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The Christmas Pantomime colour lithograph bookcover, 1890, showing the harlequinade characters

Pantomime (informally, panto), not to be confused with a mime artist, referring to a theatrical performer of mime, is a musical-comedy theatrical production traditionally found in the United Kingdom, Canada, Jamaica, South Africa, Japan, India, Ireland, Gibraltar and Malta, and is mostly performed during the Christmas and New Year season.[1]



A 'pantomime' in Ancient Greece was originally a group who 'imitates all' (panto- - all, mimos - imitator)[2][3] accompanied by sung narrative and instrumental music, often played on the flute. The word later came to be applied to the performance itself.[4] The pantomime was a popular form of entertainment in ancient Greece and, later, Rome. Like theatre, it encompassed the genres of comedy and tragedy and sex. No ancient pantomime libretto has survived, partly because the genre was looked down upon by the literary elite. Nonetheless, notable ancient poets such as Lucan wrote for the pantomime, no doubt in part because the work was well paid[5]. In a speech of the late 1st century AD now lost, the orator Aelius Aristides condemned the pantomime for its erotic content and the 'effeminacy' of its dancing[6].

The style and content of modern pantomime have very clear and strong links with the Commedia dell'arte, a form of popular theatre that arose in Italy in the Early Modern Period, and which reached England by the 16th century. A 'comedy of professional artists' travelling from province to province in Italy and then France improvised and told stories which told lessons to the crowd, changing the main character depending on where they were performing. The great clown Grimaldi transformed the format. Each story had the same fixed characters: the lovers, father, servants (one being crafty and the other stupid), etc. These roles/characters can be found in today's pantomimes.

The gender role reversal resembles the old festival of Twelfth Night, a combination of Epiphany and midwinter feast, when it was customary for the natural order of things to be reversed. This tradition can be traced back to pre-Christian European festivals such as Samhain and Saturnalia.

John Rich as Harlequin, c. 1720

Development as a distinctly English entertainment

The pantomime first arrived in England as entr'actes between opera pieces, eventually evolving into separate shows.

In Restoration England, a pantomime was considered a low form of opera, rather like the Commedia dell'arte but without Harlequin (rather like the French Vaudeville). In 1717, actor and manager John Rich introduced Harlequin to the British stage under the name of 'Lun' (for 'lunatic') and began performing wildly popular pantomimes. These pantomimes gradually became more topical and comic, often involving as many special theatrical effects as possible. Colley Cibber and his colleagues competed with Rich and produced their own pantomimes, and pantomime was a substantial (if decried) subgenre in Augustan drama. According to some sources, the Lincoln's Inn Field Theatre and the Drury Lane Theatre were the first to stage something like real pantomimes (in the later sense that has become codified with its fairly rigid set of conventions), creating high competition between them to put on the more elaborate show. As manager of Drury Lane in the 1870s, Augustus Harris is now considered the father of modern pantomime.

There seems to be some disagreement among scholars as to exactly when the true pantomime genre got started. According to one eminent authority, Russell A. Peck, the John Hall Deane Professor of English at the University of Rochester[7], 'The first Cinderella Pantomime in England was the 1804 production at Drury Lane, dir. Mr. Byrne,'[8] with music by Michael Kelly (1762-1826). This date would seem too early for panto in its mature form, with its extensive adherence to a set of conventions, including the pantomime dame role, the principal boy played by a young woman, the animal-costume roles, audience participation, etc. But, if Peck means that this was the first pantomime in England in the older sense of 'low opera', then his date seems too late, for he seems to disregard the fact that pantomime as 'low opera' had already arisen in Restoration-era England, considerably prior to 1804. Even limiting this claim to Cinderella, one finds that other sources give 1870 as the date of the first Cinderella pantomime in England (see below).

Pantomime traditions and conventions

Traditionally performed at Christmas, with family audiences, British pantomime is now a popular form of theatre, incorporating song, dance, buffoonery, slapstick, cross-dressing, in-jokes, audience participation, and mild sexual innuendo. There are a number of traditional story-lines, and there is also a fairly well-defined set of performance conventions. Lists of these items follow, along with a special discussion of the 'guest celebrity' tradition, which emerged in the late 19th century.

Traditional stories

Panto story lines and scripts typically make no reference to Christmas, and are almost always based on traditional children's stories, including several written or popularized by the French pioneer of the fairy tale genre, Charles Perrault, as well as others based on the English tales collected by Joseph Jacobs. Plot lines are often 'adapted' for comic or satirical effect, and certain familiar scenes tend to recur, regardless of plot relevance. Straight re-tellings of the original stories are rare in the extreme.

The most popular titles are:

Performance conventions

The form has a number of conventions, some of which have changed or weakened a little over the years, and by no means all of which are obligatory.

