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A stack of manila paper
.Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon or for packaging.^ Print out the cat face pattern ( Large file or small file ) and use it as a template to cut a paper plate to make the cats face.
  • Paper Plate Crafts for Kids 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.daniellesplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.^ The pressing process can produce a glossy finish or matte finish depending on whether or not a silicone sheet is used.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

Paper is a versatile material with many uses. Whilst the most common is for writing and printing upon, it is also widely used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of industrial and construction processes, and occasionally as a food ingredient, particularly in Asian cultures.

Contents

History

.The word paper derives from the Greek term for the ancient Egyptian writing material called papyrus, which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plants.^ Unless the context clearly requires otherwise or we explicitly say so in writing, the term "Site" includes "Material" as well.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.The immediate predecessor to modern paper is believed to have originated in China in approximately the 2nd century AD, although there is some evidence for it being used before this date.^ Before class cut one paper plate in half and use one half  to form the front of the ark.
  • Paper Plate Crafts for Kids 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.daniellesplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After my first texture release, some of you mentioned you might find some ‘paper’ textures useful, so I guess you could say that this is a requested freebie.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Comments » After my first texture release, some of you mentioned you might find some ‘paper’ textures useful, so I guess you could say that this is a requested freebie.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed] Papermaking is considered to be one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China, since the first pulp papermaking process was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun. .China used paper as an effective and cheap alternative to silk, letting them sell more silk, leading to a Golden Age.^ This low cost paper is great for color photos, post cards, calling cards, announcements, art work, and proofing images for use on more expensive papers.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ The tutorial uses aged paper textures for their example.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

.The use of paper spread from China through the Islamic world, where the first paper mills were built, and entered production in Europe in the early 12th century.^ After my first texture release, some of you mentioned you might find some ‘paper’ textures useful, so I guess you could say that this is a requested freebie.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Comments » After my first texture release, some of you mentioned you might find some ‘paper’ textures useful, so I guess you could say that this is a requested freebie.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

.Mechanized production of paper in the early 19th century caused significant cultural changes worldwide, allowing for relatively cheap exchange of information in the form of letters, newspapers and books for the first time.^ Fairy Tale Story Book page comes in the form of some free paper texture courtesy of bittbox.com.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

.In 1844, both Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and German inventor F.G. Keller had invented the machine and process for pulping wood for the use in paper making.^ Print out the cat face pattern ( Large file or small file ) and use it as a template to cut a paper plate to make the cats face.
  • Paper Plate Crafts for Kids 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.daniellesplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .This would end the nearly 2000-year use of pulped rags and start a new era for the production of newsprint and eventually all paper out of pulped wood.^ Discover new Paper and other Computer Products ...
  • Paper Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ Hahnemuhle Photo Rag is a matte finish paper recommended by Paul Roark for black & white prints using MIS Ultratone inks.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ Customers are using this paper to produce all sorts of Glow in the Dark images on T-Shirts and other items.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

Papermaking

The microscopic structure of paper: Micrograph of paper autofluorescing under ultraviolet illumination. The individual fibres in this sample are around 10 µm in diameter.

Chemical pulping

The purpose of a chemical pulping process is to break down the chemical structure of lignin and render it soluble in the cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose fibers. Because lignin holds the plant cells together, chemical pulping frees the fibres and makes pulp. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper for printing, painting and writing. Chemical pulps tend to cost more than mechanical pulps, largely due to the low yield, 40–50% of the original wood. Since the process preserves fibre length, however, chemical pulps tend to make stronger paper. Another advantage of chemical pulping is that the majority of the heat and electricity needed to run the process is produced by burning the lignin removed during pulping.
.Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers.^ Stripe Generator, Lost and Taken, Wood textures, BitBox textures, paper textures, Texture King, Grunge Textures, Squidfingers, Colour Lovers, Urban Dirty, Free 3Ds Textures, 400+ [...
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

^ Hahnemuhle Fine Art Bamboo is a unique matte paper made from 90% bamboo fibres and 10% cotton and is OBA free to maximize aging resistance.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

.Not to be confused with tree-free paper.^ Most importantly, ViaStone Paper is tree-free, chlorine-free, and more energy efficient than recycle paper.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

.The Kraft process is the most commonly practiced strategy for pulp manufacturing and produces especially strong, unbleached papers that can be used directly for bags and boxes but are often processed further, e.g.^ O-Jet heat transfer paper is manufactured for use on light or dark colored Cotton Blend, 100% Cotton, and Synthetic fabrics.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ Customers are using this paper to produce all sorts of Glow in the Dark images on T-Shirts and other items.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ T-Jet heat transfer paper is manufactured for use on White and Light Colored Fabrics in Poly / Cotton Blends and 100% Cotton.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

to make corrugated cardboard.

