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.The word paradigm (pronounced /ˈpæɹədaɪm/ or /ˈpɛɹədaɪm/; from Greek: παράδειγμα paradeigma meaning pattern, from Greek: paradeiknunai meaning to compare, composite from para- and the verb deiknunai "to show"), has been used in linguistics and science to describe distinct concepts.^ This task is largely about observing properties and interactions of different modules, and abstracting the style of interaction and the existence of few concepts that we can describe as the paradigm or the nature of the sub-domain.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kuhn (1996) described the paradigm concept and analyzed the role of paradigms in scientific thought.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

.Until the 1960s, the word was specific to grammar: the 1900 Merriam-Webster dictionary defines its technical use only in the context of grammar or, in rhetoric, as a term for an illustrative parable or fable.^ I use the term " Others paradigm" to refer to the cultural practice of defining an out-group.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

.In linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure used paradigm to refer to a class of elements with similarities.^ I use the term " Others paradigm" to refer to the cultural practice of defining an out-group.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

From the 1960s onward, the word has referred to thought pattern in any scientific discipline or other epistemological context. .The Merriam-Webster Online dictionary defines this usage as "a philosophical and theoretical framework of a scientific school or discipline within which theories, laws, and generalizations and the experiments performed in support of them are formulated; broadly : a philosophical or theoretical framework of any kind."^ Paradigms help scientific communities to bound their discipline in that they help the scientist to create avenues of inquiry, formulate questions, select methods with which to examine questions, define areas of relevance.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if we argue that a field does not make progress, that does not mean that an individual school or discipline within that field does not.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Contents

Scientific paradigm

Topic map of science. This 2008 map of 800,000 published papers showing the relationships among them and different scientific disciplines. Each white dot represents a scientific paper.
.The historian of science Thomas Kuhn gave paradigm its contemporary meaning when he adopted the word to refer to the set of practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period of time.^ Normal science "means research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievements, achievements that some particular scientific community acknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice".
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students study these paradigms in order to become members of the particular scientific community in which they will later practice.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A scientific community cannot practice its trade without some set of received beliefs.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kuhn himself came to prefer the terms exemplar and normal science, which have more precise philosophical meanings.^ More scientists, convinced of the new view's fruitfulness, will adopt the new mode of practising normal science, until only a few elderly hold-outs remain.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An anomaly must come to be seen as more than just another puzzle of normal science.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philosophers of science have repeatedly demonstrated that more than one theoretical construction can always be placed upon a given collection of data .
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn defines a scientific paradigm as:
  • what is to be observed and scrutinized
  • the kind of questions that are supposed to be asked and probed for answers in relation to this subject
  • how these questions are to be structured
  • how the results of scientific investigations should be interpreted
Alternatively, the Oxford English Dictionary defines paradigm as "a pattern or model, an exemplar." Thus an additional component of Kuhn's definition of paradigm is:
  • how is an experiment to be conducted, and what equipment is available to conduct the experiment.
.Thus, within normal science, the paradigm is the set of exemplary experiments that are likely to be copied or emulated.^ An initial paradigm accounts quite successfully for most of the observations and experiments readily accessible to that science's practitioners.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That call set the stage for my great service experience with Paradigm.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

^ Paradigms can determine normal science without the intervention of discoverable rules or shared assumptions.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this scientific context, the prevailing paradigm often represents a more specific way of viewing reality, or limitations on acceptable programs for future research, than the more general scientific method.^ Paradigm Shift is the scientific advancement which "one conceptual world view is replaced by another" .

^ Anthropologists have the expertise and can take the lead in clarifying the reality of the history of cannibalism, in moving from the "cannibalism paradigm" to a view with fewer assumptions and greater critical reasoning.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To classify as a puzzle (as a genuine research question), a problem must be characterised by more than the assured solution, but at the same time solutions should be consistent with paradigmatic assumptions.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An example of a currently accepted paradigm would be the standard model of physics. .The scientific method would allow for orthodox scientific investigations into phenomena which might contradict or disprove the standard model; however grant funding would be proportionately more difficult to obtain for such experiments, depending on the degree of deviation from the accepted standard model theory which the experiment would be expected to test for.^ Failure to achieve the expected solution to a puzzle discredits only the scientist and not the theory To evoke a crisis, an anomaly must usually be more than just an anomaly.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, new and unsuspected phenomena are repeatedly uncovered by scientific research, and radical new theories have again and again been invented by scientists .
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before they would invest in an SME or startup, however, probably most of them would want to get more clarity around what such an investment entails.
  • the investor's paradigm - Home 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC investorsparadigm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To illustrate the point, an experiment to test for the mass of neutrinos or the decay of protons (small departures from the model) would be more likely to receive money than experiments to look for the violation of the conservation of momentum, or ways to engineer reverse time travel.^ The feature topic is Questioning the Existence of Money, which argues it to be a more entrenched belief system than the existence of God.
  • Third Paradigm | AIDS and Interview with Ruthann Richter 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC thirdparadigm.org [Source type: General]