  • The leading male juvenile character (the principal boy) - is traditionally played by a young woman, and usually in tight-fitting male garments (such as breeches) that make her female charms evident.
  • An older woman (the pantomime dame - often the hero's mother) is usually played by a man in drag.
  • Risqué double entendre, often wringing innuendo out of perfectly innocent phrases. This is, in theory, over the heads of the children in the audience.
  • Audience participation, including calls of "He's behind you!" (or "Look behind you!"), and "Oh, yes it is!" and "Oh, no it isn't!" The audience is always encouraged to boo the villain and "awwwww" the poor victims, such as the rejected dame, who usually fancies the prince.
  • A song combining a well-known tune with re-written lyrics. The audience is encouraged to sing the song; often one half of the audience is challenged to sing 'their' chorus louder than the other half.
  • The animal, played by an actor in 'animal skin' or animal costume. It is often a pantomime horse or cow, played by two actors in a single costume, one as the head and front legs, the other as the body and back legs.
  • The good fairy always enters from stage right and the evil villain enters from stage left. In the medieval mystery plays the right side of the stage symbolised Heaven and the left side symbolised Hell.
  • Sometimes the story villain will squirt members of the audience with water guns or pretend to throw a bucket of 'water' at the audience that is actually full of streamers.
  • A slapstick comedy routine may be performed, often a decorating or baking scene, with humour based on throwing messy substances. Until the 20th century, British pantomimes often concluded with a harlequinade, a free-standing entertainment of slapstick. Nowadays the slapstick is more or less incorporated into the main body of the show.
  • In the 19th century, until the 1880s, pantomimes typically included a transformation scene in which a Fairy Queen magically transformed the pantomime characters into the characters of the harlequinade, who then performed the harlequinade.[9]
  • The Chorus, who can be considered extras on-stage, and often appear in multiple scenes (but as different characters) and who perform a variety of songs and dances throughout the show. Due to their multiple roles they may have as much stage-time as the lead characters themselves.

Guest celebrity in pantomime

Another contemporary pantomime tradition is the celebrity guest star, a practice that dates back to the late 19th century, when Augustus Harris, proprietor of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, hired well-known variety artists for his pantomimes.

Until the decline of the British music hall tradition by the late 1950s, many popular artists played in pantomimes across the country. Many modern pantomimes use popular artists to promote the pantomime, and the play is often adapted to allow the star to showcase their well-known act, even when such a spot has little relation to the plot, for example, Rolf Harris might perform Jake the Peg in a pantomime about Aladdin.

Nowadays, a pantomime occasionally pulls off a coup by engaging a guest star with an unquestionable thespian reputation, as was the case with the Christmas 2004 production of Aladdin that featured Sir Ian McKellen as Widow Twankey, which he reprised in the 2005 production at the Old Vic theatre in London. Shakespearian actor Roger Allam starred opposite McKellen as the evil Abanazaar.

  • Since 2005, British television and theatre actor John Barrowman has been returning repeatedly to the pantomime, playing Prince Charming in 2005's Cinderella; Jack in 2006's Jack and the Beanstalk; Aladdin in 2007's Aladdin; and most recently the title character of Robin Hood in 2008 and 2009.
  • As well as being an actor in the Shakespearean tradition, McKellen had become hugely famous with children as Gandalf in The Lord of the Rings and Magneto in X-Men. "At least we can tell our grandchildren that we saw McKellen's Twankey and it was huge," said Michael Billington, theatre critic of The Guardian, December 20, 2004, entering into the pantomime spirit of double entendre. In recent times, the in pantomimes have featured soap stars, comedians or former sportsmen rather as celebrity attractions, supplemented by jobbing actors and pantomime specialists.
  • Christopher Biggins was a pantomime dame for 38 consecutive years until 2007 when his participation on I'm A Celebrity, Get Me Out of Here! made it impossible for him to do a panto that year.
  • In Canterbury, the Marlowe Theatre traditionally has a famous person from EastEnders or Neighbours, both popular soap operas.
  • In summer of 1974 the Old Vic staged Jack and the Beanstalk on a double bill with Euripides' Bacchae at the Edinburgh Festival. Jack and the Beanstalk was the perfect antidote to the passionate violence of Euripides' tragedy.

Pantomime Roles

Major Roles

Role Role Description Played by
Principal Boy/Girl Main Character in the pantomime Man/Woman
In most pantomimes there is a Principal boy played by a woman,
often wearing tights to show off a shapely pair of legs
Panto Dame Normally the Hero's Mother Man
Co-Principal Boy/Girl Normally the Hero's Love Interest Man/Woman
Comic Lead Does physical comedy and relates to children in the audience.
Often has a phrase he repeats several times and the audience traditionally call out the opposite in response.
For example he says "Oh no it isn't", The audience reply "Oh yes it is".
Villain The Bad guy of a pantomime Man/Woman

Minor Roles

Role Role Description Played by
Good Fairy Woman
Dancers Usually a group of Young Boys and Girls

In the United Kingdom today

Many theatres in cities and provincial towns throughout the United Kingdom continue to have an annual professional pantomime. Pantomime is also very popular with amateur dramatics societies throughout the UK, and the pantomime season (roughly speaking, December to February) will see pantomime productions in many village halls and similar venues across the country.

