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Map of Pangaea
.Pangaea, Pangæa, or Pangea (pronounced /pænˈdʒiːə/, pan-JEE[1], from Ancient Greek πᾶν pan "entire", and Γαῖα Gaia "Earth", Latinized as Gæa) was the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 200 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configuration.^ Gondwana was a 'supercontinent' that existed between 500 and 180 million years ago.

^ Pangea began to break up about 225-200 million years ago.
  • Maps of Ancient Earth Need Revising | LiveScience 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Print this section Pangaea , name given the single supercontinent that existed on Earth during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras (about 300 million to 200 million years ago).
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The name was coined in the scientific discussion of Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift.^ Explain the theory of continental drift.
  • Lesson Info: Building Pangaea Gizmo | ExploreLearning 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.explorelearning.com [Source type: General]

^ In: Theory of continental drift.
  • Velikovskian Tectonics and Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Earth & Climate Geology Fossils & Ruins The name was coined by Alfred Wegener, chief proponent of Continental Drift in 1915..

.In his book "The Origin of Continents and Oceans" (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane) he postulated that all the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent which he called the "Urkontinent", before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations.^ The name was first used by the German originator of the continental drift theory, Alfred Wegener , in the 1920 edition of his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane) , in which a postulated supercontinent Pangaea played a key role.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Permian Period Book article from: World of Earth Science ...by the movements of the supercontinent Pangaea , that during the Permian Period was located...tectonic activity along the western border of Pangaea formed an extensive subduction zone that...the continued fusion of continents into Pangaea .
  • Pangaea – FREE Pangaea information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Pangaea research 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two hundred and fifty million years ago all continents were linked together into one called Pangaea .

.The term Pangaea appeared in 1928 during a symposium to discuss Alfred Wegener's theory.^ The name Pangaea (Greek for “all land”) was coined in 1912 by Alfred Wegener , the German meteorologist who published the first scientifically argued theory of continental drift.
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term was originally devised by Alfred Wegener , the German meteorologist who in 1915 published the first scientifically argued theory of continental drift .
  • Pangaea - ninemsn Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topics include the theory of continental drift of Alfred Wegener, the supercontinent Pangaea , matching rocks and fossils found on different continents, and the distribution of plant and animal species.
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "pangaea" 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.The single enormous ocean which surrounded Pangaea was accordingly named Panthalassa.^ The vast ocean that once surrounded the supercontinent of Pangaea has been named Panthalassa .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ They were separated, in the east, by the Tethys Sea, while the global ocean known as Panthalassa (Greek for “all sea”) surrounded the land mass as a whole.
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pangaea [pan-jee- uh ] means “the whole earth,” and is the name used to refer to the planet’s single landmass prior to continental drift.
  • Pangaea - Internet at the Speed of Light 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.pangaea.us [Source type: General]

Contents

Formation

.The breaking up and formation of supercontinents appears to be cyclical through Earth's 4.6 billion year history.^ Rodinia does not preclude the possibility of prior supercontinents as the breakup and formation of supercontinents appear to be cyclical through Earth's 4.6 billion years.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Pangaea is the name of the Earth's sole supercontinent before the continents split over a billion years ago.
  • Dogfish Head Pangaea from Dogfish Head Brewery - Ratebeer 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.ratebeer.com [Source type: General]

^ Heat begins to build up under the continent, eventually breaking through cataclysmically.
  • Halfbakery: Pangaea Reunification 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.halfbakery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There may have been several others before Pangaea.^ Other lobbyists for the industry and several state Liberal sources have also told BRW that there is a degree of support for it at some higher levels in the party.
  • pangea 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I agree that there are many, many other ways that may work better for you.
  • Grape-scented delegation and dropping the ball — Inspired Home Office 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.inspiredhomeoffice.com [Source type: General]

^ Gondwana followed with several iterations before the formation of Pangaea, which succeeded Pannotia , before the beginning of the Paleozoic Era (545 mya) and the Phanerozoic Eon .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The next-to-last one, Pannotia, formed about 600 million years ago (Ma) during the Proterozoic eon, and lasted until 540 Ma.^ I got one of these last year at Woot!
  • WOOT Sansa Clip deal! - Head-Fi: Covering Headphones, Earphones and Portable Audio 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.head-fi.org [Source type: General]