^ Or do we need to change more, like the computer than actually runs our body/mind called your brain.
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

^ I did not feel like he was wasting my time and money at all.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

.One important aspect of Kuhn's paradigms is that the paradigms are incommensurable, meaning two paradigms cannot be reconciled with each other because they cannot be subjected to the same common standard of comparison.^ The other provinces say the same of Mexicans, from whom they obtain captives for their sacrifice, just as the Mexicans do from them.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Typing type (dynamic/static), syntax and other are less important than language paradigm, they are yet to be considered.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They chose Paradigm.One's market leading MNP Datafeed Service, which was implemented into the Globalstar network in a seamless fashion over a 4-week period.

.That is, no meaningful comparison between them is possible without fundamental modification of the concepts that are an intrinsic part of the paradigms being compared.^ A paradigm can determine several traditions of normal science that overlap without being coextensive.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read part 3 on the investor’s paradigm, addressing common arguments on why direct SME investment possibilities are limited.
  • the investor's paradigm - Home 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC investorsparadigm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the choice between competing political institutions, that between competing paradigms proves to be a choice between fundamentally incompatible modes of community life.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This way of looking at the concept of "paradigm" creates a paradox of sorts, since competing paradigms are in fact constantly being measured against each other.^ The other two companies don't don't even measure up to Paradigm.Excellent in timeliness, workmanship and clean job at a reasonable price.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

^ How do the proponents of a competing paradigm convert the entire profession or the relevant subgroup to their way of seeing science and the world?
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin Cantwell, Director of Paradigm.One, said "We are very excited by EIE as a concept, and are looking forward to working with ACIF and the industry to make EIE a practical reality."

(Nonetheless, competing paradigms are not fully intelligible solely within the context of their own conceptual frameworks). .For this reason, paradigm as a concept in the philosophy of science might more meaningfully be defined as a self-reliant explanatory model or conceptual framework.^ Not only was Paradigm cheaper and more reasonably priced, but they actually knew what they were doing and made me feel secure in placing my confidence in them.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

.This definition makes it clear that the real barrier to comparison is not necessarily the absence of common units of measurement, but an absence of mutually compatible or mutually intelligible concepts.^ Martin Cantwell, Director of Paradigm.One, said "We are very excited by EIE as a concept, and are looking forward to working with ACIF and the industry to make EIE a practical reality."

.Under this system, a new paradigm which replaces an old paradigm is not necessarily better, because the criteria of judgment is controlled by the paradigm itself, and by the conceptual framework which defines the paradigm and gives it its explanatory value.^ Paradigm Shift is the scientific advancement which "one conceptual world view is replaced by another" .

^ What is the process by which a new candidate for paradigm replaces its predecessor?
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Industry Number Management Services (INMS) software has now been replaced with a new system.

A more disparaging term groupthink, and the term mindset, have somewhat similar meanings that apply to smaller and larger scale examples of disciplined thought. .Michel Foucault used the terms episteme and discourse, mathesis and taxinomia, for aspects of a "paradigm" in Kuhn's original sense.^ I use the term " Others paradigm" to refer to the cultural practice of defining an out-group.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