  • Tewkesbury's Roses Theatre has a pantomime which has a fully professional cast (apart from the young chorus/dancers), none of whom are 'star' soap opera performers, stand-up comedians or pop singers as a matter of policy. The panto is traditional in style, and the principal boy is played by a female actor.
  • The recently renovated Hackney Empire has presented an enormously successful and highly regarded panto with multi-racial cast since 1988.
  • York's Theatre Royal pantomime features a regular cast headed by Berwick Kaler, who has played the dame there for 30 years.
  • Most years the long running radio soap opera The Archers on BBC Radio 4 has a pantomime in the village hall produced by Linda Snell. Apart from the joke that a group of experienced professional actors is portraying an essentially local and amateur event, it is a highly convincing element of the Ambridge scene.

Outside the United Kingdom

In Australia

Pantomimes in Australia at Christmas were once very popular, although the familiarity of young Australians with the genre has declined greatly since the middle of the last century, for all manner of reasons, and it is no longer the force it once was. In the hey-day of Australian Pantomime, professional productions often featured celebrities. During the 1950s, a Christmas Cinderella pantomime in Sydney featured Danny Kaye as Buttons. Radio Christmas pantomimes have been featured on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[10]

The Adventures of Goldilockpick and Little Red Riding Hoodlum is one of a string of fractured pantos by North Queensland playwright Todd Barty. Barty most recently directed the play for Tropic Sun Theatre in Townsville. While a small production company in Brisbane is trying to revive 'new' pantomimes. Sean Dennehy, a Brisbane-based English theatre actor, director and writer, has written Tradition Impossible, a contemporary panto shown at South Bank Parklands for the Christmas period in 2008.[11]

At the "University of Western Australia", a group of students created "The UWA Pantomime Society" in 2003. Each semester the society write and produce a self-devised pantomime.[12]

In Cambodia

The 'Phnom Penh Players' (Cambodia's most established expat amateur theatre company) hold an annual panto each December. Their performances follow all the basic rules of Panto, and they have incorporated the idea of characters which don't belong in the show. These charactes often reflect upon the ridiculousness of the situations in which the play's main characters find themselves (echoing the feeling that most expats have everyday). In 2009 the "Phnom Penh Players" started a new tradition of having a celebrity guest star who fails to appear. 2009's Panto "Snow White and the Jackson 5" is billed to star Jude Law, but will instead feature co-writer/director Zak Kendall as an emergency stand in.

In Canada

Christmas pantomimes have been performed in Canada for as many years as there have been British residents that enjoy this type of theatre.


Royal Canadian Theatre Company headed by Artisitic Director Ellie "Panto Queen" King produces Robin Hood. Ellie has been writing, directing and producing Panto in the Lower Mainland of BC for the past 20 years. Her productions are quintessentially British honouring the form she was trained in since the age of three. 2009's production is Robin Hood starring Alan Cedargreen as Dame Gertie Goodbrew, Michael Roberds (New Addams Family)as the Sheriff of Nottingham and Mandy Tulloch as Robin Hood.


SPECC-Tacular Productions from Maple Ridge, B.C have been producing Pantomimes since 2001 under the expert direction of South African Ed Marshall and Brits Su Wolfe, Christine Olorenshaw and Pauline De Silva. Using mainly British Scripts their Panto's are tradition with Wolfe and Marshall usually playing Principal Boy and Dame respectively. 2009 see's the return of Cinderella under the direction of Marshall who wrote the script. 2010 see's SPECC-tacular Productions breaking with tradition by bringing 2 pantomimes to The Act, Maple Ridge. The Wizard of Oz - a summer spectacular and Beauty & The Beast at Christmas.


The White Rock Players' Club in White Rock, British Columbia has been producing Christmas pantomimes since 1955.[13] They have developed their own style of Panto and although it strays from the stricter British rules, the Dame, Principal Boy, Principal Girl and double entendres remain. The longest continually operating Panto group in Ontario is Peel Panto Players in Brampton, Ontario, founded in 1974.[14]

Since 1996, Ross Petty has been producing 'Fractured Fairy Tale Musicals' at Toronto’s Elgin Theatre. These shows are firmly in the old English pantomime tradition, incorporating many of the style’s elements—broad comedy, winking asides that break the 'fourth wall', audience participation and a man in a dress, often Mr. Petty himself.[citation needed] The guest stars are chosen to be of fun and interest to Toronto audiences, and include Canadian TV stars (Ernie Coombs, better known as Mr. Dressup, Sheila McCarthy, two of the Degrassi kids) ballet stars (Karen Kain, Frank Augustyn, Rex Harrington and athletes (Olympic skater Kurt Browning, WWE wrestler Bret Hart). The list of shows produced is also in keeping with panto tradition: Peter Pan, Cinderella, Aladdin, Robin Hood, Jack and the Beanstalk and Snow White.