^ Map of Pangaea Pangaea or Pangæa ( IPA : /pænˈdʒiːə/ [1] , from παν, pan , meaning entire , and γαια, gaia , meaning Earth in Ancient Greek ) was the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before each of the component continents were separated into their current configuration.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Even so, geological and paleontological studies of continental rocks have enabled researchers to extend the picture back to about 500 million years ago, near the end of the Cambrian Period (542 to 488 million years ago).
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before Pannotia, there was Rodinia, which lasted from about 1.1 billion years ago (Ga) until about 750 million years ago.^ Map of Pangaea Pangaea or Pangæa ( IPA : /pænˈdʒiːə/ [1] , from παν, pan , meaning entire , and γαια, gaia , meaning Earth in Ancient Greek ) was the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before each of the component continents were separated into their current configuration.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Even so, geological and paleontological studies of continental rocks have enabled researchers to extend the picture back to about 500 million years ago, near the end of the Cambrian Period (542 to 488 million years ago).
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He claimed the lands separated 250 million years ago by the process of continental drift , which means the continents just slowly fractured and went their separate ways.
  • HowStuffWorks "How did the supercontinent Pangaea become seven separate continents?" 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC geography.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]

.The exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia are not nearly as well understood as Pannotia and Pangaea.^ Geological supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Proto-Gondwana Proto-Laurasia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Ur Vaalbara .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.When Rodinia broke up, it split into three pieces: the supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia and the supercontinent of Proto-Gondwana, and the smaller Congo craton.^ The southern hemisphere supercontinent known as Gondwana formed around 180-200 mya during the breakup of Pangaea and then began to split apart about 167 mya.
  • Can modern-day plants trace their New Zealand ancestry? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.brightsurf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice that as Gondwana slides up over the edge of Proto-North America that both the Taconic and Acadian terranes detach and move inland.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Scotland, or even Britain from Europe, you'd have to break up the existing tectonic plates into much smaller ones.
  • Halfbakery: Pangaea Reunification 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.halfbakery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proto-Laurasia and Proto-Gondwana were separated by the Proto-Tethys Ocean.^ It formed the continents Gondwanaland and Laurasia , separated by the Tethys Sea.

^ The clockwise motion of Laurasia also led to the closing of the Tethys Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The North China block collided with Siberia by Late Carboniferous time, completely closing Proto-Tethys Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Soon thereafter Proto-Laurasia itself split apart to form the continents of Laurentia, Siberia and Baltica.^ Soon, Proto-Laurasia rifted apart itself to create Laurentia , Siberia and Baltica .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The southern hemisphere supercontinent known as Gondwana formed around 180-200 mya during the breakup of Pangaea and then began to split apart about 167 mya.
  • Can modern-day plants trace their New Zealand ancestry? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.brightsurf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It formed the continents Gondwanaland and Laurasia , separated by the Tethys Sea.

.The rifting also spawned two new oceans, the Iapetus Ocean and Paleoasian Ocean.^ The rift resulted in a new ocean , the Atlantic Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The rifting also spawned two new oceans, the Iapetus and Khanty Oceans .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Triassic-Jurassic Rifting: Continental Breakup and the Origins of the Atlantic Ocean and Passive Margins : Elsevier, New York, pp 607- 620.

.Baltica was situated east of Laurentia, and Siberia northeast of Laurentia.^ Baltica remained east of Laurentia, and Siberia sat northeast of Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Soon, Proto-Laurasia rifted apart itself to create Laurentia , Siberia and Baltica .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Around 600 Ma, most of these masses came back together to form the relatively short-lived supercontinent of Pannotia, which included large amounts of land near the poles and only a relatively small strip near the equator connecting the polar masses.^ He named this large land mass Gondwanaland (named after a district in India where the fossil plant Glossopteris was found).

^ At one time, most of the Earth's land mass was part of one supercontinent, Pangaea, which had been formed from another supercontinent, Gondwanaland, and several smaller land masses - some of which had already merged in their own right.
  • Halfbakery: Pangaea Reunification 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.halfbakery.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea (since about 280 Ma).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Only 60 million years after its formation, about 540 Ma, near the beginning of the Cambrian epoch, Pannotia in turn broke up, giving rise to the continents of Laurentia, Baltica, and the southern supercontinent of Gondwana.^ The existence in the Paleozoic era of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, the continents Laurentia and Baltica, and smaller continental masses are explained as well as the later collisions which created mountains by folding of the Earth's crust, (orogenies) such as the ...
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "pangaea" 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Map of Pangaea Pangaea or Pangæa ( IPA : /pænˈdʒiːə/ [1] , from παν, pan , meaning entire , and γαια, gaia , meaning Earth in Ancient Greek ) was the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before each of the component continents were separated into their current configuration.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ According to Wegener, Pangaea broke up to form the present continents beginning during the Cretaceous Period in the late Mesozoic Era and continuing through the following Cenozoic Era .
  • Pangaea - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Cambrian period the independent continent of Laurentia, which would become North America, sat on the equator, with three bordering oceans: the Panthalassic Ocean to the north and west, the Iapetus Ocean to the south and the Khanty Ocean to the east.^ North China and South China were on independent continents.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Straddling the Equator on the opposite side of the globe sat the small continent Laurentia, which later grew substantially to become North America.
  • Formation of Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC webspinners.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Cambrian the independent continent of Laurentia on what would become North America sat on the equator , with three bordering oceans of Panthalassic Ocean to the north and west and Iapetus Ocean to the south, and Khanty Ocean to the east.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.In the Earliest Ordovician, around 480 Ma, the microcontinent of Avalonia, a landmass that would become the northeastern United States, Nova Scotia and England, broke free from Gondwana and began its journey to Laurentia.^ In the Earliest Ordovician , the microcontinent of Avalonia , a landmass that would become the northeastern United States , Nova Scotia , and England , broke free from Gondwana and began its journey to Laurentia .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Pangaea's senior staff members have been leaders in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the United States and around the world for over 20 years.
  • Company Profile: Pangaea Global Aids Foundation - Portfolio.com 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC profiles.portfolio.com [Source type: News]