Mechanical pulping

There are two major mechanical pulps, thermo mechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood pulp (GW). In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into large steam-heated refiners where the chips are squeezed and fibreized between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones and fibreized. .Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, >95%, but also causes paper made from this pulp to yellow and become brittle over time.^ Yet another freebie over at BittBox, this time it’s 4 old, crunchy, grunge paper textures in high resolution.
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

Mechanical pulps have rather short fibre lengths and produce weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than chemical pulp.

Deinked pulp

Paper recycling processes can use either chemical or mechanical pulp. By mixing with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre in the interests of quality. .Generally deinked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from.^ The prints made with this paper and the MIS Epson dyebased inks are better than a photograph.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:.
.
  • Mill Broke or Internal Mill Waste — this incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill which then goes back into the manufacturing system to be repulped back into paper.^ Next year my baby goes to grade one and I’ll be SLOWLY dipping my big toe into that pool again after 14 years (yikes!

    ^ It is a Legion West paper manufactured by the St. Cuthberts Mill in England.
    • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

    Such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore often not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre. .However, most paper mills have been recycling their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling become popular.
  • Preconsumer Waste — this is offcuts and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste.^ At first I didn’t “get it”, but it wasn’t long before I become obsessed passionate about card making.

    ^ Most importantly, ViaStone Paper is tree-free, chlorine-free, and more energy efficient than recycle paper.
    • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Our Glow in the Dark Heat Transfer Paper has become a very popular product.
    • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

    This waste is generated outside the paper mill and could potentially go to landfill, and is a genuine recycled fibre source. Also includes de-inked preconsumer (recycled material that has been printed but did not reach its intended end use, such as waste from printers and unsold publications).[2]
  • .
  • Postconsumer waste — this is fibre from paper which has been used for its intended end use and would include office waste, magazine papers and newsprint.^ The base paper texture that I ended up using [...
    • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

    As the vast majority of this paper has been printed (either digitally or by more conventional means such as litho or gravure), it will either be recycled as printed paper or go through a deinking process first.
.Recycled papers can be made from 100% recycled materials or blended with virgin pulp.^ T-Jet heat transfer paper is manufactured for use on White and Light Colored Fabrics in Poly / Cotton Blends and 100% Cotton.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ O-Jet heat transfer paper is manufactured for use on light or dark colored Cotton Blend, 100% Cotton, and Synthetic fabrics.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

They are (generally) not as strong nor as bright as papers made from virgin pulp.

Additives

Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay, which improve the characteristics of the paper for printing or writing. .Additives for sizing purposes may be mixed into the pulp and/or applied to the paper web later in the manufacturing process.^ We may only be a week into the New Year, but it’s clear that the readers of this blog have one important goal for 2010: paper craft more!

^ Each Promotion may have Additional Terms and/or Rules which will be posted or otherwise made available to you and, for purposes of each Promotion, will be deemed incorporated into and form a part of this Agreement.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The purpose of sizing is to establish the correct level of surface absorbency to suit the ink or paint.

Producing paper

The pulp is feed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.
Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, felt (not to be confused with the traditional felt) is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used.
Drying involves using air and or heat to remove water from the paper sheet. In the earliest days of papermaking this was done by hanging the paper sheets like laundry. .In more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used.^ Tumble dry using low heat.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. These dryers can heat to temperatures above 200°F (93°C) and are used in long sequences of more than 40 cans. The heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than 6% moisture.

Finishing

.The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.^ MIS O-Jet, Opaque Heat Transfer Paper, is available in 8.5" x 11" size and works great with commercial heat presses, we do not recommend this paper for use as an Iron on Transfer.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, the use or availability of certain Mobile Application Services may be prohibited or restricted by your wireless carrier, and not all Mobile Application Services may work with all wireless carriers or Devices.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Paper at this point is uncoated. .Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens.^ For desktop digital printing, this paper has many versitle uses where glossy images are needed on one side and matte or text print on the other.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ Produces High quality photo images and text on both sides.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ It is coated on one side to reduce dot gain.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

(Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image.
.The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes.^ Double Opt-in (Site/SMS) Method: In response to print, radio, television, Internet, or other promotional messages, users will be directed to this Site to start the registration process.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The Site is to be used solely for your noncommercial, non-exclusive, non-assignable, non-transferable and limited personal use and for no other purposes.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet.
All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier machine are wove paper, i.e. the wire mesh that transports the web leaves a pattern that has the same density along the paper grain and across the grain. Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine.
.Wove paper does not exhibit "laidlines", which are small regular lines left behind on paper when it was handmade in a mould made from rows of metal wires or bamboo.^ Hahnemuhle Fine Art Bamboo is a unique matte paper made from 90% bamboo fibres and 10% cotton and is OBA free to maximize aging resistance.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

Laidlines are very close together. They run perpendicular to the "chainlines", which are further apart. Handmade paper similarly exhibits "deckle edges", or rough and feathery borders.[3]

Applications

  • To write or print on: the piece of paper becomes a document; this may be for keeping a record (or in the case of printing from a computer or copying from another paper: an additional record) and for communication; see also reading.
.Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use.^ This new bright white paper produces a wide gamut of colors as well as rich velvety blacks.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ The pressing process can produce a glossy finish or matte finish depending on whether or not a silicone sheet is used.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ Customers are using this paper to produce all sorts of Glow in the Dark images on T-Shirts and other items.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

[4]

Types, thickness and weight

Card and paper stock for craft use comes in a wide variety of textures and colors.
The thickness of paper is often measured by caliper, which is typically given in thousandths of an inch.[5] Paper may be between 0.07 millimetres (0.0028 in) and 0.18 millimetres (0.0071 in) thick.[6]
Paper is often characterized by weight. In the United States, the weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream, 500 sheets, of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. .For example, a ream of 20 lb, 8½ x 11" paper weighs 5 pounds, because it has been cut from a larger sheet into four pieces.^ Double Sided Glossy , 68 LB, 11 mils thick card stock weight sheets.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

[7] .In the United States, printing paper is generally 20 lb, 24 lb, or 32 lb at most.^ Since this magnetic paper is easily cut with scissors, the user can cut out printed shapes and stick them to most metal surfaces.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

.Cover stock is generally 68 lb, and 110 lb or more is considered card stock.^ Double Sided Glossy , 68 LB, 11 mils thick card stock weight sheets.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ I loved learning more about our three cover girls and seeing the amazing things they did with the front and inside of their cards.

.The 8.5" x 11" size stems from the original size of a vat that was used to make paper.^ MIS O-Jet, Opaque Heat Transfer Paper, is available in 8.5" x 11" size and works great with commercial heat presses, we do not recommend this paper for use as an Iron on Transfer.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed] At the time, paper was made from passing a fiber and water slurry through a screen at the bottom of a box. The box was 17" deep and 44" wide. That sheet, folded in half in the long direction, then twice in the opposite direction, made a sheet of paper that was exactly 8.5" x 11".
In Europe, and other regions using the ISO 216 paper sizing system, the weight is expressed in grammes per square metre (g/m2 or usually just g) of the paper. Printing paper is generally between 60 g and 120 g. Anything heavier than 160 g is considered card. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness.
The sizing system in Europe is based on common width to height ratios for different paper sizes. The largest standard size paper is A0 (A zero). Two sheets of A1, placed upright side by side fit exactly into one sheet of A0 laid on its side. Similarly, two sheets of A2 fit into one sheet of A1 and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 (A3 is the size of two A4 sheets).
The density of paper ranges from 250 kg/m3 (16 lb/ft3) for tissue paper to 1500 kg/m3 (94 lb/ft3) for some speciality paper. Printing paper is about 800 kg/m3 (50 lb/ft3).[8]
Some paper types include:

The future of paper

.Some manufacturers have started using a new, significantly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging made out of paper, known commercially as paperfoam.^ O-Jet heat transfer paper is manufactured for use on light or dark colored Cotton Blend, 100% Cotton, and Synthetic fabrics.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ As I grown as a paper crafter, I’ve discovered I have grown out of some of my stamps.