Since 2006, Drayton Entertainment,[15] located in Ontario under the artistic direction of Alex Mustakas, has been offering traditional British Panto at the St. Jacobs Country Playhouse under the direction and choreography of Trudy Moffatt. Using well known Canadian theatrical performers as well as Canadian TV stars (such as Fred Stinson, best known as Major Bedhead from The Big Comfy Couch) the show list includes Aladdin, Cinderella, Robin Hood, and an original offering called The Christmas Show.

Since 1996, North Vancouver's SMP Dramatic Society[16] has been producing pantos, including the traditional (Cinderella, Aladdin, and Snow White) along with the less traditional (the western Panto at the OK Corral and the upcoming The Wizard of Oz).

In Victoria, British Columbia, St. Luke's Players[17] have been presenting a panto since 2006, although some of its members have been participating in pantos for over 30 years. In 2006, they presented Aladdin, in 2007 it was Cinderella, in 2008 the production was Sleeping Beauty. In 2009, St. Luke's Players is presenting Jack and The Beanstalk.

East End Theatre of Ottawa has been performing a Christmas panto since 2002 under the direction of Diane Barnett. Next year in 2009 it will be in the new theatre in Orleans. To become a member and to support East End Theatre.[18]

In Edmonton, Alberta, the St. George of England Society has been performing a pantomime around Christmas or New Year's since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Society celebrated its 25th pantomime.

Internationally recognized and talented mime and pantomime artist, Director Zillur Rahman John started to work on pantomime art in Edmonton, Canada. He has been honored by the city of Edmonton, receiving the city's "Cultural Diversity in the Arts Award 2008" for his pantomime works and contribution in different countries. City Mayor Stephen Mendal presented the award on behalf of the city. John is directing a pantomime production to be staged on March 28, 2009 in Edmonton, Canada.

The nasty step-sisters from the Lakeside Players' Christmas 1995 production of Cinderella.

The Lakeside Players[19] is a non-profit community theatre group formed in January 1990 in the Britannia neighborhood of Ottawa, Canada, and based at Ron Kolbus Lakeside Centre (formerly Lakeside Gardens) in Britannia Park. The spring of 1990 heralded our first production, a 2-hour variety show that included musical and comedy acts, and two dramatic scenes from full-length plays. Starting in the 1991/92 season, they performed Aladdin with later productions of Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, The Princess and the Sentinel, The Wonderful Story of Mother Goose, The Sleeping Beauty, Robinson Crusoe, Red Riding Hood, Hickory Dickory Dock and Puss in Boots . These productions have included up to 25 children dancing and singing, and 10 - 15 adults in the cast. The Pantomime animals in our productions have included a dancing Camel, Daisy the Cow, Moosesense, and Priscilla...the goose that lays golden eggs.

A Pantomime has been performed in Newmarket, Ontario every Christmas since 1978 when the Newmarket Theatre Centre first performed Cinderella. The Newmarket Stage Company has carried on the tradition and they have performed Aladdin, Grand Old Duke of York and Puss-in-Boots, all at the Old Town Hall theatre in Newmarket.

In France

The Secret Panto Society has been created by British expatriates. Since 1984 they have performed pantomimes each winter with an ever-increasing success, in the small town of Pibrac, near Toulouse in southern France.

In Luxembourg

In January 2010, a british theatre company is performing Aladdin at the Chateau Battembourg.

In Germany

Chaincourt Theatre Group of Goethe University Frankfurt puts on a pantomime each year.

In Switzerland

The Geneva Amateur Operatic Society has performed a traditional English pantomime in Geneva since 1972. The English Theatre Group of Zug has also performed pantomimes since the 1990s. The Basel English Panto Group also performs every year.

In the Netherlands

I.D.E.A (Intl Drama English speaking Associates)[20] stage their Panto's Jan/Feb time in Hendrik Ido Ambacht, The Netherlands. IDEA is an English speaking drama group set up by expats with English as their mother tongue in the South of the Netherlands in 1991.

The AATG (Anglo-American Theatre Group)[21] also stages a panto in the Netherlands. In 2009, they will be performing "Peter Pan" at the Koninklijke Schouwburg (Royal Theatre) in The Hague in December.

In the United States

Pantomime, as described in this article, is seldom performed in the United States. As a consequence, Americans commonly understand the word "pantomime" to refer to the art of mime, as was practised, for example, by Marcel Marceau and Nola Rae, and assume it to be a solo performance such as is as common on street corners as on stage. However, certain shows that came from the pantomime traditions, especially Peter Pan, are performed quite often, and a few American theatre companies produce traditional British-style pantomime as well as American adaptations of the form.

