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Republic of Paraguay
República del Paraguay  (Spanish)
Tetã Paraguái  (Guaraní)
Flag Coat of arms
MottoPaz y justicia  (Spanish)
"Peace and justice"
AnthemParaguayos, República o Muerte  (Spanish)
"Paraguayans, Republic or Death"
Capital
(and largest city)
Asunción
25°16′S 57°40′W / 25.267°S 57.667°W / -25.267; -57.667
Official language(s)
Ethnic groups  95% mestizo, 5% other[2]
Demonym Paraguayan
Government Constitutional presidential republic
 -  President Fernando Lugo
 -  Vice President Federico Franco
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper House Chamber of Senators
 -  Lower House Chamber of Deputies
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared May 14, 1811 
Area
 -  Total 406,752 km2 (59th)
157,048 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.3
Population
 -  2009 estimate 6,349,000[3] (101st)
 -  Density 15.6/km2 (192nd)
39/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $29.451 Billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $4,786[4] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $28.006 Billion[4] 
 -  Per capita $2,601[4] 
Gini (2002) 57.8 (high
HDI (2007) 0.761[5] (medium) (101st)
Currency Guaraní (PYG)
Time zone (UTC-4)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC-3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .py
Calling code 595
Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay (Spanish: República del Paraguay, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðel paɾaˈɣwai]; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái), is one of the two landlocked countries which lie entirely within the Western Hemisphere, the other being Bolivia, both in South America.
It lies on both banks of the Paraguay River and is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest. Because of its central location in South America, the country is sometimes referred to as Corazón de América — Heart of America.[6] As of 2009 the population was estimated at over six million.

Contents

Name

The country is named after the river that runs through the center of the country, from north to south. There are at least four versions for the origin of the river's name. The literal translation from Guaraní is Para = of many colors; Gua = from or belonging to or place; Y = water or river or lake

Geography

Map of Paraguay
Paraguay is divided by the Río Paraguay into the eastern region, officially called Eastern Paraguay (Paraguay Oriental) and known as the Paraná region; and the western region, officially called Western Paraguay (Paraguay Occidental) and also known as the Chaco.
The terrain consists of grassy plains and wooded hills in the east. To the west, there are mostly low, marshy plains.
The local climate ranges from subtropical to temperate, with substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, though becoming semi-arid in the far west.

History

Pre-Columbian society in the wooded, fertile region which is now present-day Paraguay consisted of seminomadic tribes, who were recognized for their fierce warrior traditions. These indigenous tribes were members of five distinct language families, and 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups still remain today.
Europeans first arrived in the area in the early sixteenth century, and the settlement of Asunción was founded on August 15, 1537, by the Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar y Espinoza. The city eventually became the center of a Spanish colonial province, as well as a primary site of the Jesuit missions and settlements in South America in the eighteenth century. Jesuit Reductions were founded and flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish crown in 1767. Paraguay declared its independence after overthrowing the local Spanish administration on May 14, 1811.
Rendition of Paraguayan soldier grieving the loss of his son by José Ignacio Garmendia
Paraguay's history has been characterized by long periods of political instability and infighting, and devastating wars with its neighbors.
Paraguay fought the War of the Triple Alliance against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, and was defeated in 1870 after five years of the bloodiest war in South America. Paraguay's prewar population of approximately 525,000 was reduced to about 221,000 in 1871, of which only about 28,000 were men.[7] Paraguay also suffered extensive territorial losses to Brazil and Argentina.
The Chaco War was fought with Bolivia in the 1930s, and Bolivia was defeated. Paraguay re-established sovereignty over the region called the Chaco, but forfeited additional territorial gains as a price of peace.
The history of Paraguay is fraught with disputes among historians, educators and politicians. The official version of historical events, wars in particular, varies depending on whether you read a history book written in Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Europe, or North America.
Both the Colorado Party and Liberal Party maintain distinct official versions of Paraguayan history[citation needed]. During the pillaging of Asuncion (Saqueo de Asunción) in 1869, the Brazilian Imperial Army ransacked and relocated the Paraguayan National Archives to Rio de Janeiro where they have been kept secret[citation needed], making Colonial and early National Period history difficult to study.
Between 1904 and 1954, Paraguay had thirty-one presidents, most of whom were removed from office by force.[8]
Leftist former bishop Fernando Lugo achieved a historic victory in Paraguay's presidential election in April 2008, defeating the ruling party candidate and ending 61 years of conservative rule. Lugo won with nearly 41% of the vote compared to almost 31% for Blanca Ovelar of the Colorado party.[9]

Government and politics

Asuncion at night
Torre Nautilus
Paraguay is a representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Paraguay is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Capital de Asuncion

Political History

After World War II, politics became particularly unstable with several political parties fighting for power in the late 1940s, which most notably led to the Paraguayan civil war of 1947.[10] A series of unstable governments ensued until the establishment in 1954 of the stable regime of dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who remained in office for more than three decades. Paraguay modernized to some extent under Stroessner's regime, though his rule was marked by extensive human rights abuses.[11]
The splits in the Colorado Party in the 1920s and the conditions that led to this — Stroessner's age, the character of the regime, the economic downturn, and international isolation — provided an opportunity for demonstrations and statements by the opposition prior to the 1988 general elections.[citation needed]
A gathering in Caacupe
PLRA leader Domingo Laíno served as the focal point of the opposition in the second half of the 1980s. The government's effort to isolate Laíno by exiling him in 1982 had backfired. On his sixth attempt, in 1986, Laíno returned with three television crews from the U.S., a former United States ambassador to Paraguay, and a group of Uruguayan and Argentine congressmen. Despite the international contingent, the police violently barred Laíno's return.[citation needed]
However, the Stroessner regime relented in April 1987 and permitted Laíno to arrive in Asunción. Laíno took the lead in organizing demonstrations and diminishing somewhat the normal opposition party infighting. The opposition was unable to reach agreement on a common strategy regarding the elections, with some parties advocating abstention and others calling for blank voting. Nonetheless, the parties did cooperate in holding numerous lightning demonstrations (mítines relámpagos), especially in rural areas. Such demonstrations were held and disbanded quickly before the arrival of the police.
In resposne to the upsurge in opposition activities, Stroessner condemned the Accord for advocating "sabotage of the general elections and disrespect of the law" and used the national police and civilian vigilantes of the Colorado Party to break up demonstrations. A number of opposition leaders were imprisoned or otherwise harassed. Hermes Rafael Saguier, another key leader of the PRLA, was imprisoned for four months in 1987 on charges of sedition. In early February 1988, police arrested 200 people attending a National Coordinating Committee meeting in Coronel Oviedo. Forty-eight hours before the elections, Laíno and several other National Accord members were placed under house arrest.[citation needed]
Although contending that these results reflected the Colorados' virtual monopoly of the mass media, opposition politicians also saw several encouraging developments. Some 53% of those polled indicated that there was an "uneasiness" in Paraguayan society. Furthermore, 74% believed that the political situation needed changes, including 45% who wanted a substantial or total change. Finally, 31% stated that they planned to abstain from voting in the February elections.[citation needed]
Relations between militants and traditionalists deteriorated in the months following the elections. Although Chaves and his followers had not opposed Stroessner's re-election bid, Montanaro denounced them as "legionnaires" (a reference to those Paraguayan expatriates who fought against Francisco Solano López and who were regarded as traitors by the original Colorados).[citation needed]
By late 1988 the only major agencies still headed by traditionalists were the IBR and the National Cement Industry (Industria Nacional de Cemento). In September 1988, traditionalists responded to these attacks by accusing the militants of pursuing "a deceitful populism in order to distract attention from their inability to resolve the serious problems that afflict the nation." Traditionalists also called for an end to personalism and corruption.[12]

