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NATO reporting name: SA-22 "Greyhound"
Pantsir-S1 on 8x8 Truck KAMAZ-6560 TLAR
||Transportable SAM system
|Place of origin
||See list of operators
||KBP Instrument Design Bureau
||US$ 15 million
||Pantsir-S (prototype), Pantsir-S1, Pantsir-S1-O (or Pantsir-S1E)
|Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns
Pantsir-S1 (NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia mounted either on a tracked or wheeled vehicle or stationary. The system is a further development of SA-19/SA-N-11.
It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defence consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air-missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance. Its purpose is protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. Aerial targets include everything with a minimum radar-cross-section of 2 cm2 to 3 cm2 and speeds up to a maximum of 1000 metre/second within a maximum range of 20,000 metres and heights up to 10,000 metres – including all types of aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, cruise missiles and air-to-ground precision guided weapons. The system is claimed to be able to defend against stealth aircraft .
Development as Pantsir-S started in 1990 planned to be successor of Tunguska M1. Prototype completed in 1994 and on display on MAKS-1995. Further development stopped due to economic situation in Russia. Final development to Pantsir-S1 funded by launch customer UAE in 2000. Delivery postponed after United Arab Emirates and KBP Instrument Design Bureau agreed to redesign the system.
Some sources refers this redesign as Pantsir-S1-O or Pantsir-S1E but it is as of August 2007 not offered by KBP as a separate variant. The system has two new radars with increased range, capable of tracking more air targets but also land targets and have integrated IFF. Within the cabin two new LCD multi-function displays have replaced the multiple CRT display and a new central computer system greatly decreased the reaction time, single operator operation can be achieved when needed. Due to the new technologies adopted, the overall volume of the weapon station is reduced by a third while the overall weight is reduced by a half. System has also enhanced missiles (from type 57E6 to type 57E6-E probably interchangeable) and guns (from type 2A72 to type 2A38M).
Live firing tests undertaken in June 2006 at the Kapustin Yar firing range, Astrakhan Region, Russia. Final test series in front of delivery in May 2007 at Kapustin Yar included a forced march of 250 km to an unprepared launch position simulating the accomplishing of a typical air-defence mission. Further tests will be taken place in the UAE.
The specific feature of the Pantsir-S1 system is the combination of a multiple-band target acquisition and tracking system in conjunction with a combined missile and gun armament creating a continuous target engagement zone from 5 m height and 200 m range up to 10 km height and 20 km range, even without any external support.
Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.
- Stand alone combat operation: All the combat sequence from detecting a target to its engagement is fulfilled by a single Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle without employing other assets.
- Operation within a battery ("master-slave"): One Pantsir-S1 operates both as combat vehicle and as "master" command post. 3 to 5 Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles acting as "slave" receive target designation data from the "master" and subsequently fulfil all the combat operation stages.
- Operation within a command post: The command post sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfill the designation order.
- Operation within a battery with command post and early warning radar: The command post receives air situation picture from a connected early warning radar and sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfil the designation order.
- Pantsir-S prototype from 1994 was built on Ural-5323 8x8 truck.
- Actual Pantsir-S1 is built on KAMAZ-6560 8x8 38t truck with 400 hp.
- UAE Pantsir-S1 is built on German MAN SX 45 8x8 truck.
- Pantsir-S1 is also proposed to be built on an MZKT-7930 8x8 truck with 680 hp from the Belarus company "Minsk Wheeled Tractor Plant"
- A further Pantsir-S1 option is a tracked chassis type GM-352M1E from the Belarus company "Minsk Tractor Plant". The tracked chassis seems to be the only option where Pantsir-S1 is able to fire the 30 mm guns on the move.
- KBP offers also a stationary variant built on a container probably able to be mounted on ships also.
|Place of origin
||57E6, 57E6-E, 57E6Y
||frag-HE and multiple continuous rod
|Contact and proximity
|20 kilometres (12 mi)
||10,000 metres (33,000 ft)
Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve 57E6 or 57E6-E two-stage solid fuel radio-command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch containers. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body in tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 second of flight, after it is separated from the sustainer-stage. The sustainer is the highly agile part of the missile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous rod and fragmentation warhead, contact and proximity fuses as also radio transponder and laser responder to be localised for guidance. The missile is not fitted with seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Instead high-precision target and missile tracking is provided via the systems multiband sensor system and guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight. Missiles can be fired in at up to four targets but also salvos of two missiles at one target. Missile is believed to have a hit probability of 70-95% and have a 15 year storage lifetime in its sealed containers. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.