The form is not completely unknown in the US. The Piccolo Theatre of Evanston, Illinois, for example, has presented original holiday pantomimes annually since 2001 as part of its mission to revive traditional physical comedy theater forms for presentation to American audiences. Stages Repertory Theatre in Houston, Texas, produced a pantomime Cinderella in December 2008, with book and lyrics by Kate Hawley and music by Gregg Coffin[22]. For the 2009 Christmas season, the Minneapolis Children's Theatre Company staged the same children's classic as a pantomime production.[23] In West Des Moines, Iowa, The Bakers Dozen Mime and Improv Troupe have been performing pantomime since the late 1960s. They put on two official shows a year which are performed to sold out houses. Pantomonium Productions, headed by Christopher Major, has been doing pantomime at various venues in New York City since 2004. A large percentage of tickets to its productions are distributed to children's charities. The Kennett Amateur Theatrical Society (KATS) of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania has been producing original pantomimes since 2001. British born Dr. Gary Smith founded KATS with a group of local friends specifically to perform pantomime, and the January performances have become a local tradition, attracting guests from all over the Mid-Atlantic region. The Hideout Players in Chicago have staged original pantomimes since 2006, featuring various English and American amateur actors, including musicians Kelly Hogan, Jon Langford and Sally Timms of the Mekons, and a recurring appearance by Moby Duck, the Pantomime Quacking Whale. Themes have included Vikings, Daleks, Pirates, Darwin and his discovery of the origins of Christmas, and Santa's early life as a Zeppelin Pirate. Theatre Britain has been producing original pantomimes annually in Dallas, Texas since 2002[24]. The 2009 panto was Puss In Boots[25].

Earliest U.S. productions

According to Professory Peck [26] of the University of Rochester, the earliest pantomime productions in the US, were Cinderella pantomime productions in New York in March 1808, New York again in August 1808, Philadelphia in 1824, and Baltimore in 1839.[27] However, it is doubtful to what extent these early productions resembled pantomime by its current definition in England, which dates from about the last third of the 19th century.

See also

ITV Panto



  1. ^ Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ There is a detailed description of ancient pantomime performance in Apuleius Metamorphoses, 10,29 ff
  5. ^ Vacca, Life of Lucan 336
  6. ^ Mesk, J., Des Aelius Aristides Rede gegen die Tänzer, WS 30 (1908)
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Crowther, Andrew. "Clown and Harlequin", W. S. Gilbert Society Journal, vol. 3, issue 23, Summer 2008, pp. 710–12
  10. ^ Several of these are preserved at the National Film and Sound Archive, see their catalogue at
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ "Preview: Panto Cinderella is a British tradition," Houston Chronicle, December 8, 2008
  23. ^ "Theater review: Children's panto-style 'Cinderella' is frenzied fun for all." St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 16, 2009
  24. ^ "'Sleeping Beauty' orders patrons to not keep quiet" The Dallas Morning News, December 13, 2002
  25. ^ "Theatre Britain's panto 'Puss in Boots' is purrfectly silly fun" The Dallas Morning News, December 3, 2009
  26. ^
  27. ^


  • Broadbent, R.J. A History of Pantomime. London, 1901.

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

" PANTOMIME, a term which has been employed in different senses at different times in the history of the drama. Of the Roman pantomimus, a spectacular kind of play in which the functions of the actor were confined to gesticulation and dancing, while occasional music was sung by a chorus or behind the scenes, some account is given under Drama. In Roman usage the term was applied both to the actor of this kind of play and to the play itself; less logically, we also use the term to signify the method of the actor when confined to gesticulation. Historically speaking, so far as the Western drama is concerned there is no intrinsic difference between the Roman pantomimus and the modern " ballet of action," except that the latter is accompanied by instrumental music only, and that the personages appearing in it are not usually masked. The English " dumb-show," though fulfilling a special purpose of its own, was likewise in the true sense of the word pantomimic. The modern pantomime, as the word is still used, more especially in connexion with the English stage, signifies a dramatic entertainment in which the action is carried on with the help of spectacle, music and dancing, and in which the performance of that action or of its adjuncts is conducted by certain conventional characters, originally derived from Italian " masked comedy," itself an adaptation of the fabulae Atellanae of ancient Italy. Were it not for this addition, it would be difficult to define modern pantomime so as to distinguish it from the masque; and the least rational of English dramatic species would have to be regarded as essentially identical with another to which English literature owes some of its choicest fruit.