Administrative Subdivisions

Paraguay consists of seventeen departments and one capital district (distrito capital). These are, with their capitals indicated:
     Name Capital
1 Alto Paraguay Fuerte Olimpo
2 Alto Paraná Ciudad del Este
3 Amambay Pedro Juan Caballero   
4 Distrito Capital    Asunción
5 Boquerón Filadelfia
6 Caaguazú Coronel Oviedo
7 Caazapá Caazapá
8 Canindeyú Salto del Guairá
9 Central Areguá
     Name Capital
10 Concepción Concepción
11 Cordillera Caacupé
12 Guairá Villarrica
13 Itapúa Encarnación
14 Misiones San Juan Bautista   
15 Ñeembucú Pilar
16 Paraguarí Paraguarí
17 Presidente Hayes    Villa Hayes
18 San Pedro San Pedro
The departments are further divided into districts (distritos).

Demographics

Paraguay population density (people per km2)
There is no official data on the ethnic composition of the Paraguayan population, because the Department of Statistics, Surveys and Censuses (DGEEC) [13] of Paraguay does not include the concepts race and ethnicity in census surveys,[14] although it refers to the proportion of indigenous population. According to the census of 2002, the indigenous population was 1.7% of Paraguay's total population.[15] Traditionally, the Paraguayan population is considered mixed (mestizo in Spanish), because of the widespread offspring of Guaraní women and Spanish settlers during Spain's domination of the country.[16] The Ministry of Education and Culture of Paraguay refers thus to the population of the country:
"The dominant ancestry is European, which represents a large proportion of the population, mostly descendants of Spanish, Germans, Italians (who have contributed to repopulate the country after the Triple Alliance War) but also a large number of people of German descent, because the German Mennonites (mostly in the western part of the territory). There are 17 Mennonite colonies, only in the Paraguayan Chaco. It is one of Latin American countries with less indigenous trait (because the traditional Paraguayan population - Guaraní-Spanish mix - has been destroyed by the Allies in 1870, for which it had to repopulate the country by resorting to the Italian immigration)."[17].
According to the CIA World Factbook, Paraguay has a population of 6,669,086, 95% of which are mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) and 5% are labelled as "other" [2] and are members of indigenous tribal groups. They are divided into 17 distinct ethnolinguistic groupings, many of which are poorly documented. One remarkable trace of the indigenous Guaraní culture that has endured in Paraguay is the Guaraní language, understood by 90% of the population.
About 75% of all Paraguayans speak Spanish. Guaraní and Spanish are official languages.[18] Small groups of ethnic Italians, Germans, Russians, Japanese, Koreans, Chinese, Arabs, Ukrainians, Brazilians, and Argentines settled in Paraguay, and they have to an extent retained their respective languages and culture, particularly the Brazilians who represent the largest number. An estimated 400,000 Brazilians live in Paraguay.[19] Many of the Brazilians are descendants of the German, Italian and Polish immigrants.[20] There are also an estimated 63,000 Afro-Paraguayans, or 1% of the population.[21] Some 10,000 German-speaking Mennonites live in the Paraguayan Chaco.[22]
Paraguay's population is distributed unevenly through the country. About 56% of Paraguayans live in urban areas. The vast majority of the people live in the eastern region near the capital and largest city, Asunción, accounting for 10% of the country's population. The Gran Chaco region, which includes the Alto Paraguay, Boquerón and Presidente Hayes Department, and accounts for about 60% of the territory, is home to less than 2% of the population.

Largest Cities

Religion

According to the 2002 census, 89.6% of the population is Roman Catholic, 6.2% is evangelical Christian, 1.1% is other Christian, 0.6% practice indigenous relig
A U.S. State Department report on Religious Freedom names Catholic, evangelical Christian, mainline Protestant, Jewish (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon), and Baha'i as prominent religious groups and also mentions a large Muslim community in Alto Paraná as a result of Middle-Eastern immigration, especially from Lebanon, and also the Mennonite community in Boquerón.[24]

Social Issues

Various poverty estimates suggest that 30-50% of the population is poor.[25] In rural areas, 41.20% of the people lack a monthly income to cover basic necessities, whereas in urban centers this figure is 27.6%. The top 10% of the population holds 43.8% of the national income, while the lowest 10% has 0.5%. The economic recession has worsened income inequality, notably in the rural areas, where the Gini coefficient has risen from 0.56 in 1995 to 0.66 in 1999.
Similarly, land concentration in the Paraguayan countryside is one of the highest in the globe: 10% of the population controls 66% of the land, while 30% of the rural people are landless.[26] This inequality has caused a great deal of tensions between the landless and elites.[27]

Economy

BBVA Paraguay
Paraguay is a developing country with a 2005 Human Development Index score of 0.755.[28] It ranks as the second poorest country in South America with a 2007 GDP per capita of US$4,000. Approximately 2.1 million, or 35%, of its total population is poor and approximately 1 million, or 18% of the population live off less than US$ 2 a day.[29] However, Asuncion in Paraguay is ranked as the world's least expensive city to live in for the fifth year running.[30]
Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector that features both re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, and thousands of small business enterprises. Paraguay's largest economic activity is based on agriculture, agribusiness and cattle ranching. Paraguay is ranked as the world's third largest exporter of chalk boards, and its beef exports are substantial for a country of its size. A 23.Aug.2008 Financial Times article about Paraguay[31] states “Take record commodities prices, add a subtropical climate that gives farmers five harvests every 24 months and vast tracts of virgin arable land and it is no surprise that tiny Paraguay has emerged as one of the big beneficiaries of the global food crisis”. Such perception may put Paraguay into the focus of international agro producers. Reuters India reports that "Some of India's top vegetable oil firms plan to lease or buy land in Paraguay."[32]
Paraguay allows foreign land ownership of any size. Only nationals of Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia cannot own land in specific frontier regions. Some media reports at the end of 2008 stated that foreign land purchases will be restricted but were wrong. They were based on a misunderstanding of that Brazilians/frontier-regions-reglementations. Indeed land purchases by foreigners, attracted by low land valuations,[33][34] have for long been a feature of the Paraguayan economy. A large percentage of the population derive their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Despite difficulties arising from political instability, corruption and slow structural reforms, Paraguay has been a member of the free trade bloc Mercosur, participating since 1991 as one of the founding members.
Paraguay's economic potential has been historically constrained by its landlocked geography, but it does enjoy access to the Atlantic Ocean via the Paraná River. Because it is landlocked, Paraguay's economy is very dependent on Brazil and Argentina, its major trade partners. Roughly 38% of the GDP derives from trade and exports to Brazil and Argentina.[35]
Through various treaties, Paraguay has been granted free ports in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil through which it sends its exports. The most important of these free ports is on the Brazilian Atlantic coast at Paranaguá. The Friendship Bridge that spans the Paraná River between Ciudad del Este and the Brazilian city of Foz do Iguaçu permits about forty thousand travelers to commute daily between both cities, and allows Paraguay land access to Paranaguá. A vibrant economy has developed in Ciudad del Este and Foz do Iguaçu mostly based on international commerce and shopping trips by Brazilian buyers colloquially called sacoleiros.[36]
Bilateral European Union (EU)-Paraguay trade in goods amounts to €437 million in 2005; the EU importing around €269 million and exporting roughly €168 million. In 2005, trade with EU represented 8.9% of Paraguay’s total trade. The EU market represents 13.7% of Paraguay exports and 6.1% of its imports.[37]
Huge untapped reserves of fertile virgin land : the Chaco, Palmar de las Islas Region
While the country’s external debt is 40% of GDP, Paraguay’s economy is still driven by agricultural production (27% of GDP and 84% of exports). It is a structure which is vulnerable to climatic factors and price volatility. Those vulnerabilities, combined with inequality, explain why poverty currently affects 40% of the population.[38]
Paraguay’s economy grew by 6.4%[39] in 2007 and 5.8%[40] in 2008, fastest growing sector being agriculture with 10.5% growth.
Although ranked 112th out of 175 countries in the 2006 World Bank Doing Business ranking, Paraguay has ranked particularly well in the "Protecting Investors" sub-category within that index. The indexes vary between 0 and 10, with higher values indicating greater disclosure, greater liability of directors, greater powers of shareholders to challenge the transaction, and better investor protection, respectively.
The "Disclosure Index" for Paraguay is 6, whereas the Latin American region ranked only 4.3 (OECD countries ranked 6.3 on average). The country ranked 5 in "Director Liability Index", the same as OECD countries and better than the 5.1 attributed to its neighbors. In the "Shareholder Suits Index" category, Paraguay obtained 6 points, in contrast with 5.8 for its neighbors and 6.6 for OECD countries. The comprehensive "Investor Protection Index" attributed 5.7 to Paraguay, 5.1 to its neighbors and 6.0 to OECD countries on average.[41]
pantanal
Paraguay, "South America´s Forgotten Corner" is an off the beaten track destination for eco-travellers with a sense of adventure. Its compact size and pristine habitats means that visitors can build a large and varied animal list with a minimum of travelling. Visit the magical Atlantic Forest with its myriad of wonderfully-coloured birds (including the Guyra Pong our national bird!); the fascinating but under-studied Cerrado, home to some of the most threatened animals on earth; the lush, remote and rarely-visited Paraguayan Pantanal, a wetland paradise; the unique Mesopotamian Flooded Grasslands an unspoilt wet savannah and forest mosaic; or head up to the mysterious, isolated Chaco, without doubt the best place in South America to see large mammals. Few travellers ever make it to Paraguay, but those that do are blessed with a natural experience to rival that of the most famous eco-tourist destinations on the planet.