[4]
Euramerica's formation
Appalachian orogeny
.Baltica, Laurentia, and Avalonia all came together by the end of the Ordovician to form a minor supercontinent called Euramerica or Laurussia, closing the Iapetus Ocean.^ By Silurian time, Baltica had already collided with Laurentia to form Euramerica.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Baltica collided with Laurentia by the end of Ordovician, and northern Avalonia collided with Baltica and Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Laurentia, Baltica, and Avalonia formed to create a minor supercontinent of Euramerica or Laurussia, closing the Iapetus Ocean, while the Rheic Ocean expanded in the southern coast of Avalonia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The collision also resulted in the formation of the northern Appalachians.^ The collision also resulted in the formation of the Northern Appalachians .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Siberia sat near Euramerica, with the Khanty Ocean between the two continents.^ Siberia sat near Euramerica, with Khanty Ocean between the two continents.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ A new ocean was forming between the two continents, the Proto-Tethys Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In the intervening time, these two originally joined continents broke apart and drifted away from one another, as the Atlantic Ocean opened and widened.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While all this was happening, Gondwana drifted slowly towards the South Pole.^ While all this was happening, Gondwana drifted slowly towards the South Pole.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The large supercontinent would potentially have allowed terrestrial animals to migrate freely all the way from the South Pole to the North Pole .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ South America moved northward to southern Euramerica, while the eastern portion of Gondwana ( India , Antarctica , and Australia ) headed towards the South Pole from the equator .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.This was the first step of the formation of Pangaea.^ Pangaea We are proud to pre-annouce the formation and upcoming first meeting of Hippies Against Pangaea Pricks & Yuppies aka H.A.P.P.Y.!
  • Pangaea - Downtown - Austin, TX 78701 | Do512 | Austin Events 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC do512.com [Source type: General]

[5]
.The second step in the formation of Pangaea was the collision of Gondwana with Euramerica.^ This was the last step of the formation of Pangaea.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The second step in the formation of Pangaea was the collision of Gondwana with Euramerica .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ This was the first step of the formation of Pangaea.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

By Silurian time, 440 Ma, Baltica had already collided with Laurentia to form Euramerica. .Avalonia had not collided with Laurentia yet, and a seaway between them, a remnant of the Iapetus Ocean, was still shrinking as Avalonia slowly inched towards Laurentia.^ Avalonia hadn't collided with Laurentia yet, and a seaway between them was a remnant of Iapetus Ocean was still shrinking as Avalonia slowly inches towards Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Baltica collided with Laurentia by the end of Ordovician, and northern Avalonia collided with Baltica and Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, this caused the Rheic Ocean to shrink.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Meanwhile, southern Europe fragmented from Gondwana and started to head towards Euramerica across the newly formed Rheic Ocean and collided with southern Baltica in the Devonian, though this microcontinent was an underwater plate.^ In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, this caused the Rheic Ocean to shrink.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, southern Europe fragmented from Gondwana and started to head towards Euramerica across the newly formed Rheic Ocean and collided with southern Baltica in the Devonian , though this microcontinent was an underwater plate.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ By Silurian time, Baltica had already collided with Laurentia to form Euramerica.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The Iapetus Ocean's sister ocean, the Khanty Ocean, was also shrinking as an island arc from Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (now part of Euramerica).^ Iapetus Ocean's sister ocean, Khanty Ocean, was also shrinking as an island arc from Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (now part of Euramerica).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Siberia sat near Euramerica, with Khanty Ocean between the two continents.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Avalonia hadn't collided with Laurentia yet, and a seaway between them was a remnant of Iapetus Ocean was still shrinking as Avalonia slowly inches towards Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Behind this island arc was a new ocean, the Ural Ocean.^ Behind this island arc was a new ocean, Ural Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Iapetus Ocean's sister ocean, Khanty Ocean, was also shrinking as an island arc from Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (now part of Euramerica).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.By late Silurian time, North and South China rifted away from Gondwana and started to head northward across the shrinking Proto-Tethys Ocean, and on its southern end the new Paleo-Tethys Ocean was opening.^ This change in the stress field agrees with the lack of multiple dike orientations along the southern margin and perhaps the sudden northward propagation of the dikes and rifts into what is now the New England margin of eastern North America (Figure 3C).