.Simple common analogy: A simplified analogy for paradigm is a habit of reasoning, or "the box" in the commonly used phrase "thinking outside the box". Thinking inside the box is analogous with normal science.^ Paradigms can determine normal science without the intervention of discoverable rules or shared assumptions.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discovery begins with the awareness of anomaly - the recognition that nature has violated the paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transition from a paradigm in crisis to a new one from which a new tradition of normal science can emerge is not a cumulative process.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The box encompasses the thinking of normal science and thus the box is analogous with paradigm. "Thinking outside the box" would be what Kuhn calls revolutionary science.^ Paradigms can determine normal science without the intervention of discoverable rules or shared assumptions.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discovery begins with the awareness of anomaly - the recognition that nature has violated the paradigm-induced expectations that govern normal science.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transition from a paradigm in crisis to a new one from which a new tradition of normal science can emerge is not a cumulative process.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Revolutionary science is usually unsuccessful, and very rarely leads to new paradigms.^ Transition from a paradigm in crisis to a new one from which a new tradition of normal science can emerge is not a cumulative process.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who achieve fundamental inventions of a new paradigm have generally been either very young or very new to the field whose paradigm they changed.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paradigm.One released its new version of the market leading LNP software to comply with the revised specifications.

However, when they are successful they lead to large scale changes in the scientific worldview. .When these large scale shifts in the scientific view are implemented and accepted by the majority, it will then become "the box" and science will progress within it.^ Paradigm Shift is the scientific advancement which "one conceptual world view is replaced by another" .

^ These texts become the authoritative source of the history of science.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, to view messages grouped by subject and sorted (within each subject) by date, you can click on the Subject column and then shift-click on the Date column.
  • ATPM 9.01 - Paradigm: E-Mail Archiving 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.atpm.com [Source type: General]

Paradigm shifts

.Paradigm shifts tend to be most dramatic in sciences that appear to be stable and mature, as in physics at the end of the 19th century.^ An initial paradigm accounts quite successfully for most of the observations and experiments readily accessible to that science's practitioners.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PARADIGM SHIFT is recruiting – We seek experienced and committed end game raiders .

At that time, physics seemed to be a discipline filling in the last few details of a largely worked-out system. In 1900, Lord Kelvin famously stated, "There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement." .Five years later, Albert Einstein published his paper on special relativity, which challenged the very simple set of rules laid down by Newtonian mechanics, which had been used to describe force and motion for over two hundred years.^ A programming language can be viewed as a limited set of vocabularies and rules that are then composed to describe a particular problem.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H. D. Jocelyn, Review of Jan Nordegraaf and Frank Vonk (eds), Five Hundred Years of Foreign Language Teaching in the Netherlands 1450-1950 .

In this case, the new paradigm reduces the old to a special case in the sense that Newtonian mechanics is still a good model for approximation for speeds that are slow compared to the speed of light. Philosophers and historians of science, including Kuhn himself, ultimately accepted a modified version of Kuhn's model, which synthesizes his original view with the gradualist model that preceded it. Kuhn's original model is now generally seen as too limited.
.Kuhn himself did not consider the concept of paradigm as appropriate for the social sciences.^ Kuhn (1996) described the paradigm concept and analyzed the role of paradigms in scientific thought.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

.He explains in his preface to "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" that he concocted the concept of paradigm precisely in order to distinguish the social from the natural sciences (p.^ What are the functions of scientific revolutions in the development of science?
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students study these paradigms in order to become members of the particular scientific community in which they will later practice.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This task is largely about observing properties and interactions of different modules, and abstracting the style of interaction and the existence of few concepts that we can describe as the paradigm or the nature of the sub-domain.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

x). .He wrote this book at the Palo Alto Center for Scholars, surrounded by social scientists, when he observed that they were never in agreement on theories or concepts.^ Scientists never learn concepts, laws, and theories in the abstract and by themselves.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He explains that he wrote this book precisely to show that there are no, nor can there be any, paradigms in the social sciences.^ This professionalisation leads to immense restriction of the scientist's vision, rigid science, resistance to paradigm change, and a detail of information and precision of the observation-theory match that can be achieved in no other way.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Diaz wrote retrospectively, there apparently is no obfuscation of his prejudice towards Indians, or of the degree to which acquisition of gold and riches motivated the Spanish conquest.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Paradigm , Number 10 (April, 1993) David Layton Reading science: images of science in some nineteenth century reading lesson books .

.Mattei Dogan, a French sociologist, in his article "Paradigms in the [Social Sciences]," develops Kuhn's original thesis that there are no paradigms at all in the social sciences since the concepts are polysemic, the deliberate mutual ignorance between scholars and the proliferation of schools in these disciplines.^ Paradigm , Number 26 (October, 1998) Jean Russell-Gebbett Moralising and "Dirty fingers": Nineteenth-century science textbooks in two Nottingham schools .