Industry and manufacturing

ParaguayChaco Cattleranch3 PdeHayes.JPG
The industrial sector produces about 25% of Paraguay’s gross domestic product (GDP) and employs about 31% of the labor force. Output grew by 2.9% in 2004, after five years of declining production. Traditionally an agricultural economy, Paraguay is showing some signs of long-term industrial growth.
The pharmaceutical industry is quickly supplanting foreign suppliers in meeting the country’s drug needs. Paraguayan companies now meet 70% of domestic consumption and have begun to export drugs. Strong growth also is evident in the production of edible oils, garments, organic sugar, meat processing, and steel.
Nevertheless, capital for further investment in the industrial sector of the economy is scarce. Following the revelation of widespread financial corruption in the 1990s, the government is still working to improve credit options for Paraguayan businesses. In 2003, manufacturing made up 13.6% of the GDP, and the sector employed about 11% of the working population in 2000. Paraguay’s primary manufacturing focus is on food and beverages. Wood products, paper products, hides and furs, and non-metallic mineral products also contribute to manufacturing totals. Steady growth in the manufacturing GDP during the 1990s (1.2% annually) laid the foundation for 2002 and 2003, when the annual growth rate rose to 2.5%.[42]

Education

Literacy exceeds 91 %. Literacy does not differ much by gender.[43] Primary education is free, mandatory and takes nine years. Secondary education takes three years.[43] Paraguay has several universities. The National University of Asunción was founded in 1889.[43] The net primary enrolment rate was at 88% in 2005.[43] Public expenditure on education was at about 4.3 % of the GDP in the early 2000s.[43]

Health

Public expenditure on health is 2.6 % of GDP and private expenditure on health 5.1 %.[43] Infant mortality was 20 per 1,000 births in 2005.[43] Maternal mortality was 150 per 100,000 live births in 2000.[43] The World Bank has helped the Paraguayan government reduce Paraguay's maternal and infant mortality. The Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Project aimed to contribute to reducing mortality by increasing the use of selected life-saving services included in the country's Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Program (MCBI) by women of child-bearing age, and children under age six in selected areas. To this end, the project also targeted improving the quality and efficiency of the health service network within certain areas, in addition to increasing the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare's (MSPBS) management.[44].

Culture

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace[1] Global Peace Index[45] 73 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 101 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 154 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 124 out of 133

See also

References

  1. ^ Paraguay - Constitution, Article 140 About Languages, International Constitutional Law Project, http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/pa00000_.html#A140_, retrieved 2007-12-03  (see translator's note)
  2. ^ a b "The World Factbook: Paraguay". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pa.html. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  3. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Paraguay". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=288&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=23&pr.y=19. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2009: Paraguay". The United Nations. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_PRY.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  6. ^ Paraguay, corazón de América (1961)
  7. ^ War of the Triple Alliance. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  8. ^ Hanratty, Dannin M.; Meditz, Sandra W. (1988), Paraguay - History Paraguay: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, http://countrystudies.us/paraguay/2.htm#INTRODUCTION Paraguay - History 
  9. ^ Nickson, Andrew (2009) The general election in Paraguay, April 2008 Journal of Electoral Studies 28(1):145-9
  10. ^ Paraguay Civil War 1947
  11. ^ Alfredo Stroessner; Paraguayan Dictator
  12. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, "Country Studies: Paraguay", retrieved 10 June 2007.
  13. ^ http://www.dgeec.gov.py/
  14. ^ http://www.dgeec.gov.py/Censos/Imagenes/Cuestionario%20Censal.pdf?PHPSESSID=296abb7abfa015f8241d208aeaed71f4
  15. ^ http://www.rlc.fao.org/es/desarrollo/mujer/docs/paraguay/par03.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.monografias.com/trabajos29/paraguay-colonial/paraguay-colonial.shtml#biblio
  17. ^ http://www.mec.gov.py/cmsmec/?page_id=2719
  18. ^ "Background Note: Paraguay". U.S. State Department. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1841.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  19. ^ Paraguay Information and History. National Geographic.
  20. ^ San Alberto Journal: Awful Lot of Brazilians in Paraguay, Locals Say. The New York Times. June 12, 2001.
  21. ^ "Afro-Paraguayan". Joshua Project. U.S. Center for World Mission. http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=210548. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  22. ^ Paraguay's Mennonites resent 'fast buck' outsiders
  23. ^ "3218.0 - Censo de la DGEEC, 2002". DGEEC. 2002. http://www.dgeec.gov.py/Principal.php. Retrieved 2009. 
  24. ^ Paraguay religion
  25. ^ 2003 Census Bureau Household Survey
  26. ^ Marió et al. (2004) Paraguay: Social Development Issues for Poverty Alleviation. World Bank report. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  27. ^ Nagel, Beverly Y.(1999) "'Unleashing the Fury': The Cultural Discourse of Rural Violence and Land Rights in Paraguay", in Comparative Studies in Society and History, 41: 148-181. Cambridge University Press.
  28. ^ United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2007/2008, p. 230.
  29. ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf
  30. ^ "World's most expensive cities - Jun. 18, 2007". Money.cnn.com. http://money.cnn.com/2007/06/15/pf/most_expensive_cities/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  31. ^ "Paraguay moves up food chain". Financial Times. 23 August 2008. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/49def67e-70a4-11dd-b514-0000779fd18c.html. 
  32. ^ "India eyes L. America, Myanmar land for oilseeds". Reuters India. 2 September 2008. http://in.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idINDEL22656420080902. 
  33. ^ "Impenetrable olvido (..tan bajo el valor de la tierra que con dos campañas, sobra..)" (in Spanish). AMBIENTE-ARGENTINA. http://ipsnoticias.net/nota.asp?idnews=87208. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  34. ^ "Cada vez más Uruguayos compran campos Guaranés" (in Spanish). Consejo de Educacion Secundaria de Uruguay. 26 June 2008. http://www.ces.edu.uy/Relaciones_Publicas/BoletinPrensa/2007-08/20070824.pdf. 
  35. ^ European Union website, Country Profile: Paraguay", retrieved 18 June 2007.
  36. ^ International Monetary Fund website, "IMF Country Report No. 01/88" (2001), p.8, retrieved 12 June 2007.
  37. ^ European Union website, "The EU's relations with Paraguay", retrieved 18 June 2007.
  38. ^ European Community website, "Country Strategy Paper 2007-2013", retrieved 18 June 2007.
  39. ^ "Profile of Paraguay". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1841.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  40. ^ "Paraguay GDP grows 5.8% in 2008; record per capita income". Mercopress. 2008-12-30. http://www.mercopress.com/vernoticia.do?id=15678&formato=html. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  41. ^ Doing Business website, "Doing Business in Paraguay", retrieved 18 June 2007.
  42. ^ http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Paraguay.pdf
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_PRY.html
  44. ^ The World Bank website, "Paraguay Mother & Child Basic Health Insurance", retrieved 18 June 2007.
  45. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Further reading

