cohort included 5,088 men employed in eight large Norwegian hydroelectric power companies.
  • PCBs May Cause Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.foxriverwatch.com [Source type: Academic]

^ METHODS: We separately examined the relationship between ABO blood type and the risk of incident pancreatic cancer in two large, independent, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study and Health...
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .The evidence in support of this lies mostly in small case-control studies.^ The case-control study , published in the Journal of the American Medical Association , included 841 adults with pancreatic cancer and 754 cancer-free individuals.
  • Natural Standard Blog: Fat and Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of March 2006, Mayo researchers were still recruiting the cases and the controls for this study.

^ Diet and pancreatic cancer a case-control study.
  • DIET AND PANCREATIC CANCER: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY -- NORELL et al. 124 (6): 894 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]
In September 2006, a long-term study concluded that taking Vitamin D can substantially cut the risk of pancreatic cancer (as well as other cancers) by up to 50%, but this study needs to evaluate fully the risks, costs and potential benefits of taking Vitamin D.[42][43][44]
.Several studies, including one published on 1 June 2007, indicate that B vitamins such as B12, B6, and folate, can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer when consumed in food, but not when ingested in vitamin tablet form.^ The study has been completed and was published in Nutrition and Cancer , June, 1999;33(2).
  • Pancreatic Cancer, Proteolytic Enzyme Therapy and Detoxification 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.dr-gonzalez.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A diet high in folate has been shown to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, but folate supplements have not been shown to reduce the risk.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Reducing fat may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer."

[45][46]

Treatment

Surgery

.Treatment of pancreatic cancer depends on the stage of the cancer.^ Pancreatic cancer prognosis differs from patient to patient depending on the stage & condition of the patient.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The following is a general overview of treatment for Stage IV pancreatic cancer.
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The following are pancreatic cancer stage descriptions: .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

[47] .The Whipple procedure is the most common surgical treatment for cancers involving the head of the pancreas.^ Adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer of the pancreas, accounting for 95% of cases.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery involves removal of the head of the pancreas (Whipple procedure), or the total removal of the pancreas (total pancreatectomy).
  • gihealth.com - built for patient satisfaction 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.gihealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A surgical procedure used to remove the head of the pancreas.
  • Cancer Center (Pancreatic Cancer) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This procedure involves removing the pancreatic head and the curve of the duodenum together (pancreato-duodenectomy), making a bypass for food from stomach to jejunum (gasto-jejunostomy) and attaching a loop of jejunum to the cystic duct to drain bile (cholecysto-jejunostomy).^ Cancer in the head of the pancreas can block the bile duct and the outlet from the stomach.
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The double bypass involves a bypass to the bile duct and a bypass to the stomach.
  • Craig's Cause Pancreatic Cancer Society — Pancreatic_Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.craigscause.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bile duct is rerouted into the jejunum.
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can only be performed if the patient is likely to survive major surgery and if the cancer is localized without invading local structures or metastasizing.^ Surgery can be performed with curative intent for some patients with cancer localized to the pancreas.
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery for cancer of the pancreas is a major operation.
  • Diagnose Pancreatic Cancer | Oncology and Neuroscience Blog from Elekta 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC blog.elekta.com [Source type: Academic]
  • treatments for pancreatic cancer, pancreatic cancer treatment, pancreatic cancer information, about pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.apjohncancerinstitute.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only 20% of these cancers have spread by the time surgery is performed.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the Digestive System: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

It can therefore only be performed in the minority of cases.
.Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy can also be used as a method to remove a cancer running through centre of pancreas; this is invasive surgery, resulting in loss of body and tail.^ Distal Pancreatectomy removes only the tail of the pancreas, or the tail and a portion of the body of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Distal pancreatectomy : The surgeon removes the body and tail of the pancreas if the tumor is in either of these parts.
  • Roswell Park Cancer Institute - Pancreatic Cancer - Comprehensive Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.roswellpark.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This operation removes only the tail of the pancreas or the tail and a portion of the body of the pancreas.
  • Treating Pancreatic Cancer - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