^ This low cost paper is great for color photos, post cards, calling cards, announcements, art work, and proofing images for use on more expensive papers.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

The packaging has very similar mechanical properties to some expanded plastic packaging, but is biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper.[9]
.With increasing environmental concerns about synthetic coatings (such as PFOA) and the higher prices of hydrocarbon based petrochemicals, there is a focus on zein (corn protein) as a coating for paper in high grease applications such as popcorn bags.^ BittBox Home Freebies About Contact TOU FAQs User Showcase Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures .
  • Free High Res Grungy Paper Textures | BittBox 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.bittbox.com [Source type: General]

[10]
.Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper.^ Most importantly, ViaStone Paper is tree-free, chlorine-free, and more energy efficient than recycle paper.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ The prints made with this paper and the MIS Epson dyebased inks are better than a photograph.
  • Ink jet Paper for Inkjet Printers, fine art photo and matte inkjet paper - Inksupply.com 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.inksupply.com [Source type: General]

^ A buxom female shows how it's pretty much impossible to fold a piece of paper more than seven times.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ Burger, Peter. Charles Fenerty and his Paper Invention. Toronto: Peter Burger, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9783318-1-8 pp.25-30
  2. ^ Natural Resource Defense Council
  3. ^ "Document Doubles" in Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
  4. ^ "Grades and uses of paper". http://www.paperonweb.com/grade11.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  5. ^ "Paper Thickness Chart", Case Paper Company Inc.
  6. ^ "Thickness of a Piece of Paper", HyperTextbook.com
  7. ^ McKenzie, Bruce G., The Hammermill Guide to Desktop Publishing in Business, p. 144, Hammermill Papers, 1989.
  8. ^ "Density of paper and paperboard". PaperOnWeb. http://www.paperonweb.com/density.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  9. ^ PaperFoam Carbon Friendly Packaging
  10. ^ Barrier compositions and articles produced with the compositions cross-reference to related application
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Chemicals and Chemical Technology, Part 1, Paper and Printing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985. (also published in Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd., 1986.)
also referred to as:
  • Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin, '"Paper and Printing," vol. 5 part 1 of Needham, Joseph Science and Civilization in China:. Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0521086906. (also published in Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd., 1986.)
  • "Document Doubles" in Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ Unfortunately, your home computer may cause some glitches that effect how you see our Site -- and that is beyond our control.
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^ Targeting Services enable us to, among other things, help deliver advertisements or other content to you for products and services that you might be interested in, to prevent you from seeing the same advertisements too many times and to conduct research regarding the usefulness of certain advertisements to you.
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^ If you would like to see your work published in the magazines, you need to know that it IS possible and you CAN make it happen.

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world.
  • A4 paper format / International standard paper sizes 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.cl.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Targeting Services enable us to, among other things, help deliver advertisements or other content to you for products and services that you might be interested in, to prevent you from seeing the same advertisements too many times and to conduct research regarding the usefulness of certain advertisements to you.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s an easy-to-use tracking system to help you remember the supplies you have, using the Inventory Tracking Sheets below.

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Paper" as an educational resource.^ In such cases, we will provide to you an explanation of why access cannot be provided and contact information for further inquiries.
  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world.
  • A4 paper format / International standard paper sizes 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.cl.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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  • Paper | SPIKE 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world.
  • A4 paper format / International standard paper sizes 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.cl.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, you may publish a picture a lapbook in which you used a craft from this web site as long as you state where the project came from and include a link.
  • Paper Plate Crafts for Kids 21 January 2010 19:14 UTC www.daniellesplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I like to use clear shoeboxes like this one, which you can find at pretty much any big box store for a few dollars.

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The expression in the Authorized Version (Isa 19:7), "the paper reeds by the brooks," is in the Revised Version more correctly "the meadows by the Nile." The words undoubtedly refer to a grassy place on the banks of the Nile fit for pasturage.
In 2 Jn 1:12 the word is used in its proper sense. The material so referred to was manufactured from the papyrus, and hence its name. The papyrus (Heb. gome) was a kind of bulrush (q.v.). It is mentioned by Job (8:11) and Isaiah (35:7). It was used for many purposes. This plant (Papyrus Nilotica) is now unknown in Egypt; no trace of it can be found. The unaccountable disappearance of this plant from Egypt was foretold by Isaiah (19:6, 7) as a part of the divine judgment on that land. The most extensive papyrus growths now known are in the marshes at the northern end of the lake of Merom.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Simple English

File:Paper
Piece of paper

Modern paper is a thin sheet of wood fibers pressed together. People write on paper, and books are made of paper. Paper can absorb liquids such as water, so people can clean things with paper.

Contents

Paper making

Paper is normally made from wood pulp. Wood is ground up and mixed with water and other chemicals to make a thin liquid called "paper pulp". Paper pulp can be bleached to make blank paper, and dyes can be added to make colored paper. This pulp is pressed into sheets of paper. When the sheets are dry, they are cut into pieces of paper.