  • Abdou, Selim The Jesuit Republic of the Guaranis 1609-1768, 1997
  • Aren, Richard Genocide in Paraguay, 1976
  • Attenborough, David Zoo Quest in Paraguay, 1950
  • Barret, William E. Woman on Horseback: the Biography of Francisco Lopez and Eliza Lynch, 1938
  • Brodksy, Alvin Madame Lynch and Friend, 2075
  • Cunninghame-Graham, Robert Bontine A Vanished Arcadia: Being Some Account of the Jesuits in Paraguay, 1607 to 1767
  • Durrell, Gerald The Drunken Forest, 1956
  • Gimlette, John At the Tomb of the Inflatable Pig: Travels Through Paraguay, 2003
  • Kerr, John A Naturalist in the Chaco, 1950
  • Lambert, Peter & Nickson, Andrew The Transition to Democracy in Paraguay, 1997
  • Lewis, Paul Paraguay Under Stoessner, 1980
  • Ligon, Ethan; Schechter, Laura, "The Value of Social Networks in rural Paraguay", University of California, Berkeley, Seminar, March 25, 2009 , Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley
  • Macintyre, Ben Forgotten Fatherland: The Search for Elizabeth Nietzsche, 1993
  • Meyer, Gordon The River and the People, 1965
  • Nickson, Andrew Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, 1993
  • Nickson, Andrew Paraguay: An Annotated Bibliography, 1999
  • Rees, Sián The Shadow of Elisa Lynch, 2003
  • Souter, Gavin A Peculiar People: the Australians in Paraguay, 1968
  • Whitehead, Anne Paradise Mislaid: In Search of the Australian Tribe of Paraguay, 1997

External links

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

South America : Paraguay
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Image:pa-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Asunción
Government Constitutional republic
Currency Guarani (PYG)
Area total: 406,752 km2
water: 9,450 km2
land: 397,300 km2
Population 5,884,491 (July 2002 est.)
Language Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Religion Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant
Electricity 220V/60Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +595
Internet TLD .py
Time Zone UTC-4
.Paraguay [1] is a landlocked country in South America bordering Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.^ Travel to Paraguay & all South America!
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central South America, northeast of Argentina .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country is rich in natural resources: the world's largest drinking water reservoir (Guarani Aquifer) is beneath its soil, the biggest hydroelectric producer--The Itaipú Dam--is on its border with Brazil.^ The country has vast hydroelectric resources, including the world's second-largest hydroelectric generation facility built and operated jointly with Brazil (Itaipu Dam), but it lacks significant mineral or petroleum resources.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Categories · Cross-Border/Crime non-USA, by Country · Brazil · Paraguay Organizations · BAT .
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ Categories · Cross-Border/Crime non-USA, by Country · Brazil · Paraguay .
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.It's also the world's fifth largest exporter of soya beans, as well as a renowned producer of beef.^ Soybeans were produced principally for the world market anf sold both as a raw bean and as a processed oil, which was also consumed locally.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite this, many of its people live in poverty and it's very common to see beggars asking for money on Asuncion's corners.
Map of Paraguay
Map of Paraguay

Other destinations

Nueva Australia.
.Settled by disgruntled and idealistic Australians in October, 1893, this was the first attempt at communism anywhere in the world.^ Among them are so called "colonies" of Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century).
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

About 700 people set up a colony without money or bosses based on the theories of Karl Marx. .The tiny town with some of the descendents of the original settlers still exists about 5km West of Villarrica.^ Some herbal specialists exist, but most people are knowledgeable about the medicinal uses of common plants or resort to relatives or neighbors for advice on their use.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Japanese settlers and their descendants are estimated to number about eight thousand, and the Mennonites approximately fifteen thousand.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A second town, again with descendents, was founded by the same group of Australians at Cosme, 90km South, near Ca azapa.

Understand

.Colonized for 3 centuries by the Spanish, since the 1500s, Paraguay has managed to keep a lot of it indigenous character and identity.^ Guarani, a Tupi Guarani language and the language of eastern Paraguay's dominant precolonial indigenous population, is recognized as an official national language along with Spanish.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Paraguay it’s usual: since the 19th century...
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nowadays, the mestizos (Spanish + Amerindian) account for more than 90% of the country's 6 million inhabitants and Guarani is, side by side with Spanish, the country's official language.^ Guarani and Spanish are official languages.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All countries or regions have special requirements for persons intending to reside for extended periods (usually more than 90 days) or who plan to work, study, or engage in non-tourist activities.
  • Paraguay Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Spanish is the language of business and government, and Guarani is spoken in everyday life.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the past, Franciscan and Jesuit missions mingled with the Guaranis' dream of Yvy maraë´y, a land without evil, and produced singular societies. .The ruins of the Jesuit Missions of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana and Jesus de Tavarangue, UNESCO World Heritage sites, and several villages throughout the country, are witnesses to that peaceful past.^ Starting in the world's highest capital city La Paz and taking in the spectacular carnival city of Rio de Janeiro, this tour offers fantastic urban experiences.