^ Since no two paradigms leave all the same problems unsolved, paradigm debates always involve the question: Which problems is it more significant to have solved?
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those restrictions, born from confidence in a paradigm, turn out to be essential to the development of science.
  • Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.des.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dogan provides many examples of the non-existence of paradigms in the social sciences in his essay, particularly in sociology, political science and political anthropology.^ Rating: Provided By: Regina F. "Masters of their trade Paradigm was great, professional, well organized, and polite.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn wrote that "Successive transition from one paradigm to another via revolution is the usual developmental pattern of mature science." (p. 12)
.Kuhn's idea was itself revolutionary in its time, as it caused a major change in the way that academics talk about science.^ Some time ago I've heard about the idea in Java to include XML as a native type, that is the language will understand XML not as a product process but as a natural part of the language.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lee Gerdes , of Brain State Technologies, talked about changing your mind - literally.
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

Thus, it could be argued that it caused or was itself part of a "paradigm shift" in the history and sociology of science. However, Kuhn would not recognize such a paradigm shift. Being in the social sciences, people can still use earlier ideas to discuss the history of science.

Paradigm Paralysis

Perhaps the greatest barrier to a paradigm shift, in some cases, is the reality of paradigm paralysis: the inability or refusal to see beyond the current models of thinking [2]. This is similar to what psychologists term Confirmation bias.
Examples include Galileo's theory of a heliocentric universe, the discovery of electrostatic photography, xerography and the quartz clock.

Other uses

Handa, M.L. (1986) introduced the idea of "social paradigm" in the context of social sciences. He identified the basic components of a social paradigm. .Like Kuhn, Handa addressed the issue of changing paradigm; the process popularly known as "paradigm shift". In this respect, he focused on social circumstances that precipitate such a shift and the effects of the shift on social institutions, including the institution of education.^ Concurrent programming language like Erlang can be a best fit for concurrency based sub-domains and domains that use a lot of string processing can benefit from programming languages that have a powerful string processing paradigm.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He will answer some questions like: Is it enough to shift our beliefs in order to change our lives?
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

^ Paradigm , Number 11 (July, 1993) Claire Drinkwater Textbooks at the University of London Institute of Education Library: Past and Present .

This broad shift in the social arena, in turn, changes the way the individual perceives reality.
Another use of the word paradigm is in the sense of Weltanschauung (German for world view). .For example, in social science, the term is used to describe the set of experiences, beliefs and values that affect the way an individual perceives reality and responds to that perception.^ I employ the term "cannibalism paradigm" to describe this gap between the admissible evidence and the hearsay that informs modern beliefs about practices of consuming human flesh.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

.Social scientists have adopted the Kuhnian phrase "paradigm shift" to denote a change in how a given society goes about organizing and understanding reality.^ He has complete "sight" able to understand the relationships between each of us and the universe, or how the universe comprehends unity with the many pieces of reality it contains.
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

^ Caroline Cory will be sharing her awakened understandings of reality, with its shifting frequencies, the wisdom of universal beings, the 2012 changes and more.
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

^ Join Veronica and Dr. Gray for a lively discussion about relationships, how relationships affect your diet and Dr. Gray’s contribution to a Shifting Paradigm.
  • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

.A “dominant paradigm” refers to the values, or system of thought, in a society that are most standard and widely held at a given time.^ This is the first time in Australia where a non-mobile carrier has been able to participate in MNP, a testimony of Paradigm.One's MNP systems versatile design.

^ The Internet-based system that was developed by Paradigm.One last year is now being used by around 40 Stratos clients world-wide.

^ Devendra Gupta, Director of Paradigm.One said, "Satcom resellers have been needing a system for some time to analyze the traffic attributed to them.

.Dominant paradigms are shaped both by the community’s cultural background and by the context of the historical moment.^ In this historical context, I will analyze the discourses with the object of revealing the paradigms and beliefs of the writers and the socio-cultural context of their claims.
  • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