.April 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Cancers of the tail of the pancreas can be resected using a procedure known as a distal pancreatectomy.^ Distal Pancreatectomy removes only the tail of the pancreas, or the tail and a portion of the body of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Distal pancreatectomy is performed in patients with resectable cancer in the body or tail of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Distal pancreatectomy for tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

[47] .Recently, localized cancers of the pancreas have been resected using minimally invasive (laparoscopic) approaches.^ Resectable cancer: The cancer has not spread outside the pancreas.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Pancreatic Cancer Description - Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms - Pancreatic Cancer Prevention - Pancreatic Cancer Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Assaying pancreatic juice for the genetic mutations associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma is invasive but may be useful for the early diagnosis of the disease; 5 this approach is problematic as genetic mutations in the pancreatic juice may be found associated with inflammatory pancreatic disease.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We are using proteomics approaches to characterize the proteins found in very early stage pancreatic tumors as a means to discover candidate biomarkers for early stage pancreatic cancer.

[48]
.After surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine has in several large randomized studies been shown to significantly increase the 5-year survival (from approximately 10 to 20%), and should be offered if the patient is fit after surgery(Oettler et al.^ Fit patients should expect to stay in hospital for 10-15 days after the surgery.
  • Pancreatic Surgery 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.allps.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If surgery cannot be done, then chemotherapy and radiation are offered together to prolong survival.

^ Only 20% of patients have metastasis at the time of operation; complete excision of the tumor by distal or total pancreatectomy or by Whipple's operation results in a 65% 5‑yr survival.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Tumors of the GI Tract: Merck Manual Professional 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.JAMA 2007, Neoptolemos et al.^ Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, et al.: A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, et al.: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in resectable pancreatic cancer: a randomised controlled trial.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Neoptolemos JP, Dunn JA, Stocken DD, Almond J, Link K, Beger H, et al.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

NEJM 2004, Oettler et al. ASCO proc 2007) . .There is a study being done currently by Washington University that is using interferon to treat the cancer, and it has boosted survival times somewhat further.^ There are multiple risk factors that are all loosely associated with the cancer including the use of tobacco, poor diet , obesity , and diabetes .
  • Patrick Swayze Has Pancreatic Cancer - CBS News 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ In a recently completed study at Stanford University Medical Center, patients were treated with radiosurgery using a "low," "middle," and "high" radiation dose.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Treatment Areas - Reno CyberKnife 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC renocyberknife.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological therapy may be used to treat pancreatic cancer .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Addition of radiation therapy is a hotly debated topic, with groups in the US often favoring the use of adjuvant radiation therapy, while groups in Europe do not, due to the lack of any large randomized studies to show any survival benefit of this strategy.^ Patients with any stage of pancreatic cancer are candidates for clinical trials because of the poor response to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery as conventionally used.
  • Pancreatic cancer definition - Cancer Information (Cancers, Symptoms, Treatment) on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Three phase III trials examined the potential overall survival (OS) benefit of postoperative adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)–based CRT. A small randomized trial conducted by the Gastrointestinal Study Group (GITSG) in 1985 demonstrated a significant but modest improvement in median-term and long-term survival over resection alone with postoperative bolus 5-FU and regional split course radiation given at a dose of 40 Gy.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ At NewYork-Presbyterian, we often give patients who have inoperable tumors neoadjuvant chemotherapy (sometimes used with radiation therapy ) to shrink tumors and make surgery possible.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - New York Presbyterian Hospital 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Surgery can be performed for palliation, if the malignancy is invading or compressing the duodenum or colon.^ Another part of the palliative operation that can be performed is to reroute the stomach connection to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).
  • Treating Pancreatic Cancer - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These include palliative surgery to perform nerve blocks or to clear blockages to the bile duct and stomach, as well as the administration of pain-relieving medications.
  • Pancreatic cancer - myDr.com.au 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Palliative surgery may be performed if diagnostic tests indicate that the tumor is too widespread to be completely removed.
  • Treating Pancreatic Cancer - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

.In that case, bypass surgery might overcome the obstruction and improve quality of life, but it is not intended as a cure.^ What can be done to improve my quality of life?