^ Over the past several years, there have been several high-profile kidnapping incidents in the interior of the country.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UNESCO World Heritage List .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But Paraguay also has a history of blood and tears. .In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), waged by the allied forces of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, the country lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory.^ In 1864, Francisco Solano López declared war on the powerful Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterward, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It stagnated economically for the next half century.^ It stagnated economically for the next half century.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia.^ In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1930s and 1940s, Paraguayan politics were defined by the Chaco war against Bolivia, a civil war, dictatorships, and periods of extreme political instability.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other important areas of intervention are economic growth, the environment and public health.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, democratic governors have been in power since then.^ Violent crime has increased in recent years.
  • Paraguay Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since then.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On February 3, 1989, Stroessner was overthrown in a military coup headed by Gen.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • National holiday: Independence Day, 15 May (1811)

Geography

.With an area of about 406.000 sq km, Paraguay is divided between the East and West (Chaco) regions by the Paraguay River.^ Climate: Temperate east of the Paraguay River, semiarid to the west.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geography Area: 406,752 sq.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite being landlocked, the country is bordered and criss-crossed by navigable rivers.^ Categories · Cross-Border/Crime non-USA, by Country · UK-Northern Ireland · Paraguay .
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ Categories · Cross-Border/Crime non-USA, by Country · Paraguay .
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ Categories · Cross-Border/Crime non-USA, by Country · Brazil · Paraguay .
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.The Tropic of Capricorn also crosses the country from East to West and determines a more tropical climate to the North and subtropical to temperate climate to the South.^ Climate: Temperate east of the Paraguay River, semiarid to the west.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See most of the continent from north to south and east to west.

^ Terrain: East of the Paraguay River there are grassy plains, wooded hills, tropical forests; west of the Paraguay River (Chaco region) is low, flat, marshy plain.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Economy

.Paraguay has been recently ranked by several research studies as the cheapest country in the world, measured through Purchasing Power Parity.^ Paraguay ranked near the bottom — 138th among 180 countries — of Transparency International’s 2007 Corruption Perception Index.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ Today Paraguay, a landlocked, California-sized country, ranks among the world’s top producers of contraband cigarettes, responsible for 10 percent of the world’s contraband tobacco, experts estimate.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ I am studying Epidemiology and am doing research for the culture of Paraguay.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Prices, measured in dollars, euros or British pounds are very cheap.
Economy - overview 
Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. The informal sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives their living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97, but GDP declined slightly in 1998, 1999, and 2000. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and foreign debt, and deficient infrastructure.
GDP 
purchasing power parity - $26.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita 
purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2001 est.)

Get in

Entry Requirements

.Before you try to enter Paraguay, check the visa requirements for your country.^ Tourist Visa: Required Business Visa: Required Student Visa: Required Be sure that your passport is stamped by an immigration official if entering Paraguay overland or you will receive a heavy fine when leaving the country.
  • Paraguay Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS It is the sole prerogative of each country or region to determine who is allowed to enter .
  • Paraguay Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ If you are calling from Paraguay, search CountryCode.org for the country you are calling.
  • Paraguay Country Code 595 Country Code PY 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most European citizens (EU) don't need visas to visit Paraguay.^ A statement issued Tuesday said citizens may want to particularly avoid the area of Asuncion, Paraguay, where most of the nation's infections are concentrated.
  • Keyword: paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However US, Canadian and Australian citizens do need visas.

By plane

.Flights go out from other South American airports to Asuncion on a fairly regular basis.^ However, while he was on his way to the airport in Venice to catch a flight back to Asuncion...
  • Keyword: paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also two daily flights from São Paulo to Ciudad del Este.^ The NGO Children's and Adolescents' Care and Assistance Center (CEAPRA), managed a shelter in Ciudad del Este, and the Catholic Church operated a home in Encarnacion.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The privately maintained toll road between Caaguazu and Ciudad del Este and the routes between Asuncion and Encarnacion and Asuncion and Pedro Juan Caballero are in good condition.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Itaipu Binational Authority and SNNA supported CEAPRA's shelter for child trafficking victims in Ciudad del Este.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Currently there are no direct flights from the United States to any city in Paraguay.^ The United States looks to Paraguay, which has tropical forest and riverine resources, to engage in hemispheric efforts to ensure sustainable development.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argentina provide most of Paraguay's imports, followed by the United States and Japan.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay is a republic consisting of the city of Asunción and seventeen additional departments, which are further subdivided into local administrative units known as municipios .
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By train

.Currently, there is no train service available to and from Paraguay.^ Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no reports of systematic nationwide irregularities, although the NGO Transparency Paraguay cited irregularities at several polling stations.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "If we don't fight these things, there is no future for Paraguay."
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

In the past, Paraguay was connected by a train service to Argentina, but it has been discontinued.

By bus

Bus service is available to and from a wide range of South American cities. .You can take a bus from Santiago, Chile; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cordoba, Argentina; Montevideo, Uruguay; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.^ The smugglers feed an illicit trade that injects billions of cigarettes into Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and other large Brazilian cities, where the cheap, untaxed Paraguayan sticks account for 20 percent of the entire cigarette market.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ SouthAmerica.travel is based with offices in Washington & Stuttgart, Germany and with their own South America Incoming Tour Operator offices in Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Lima.
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spectacular highlights of Bolivia and northern Argentina, we travel across the centre of the continent from La Paz to Buenos Aires.

Buses are very modern and some buses have seats that fully recline into beds. In Spanish they are called cama. Semi-cama recline most of the way.

By boat

.A boat travels up the Paraguay River from Asuncion stopping at many ports to the north of the border with Brazil.^ Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay (country), officially Republic of Paraguay, inland republic in South America, bordered on the north-west and north by Bolivia, on the east by Brazil, and on the south and south-west by Argentina.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the traveller's responsibility to check with the Embassy of Paraguay and its consulates for up-to-date information .
  • Paraguay Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Most of these boats weren't designed to carry passengers so expect a sticky crowded experience, but you can buy just about anything on board, even cold beer.^ Nowadays we don´t know much about these people, whom lived in most parts of South America...
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I just wanted to say thank you and that this was one of the best online sources i found about Paraguay's culture!
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bring something comfortable to sleep on!

Get around

By taxi

.Taxis are the most efficient and reliable form of transportation, even though you can probably get there also by bus, or colectivo, as Paraguayans call it.^ Poorer Paraguayans relied particularly on their mother's relatives; the more prosperous were more even-handed in their dealings with extended kin.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if he is to be believed — and there are already signs his zeal for reform might not survive long once he is in office — Mr. Duarte Frutos will have a tough job weaning the economy off contraband, even though most Paraguayans agree it is increasingly urgent that the country kick the habit.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

Taxis are expensive compared to other prices in Paraguay, and in Asuncion the fares are determined by the meter. .Outside Asunción there are no meters so make sure you decide on a price before you get in.^ At least 34 Paraguayan factories make cigarettes, but there's no accounting for their production.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

Bargaining on a price may be useful, as tourists have been asked for US$10 for a five minute ride. To prevent any disputes, always ask your hotel concierge how much the real cost of the fare should be.
Railways 
total: 971 km
standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge
note: there are 470 km of various gauges that are privately owned
narrow gauge: 60 km 1.000-m gauge

By car

.There are highways connecting all the major regions of Paraguay, but most of them are one lane each way.^ Terrain: East of the Paraguay River there are grassy plains, wooded hills, tropical forests; west of the Paraguay River (Chaco region) is low, flat, marshy plain.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by the south-flowing Paraguay River.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the mid-1970s, the majority of residents lived in rural areas, nearly all in the central region surrounding Asunción.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You may hit toll booths along the way. Police may pull you over for any reason and will expect bribes. Locals say that the most common way to avoid giving away too much money on the bribes requested by the 'polícia caminera' (road police) is by giving them a small guarani bill while shaking their hands when they stop your car. .Also, it is advised that, when they ask you, play dumb and DO NOT admit travelling through Paraguay for the first time.^ Do you think they have the beating of Paraguay?"
  • Paraguay v Argentina - as it happened | Rob Smyth | Football | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I agree that if they get to the play-offs they'll get through, but there is a serious danger they won't even do that.
  • Paraguay v Argentina - as it happened | Rob Smyth | Football | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Paraguay have they got you doing such a late MBM? What time will you be allowed to Gago home tonight?
  • Paraguay v Argentina - as it happened | Rob Smyth | Football | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Please note that you will probably only face this kind of problem with the police on the country roads. These problems do not generally occur in any of the wealthier areas of the major cities where you can keep a somewhat 'nicer' relationship with the police.