The following are conditions that facilitate a system of thought to become an accepted dominant paradigm:
.
  • Professional organizations that give legitimacy to the paradigm
  • Dynamic leaders who introduce and purport the paradigm
  • Journals and editors who write about the system of thought.^ I can give my own examples about multi-paradigm languages.
    • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They both disseminate the information essential to the paradigm and give the paradigm legitimacy
  • Government agencies who give credence to the paradigm
  • Educators who propagate the paradigm’s ideas by teaching it to students
  • Conferences conducted that are devoted to discussing ideas central to the paradigm
  • Media coverage
  • Lay groups, or groups based around the concerns of lay persons, that embrace the beliefs central to the paradigm
  • Sources of funding to further research on the paradigm
.The word paradigm is also still used to indicate a pattern or model or an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype.^ Using the right paradigm helps keeping the correspondence between the problem domain and the software model, thus allowing to create a clearer model and yielding more readability.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term is frequently used in this sense in the design professions. .Design Paradigms or archetypes comprise functional precedents for design solutions.^ Martin Cantwell, Director of Paradigm.One said "INMS will gain a solution that has been designed and coded specifically for the task in hand.

^ Functions can be sequenced to form an explicit workflow that yields a more modular solution for stream-oriented paradigms.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best known references on design paradigms are Design Paradigms: A Sourcebook for Creative Visualization, by Wake, and Design Paradigms by Petroski.
This term is also used in cybernetics. Here it means (in a very wide sense) a (conceptual) protoprogramme for reducing the chaotic mass to some form of order. Note the similarities to the concept of entropy in chemistry and physics. .A paradigm there would be a sort of prohibition to proceed with any action that would increase the total entropy of the system.^ Rating: Provided By: Lori H. City: Portsmouth Project: Furnace / Forced Air Heating System - Repair or Service Paradigm Plumbing & Heating was very fast in responding and was there when they said they would be and fixed the problem.
  • Paradigm Plumbing & Heating - Hooksett, NH 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.paradigmph.com [Source type: General]

.In order to create a paradigm, a closed system which would accept any changes is required.^ If the language nature matches this paradigm, one can assume that this would reduce the cost of change induced by the domain evolution and limit its scope.
  • InfoQ: Paradigm based Polyglot Programming 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.infoq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are working closely with INMS and the carriers to ensure that the production system continues to perform to the highest standards as required by industry."

^ Paradigm.One Director Martin Cantwell said, "This was a significant business initiative, and we worked closely with Telstra and EDS in providing the billing upgrades required to fulfil these, and I'm very pleased that the system has been successfully implemented."

Thus a paradigm can be only applied to a system that is not in its final stage.

Notes

  1. ^ paradigm - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  2. ^ Do you suffer from paradigm paralysis ?

See also

References and Links

  • Clarke, Thomas and Clegg, Stewart (eds). Changing Paradigms. .London: HarperCollins, 2000.ISBN 0-00-638731-4
  • Handa, M. L.(1986) "Peace Paradigm: Transcending Liberal and Marxian Paradigms" Paper presented in "International Symposium on Science, Technology and Development, New Delhi, India, March 20-25, 1987, Mimeographed at O.I.S.E., University of Toronto, Canada (1986)
  • Kuhn, Thomas S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd Ed.^ Kuhn, Thomas S. 1996 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
    • The Cannibalism Paradigm: Assessing Contact Period Ethnohistorical Discourse. 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC jqjacobs.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Paradigm.One to develop software for allocation (via INMS) of new '19' SMS and MMS numbers .

    ^ PARADIGM SHIFTERS presents Christine Upchurch one of the very few instructors of The Reconnection , the system downloaded from the universe by Eric Pearl.
    • Paradigm shifters with Veronica Entwistle 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC www.bbsradio.com [Source type: General]

    Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 0-226-45808-3
  • Masterman, Margaret, "The Nature of a Paradigm," pp. 59–89 in Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1970. ISBN 0-521-09623-5
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, Univ. of .Chicago, 2003, ISBN 0-85229-961-3
  • Dogan, Mattei., "Paradigms in the Social Sciences," in International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16, 2001)
  • Paradigm Presentation An interesting look at how a Paradigm is created
  • "JSTOR: British Journal of Sociology of Education: Vol.^ We look at how to take back our cities, farmland and water; our money, production and trade; our media, education and culture, our religion and even our God.
    • Third Paradigm | AIDS and Interview with Ruthann Richter 24 January 2010 10:30 UTC thirdparadigm.org [Source type: General]

    13, No. 1 (1992), pp. 131-143". http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0142-5692%281992%2913%3A1%3C131%3ATPWRFT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-U. Retrieved 2007-06-18.  
  • The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery, Microsoft Research, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9825442-0-4 http://fourthparadigm.org

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Paradigm, which are similar to those in the above article.








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