^ The amount of supplemental protein and omega-3 fatty acids needed to improve quality of life is really quite small.
  • Savvy Natural Healer: Alternative Pancreatic Cancer Treatments (With Updated FAQs) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.savvynaturalhealer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even when a cure isn't possible, treatment can improve the length of survival and the quality of life by controlling symptoms and complications of the cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Pancreatic Cancer Description - Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms - Pancreatic Cancer Prevention - Pancreatic Cancer Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: Academic]

[36]

Chemotherapy

.In patients not suitable for resection with curative intent, palliative chemotherapy may be used to improve quality of life and gain a modest survival benefit.^ What can be done to improve my quality of life?

^ No improvement in survival or quality of life was observed in these patients.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although pancreatic malignancies remain a challenging problem for both the patient and the physician, imaging technologies have continued to improve with a hope that some day we will be able to predict who may benefit the most from specific treatments.
  • Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer - Gundersen Lutheran 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.gundluth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Gemcitabine was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1998 after a clinical trial reported improvements in quality of life in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.^ Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.
  • Pancreatic cancer not a death sentence | savannahnow.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC savannahnow.com [Source type: News]

^ Gemcitabine provides clinical improvement in approximately 25% of patients.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients may participate in clinical trials to test new therapies for pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.This marked the first FDA approval of a chemotherapy drug for a non-survival clinical trial endpoint.^ A clinical trial of surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Medpedia 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • treatments for pancreatic cancer, pancreatic cancer treatment, pancreatic cancer information, about pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.apjohncancerinstitute.org [Source type: Academic]
  • FUDA CANCER HOSPITAL GUANGZHOU 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.orienttumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Information -- Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis Missouri 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.siteman.wustl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.jamesline.com/cancertypes/gi/about/pancreatic/ 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.jamesline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] | NYU Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC ci.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC healthpromotionresearch.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy clinical trials.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical trials of chemotherapy or biologic therapy.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Medpedia 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • FUDA CANCER HOSPITAL GUANGZHOU 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.orienttumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

Gemcitabine is administered intravenously on a weekly basis. .Addition of oxaliplatin (Gem/Ox) conferred benefit in small trials, but is not yet standard therapy.^ Improvements in survival and clinical benefit with gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreas cancer: a randomized trial.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Enzyme Therapy 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.dr-gonzalez.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnosis and Management - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to the poor results with standard therapies, patients may choose to participate in clinical trials, which test newly developed medications.

^ The potential benefits of multi-modality care, participation in a clinical trial, or standard treatment must be carefully balanced with the potential risks.
  • Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer | CancerConsultants 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerconsultants.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Virginia Cancer Institute - Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.vacancer.com [Source type: Academic]

[50], a recently published study .ECOG 6201 failed to show superiority of GEMOX over gemcitabine alone (Poplin et al., JCO 2009, Louvet et al.^ Copyright: © 2009 Harsha et al.
  • PLoS Medicine: A Compendium of Potential Biomarkers of Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A recent report showed that combining gemcitabine with oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) provided a 27 percent increase in the median survival (about two months) versus gemcitabine alone.