The contributory elements which modern pantomime contains very speedily, though in varying proportions and manifold combinations, introduced themselves into the modern drama as it had been called into life by the Renaissance. In Italy the transition was almost imperceptible from the pastoral drama to the opera; on the Spanish stage ballets with allegorical figures and military spectacles were known towards the close of the 16th century; in France ballets were introduced in the days of Marie de' Medici, and the popularity of the opera was fully established in the earlier part of the reign of Louis XIV. The history of these elements need not be pursued here, but there is a special ingredient in modern pantomime of which something more has to be said. From the latter part of the 16th century (Henry III. in 1596, sought to divert the dreaded states-general at Blois by means of the celebrated Italian company of the Gelosi) professional Italian comedy (commedia dell' arte, called commedia all' improviso only because of the skill with which the schemes of its plays were filled up by improvisation) had found its way to Paris with its merry company of characters, partly corresponding to the favourite types of regular comedy both ancient and modern, but largely borrowed from the new species of masked comedy - so called from its action being carried on by certain typical figures in masks - said to have been invented earlier in the same century by Angelo Beolco (Ruzzante) of Padua. These types, local in origin, included Pantalone the Venetian merchant, who survives in the uncommercial Pantaloon, the Bolognese Dottore. The Zannis (Giovannis) were the domestic servants in this species of comedy, and included among other varieties the Arlecchino. This is by far the most interesting of these types, and by far the best discussed. The Arlecchino was formerly supposed to have been, like the rest, of Italian origin. The very remarkable contribution (cited below) of Dr Otto Driesen to the literature of folk-lore as well as to that of the stage seems however to establish the conclusion (to which earlier conjectures pointed) that the word Harlequin or Herlequin is of French origin, and that the dramatic figure of. Harlequin is an evolution from the popular tradition of the harlekin-folk, mentioned about the end of the 11th century by the Norman Ordericus Vitalis. The " damned souls " of legend became the comic demons of later centuries, the croque-sots with the devil's mask; they left the impress of their likeness on the hell-mouth of the religious drama, but were gradually humanized as a favourite type of the Parisian popular street-masques (charivaris) of the 14th and i 5th centuries. Italian literature contains only a single passage before the end of the 16th century which can be brought into any connexion with this type - the alichino (cat's back) of canto xxi. of the Inferno. The French harlequin was, however, easily adopted into the family of Italian comedy, where he may, like his costume,' have been associated with early national traditions, and where he continued to diverge from his fellow Zannis of the stolid sort, the Scapin of French comedy-farce. From the time of the performances in France of the celebrated Fedeli company, which played there at intervals from the beginning to the middle of the 17th century onwards, performing in a court ballet in 1636, Tristran Martinelli had been its harlequin, and the character thus preceded that of the Parisian favourite Trivelin, whose name Cardinal de Retz was fond of applying to Cardinal Mazarin. There can be no pretence here of pursuing the French harlequin through his later developments in the various species of the comic drama, including that of the marionettes, or of examining the history of his supersession by Pierrot and of his ultimate extinction.

Students of French comedy, and of Moliere in particular, are aware of the influence of the Italian players upon the progress of French comedy, and upon the works of its incomparable master. In other countries, where the favourite types of Italian popular comedy had been less generally seen or were unknown, popular comic figures such as the English fools and clowns, the German Hanswurst, or the Dutch Pickelhering, were ready to renew themselves in any and every fashion which preserved to them the gross salt favoured by their patrons. Indeed, in Germany, where the term pantomime was not used, a rude form of dramatic buffoonery, corresponding to the coarser sides of the modern English species so-called, long flourished, and threw back for centuries the progress of the regular drama. The banishment of Hanswurst from the German stage was formally proclaimed by the famous actress Caroline Neuber at Leipzig in a play composed for the purpose in 1737. After being at last suppressed, it found a commendable substitute in the modern Zauberposse, the more genial Vienna counterpart of the Paris feerie and the modern English extravaganza.

In England, where the masque was only quite exceptionally revived after the Restoration, the love of spectacle and other frivolous allurements was at first mainly met by the various forms of dramatic entertainment which went by the name of " opera." In the preface to Albion and Albanius (1685), Dryden gives a definition of opera which would fairly apply to modern extravaganza, or to modern pantomime with the harlequinade 1 The traditional costume of the ancient Roman mimi included the centunculus or variegated (harlequin's) jacket, the shaven head, the sooty face and the unshod feet.

left out. Character-dancing was, however, at the same time largely introduced into regular comedy; and, as the theatres vied with one another in seeking quocunque modo to gain the favour of the public, the English stage was fully prepared for the innovation which awaited it. Curiously enough, the long-lived but cumbrous growth called pantomime in England owes its immediate origin to the beginnings of a dramatic species which has artistically furnished congenial delight to nearly two centuries of Frenchmen. Of the early history of vaudeville it must here suffice to say that the unprivileged actors, at the fairs, who had borrowed some of the favourite character-types of Italian popular comedy, after eluding prohibitions against the use by them of dialogue and song, were at last allowed to set up a comic opera of their own. About the second quarter of the 18th century, before these performers were incorporated with the Italians, the light kind of dramatic entertainment combining pantomime proper with dialogue and song enjoyed high favour with the French and their visitors during this period of peace. The vaudeville was cultivated by Le Sage and other writers of mark, though it did not conquer an enduring place in dramatic literature till rather later, when it had, moreover, been completely nationalized by the extension of the Italian types.