Two dual 2A38M 30 mm autocannon guns are fitted with 700 rounds of a variety of ammunition - HE (High Explosive) fragmentation, fragmentation tracer, armour-piercing with tracer. Ammunition type can be selected by the crew depending on the nature of the target. Maximum rate of fire is 2,500 rounds per minute per gun. Range is up to 4 km. The combined gun-missile system has an extremely low altitude engagement capability (targets as low as 4 m AGL can be engaged by this system).
Wheeled combat vehicles have to be jacked up to keep the machine in the horizontal position and be able to fire the gun. The KAMAZ-6560 has four oil hydraulic jacks for this purpose.
- Designation: 2A38M
- Type: twin-barrel automatic anti-aircraft gun
- Calibre: 30 mm
- Maximum rate of fire: 2,500 rounds per minute per gun
- Muzzle velocity: 960 m/s
- Projectile weight: 0.97 kg
- Ammunition: 700 rounds per gun
- Minimum range: 0.2 m
- Maximum range: 4 km
- Minimum altitude: 0 m AGL
- Maximum altitude: 3 km
The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Detection range is 32–36 km and tracking range is 24–28 km for a target with 2 m2 RCS. This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight.
As well as radar, the fire control system also has an electro-optic channel with long-wave thermal imager and infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of Pantsir-S1 is also being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted.
The two independent guidance channels - radar and electro-optic - allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. Maximum engagement rate is up to 10 targets per minute.
In order to increase high operational readiness KBP has designed a couple of vehicles to support Pantsir-S1 in the field.
- Transporter-Loader - One Transloader per two combat vehicles ensures rapid replacement of ammunition during combat operations.
- Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle - This Vehicle and its crew carries out maintenance a repair operations on the systems mechanical assemblies.
- Electronic Maintenance Vehicle - Carries out maintenance and repair operations on the systems electronic units and devices.
- Adjustment Vehicle - For adjustment operations on the system.
- Spare Parts Vehicle - This vehicle carries the common kit of spare parts, tools and accessories for the system.
- Mobile Trainer - Designed to train the combat vehicle crews in field conditions on the weapon system.
Pantsir-S1 Weapon System. In the centre the EHF phased-array tracking Radar. Two twin-barrel 2A38M automatic anti-aircraft guns and 12 ready to launch missile-containers each containing one 57E6-E command guided surface to air missile.
Target acquisition radar:
- Type: phased-array
- Coverage: 360°
- Maximum detection range: at least 32 km, up to 36 km
- Band: UHF
Target tracking radar:
- Type: phased-array
- Coverage: cone +/-45°
- Maximum tracking range: at least 24 km, up to 28 km
- Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 20
- Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 3
- Maximum number of missiles can be radio-controlled simultaneously: 4
- Band: EHF
- IFF: Separate or integrated upon customer's request
Autonomous Optoelectronic System:
- Type: Detection, automatic acquisition and tracking of air and ground targets
- Target tracking band: Infra Red 3-5 µm
- Missile localisation band: Infra Red 0,8-0,9 µm
- Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 1
- Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 1
- Maximum number of missiles can be localised simultaneously: 1
- Number of targets that can be simultaneously engaged: 4 (three by radar, one by EO)
- Maximum number of targets engagement rate: 10 per minute
- Crew: 1 - 2 operators for the air defense system and 1 driver
- Reaction time: 4–6 seconds (from target acquisition to firing first missile)
- Russia- Will begin entering service with the Russian Air Force, first deliveries begin in 2008. Will eventually replace the Tunguska-M1 currently used by the Russian Air Force. Russia currently operates some 31 units of the Pantsir-S1, rounding out by 2016 to roughly 300.
- United Arab Emirates - 50 on order; Launch customer of Pantsir-S1. Ordered in May 2000, half of them tracked, the other half wheeled. Due to deliver in three batches by the end of 2005 - 12 in 2003, 24 in 2004 and 14 in 2005. Prices given where US$ 734 million ( including a US$ 100 million pay in advance to complete R&D ), with the price per single unit being about US$ 15 million. Delivery postponed after new design decisions were taken and UAE is said to have paid additional US$ 66 Mio. to cover major improvements. All 50 systems will now be wheeled on MAN SX 45 8x8 trucks from Germany, as well as the support vehicles. Delivery of prototype accomplished in 2007. With that the MAN SX45 is the only "western" vehicle that can accommodate the S1 system and has a worldwide logistics and support network through their importer network. Delivery of the 50 systems ordered in 2000 have started in 2007 with the first two serially produced systems. British Jane's Defence Weekly reported on October 30.; delays in further deliveries. Based on test-firing data, some further optimisation of the systems is required. An deliverys will take place over the next three years under an amended schedule. As reported by Kommersant in June 2006 UAE is said to have interest in additional 28 systems and has probably signed option for delivery in 2009-2010.