Sometimes paper is made glossy (shiny) by adding clay or other materials. Sometimes paper is made from other kinds of paper. This is an example of recycling.

Not all paper is made from wood. Other kinds of fiber can be used also. People make paper from cotton, linen, and hemp.

History of paper

[[File:|thumb|right|250px|Writing on papyrus]]

File:Ruins of the guard
Ruins of a watchtower on the Great Wall of China

Writing started long before the invention of paper. People wrote on many kinds of material. They wrote on cloth, on stone walls, on wood. In Mesopotamia the Sumerians wrote on clay tablets, many of which have survived today.

First paper

Many centuries ago – as early as the third millenium BC (that's over 2000 BC) – people in Egypt made a kind of paper from the papyrus plant.[1] This is where the word 'paper' comes from. The people of Greece and Rome learned to do this too. The Romans wrote on parchment (made from animal skin), on waxed tablets and on wood (see Vindolanda).

In China 105 AD, the eunuch Ts'ai Lun told his Emperor he had made paper. They had previously used bamboo and silk.[2][3] The material used in this ancient paper included cotton rags, hemp, various plant fibres, and old fish nets. The oldest existing paper with writing on it was found in the ruins of a watchtower in the Great Wall of China. It dates to about 150 AD.[3]p5[4][5] Even earlier paper (but with no writing on it) has been claimed: "The oldest surviving piece of paper in the world is made of hemp fibers, discovered in 1957 in a tomb near Xian, China, and dates from between the years 140 and 87 BCE".[6] Paper-making was regarded by the Chinese as so valuable that they kept it secret as long as they could.

Spread of paper

People in Japan learned how to make paper with fibers of the mulberry tree, around 610 AD. This is called Japanese paper or Washi. The Chinese invention spread to India, and then to the Middle East, and then to Italy.

An opportunity occurred after The Battle of Talas in 751. Then an Arab army captured soldiers of the Chinese. There were some paper makers among the captured soldiers. From them, paper-making spread throughout the Islamic world. In 757, a paper mill was built at Samarkand. People learned to use linen as paper raw material and to use starch made from flour as an additive.

The Italians used hemp and linen rags. In 1276 the first Italian paper mill was built at Fabriano and, until the 14 century, Italy was a paper supplier in Europe. In 1282 the first watermark was introduced in Bologna.

Machine-made paper

Paper was hard to make, and it cost a lot of money. In the 19th century, new machines were made that could make paper out of wood fibres (instead of the hand-made rag paper). This was conceived in France 1798, but the machines were invented in England. The first one was in use by 1812.[7][8] It helped to make paper cheap enough for everyone to buy. Around the same time, other inventions were made, like the pencil, the fountain pen, and a printing press that used steam power. Because of these new things, it was easy for people to write letters, to buy books and newspapers, and to keep records of what they did.

Today, some of the largest paper-producing countries are USA, Canada, Finland, Sweden and Russia. Paper is produced in large factories called paper mills. They produce hundreds of thousands of tons of paper each year.

Uses of paper

Paper is used for writing and printing. Books, magazines and newspapers are printed on paper.

Paper is often used for money. Paper used for money is often made in very special ways, to make it hard for people to print their own money. A piece of paper money is called a banknote, a bill, or a note.

Paper can be used for cleaning. Special forms of paper are used, such as paper towels, facial tissues, or toilet paper.

Pretty paper can be used as decoration. It can be pasted onto the walls of a room; this is called wallpaper. Paper can be used to wrap gifts. This is called wrapping paper or gift wrap.

Some kinds of paper are strong and can be used in boxes and other packaging material. Sometimes several layers of paper are held together with glue, to make cardboard.

Other pages

References

  1. H. Idris Bell and T.C. Skeat, 1935. "Papyrus and its uses" (British Museum pamphlet).
  2. Han dynasty 206BC–220AD.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Carter, Thomas Francis 1925. The invention of printing in China and its spread westward. Columbia N.Y.
  4. Stein, M. Aurel 1921. Serindia. London 1921.
  5. Papermaking. 2007. In: Encyclopedia Britannica, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
  6. Temple, Robert 1986. The genius of China: 3,000 Years of science, discovery, and invention. Simon and Schuster, New York.
  7. Hunter, Dard 1978. Paper-making: the history and technique of an ancient craft. Courier Dover
  8. Munsell, Joe 2009 [reprint of 1870 4th ed]. A chronology of paper and paper-making. Albany.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Paper, which are similar to those in the above article.








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