It was this popular species of entertainment which, under the name of pantomime, was transplanted to England before in France it had attained to any fixed form, or could claim for its productions any place in dramatic literature. Colley Cibber mentions as the first example, followed by " that Succession of monstrous`! , Medlies," a piece on: the story of Mars and Venus, which was still in dumb-show; for he describes it as " form'd into a connected Presentation of Dances in Character, wherein the Passions were so happily expressed, and the whole Story so intelligibly told, by a mute Narration of Gesture only, that even thinking Spectators allow'd it both a pleasing and a rational Entertainment." There is nothing to show that Harlequin and his companions figured in this piece. Genest, who has no record of it, dates the period when such entertainments first came into vogue in England about 1723. In that year the pantomime of Harlequin Dr Faustus had been produced at Drury Lane - its author being John Thurmond, a dancing master, who afterwards (in 1727) published a grotesque entertainment called The Miser, or Wagner and Abericock (a copy of this is in the Dyce Library). Hereupon, in December 1723, John Rich (1692-1761), then lessee of the theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields, produced there as a rival pantomime The Necromancer, br History of Dr Faustus, no doubt, says Genest, " gotten up with superior splendour." He had as early as 1717 been connected with the production of a piece called Harlequin Executed, and there seem traces of similar entertainments as far back as the year 1700. But it was the inspiriting influence of French example and the keen rivalry between the London houses, which in 1723 really established pantomime on the English stage. Rich was at the time fighting a difficult battle against Drury Lane, and his pantomimes at Lincoln's Inn Fields, and afterwards at Covent Garden, were extraordinarily successful. He was himself an inimitable harlequin, and from Garrick's lines in his honour it appears that his acting consisted of " frolic gestures " without words. The favourite Drury Lane harlequin was Pinkethman (Pope's " poor Pinky "); readers of the Tatler (No. 188) will remember the ironical nicety with which his merits are weighed against those of his competitor Bullock at the other house. Colley Cibber, when described by Pope as " mounting the wind on grinning dragons " briskly denied having in his own person or otherwise encouraged such fooleries; in his Apology, however, he enters into an elaborate defence of himself for having allowed himself to be forced into countenancing the " gin-shops of the stage," pleading that he was justified by necessity, as Henry IV. was in changing his religion. Another butt of Pope's, Lewis Theobald, was himself the author of more than one pantomime; their titles already run in the familiar fashion, e.g. A Dramatick Entertainment, call'd Harlequin a Sorcerer, with the Loves of Pluto and Proserpine (1725; the " book of the words," as it may be called, is in the Dyce Library). In another early pantomime (also in the Dyce Library) called Perseus and Andromeda, with the Rape of Colombine, or The Flying Lovers, there are five " interludes, three serious and two comic." This is precisely in the manner of Fielding's dramatic squib against pantomimes, Tumble-down Dick, or Phaeton in the Suds, first acted in 1744, and ironically dedicated to " Mr John Lun," the name that Rich chose to assume as harlequin. It is a capital bit of burlesque, which seems to have been directly suggested by Pritchard's Fall of Phaeton, produced in 1736.

There seems no need to pursue further the history of English pantomime in detail. " Things of this nature are above criticism," as Mr Machine, the " composer " of Phaeton, says in Fielding's piece. The attempt was made more than once to free the stage from the incubus of entertainments to which the public persisted in flocking; in vain Colley Cibber at first laid down the rule of never giving a pantomime together with a good play; in vain his son Theophilus after him advised the return of part of the entrance money to those who would leave the house before the pantomime began. " It may be questioned," says the chronicler, " if there was a demand for the return of 20 in ten years." Pantomime carried everything before it when there were several theatres in London, and a dearth of high dramatic talent prevailed in all; and, allowing for occasional counterattractions of a not very dissimilar nature, pantomime continued to flourish after the Licensing Act of 1737 had restricted the number of London play-houses, and after Garrick's star had risen on the theatrical horizon. He was himself obliged to satisfy the public appetite, and to disoblige the admirers of his art, in deference to the drama's most imperious patrons - the public at large.