^ At the end of the Jurassic Period , about 150 million years ago, the supercontinent began slowly splintering: North America, Europe and Africa began to drift apart, and in the widening rift between them, the Atlantic Ocean was born.
  • FOXNews.com - Europe's First Stegosaurus Boosts Pangaea Theory - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ The cycle continued in the latest Precambrian and earliest Cambrian when the supercontinent rifted apart creating the Proto-Atlantic ocean (Stages B and C ).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, which caused the Rheic Ocean to shrink.^ In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, this caused the Rheic Ocean to shrink.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, southern Europe fragmented from Gondwana and started to head towards Euramerica across the newly formed Rheic Ocean and collided with southern Baltica in the Devonian , though this microcontinent was an underwater plate.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Avalonia hadn't collided with Laurentia yet, and a seaway between them was a remnant of Iapetus Ocean was still shrinking as Avalonia slowly inches towards Laurentia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

In the Early Carboniferous, northwest Africa had touched the southeastern coast of Euramerica, creating the southern portion of the Appalachian Mountains, and the Meseta Mountains. .South America moved northward to southern Euramerica, while the eastern portion of Gondwana (India, Antarctica and Australia) headed towards the South Pole from the equator.^ He based his deductions on the plant Glossopteris, which is found throughout India, South America, southern Africa, Australia, and Antarctica.

^ The collision resulted in several associated orogenies; the Mauritanide (the complementary orogeny on Africa opposite the Alleghanian), the Ouachita (South America striking the Gulf Coast region), and the Hercynian (Gondwana colliding with southern Europe).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The effect is to rotate the eastern part of Africa about a pole near the southern end of the rift.
  • Velikovskian Tectonics and Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North China and South China were on independent continents.^ A large chunk of Africa, and South America, eroded into astronomically uncountable grains of sand and spread across two-thirds of the North American continent.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Kazakhstania microcontinent had collided with Siberia (Siberia had been a separate continent for millions of years since the deformation of the supercontinent Pannotia) in the Middle Carboniferous.^ PARALITITAN Paralititan ( meaning "tidal Titan") was a huge titanosaurid sauropod that lived during the middle Cretaceous period , about 100 million years ago.

^ Named after the supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago, Pangaea really delivers on their global reach of foods.
  • Winterlicious - Lunch - Pangaea | Spotlight Toronto : Musings 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.spotlighttoronto.com [Source type: General]

^ Wegener hypothesized that there was an original, gigantic supercontinent 200 million years ago, which he named Pangaea, meaning "All-earth".

.Western Kazakhstania collided with Baltica in the Late Carboniferous, closing the Ural Ocean between them, and the western Proto-Tethys in them (Uralian orogeny), causing the formation of the Ural Mountains, and the formation of the supercontinent of Laurasia.^ The existence in the Paleozoic era of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, the continents Laurentia and Baltica, and smaller continental masses are explained as well as the later collisions which created mountains by folding of the Earth's crust, (orogenies) such as the ...
  • DLESE Find a Resource > "pangaea" 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.dlese.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The orogeny occurred when northwest Africa, a part of the supercontinent Gondwana collided with the eastern seaboard of North America closing the Proto-Atlantic (and Rheic) oceans.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The cycle continued in the latest Precambrian and earliest Cambrian when the supercontinent rifted apart creating the Proto-Atlantic ocean (Stages B and C ).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This was the last step of the formation of Pangaea.
.Meanwhile, South America had collided with southern Laurentia, closing the Rheic Ocean, and forming the southernmost part of the Appalachians and Ouachita Mountains.^ The collision resulted in several associated orogenies; the Mauritanide (the complementary orogeny on Africa opposite the Alleghanian), the Ouachita (South America striking the Gulf Coast region), and the Hercynian (Gondwana colliding with southern Europe).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the continents scattered across the globe the rifting reversed, convergent boundaries and subduction zones became active, and the Protoatlantic/Rheic oceans closed.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The orogeny occurred when northwest Africa, a part of the supercontinent Gondwana collided with the eastern seaboard of North America closing the Proto-Atlantic (and Rheic) oceans.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By this time, Gondwana was positioned near the South Pole, and glaciers were forming in Antarctica, India, Australia, southern Africa and South America.^ Countries in southern Africa and South America will be targeted.
  • pangea 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He based his deductions on the plant Glossopteris, which is found throughout India, South America, southern Africa, Australia, and Antarctica.

^ Eduard Suess was an Austrian geologist who first realized that there had once been a land bridge between South America, Africa, India, Australia, and Antarctica.