By bus

Buses are the most common public transport. There are many companies running different lines. You must check which one serves your destination.
  • Nuestra Señora de la Asunción [2]
  • La Encarnacena [3]
Waterways 
3,100 km
Ports and harbors 
Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
Merchant marine 
total: .21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 34,623 GRT/36,821 DWT
ships by type: cargo 14, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Argentina 2, Japan 1 (2002 est.
^ Observers estimated that there were over 14 million chickens, 400,000 ducks, 55,000 turkeys, and several other types of fowl.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major suppliers --China (28%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (14%), Japan (8.5%), and U.S. (6.3%).
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Talk

Both Spanish and Guarani are official. .Most people in Paraguay speak Spanish and use of English is very limited.^ Paraguay are very happy to let Argentina have most of the ball, safe in the knowledge that they are going to do bugger all with it, and then hit them on the break.
  • Paraguay v Argentina - as it happened | Rob Smyth | Football | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Outside of Asuncion and big cities Guarani is all you will hear. Due to the extensive use of Guarani, even those who have managed to learn Spanish do not always speak it very well.
.In Paraguay, Guarani is almost always spoken as a mix of Guarani and Spanish, known as Jopara, meaning "mixed" in Guarani.^ Paraguay is a bilingual country; its official languages are Spanish and Guaran, which is commonly spoken by about 90 percent of the people.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The number system in Guarani is rarely used, and is almost always replaced with the Spanish number system.
Some basic greetings in Guarani include:
Mba'eichapa? = How are you?
Iporã = Good
ha nde? = and you?
iporã avei = good as well
In Paraguay Vos is used instead of Tu. There is a slight change in conjugation but not big enough that you won't be understood using Tu. This Vos is NOT the same as Vosotros. Tienes changes to tenés, puedes changes to podés, but usually you can get by with changing tu to vos.
In the northern, and eastern parts of Paraguay, Portuguese is spoken widely. In some places, Nueva Esperanza (80% portuguese speaking), Katuetè (60%) the majority speak Portuguese, almost always the result of Paraguayan born, or first generation Brazilian immigrants. .There are many cases of Paraguayans, who were born during the era of Brazilian immigration who speak only Portuguese at home, although also fluent Guarani, but very little or no Spanish.^ Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no developments in the 2005 robbery and assault case of Norma Silva Centurion or in the 2005 case of Marcial Martinez Amarilla, who was arrested without a warrant.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no developments in the 2005 cases of alleged police killings of Lucio Luis Vera, Angel Cristaldo, and Leopoldo Torres.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

The currency is the guarani (PYG). As of October, 2007, the current exchange rate is 5,033 Guaranies for 1 US Dollar, and 7,157 Guaranies for €1. Always check the exchange rate quotations on the internet or several major newspapers before exchanging money.
.Prices in Paraguay are very low and a budget traveller will be able to get by on as little as £7/$14 a day and even less if camping.^ Very Best of Argentina (14 days) .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A clean, single hotel room out of Asuncion should not cost more than $10.

Eat

You'll find much of the standard South American cuisine here with some Brazilian influence as well (fried bananas, pineapple). .Also highly popular are empanadas (meat/egg stuffed in a pastry and baked) and milanesa (breaded and fried chicken/beef/fish) - these are considered fast food, and are also found in other countries in the region.^ Close A-B C-E F-K L-O P-S T-Z Regions Please choose a country or other area, or a Region.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you order a hamburger at a restaurant, expect it to come topped with a fried egg. Asado (BBQ) is great, and prices are quite reasonable - 20000 Guaranis ($4.00 US) will get you an all-you-can-eat buffet at many nice places. 5000 Guarani is enough to pay for a hamburger. Paraguayan food isn't particularly spicy, so those who can't tolerate spices won't have problems here. There is a lot of traditional food. Chipa-a bread baked in an outdoor oven or "tatacua", usually made out of mandioca (manioc) flour. Mandioca is often substituted for potatoes. Sopa Paraguaya is a form of corn bread are two of the most well known. Mandioca, or Mandi´o in Guarani. It is eaten almost everyday by Paraguayans, and many have it growing on their land.

Drink

It's not advisable to drink the tap water (unless boiled), but you probably won't get sick if you do.
.The national beverage in Paraguay is a tea called mate (served hot) or terere (served cold) and is made from the yerba mate plant.^ These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

It is served in guampas, which can be made out of wood or of hallow bull horns, and is drunk through a metal straw called a bombilla. The tea is prepared by pouring dry yerba into the cup, then adding water: hot water version is known as mate while the cold water version is known as tereré. Mate is usually enjoyed in the winter and tereré in the summer. Often, herbs are added to the tereré water. The taste is best described as earthy, like a bitter green tea, and it will take getting used to before you can enjoy it. .Drinking mate or tereré is most definitely one of the social customs of Paraguay.^ Join us on one of our pre-designed Paraguay tours, or let us put together a custom tour of Paraguay and South America .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay travel information: Travel visa F.A.Q. Paraguay Visa Information Embassy of Paraguay in Canada Paraguay Embassy Holidays Paraguay Customs Paraguay visa in United States Social networking .
  • Paraguay Visa, Canada: Application for Paraguayan Visa for Canadians. 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguay.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shops will close around noon for a siesta and for a round of mate/tereré with friends. If you can get used to the taste and participate, locals will be appreciative. .This drink is also found in other South American countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, and parts of Brazil.^ Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ China visa Egypt visa India visa Brazil visa Australia visa View all View other countries .
  • Paraguay Visa, Canada: Application for Paraguayan Visa for Canadians. 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguay.visahq.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Beer is widely available, as are many liquors.

Sleep

Good accommodation will certainly not be hard to find in major towns, and will seem reasonably cheap if the parameter is the dollar or the euro. .The exception, however, is Ciudad del Este.^ The NGO Children's and Adolescents' Care and Assistance Center (CEAPRA), managed a shelter in Ciudad del Este, and the Catholic Church operated a home in Encarnacion.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Itaipu Binational Authority and SNNA supported CEAPRA's shelter for child trafficking victims in Ciudad del Este.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestically, most victims were trafficked to Asuncion and Ciudad del Este.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cheap accommodation is easy to find, but if you're after something of higher quality you'll have a better chance in the Argentinian Puerto Iguazu or the Brazilian Foz do Iguaçu.^ With hundreds of top quality trips to choose from, you’ll have the adventure holiday of a lifetime with Tucan Travel.

Work

.Most people who live in the rural areas of Paraguay are subsistence famers.^ Nowadays we don´t know much about these people, whom lived in most parts of South America...
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other people who live in urban areas are marketeers. They sell fish, fruit and vegetables, and other products.