- Algeria - probably 38 on order; signed March 2006 as part of an arms package worth about US$ 8 billion. Whereas Moscow Times reported in February 2006 Algeria ordered Tunguska, RIA Novosti reported in March 2007 Algeria contracted Pantsir-S1 instead.
- Syria - 36 to 50 on order; signed 2006 as part of arms package worth about US$ 1 billion; deliveries began in August 2007; British Jane's Defence Weekly reported in May 2007 that 50 systems are on order by Damascus and that at least ten of those Pantsirs would be handed over to Iran by the end of 2008. According to Jane's Defence Weekly, Iran is reported to be the main sponsor of the deal and is paying Syria for its services as intermediary. Deliveries to Iran are categorically denied by a range of top Russian officials including First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov. There are speculations that Ivan Safronov, Russian journalist and columnist who covered military affairs for the daily newspaper Kommersant may have been killed for his critical reporting in Russia's weapons selling activities to Syria and Iran. Syria got delivery of the first dozen or so out of an order of up to 50 systems in mid-August 2007; to be handover from Syria as reported by British Jane's Defence Weekly in May 2007. This deal is denied by a range of top Russian officials.
- Jordan – According to what Jane's Defence Weekly reported in 2007 a complete Russian Pantsir-S1 short-range air-defence system was being field tested in Jordan and that the kingdom is set to place an order. army-technology.com  reports that Jordan has placed an order for an undisclosed number of systems. russiatoday.com  also reports Jordan to be customer for Pantsir-S1 it is probably purchase between 50-75 combat vehicle.
- Unidentified(?) - RIA Novosti quoted Kommersant in March 2007 that KBP has obligations to deliver to an "unidentified country". The official order backlog of KBP of US$ 2,6 bn for Pantsir-S1 systems per July 2007 compared to the system prices given by the launch order suggests that there are probably unidentified customers for about 50 or so Pantsir-S1 systems.
- ^ "KBP Instrument Design Bureau". Jane's Land-Based Air Defence. Jane's. 2009. http://search.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/00010588.htm@current&pageSelected=allJanes&keyword=pantsir&backPath=http://search.janes.com/Search&Prod_Name=JLAD&. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- ^ a b "KBP Instrument Design Bureau 96K6 Pantsyr-S1 self-propelled air-defence system". Jane's Information Group. 2008-04-02. http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/jlad0114.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- ^ "Tunguska/Pantsir-S1 (SA-19 'Grison')". Jane's Information Group. 2008-02-13. http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/binder/jsws/jsws0185.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- ^ ROSOBORONEXPORT. Catalogues of PRODUCTS, MISSILE AND ARTILLERY SYSTEMS
- ^ Eksport Vooruzheniy Journal, №1'2001 (January-February), Preliminary Estimates of Russian Performance in Military-Technical Cooperation with Foreign States in 2000
- ^ Kommersant, 29 March 2007, Russia Has Something To Offer
- ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, 30 October 2007, UAE must wait for Pantsirs
- ^ RIA Novosti quoting Kommersant, 30 June 2006, UAE to receive latest Russian air defense weapons
- ^ RIA Novosti, 29 March 2007, Algeria could become Russia's main military partner
- ^ Kommersant, 29/03/2007, Algeria Moves to First Place among Weapons Buyers
- ^ Ynetnews, 13 August 2007, IDF: Syria's antiaircraft system most advanced in world
- ^ www.defenseindustrydaily.com, 22 June 2007, Syria Buying MiG-31s, MiG-35s for $1 billion
- ^ www.cedarsrevolution.net, 19 August 2007, SA-22 Greyhound to Syria: Could Russian Air Defense Units Sent to Syria End Up in Hizbullah Hands?
- ^ Forbes.com, 17 August 2007, Syria is to send Iran air defence systems from Russia: Jane's
- ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, 22 May 2007, Iran set to obtain Pantsyr via Syria
- ^ Jane's Defence Weekly, [http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Defence-Weekly-2007/Jordan-moves-to-buy-Pantsir-S1.html
- ^ www.army-technology.com, [http://www.army-technology.com/projects/pantsyr/
- ^ www.russiatoday.com, , [http://www.russiatoday.com/Art_and_Fun/2007-11-30/Russian_Pantsir-S1__best_air_defence_money_can_buy.html
- ^ RIA Novosti, 29 March 2007, Russia, Algeria to sign $7 billion arms contracts