.The North China block collided with Siberia by Late Carboniferous time, completely closing the Proto-Tethys Ocean.^ The orogeny occurred when northwest Africa, a part of the supercontinent Gondwana collided with the eastern seaboard of North America closing the Proto-Atlantic (and Rheic) oceans.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Alleghanian orogeny assembles all the scattered continents of the late Precambrian supercontinent back into another supercontinent, Pangaea , closing the Protoatlantic/Rheic oceans shut, which encloses Virginia in the middle again, and completes the cycle.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By Early Permian time, the Cimmerian plate rifted away from Gondwana and headed towards Laurasia, with a new ocean forming in its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, and the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean.^ It connects to the Tethys at its southern end.
  • Velikovskian Tectonics and Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It formed the continents Gondwanaland and Laurasia , separated by the Tethys Sea.

^ This period in Earth's history was certainly an interesting time, and we are fortunate to have an excellent geologic record of it preserved in New Jersey's Newark rift basin.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the landmasses were all in one.^ That set, the final installment of the three mixes—one which picks up from the dub tip at the end of CD 2—is perhaps the most creative and exciting of all.
  • http://www.residentadvisor.net/review-view.aspx?id=6771 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.residentadvisor.net [Source type: General]

By the Triassic Period, Pangaea rotated a little, in a southwest direction. .The Cimmerian plate was still travelling across the shrinking Paleo-Tethys, until the Middle Jurassic time.^ The Cimmerian Plate was still travelling across the shrinking Paleo-Tethys, until the Middle Jurassic Time.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ What it says is that you can join all the margins of the continents (including across the paleo-Pacific) if you shrink the Earth.
  • Velikovskian Tectonics and Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Early Permian time, the Cimmerian plate rifted away from Gondwana and headed towards Laurasia, with a new ocean forming in its southern end, the Tethys Ocean , and the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The Paleo-Tethys had closed from west to east, creating the Cimmerian Orogeny.^ Paleo-Tethys had closed from west to east, creating the Cimmerian Orogeny .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The first phase began in the Early - Middle Jurassic , when Pangaea created a rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The Cimmerian Plate was still travelling across the shrinking Paleo-Tethys, until the Middle Jurassic Time.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Pangaea looked like a C, with an ocean inside the C, the new Tethys Ocean.^ I'm really, really looking forward to grabbing the new Pangaea this weekend.
  • Event: Sonic Router Is 1 W/ Brackles, Jack Sparrow, Shortstuff, Gemmy & More... / Music Forum // Drowned In Sound 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC drownedinsound.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just look at the comments from the employees below, this is the type of person that likes Pangaea.
  • Pangaea - Downtown - Austin, TX 78701 | Do512 | Austin Events 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC do512.com [Source type: General]

^ Re: The First King of Pangaea the armor looks like agas's.
  • Amaranth Games - The First King of Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.amaranthia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pangaea had rifted by the Middle Jurassic, and its deformation is explained below.^ Pangaea had rifted by the Middle Jurassic, and its deformation is explained below.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The first phase began in the Early - Middle Jurassic , when Pangaea created a rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

Evidence of existence

.Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart.^ To him, the presence of identical fossil species along the coastal parts of Africa and South America was the most compelling evidence that the two continents were once joined.
  • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » USGS: Behind tectonic plates 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Wegener’s mind, the drifting of continents after the break-up of Pangaea explained not only the matching fossil occurrences but also the evidence of dramatic climate changes on some continents.
  • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » USGS: Behind tectonic plates 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, fossils of the therapsid Lystrosaurus have been found in South Africa, India and Australia, alongside members of the Glossopteris flora, whose distribution would have ranged from the polar circle to the equator if the continents had been in their present position; similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has only been found in localized regions of the coasts of Brazil and West Africa.^ Fossils have been found in South America.

^ Fossils have been found in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

^ The continents are depicted in exactly the same position as now, and there is a strip of water that runs from the present Mediterranean through the Middle East, north of India, and into China.
  • Velikovskian Tectonics and Pangaea 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Additional evidence for Pangaea is found in the geology of adjacent continents, including matching geological trends between the eastern coast of South America and the western coast of Africa.^ Fossils have been found in South America.

^ Other mismatches of geology and climate included distinctive fossil ferns (Glossopteris) discovered in now-polar regions, and the occurrence of glacial deposits in present-day arid Africa, such as the Vaal River valley of South Africa.
  • ProjectDisaster » Blog Archive » USGS: Behind tectonic plates 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC projectdisaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ale brewed with an ingredient from every continent including crystallize ginger from Australia, moscavado sugar from Africa and basmati rice from Asia.
  • Pangaea - Dogfish Head Craft Brewery - BeerAdvocate 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC beeradvocate.com [Source type: General]