^ Carmichael J, Fink U, Russell RC, et al.: Phase II study of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

JCO 2005). .Fluorouracil (5FU) may also be included, however no large randomized study has shown significant survival benefit from this addition(Berlin et al.^ Several studies have been published describing the effectiveness of chemotherapy in the management of this disease; however, only one was randomized and included a small sample of patients.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al.: Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiation therapy alone may palliate symptoms, but survival benefit is not usually demonstrable.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

JCO 2002). .One sofar unpublished trial has shown a trend(p=0.08) towards a significant benefit from adding capecitabine to gemcitabine (Cunningham et al.^ Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al.: Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Carmichael J, Fink U, Russell RC, et al.: Phase II study of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Moore MJ, Goldstein D, Hamm J, et al.: Erlotinib plus gemcitabine compared to gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

JCO 2009). .Meta-analysis has, however, shown benefit from combination therapy, especially in fit(PS 0-1) patients(Sultana et al.^ Some patients have a combination of therapies.
  • Columbia Health Care Consortium -Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.columbiahealthnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study, patients with HER2 lived for only 7 months, whereas those without it lived at least 19 months (Lei S et al 1995).
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Pancreas, Tumors - Life Extension Health Concern 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al.: Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

.BJC 2009, Cunningham et al.^ Copyright: © 2009 Harsha et al.
  • PLoS Medicine: A Compendium of Potential Biomarkers of Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

JCO 2009).
.On the basis of a Canadian led Phase III Randomised Controlled trial involving 569 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, the US FDA has licensed the use of erlotinib (Tarceva) in combination with gemcitabine as a palliative regimen for pancreatic cancer.^ This study evaluated the effects of a combination chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced pancreatic and biliary cancer.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Isolated hypoxic perfusion with mitomycin C in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors concluded that this regimen is ineffective and should not be used in patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

.This trial compared the action of gemcitabine/erlotinib vs gemcitabine/placebo and demonstrated improved survival rates, improved tumor response and improved progression-free survival rates(Moore et al.^ Level of evidence: 1iiA ] A preliminary report, in abstract form, of a phase III trial ( CAN-NCIC-PA3 ) comparing gemcitabine alone versus the combination of gemcitabine and erlotinib (100 mg/day) in patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic carcinomas showed that erlotinib modestly prolonged survival when combined with gemcitabine alone.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Polati E, Finco G, Gottin L, et al.: Prospective randomized double-blind trial of neurolytic coeliac plexus block in patients with pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ References: Chaitchik S, Borovik R, Robinson E, et al.: Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II breast cancer: CMF vs alternating CMF-VA: a national randomized trial.
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

JCO 2005). .The survival improvement with the combination is on the order of less than four weeks, leading some cancer experts to question the incremental value of adding erlotinib to gemcitabine treatment.^ The overall pancreatic cancer survival rate is less than 4%.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Basics | Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms | Causes & Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I was home in less than a week.

^ The survival rate for 5 years is less than 5%.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.New trials are now investigating the effect of the above combination in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting.^ Clinical trials evaluating new anticancer agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ New treatments currently under investigation in clinical trials include: .
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Pancreatic cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • georgiahealthinfo.gov 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC georgiahealthinfo.gov [Source type: General]

^ In trials with people who have pancreatic cancer, doctors are studying new drugs, new combinations of chemotherapy, and combinations of chemotherapy and radiation before and after surgery.
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .A trial of anti-angiogenesis agent bevacizumab (Avastin) as an addition to chemotherapy has shown no improvement in survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer(Kindler et al.^ Isolated hypoxic perfusion with mitomycin C in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No improvement in survival or quality of life was observed in these patients.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the side effects of pancreatic cancer chemotherapy?
  • Pancreatic Cancer Pictures Slideshow on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

). .It may cause higher rates of high blood pressure, bleeding in the stomach and intestine, and intestinal perforations.^ This may cause pain and digestive problems because the bile can't get into the intestine.
  • Treating Pancreatic Cancer - US News and World Report 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC health.usnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Indigestion, lack of appetite, nausea, weight loss: These symptoms may occur when a pancreatic tumor presses against the stomach and small intestine.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gastroduodenal Stent — Pancreatic tumors may cause an obstruction of the gastric tract, particularly within the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Treatment 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