Stay safe

There are not many large cities and if you use some common sense and street smarts, you are unlikely to run into any trouble. The police are known to be corrupt, and if you are pulled over for any reason, you will almost certainly be expected to pay a bribe. .In the cities crime is common, though not as rampant as in other cities such as Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Buenos Aires.^ Buenos Aires, Iguassu Falls, Atlantica Rain forest, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro & Salvador!
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SouthAmerica.travel is based with offices in Washington & Stuttgart, Germany and with their own South America Incoming Tour Operator offices in Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Lima.
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NEW! Agrotour begins 01' April 2009 Agricultural Tour to Brazil, and Rio de Janeiro!
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ciudad del Este is a center for illicit activities, such as money laundering and counterfeiting, but that should not affect your travels.^ The NGO Children's and Adolescents' Care and Assistance Center (CEAPRA), managed a shelter in Ciudad del Este, and the Catholic Church operated a home in Encarnacion.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Itaipu Binational Authority and SNNA supported CEAPRA's shelter for child trafficking victims in Ciudad del Este.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestically, most victims were trafficked to Asuncion and Ciudad del Este.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That said, you will want to keep an eye on your bags and wallet here, as you would do in any other large city. Generally, as long as you aren't involved in drug smuggling (inadvertently or otherwise), and are alert to pickpockets, you should be safe most of the time.
Legal system 
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice

Stay healthy

Hospitals in Paraguay range from decent to unsanitary and unequipped. If you get desperately ill, try to get to the best hospital even if it takes a bit longer - you may not find surgical gloves in the worst of them. There are many stray dogs running the streets - avoid them. They usually won't bother you. You may pick up a foot flea known locally as pique (Tunga penetrans), these will usually collect around your toes. They will lay eggs in your feet if not taken care of - the best way to get rid of them is to pierce the site with a stitching needle and pour hydrogen peroxide over the area, then dig the bug out. If you have picked one up, you may notice itching or tenderness in your feet .

Respect

It is always considered courteous for men to shake hands whenever they meet. In mixed company, or two women, it is common to shake hands and to give a kiss on each cheek. Also when meeting, people will ask not how you are, but if everything is all right, todo bien? The response to this is always, yes everything, and you, si todo bien y vos? Even if you are having a terrible day, when someone asks such as an acquaintance in the street, one always responds with yes, everything. Also when given food, you are obligated to both eat it, and to say that it is good, ´rico` in Spanish. To say otherwise with a person you are not acquainted with can be considered forward and rude.
Diplomatic representation in the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador James Spalding
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Kansas City, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
Diplomatic representation from the US 
chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana Ayalde
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
Website: [4]
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.PARAGUAY, an inland republic of South America, between 20° 16' 14" and 26° 31' S. and 54° 37' and 62° W. It is bounded on the N.W. by Bolivia, N. and E. by Brazil, S.E., S. and W. by Argentina.^ Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km .

^ Email this Print Questions or Feedback Cite This republic, S central South America, bounded on the NW and N by Bolivia, on the NE and E by Brazil, and on the S, SE, and W by Argentina.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay is bounded by Bolivia to the northwest and north, Brazil to the northeast and east, and Argentina to the southeast, south, and west.
  • Paraguay -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Paraguay :: Land -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Pop. .(1905 estimate), 631,347, including 50,000 Iguassu Indians; area, about 97,700 sq.^ Iguassu Indians; area, about 97,700 sq.

^ The Eastern Region, with an area of about 61,700 square miles (160,000 square km), is an extension of the Brazilian Plateau and varies in elevation from about 165 feet (50 metres) above sea level in the southwest to a few hills that rise to 2,500 feet (760 metres) in the east.
  • Paraguay :: Land -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

m.
.By the treaty of 1872 the Brazilian frontier was drawn up the Parana from the mouth of the Iguassu or Y-Guazu (25° 30' S.) to the Salto Grande or Great Cataract of La Guayra (24° 7'), thence west along the watershed of the Sierra de Maracayu, north along the Sierra de Ambaya to the sources of the Apa, and down that stream to its junction with the Paraguay.^ The trip along the fast-flowing River Paraguay from Asuncion via Concepcion passes through fascinating landscapes, eventually leading as far as the huge marshlands in the north and over the Brazilian border.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the last decade, Brazilian cattle ranchers have been buying up land in the border department of Alto Paraguay, taking advantage of the low land prices in this country.
  • PARAGUAY: Uncontacted Ayoreo Threatened by Deforestation - IPS ipsnews.net 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Overview Country Overview Paraguay is a landlocked country surrounded by Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil, lying some 1440km (900 miles) up the River Parana from the Atlantic.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Buenos Aires treaty of the 3rd of February 1876 fixed the frontier between Argentina and Paraguay, and assigned to Paraguay the portion of the Gran Chaco between Rio Verde and Bahia Negra; the appropriation of the portion between Rio Verde and the Pilcomayo was submitted to the arbitration of the president of the United States, who in 1878 assigned it to Paraguay.^ Improbable allies; Paraguay and the United States.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Buenos Aires treaty of the 3rd of February 1876 fixed the frontier between Argentina and Paraguay, and assigned to Paraguay the portion of the Gran Chaco between Rio Verde and Bahia Negra; the appropriation of the portion between Rio Verde and the Pilcomayo was submitted to the arbitration of the president of the United States , who in 1878 assigned it to Paraguay.

^ A U.S. State Department report on Religious Freedom names Catholic, territory of the indigenous Chamacoco (Ishir) people, who live in Northern Paraguay.
  • Top20Paraguay.com - Your Top20 Guide to Paraguay! 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.top20paraguay.com [Source type: News]

.The frontier line towards Bolivia has long been in dispute.^ The frontier line towards Bolivia has long been in dispute.

.Physical Features.-The river Paraguay, running from north to south, divides the republic into two sections, the eastern section, or Paraguay Oriental, being the most important.^ Physical Features.-The river Paraguay, running from north to south, divides the republic into two sections, the eastern section, or Paraguay Oriental, being the most important.

^ For purposes of local administration the republic is divided into 23 counties ( partidos ), which are subdivided into communes.

^ Both belligerents moved more troops into the Chaco Boreal, a wilderness region north of the Pilcomayo River and west of the Paraguay River that forms part of the Gran Chaco.
  • Timeline Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The western section forms part of the great plain called the Gran Chaco (see Argentina), and is to a large extent unexplored.^ The western section forms part of the great plain called the Gran Chaco (see Argentina ), and is to a large extent unexplored.

^ The inhospitable and semiarid Chaco forms the western part of the nation.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere .

.Paraguay proper, or the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, is traversed from north to south by a broad irregular belt of highlands, which are known as the Cordillera Ambaya, Cordillera Urucury, &c., but partake rather of the character of plateaus, and form a continuation and outwork of the great interior plateau of Brazil.^ Paraguay proper, or the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, is traversed from north to south by a broad irregular belt of highlands, which are known as the Cordillera Ambaya, Cordillera Urucury, &c., but partake rather of the character of plateaus, and form a continuation and outwork of the great interior plateau of Brazil.

^ Paraguay is a landlocked country located in the heart of South America, known as the "Heart of America."
  • Paraguay - HFA-PEDIA 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.eird.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Oriental zone, which covers 159,800 sq km (61,700 sq miles), consists of undulating country intersected by chains of hills rising to about 600m (2000ft), merging into the Mato Grosso Plateau in the north; the Parana crosses the area in the east and south.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The elevation nowhere much exceeds 2200 ft.^ The elevation nowhere much exceeds 2200 ft.