The polar ice cap of the Carboniferous Period covered the southern end of Pangaea. .Glacial deposits, specifically till, of the same age and structure are found on many separate continents which would have been together in the continent of Pangaea.^ In contrast, rocks of the same age in the Argana basin were deposited at a latitude of ~10°, near the edge of the arid climatic belt.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
Apparent polar wandering paths also support the theory of a super-continent. .Geologists can determine the movement of continental plates by examining the orientation of magnetic minerals in rocks; when rocks are formed, they take on the magnetic properties of the Earth and indicate in which direction the poles lie relative to the rock.^ Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In rock samples containing a fossil magnetism, the inclination can be measured, and this can be used to determine the latitude at which the rock formed or was deposited.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paleomagnetism is based on the principle that some rocks--when they cool from a melt or are deposited--retain an impression of the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because we know that the poles do not move more than a few degrees, magnetic anomalies in rocks can only be explained by the drifting of continents.^ Furthermore, from the explanation above we also know the Blue Ridge rocks have been moved westward along the Blue Ridge Thrust Fault ( cross section ).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Hawaii, the boards ought to fetch even more as Willie explained the market out there is a bit better than here.

^ Often it is possible in only a few miles to pass from rocks deposited under one set of geologic circumstances to those deposited in an entirely different set of circumstances.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[8]
The continuity of mountain chains also provide evidence for Pangea. One example of this is the Appalachian Mountains chain which extends from the northeastern United States to the Caledonides of Ireland, Britain, Greenland, and Scandinavia.[9]

Rifting and break-up

Pangaea separation animation
.There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea.^ The driving force behind the magmatism is tectonic rather than plume in origin, and the dikes cannot be used to prove a plume source for the break-up of Pangaea.

^ Non-Radial Dikes of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province Reveal Tectonic Source and Evolution of the Break-Up of Pangaea .

.The first phase began in the Early-Middle Jurassic (about 175 Ma), when Pangaea began to rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west, ultimately giving rise to the supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana.^ The first phase began in the Early - Middle Jurassic , when Pangaea created a rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Pangaea had rifted by the Middle Jurassic, and its deformation is explained below.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Pangaea is believed to have broken up about 180 million years ago ( mya ) in the Jurassic Period , first into two supercontinents ( Gondwana to the south and Laurasia to the north ), thereafter into the continents as we understand them today.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The rifting that took place between North America and Africa produced multiple failed rifts.^ This change in the stress field agrees with the lack of multiple dike orientations along the southern margin and perhaps the sudden northward propagation of the dikes and rifts into what is now the New England margin of eastern North America (Figure 3C).

^ This is excellent independent evidence that Africa and North America were once joined but have gone their separate ways.
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We really do not know how far Africa slid over Proto-North America, but we can see how far the stresses moved.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.One rift resulted in a new ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean.^ The rift resulted in a new ocean , the Atlantic Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ As these landmasses drifted away from one another, the Atlantic Ocean gradually widened [ Figure> > ].
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly, rather it rifted from south to north.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.The Atlantic Ocean did not open uniformly; rifting began in the north-central Atlantic.^ Janney, P.E., P.R. Castillo, 2001, Geochemistry of the oldest Atlantic oceanic crust suggests mantle plume involvement in the early history of the central Atlantic Ocean: Earth Planet.

^ The cycle continued in the latest Precambrian and earliest Cambrian when the supercontinent rifted apart creating the Proto-Atlantic ocean (Stages B and C ).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Running roughly in a north-northeasterly direction through the approximate center of the Atlantic Ocean is a huge undersea mountain range known as the Mid-Atlantic ridge [ Figure> > ].
  • Pangea Breakup 18 September 2009 9:12 UTC geology.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous.^ The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly, rather it rifted from south to north.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica , today's South America and Africa, finally separated from Eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India, and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean".
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south.^ Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe , and South America began to move in a northward direction separating it from Antarctica, allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time, causing a rapid cooling of the continent and allowing glaciers to form.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In my eyes, Charles Mann provides one of the most exhaustive and well-documented studies of historical North and South America ever put to print.

The clockwise motion of Laurasia also led to the closing of the Tethys Ocean. .Meanwhile, on the other side of Africa, new rifts were also forming along the adjacent margins of east Africa, Antarctica and Madagascar that would lead to the formation of the southwestern Indian Ocean that would also open up in the Cretaceous.^ The rift resulted in a new ocean , the Atlantic Ocean .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, in the other side of Africa, new rifts were also forming along the adjacent margins of east Africa, Antarctica, and Madagascar that would lead to the formation of the Southwest Indian Ocean that would also open up in the Cretaceous.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ This change in the stress field agrees with the lack of multiple dike orientations along the southern margin and perhaps the sudden northward propagation of the dikes and rifts into what is now the New England margin of eastern North America (Figure 3C).