Prognosis

.Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer typically have a poor prognosis partly because the cancer usually causes no symptoms early on, leading to locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis.^ What is the prognosis for people with pancreatic cancer?
  • Pancreatic cancer - myDr.com.au 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic cancer continues to be an illusive diagnosis.
  • Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer - Gundersen Lutheran 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.gundluth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How pancreatic cancer is diagnosed .
  • Diagnosis - Pancreatic cancer - Cancer Council Victoria 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Median survival from diagnosis is around 3 to 6 months; 5-year survival is less than 5%.^ Median survival was 5 months.
  • Iatrogenic Illness: Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.garynull.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A median survival of 12 months and 2- and 5-year survival rates of 21% and 7% were observed.
  • FUDA CANCER HOSPITAL GUANGZHOU 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.orienttumor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The survival rate for 5 years is less than 5%.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] .With 37,170 cases diagnosed in the United States in 2007, and 33,700 deaths, pancreatic cancer has one of the highest fatality rates of all cancers and is the fourth highest cancer killer in the United States among both men and women.^ Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2009: [ 1 ] .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic cancer has been named as the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States .

^ Pancreatic cancer is slightly more common in women than in men.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although it accounts for only 2.5% of new cases, pancreatic cancer is responsible for 6% of cancer deaths each year.^ Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from pancreatic cancer in the United States in 2009: [ 1 ] .
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ�) 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Most cases of pancreatic cancer are 'sporadic'.
  • Pancreatic cancer risks and causes : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New developments in pancreatic cancer @AACR .

[53]
.Pancreatic cancer may occasionally result in diabetes.^ Marantic endocarditis may develop in pancreatic cancer occasionally being confused with subacute bacterial endocarditis.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to determine the stage of your pancreatic cancer, your doctor may recommend: .

^ Weight loss may be related to cancer associated anorexia and/or subclinical malabsorption from pancreatic exocrine insufficiency caused by pancreatic duct obstruction by the cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: eMedicine Oncology 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Insulin production is hampered and it has been suggested that the cancer can also prompt the onset of diabetes and vice versa.^ Sudden-onset diabetes or a sudden change in blood-sugar control in diabetics: Diabetes may be an early symptom of pancreatic cancer as well as a risk factor.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sudden onset diabetes: Diabetes can be both a risk factor and an early symptom of pancreatic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - MD Anderson Cancer Center 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, treatment for cancer of the pancreas may interfere with production of insulin and pancreatic juices.
  • Diagnose Pancreatic Cancer | Oncology and Neuroscience Blog from Elekta 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC blog.elekta.com [Source type: Academic]

[54] .Thus diabetes is both a risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer and diabetes can be an early sign of the disease in the elderly.^ The early symptoms of pancreatic cancer can resemble those of other diseases.
  • Pancreatic Cancer - New York Presbyterian Hospital 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer.
  • Columbia Health Care Consortium -Pancreatic Cancer 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.columbiahealthnet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include the following: .
  • Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Information -- Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis Missouri 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.siteman.wustl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.jamesline.com/cancertypes/gi/about/pancreatic/ 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.jamesline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] - AOL Health 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic cancer, exocrine: Treatment - Patient Information [NCI PDQ] | NYU Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC ci.med.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pancreatic Cancer Treatment - National Cancer Institute 16 January 2010 15:54 UTC healthpromotionresearch.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Epidemiology

     no data      <1      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9      10      >10
Age-standardized death from pancreatic cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[55]

See also

References

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External links


Simple English

Pancreatic cancer is cancer affecting the pancreas. It has a poor prognosis, with less than 5% of patients surviving beyond five years after the cancer has been diagnosed.

Symptoms

Treatment

In cases of localized pancreatic disease, the Surgery to remove the cancer is often the first treatment. It is typically followed by Chemotherapy, often with Gemzar or 5-FU.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Pancreatic cancer, which are similar to those in the above article.








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