Pará: Wikis


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State of Pará
Flag of State of Pará Coat of arms of State of Pará
Location of State of Pará in Brazil
(and largest city)
Demonym Paraense
 -  Governor Ana Julia Carepa
 -  Vice Governor Odair Santos Corrêa
 -  Total 1,247,689.5 km2 (481,735.6 sq mi) (2nd)
 -  2006 estimate 7,110,465 (9th)
 -  2005 census 6,983,042 
 -  Density 5.7 /km2 (15 /sq mi) (21st)
GDP 2006 estimate
 -  Total R$ 44,376,000,000 (13th)
 -  Per capita R$ 6,241 (22nd)
HDI (2005) 0.755 (medium) (15th)
Abbreviation BR-PA
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)

Pará (Portuguese pronunciation: [paˈɾa]) is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northern part of the country.

Neighboring states are (clockwise from north) Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Amazonas and Roraima. To the north it borders Guyana and Suriname. Pará is the second largest state of Brazil in area, second only to Amazonas. (It was the third until Mato Grosso do Sul broke away from Mato Grosso in 1977.) In the northern region, it has the largest population, more than 6 million. Its most famous icons are the Amazon River and the Amazon rain forest. Well known Amazonian products include: firstly, rubber extracted from the natural rubber tree groves, tropical hardwoods such as mahogany, and most recently minerals such as iron ore and bauxite. Every October, the capital city, Belém, receives tens of thousands of tourists for the year's most important religious celebration, the procession of the "Círio de Nazaré." Another important attraction of the capital is the marajó-style ceramics, based on pottery from the extinct Marajó Indian culture and whose designs have gained international fame.



The Portuguese colonization in Pará State first occurred in 1616, with the foundation of Presépio Fortress – today, Castle Fortress – at Guajará bay, which originated the city of Belém. Before that, the region had been invaded many times by the Dutch and the English, seeking pepper; guaraná, a tree from which a powder is produced and used as a stimulant; and annato seeds, a fruit used for cooking, as a sunscreen and also for dye extraction.



An equatorial climate is a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season – all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 millimetres (2.4 in). It is usually found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator – which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial climate is denoted Af in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforest is the natural vegetation in equatorial regions.


Vitória Régia, in Paraense Emílio Goeldi Museum in Belém.

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[1] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3rd of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[2] The largest biodiversity of the planet is present across the State of Amazonas.


According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 7,136,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 5.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (15 /sq mi).

Urbanization: 75.2% (2006); Population growth: 2.5% (1991-2000); Houses: 1,754,000 (2006).[3]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 4,988,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (69.9%), 1,641,000 White people (23.0%), 470,000 Black people (6.6%), 35,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.5%).[4]


The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 40.9%, followed by the industrial sector at 36.3%. Agriculture represents 22.8% of GDP (2004). Pará exports: iron ore 31.1%, aluminium 22.2%, wood 13.5%, ores of aluminium 8.3%, others ores 7.9% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 1.8% (2005).

The mining sector represents 14% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the State, originated mainly from the extraction of iron, bauxite, manganese, limestone and tin, as well as gold, until recently extracted from one of the largest mines of recent history: Serra Pelada. The State of Pará has its economy based also on vegetal extraction, on agriculture and cattle raising; thanks to the rich soil and the important hydrographic basin – boats are the main means of transport in the region. Guaraná, a tree from which a powder is produced and used as a stimulant; and annato seeds, a fruit used for cooking, as a sunscreen and also for dye extraction. Marajó Island – the biggest fluvial-maritime island in the world, with 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi) of extension. Its territory has one of the largest mining areas in the Country, located in the Carajás Mountains, a mining province where the Ferro Carajás Project is based, from Companhia Vale do Rio Doce. The complex produced 296 million metric tons of iron ore in 2007 [5], exporting the product to many countries, among them Japan, Germany, Italy, France and Spain.


Belém is the most important educational centre of the state.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions

  • Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) (Federal University of Pará);
  • Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (Ufra) (Rural Federal University of Amazon);
  • Universidade do Estado do Pará (Uepa) (University of State of Pará);
  • Universidade da Amazônia (Unama) (University of Amazon);
  • Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica do Pará (Cefet-PA);
  • and many others.



Círio de Nazaré

Cathedral of Sé in Belém.

The biggest festival in the state of Pará happens there, Círio de Nazaré (Nazareth Taper. This event is known to be the biggest religious event of the western hemesphere. The procession start on the second Sunday of October and pay homage to Our Lady of Nazareth, patron saint of the State. Organised since 1793, at present it gathers around 2.3 million of followers, who go on a procession through the city on a huge suite to the Nazaré Basilica, where the image is worshiped.

Indigenous communities

Besides all the natural wealth, the State of Pará also shelters a valuable cultural treasure, about 40 indigenous groups, scattered through an area of over 23 million hectares (57×10^6 acres). Of these, more than eight million have been delimited by Funai (National Foundation of the Indian), ensuring security and preservation of that space. Among the biggest indigenous communities there are the Andira Marau, Munduruku and the Kayapó.


International Airport

Since 2001, Belém International Airport has been an example of the standard Infraero implements at its airports. Standing out in the midst of the Amazon vastness, the building design uses plane curves on its roof to permit light to enter its entire large terminal hall. The architect Sérgio Parada used his creativity to adopt multiple-use totems integrated with light projectors, a sound system, air conditioning and public telephones. Currently Belém International Airport serves demand of 2.7 million passengers a year, in a constructed area of 33,255.17 square meters (357,955.7 sq ft). Traditionally called Val-de-Cans Airport, it is responsible for increasing tourism in the region, as well as for the outflow of products and attracting new investments. The passenger terminal is fully air conditioned on two levels and has futuristic architecture, designed to take advantage of natural lighting. People with special needs have individualized service with own equipment at specific locations to facilitate their circulation. The terminal’s interior is decorated with plants native to the Amazon region and is enclosed by a source able to imitate the sound of the rains that fall every day in the region.


Port of Belém has restaurants, art galleries, a small beer factory, ice-cream shops, artisanship stands, regional food kiosks, coffee houses, a space for fairs and events, a theatre for 400 spectators and a touristic harbour.


Belém provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. The Mangueirão stadium architectonical project is from August 1969. In 2002, 24 years after the stadium inauguration, Mangueirão was reinaugurated as an Olympic stadium of Pará. The visiting capacity of the stadium is at around 45,000.

Belém is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil is the only South American bidder.

  • Stadiums
  • Olympic stadium of Pará;
  • Evandro Almeida stadium;
  • Jader Barbalho stadium;
  • Leônidas Castro stadium;
  • and many others.


The white stripe in the flag represents the zodiac, the Equator and the Amazon River. The blue star is Spica in the constellation Virgo, which is also depicted on the Flag of Brazil representing the state. The two red areas symbolize the vigor of the local people.

Political subdivisions

See: List of municipalities in Pará.


  1. ^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  2. ^ Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals
  3. ^ Source: PNAD.
  4. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007. Pará, Brazil: IBGE. 2007. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2007-07-18.  
  5. ^ Carajas Mine, Brazil

See also

Coordinates: 5°39′34″S 52°44′3″W / 5.65944°S 52.73417°W / -5.65944; -52.73417

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There's more than one place called Para or Pará:



This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also para, pară, and pára



Proper noun


  1. State in northern Brazil which has Belém as its capital.

See also


  • Anagrams of aapr
  • AARP


Simple English

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this name.

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