.The second major phase in the break-up of Pangaea began in the Early Cretaceous (150–140 Ma), when the minor supercontinent of Gondwana separated into four multiple continents (Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia).^ An ale brewed with an ingredient from every continent including crystallize ginger from Australia, moscavado sugar from Africa and basmati rice from Asia.
  • Pangaea - Dogfish Head Craft Brewery - BeerAdvocate 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC beeradvocate.com [Source type: General]

^ Great thick slabs of rock, greased by the slippery zones, begin to break and slide, stacking up in multiple layers tens of thousands of feet thick.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The collision resulted in several associated orogenies; the Mauritanide (the complementary orogeny on Africa opposite the Alleghanian), the Ouachita (South America striking the Gulf Coast region), and the Hercynian (Gondwana colliding with southern Europe).
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.About 200 Ma, the continent of Cimmeria, as mentioned above (see "Formation of Pangaea"), collided with Eurasia.^ About 200 million years ago, the continent of Cimmeria , as mentioned above ("The Formation of Pangaea"), collided with Eurasia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea (since about 280 Ma).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.However, a subduction zone was forming, as soon as Cimmeria collided.^ However, a subduction zone was forming, as soon as Cimmeria collided.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.This subduction zone was called the Tethyan Trench.^ This subduction zone was called the Tethyan Trench .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ This trench might have subducted what is called the Tethyan mid-ocean ridge , a ridge responsible for Tethys Ocean's expansion.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.This trench might have subducted what is called the Tethyan mid-ocean ridge, a ridge responsible for the Tethys Ocean's expansion.^ This is best modeled as the formation of oceanic crust and a mid-ocean ridge.

.It probably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward.^ It probably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved rapidly northward, just as India did more than 40 million years earlier, and is on a collision course with Eastern Asia .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica , today's South America and Africa, finally separated from Eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India, and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean".
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica, today's South America and Africa, finally separated from eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean". In the Middle Cretaceous, Gondwana fragmented to open up the South Atlantic Ocean as South America started to move westward away from Africa.^ In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica , today's South America and Africa, finally separated from Eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India, and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean".
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Also, at the same time Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly; rather, it rifted from south to north.
.Also, at the same time, Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean.^ Also, at the same time Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ New Zealand and New Caledonia began to move from Australia in an eastward direction towards the Pacific , opening the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Madagascar and India separated from each other 100–90 Ma in the Late Cretaceous.^ Madagascar and India separated from each other 100 - 90 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Patagonykus lived during the late Cretaceous period , about 90 million years ago.

^ In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica , today's South America and Africa, finally separated from Eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India, and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean".
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters (6 in) per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate.^ India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved rapidly northward, just as India did more than 40 million years earlier, and is on a collision course with Eastern Asia .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

New Zealand, New Caledonia and the rest of Zealandia began to separate from Australia, moving eastward towards the Pacific and opening the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea.
.The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic (Paleocene to Oligocene).^ The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic ( Paleocene - Oligocene ).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Pangaea separation animation There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Rifting and break-up of Pangaea .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Laurasia split when North America/Greenland (also called Laurentia) broke free from Eurasia, opening the Norwegian Sea about 60–55 Ma.^ North America would never again experience the great inundations of the sea that so dominated the previous 300 million years.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.^ The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The clockwise motion of Laurasia also led to the closing of the Tethys Ocean.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved rapidly northward, just as India did more than 40 million years earlier, and is currently on a collision course with eastern Asia.^ Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved rapidly northward, just as India did more than 40 million years earlier, and is on a collision course with Eastern Asia .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ It probably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Both Australia and India are currently moving in a northeast direction at 5-6 cm/year.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

Both Australia and India are currently moving in a northeastern direction at 5–6 centimeters (2–3 in) per year. .Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea about 280 Ma.^ Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea (since about 280 Ma).
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ About 200 million years ago, the continent of Cimmeria , as mentioned above ("The Formation of Pangaea"), collided with Eurasia.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ South America moved northward to southern Euramerica, while the eastern portion of Gondwana ( India , Antarctica , and Australia ) headed towards the South Pole from the equator .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.India started to collide with Asia beginning about 35 Ma, forming the Himalayan orogeny, and also finally closing the Tethys Seaway; this collision continues today.^ The orogeny occurred when northwest Africa, a part of the supercontinent Gondwana collided with the eastern seaboard of North America closing the Proto-Atlantic (and Rheic) oceans.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe, and South America began to move in a northward direction, separating it from Antarctica and allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time, causing a rapid cooling of the continent and allowing glaciers to form.^ Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe , and South America began to move in a northward direction separating it from Antarctica, allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time, causing a rapid cooling of the continent and allowing glaciers to form.
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