In France an attempt was made by Noverre (q.v.) to restore pantomime proper to the stage as an independent species, by treating mythological subjects seriously in artificial ballets. This attempt, which of course could not prove permanently successful, met in England also with great applause. In an anonymous tract of the year 1789 in the Dyce Library, attributed by Dyce to Archdeacon Nares (the author of the Glossary), Noverre's pantomime or ballet Cupid and Psyche is commended as of very extraordinary merit in the choice and execution of the subject. It seems to have been without words. The writer of the tract states that " very lately the serious pantomime has made a new advance in this country, and has gained establishment in an English theatre "; but he leaves it an open question whether the grand ballet of Medea and Jason (apparently produced a few years earlier, for a burlesque on the subject came out in 1781)was the first complete performance of the kind produced in England. He also notes The Death of Captain Cook, adapted from the Parisian stage, as possessing considerable dramatic merit, and exhibiting " a pleasing picture of savage customs and manners." To conclude, the chief difference between the earlier and later forms of English pantomime seems to lie in the fact that in the earlier Harlequin pervaded the action, appearing in the comic scenes which alternated throughout the piece with the serious which formed the backbone of the story. Columbine (originally in Italian comedy Harlequin's daughter) was generally a village maiden courted by her adventurous lover, whom village constables pursued, thus performing the laborious part of the policeman of the modern harlequinade. The brilliant scenic effects were of course accumulated, instead of upon the transformation scene, upon the last scene of all, which in modern pantomime follows upon the shadowy chase of the characters called the rally. The commanding influence of the clown, to whom pantaloon is attached as friend, flatterer and foil, seems to be of comparatively modern growth; the most famous of his craft was undoubtedly Joseph Grimaldi (1779-1837). His memory is above all connected with the famous pantomime of Mother Goose, produced at Covent Garden in 1806. The older British type of Christmas pantomime, which kept its place in London till the 'seventies, has been preserved from oblivion in Thackeray's Sketches and Travels in London. The species is not yet wholly extinct; but, by degrees, the rise of the music-halls and the popularity of a new type of music-hall performer influenced the character of the show which was given under the name of a Christmas pantomime at the theatres, and it became more of a burles q ue " variety entertainment," dovetailed into a fairy play and with the " harlequinade " part (which had formed the closing scene of the older sort) sometimes omitted. The word had really lost its meaning. The thing itself survived rather in such occasional appearances of the Pierrot " drama without words " as charmed London playgoers in the early 'nineties in such pieces as L'Enfant prodigue. /n==Authorities== - For a general survey see K. F. F. Flogel, Geschichte des Grotesk-Komischen, revised ed. by F. W. Eveling (1867); A. Pougin, Dictionnaire historique et pittoresque du theatre (Paris, 1885). As to the commedia dell'arte, masked, comedy, in Italy and France, and their influence on French regular comedy, see L. Moland, Moliere et la comedie italienne (2nd ed., Paris, 1867); and O. Driesen's remarkable study, Der Ursprung des Harlekin (Berlin, 1904). As to the German Hanswurst and Hanswurstiaden, see G. Gervinus, Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, vol. iii. (Leipzig, 1853); E. Devrient, Gesch. der deutschen Schauspielkunst, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1848); and as to the German Harlequin, Lessing's Hamburgische bramaturgie, no. 18 (1767), and the reference there to Justus Moser's Harlekin oder Vertheidigung des Grotesk-Komischen (1761). As to English pantomime, see Genest, Account of the English Stage (io vols., Bath, 1832), especially vol. iii.; Dibdin, Complete History of the Stage (5 vols., London, 1800), especially vols. ii., iv., and v.; Apology for the Life of Colley Cibber, ed. R. W. Lowe (2 vols., London, 1889); P. Fitzgerald, Life of Garrick (2 vols., London, 1868).

(A. W. W.) Panton, a town of north-western Spain, in the province of Lugo; in a mountainous district, watered by the rivers Mino and Cabe. Pop. (1900), 12,988. Livestock is extensively reared, and large quantities of wheat, wine, oats and potatoes are produced. The other industries are distilling and linen manufacture. The nearest railway station is 6 m. east, at Montforte.

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Simple English

bookcover, 1890]]

Pantomime (often called panto) is a kind of theatre entertainment usually performed around Christmas and the New Year in Britain and a few other English-speaking countries. It must not be confused with mime (acting with gestures but no speech).


A pantomimos in Ancient Greece used to be an entertainment performed by a solo dancer. In the Middle Ages a form of theatre developed called Commedia dell'arte. This was similar to a pantomime. They told a story which had certain fixed characters: the lovers, the father, the servants etc.

The Pantomime first arrived in England as a short entertainment (entr'acte) between opera pieces. Eventually it became a separate show.

The pantomime today

Today the pantomime is traditionally performed at Christmas. It is a show for children, but grownups like it as well. Usually a well-known story is told, e.g. Cinderella, Jack and the Beanstalk, Pinocchio, The Three Little Pigs, Puss in Boots, The Musicians of Bermen, Little Red Riding Hood and Goldilocks and the Three Bears etc. There is a lot of spoken dialogue but there are also songs, and sometimes the audience join in. There are many traditions in pantomime. These are some of the main ones:

  • The main young man in the play (the principal boy) may be played by a young woman, and usually in tight-fitting male clothes (such as breeches).
  • An older woman (the pantomime dame - often the hero's mother) is usually played by a man dressed as a woman.
  • Risqué (double entendre) jokes, meaning that perfectly ordinary words make people think of a naughty (sexy) meaning. Often the children do not understand these jokes, they are just for the grownups.
  • The audience take part (audience participation). For example, they call "look behind you!" (or "he's behind you!"), and "Oh, yes it is!" or "Oh, no it is not!" The audience is always encouraged to "Boo" the villain, and "Awwwww" the poor victims, such as the rejected dame, who usually fancies the prince.
  • A song combining a well-known tune with different words.
  • The animal, played by an actor in "animal skin" or animal costume. It is often a pantomime horse or cow, played by two actors in a single costume, one as the head and front legs, the other as the body and back legs.
  • The good fairy always enters from stage right and the evil villain enters from stage left. In Commedia Dell 'Arte the right side of the stage symbolized Heaven and the left side symbolized Hell.
  • The members of the cast throw out sweets to the children in the audience, or choose a few to come on stage and ask them questions.
  • Sometimes the story villain will squirt members of the audience with water guns or pretend to throw a bucket of "water" at the audience that is actually full of something harmless such as streamers
  • Sometimes the comedy is slapstick, e.g. the actors throw custard pies in one another's faces.
  • Sometimes there is a celebrity guest star.

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