Other major events took place during the Cenozoic, including the opening of the Gulf of California, the uplift of the Alps, and the opening of the Sea of Japan. .The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the Great Rift Valley.^ Rifting and break-up of Pangaea .
  • What is Pangaea? 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Great thick slabs of rock, greased by the slippery zones, begin to break and slide, stacking up in multiple layers tens of thousands of feet thick.
  • Geol Evol Virginia-Cross Section K 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC csmres.jmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pangaea Hot Soup was a great starter to warm up the soul.
  • Winterlicious - Lunch - Pangaea | Spotlight Toronto : Musings 21 January 2010 20:14 UTC www.spotlighttoronto.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution, Third Ed., 1989, by Kent C. Condie, Pergamon Press
  3. ^ cf. Willem A. J. M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht (and 13 other authors): Theory of Continental Drift: a Symposium of the Origin and Movements of Land-masses of both Inter-Continental and Intra-Continental, as proposed by Alfred Wegener. X + 240 S., Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, The American Association of Petroleum Geologists & London, Thomas Murby & Co, 1928.
  4. ^ Stanley, Steven (1998). Earth System History. USA. pp. 355–359. 
  5. ^ Stanley, Steven (1998). Earth System History. USA. pp. 386–392. 
  6. ^ Benton, M.J. Vertebrate Palaeontology. Third edition (Oxford 2005), 25.
  7. ^ Barbara W. Murck, Brian J. Skinner, Geology Today: Understanding Our Planet, Study Guide, Wiley, ISBN 978-0-471-32323-5
  8. ^ Philip Kearey, Keith A. Klepeis, Frederick J. Vine (2009). Global Tectonics (3rd. ed), p.67. Chichester:Wiley. ISBN 978-1-4051-0777-8
  9. ^ Zeeya Merali, Brian J. Skinner, Visualizing Earth Science, Wiley, ISBN 978-0470-41847-5

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:
The breakup of Pangaea.

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From pan- + γαῖα (gaia), earth, land), probably after German Pangäa, coined by Alfred Wegener in 1915.

Pronunciation

  • pănjē'ə, /pænˈdʒiːə/, SAMPA: /p{n"dZi:@/
  • Hyphenation: pan‧gae‧a

Proper noun

Singular
Pangaea
Plural
-
Pangaea
  1. A supercontinent that included all the landmasses of the earth before the Triassic period and that broke up into Laurasia and Gondwana.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Simple English

File:Pangaea
Map of Pangaea
belts at the end of the Caledonian orogeny (Early Devonian). Present day coastlines are indicated in grey for reference. Later in geological history, the Atlantic Ocean opened and the different parts of the orogenic belt moved apart.[1]]]

Pangaea [2] was the global supercontinent which formed in the Palaeozoic era. The process started about 450 million years ago (mya), and was complete by 250 mya.

The collisions between continental plates formed the greatest mountain ranges in the history of the Phanerozoic eon.[3] The mountain building included the Caledonian orogeny and the Alleghenian orogeny. The low mountains of Scotland, Scandinavia and eastern North America are the ground-down remains of these vast events.[4]

Pangea was the latest of a series of global supercontinents. They have formed at various times since plate tectonics began on Earth.

Breakup

There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea.

Pangea broke up about 180/200 million years ago, in the early middle Jurassic. It broke into supercontinents Laurasia and Gondwana before each of these broke into the current continents. One rift resulted in a new ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean.[5]

The second major phase in the break-up of Pangaea began in the Lower Cretaceous (150–140 Ma), when Gondwana separated into multiple continents (Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia).[5]

The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic (Paleocene to Oligocene). Laurasia split when North America/Greenland (also called Laurentia) broke free from Eurasia, opening the Norwegian Sea about 60–55 Ma. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean.

The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the Great Rift Valley.

Other sources

  • Matte P. 2001. The Variscan collage and orogeny (480-290 Ma) and the tectonic definition of the Armorica microplate: a review. Terra Nova 13, 122-128.
  • Stampfli G.M.; Raumer J.F. von & Borel G.D. 2002. Paleozoic evolution of pre-Variscan terranes: from Gondwana to the Variscan collision. Geological Society of America Special Paper 364, pp. 263-280.
  • Torsvik T.H.; Smethurst M.A.; Meert J.G.; Van der Voo R.; McKerrow W.S.; Brasier M.D.; Sturt B.A. & Walderhaug H.J. 1996. Continental break-up and collision in the Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic - a tale of Baltica and Laurentia. Earth-Science Reviews 40, pp. 229-258.
  • Ziegler P.A. 1990. Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe. 2nd ed, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. ISBN 90-6644-125-9

References

  1. Reconstruction based on Matte (2001); Stampfli et al. (2002); Torsvik et al. (1996) and Ziegler (1990)
  2. meaning entire Earth in Ancient Greek
  3. Cocks L.R.M. & Torsvik T.H. 2006. European geography in a global context from the Vendian to the end of the Palaeozoic in: Gee D.G. & Stephenson R.A. (eds) European lithosphere dynamics, Geological Society of London Memoirs 32, pp. 83–95.
  4. Stanley, Steven 1998. Earth system history. pp355–359
  5. 5.0 5.1 Zeeya Merali, Brian J. Skinner Visualizing Earth Science. Wiley. ISBN 978-0470-41847-5


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Pangaea, which are similar to those in the above article.








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