.On the western side these highlands terminate with a more or less sharply defined edge, the country sloping gradually up to their bases in gentle undulations with open, ill-defined valleys; on the eastern side they send out broad spurs enclosing deep-cut valleys, and the whole country retains more of an upland character.^ Bartonellosis, or Oroya fever (a sand fly-borne disease), occurs in arid river valleys on the western slopes of the Andes up to 3,000 meters (9,842 feet).
  • Health Information for Paraguay | CDC Travelers' Health 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On its W edge the plateau falls off sharply to a region of fertile grassy foothills toward the Paraguay R.; in the E it descends gradually toward the Paraná R. (the upper reaches of which are also known as the Alto Paraná).
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The western part of the Eastern Region and the Paraná valley north and east of Encarnación are the areas most favourable to human settlement.
  • Paraguay :: Land -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The tributaries that flow westward to the Paraguay are consequently to some extent navigable, while those that run eastward to the Parana are interrupted by rapids and falls, often of a formidable description.^ The tributaries that flow westward to the Paraguay are consequently to some extent navigable, while those that run eastward to the Parana are interrupted by rapids and falls, often of a formidable description.

^ Asuncion, a city founded in 1537 by the Spanish, is located on the banks of the Paraguay River, the main tributary of the Parana River, which in turn flows into the Rio de La Plata.
  • Paraguay - HFA-PEDIA 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.eird.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The River Paraguay, a tributary of the Parana, divides the country into two sharply contrasting regions.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pilcomayo, the largest western tributary of the Paraguay, and an important frontier river, is only navigable in its upper and lower reaches.^ The main rivers are the Paraná, the Paraguay, and the Pilcomayo.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pilcomayo, the largest western tributary of the Paraguay, and an important frontier river, is only navigable in its upper and lower reaches.

^ Both belligerents moved more troops into the Chaco Boreal, a wilderness region north of the Pilcomayo River and west of the Paraguay River that forms part of the Gran Chaco.
  • Timeline Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.From the Asuncion plateau southwards, near the confluence of the Paraguay and Parana, there is a vast stretch of marshy country, draining partly into the Ypoa lagoon, amd smaller tracts of the same character are found in other parts of the lowlands, especially in the valley of the Paraguay.^ From the Asuncion plateau southwards, near the confluence of the Paraguay and Parana, there is a vast stretch of marshy country, draining partly into the Ypoa lagoon , amd smaller tracts of the same character are found in other parts of the lowlands, especially in the valley of the Paraguay.

^ But the country sloping to the Paraguay, and comprising the greater part of the settled districts, is, in keeping with its proximity to the vast plains of Argentina, grassy and open, though the hills are usually covered with forest and clumps of trees are frequent in the lowlands.

^ Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere .
  • Flag Counter » Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many parts of the country sloping to the Parana are nearly covered with dense forest, and have been left in possession of the sparsely scattered native tribes.^ Until December 1986, Picanerai was living in the bush in the northern department (province) of Alto Paraguay, which is part of the Chaco region - a vast area of dense, scrubby forest that covers western Paraguay and parts of Bolivia and Argentina.
  • PARAGUAY: Uncontacted Ayoreo Threatened by Deforestation - IPS ipsnews.net 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ The Gran Chaco is part of an alluvial plain that extends from Paraguay into Bolivia on the W, Argentina on the S, and Brazil on the E. Grassy plains, swamps, and scrub forests cover the area.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay proper, where rainfall is heavy, is covered by dense evergreen forests interspersed with a wide variety of tropical grasses, ferns, palms, and exotic flowers.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the country sloping to the Paraguay, and comprising the greater part of the settled districts, is, in keeping with its proximity to the vast plains of Argentina, grassy and open, though the hills are usually covered with forest and clumps of trees are frequent in the lowlands.^ But the country sloping to the Paraguay, and comprising the greater part of the settled districts, is, in keeping with its proximity to the vast plains of Argentina, grassy and open, though the hills are usually covered with forest and clumps of trees are frequent in the lowlands.

^ Paraguay is a landlocked country of plains and swampland.
  • Paraguay -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Asuncion plateau southwards, near the confluence of the Paraguay and Parana, there is a vast stretch of marshy country, draining partly into the Ypoa lagoon , amd smaller tracts of the same character are found in other parts of the lowlands, especially in the valley of the Paraguay.

.Except in the marshy regions and along the rivers, the soil is dry, porous and sandy.^ Except in the marshy regions and along the rivers, the soil is dry, porous and sandy.

^ Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere .
  • Flag Counter » Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transported soils cover a band along the Paraguay River, extending from the Apa River to the southern border and covering the Ñeembucú plain.
  • Paraguay :: Land -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Table of contents

Geology

.Little is known of the geology of Paraguay.^ Little is known of the geology of Paraguay.

.A large part of the area is covered by Quaternary deposits, which completely conceal the solid foundation on which they rest.^ A large part of the area is covered by Quaternary deposits, which completely conceal the solid foundation on which they rest.

^ A large part of eastern Paraguay is covered by a residual soil mantle so deep that bedrock is rarely exposed.
  • Paraguay :: Land -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Gran Chaco is part of an alluvial plain that extends from Paraguay into Bolivia on the W, Argentina on the S, and Brazil on the E. Grassy plains, swamps, and scrub forests cover the area.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal, with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous).^ The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal , with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous ).

.It is probable, also, that the Palaeozoic rocks of Matto Grosso extend into the northern part of the country.^ The Paraguay River , flowing from north to south, divides the country into two geographic regions: the eastern region, which is an extension of the Brazilian Plateau; and the western region, which forms the northern part of the Gran Chaco plains.
  • Paraguay -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gran Chaco is part of an alluvial plain that extends from Paraguay into Bolivia on the W, Argentina on the S, and Brazil on the E. Grassy plains, swamps, and scrub forests cover the area.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Minerals

.The gold mines said to have been concealed by the Jesuits may have had no existence; and though iron was worked by F. S. Lopez at Ibicuy (70 m.^ The gold mines said to have been concealed by the Jesuits may have had no existence; and though iron was worked by F. S. Lopez at Ibicuy (70 m.

south-east of .Asuncion), and native copper, oxide of manganese, marbles, lime and salt have been found, the real wealth of the country consists rather in the variety and value of its vegetable products.^ Asuncion), and native copper , oxide of manganese , marbles , lime and salt have been found, the real wealth of the country consists rather in the variety and value of its vegetable products.

Climate and Fauna. - .The year in Paraguay is divided into two seasons - " summer," lasting from October to March, and " winter," from April to September.^ The year in Paraguay is divided into two seasons - " summer," lasting from October to March, and " winter," from April to September.

^ The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Temperatures are high in a humid subtropical climate in the summer months of October to March, while in the winter months of July to September night frosts may occur.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.December, January and February are generally the hottest months, and May, June, July and August the coldest.^ December, January and February are generally the hottest months, and May, June, July and August the coldest.

^ Temperatures are high in a humid subtropical climate in the summer months of October to March, while in the winter months of July to September night frosts may occur.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer months of December, January, and February the temperature frequently rises above 100° Fahrenheit (38° Celsius).
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mean temperature for the year seems to be about 75° or 76°; for summer 81°, for winter 71°.^ The mean temperature for the year seems to be about 75° or 76°; for summer 81°, for winter 71°.

^ Temperatures are high in a humid subtropical climate in the summer months of October to March, while in the winter months of July to September night frosts may occur.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The year in Paraguay is divided into two seasons - " summer," lasting from October to March, and " winter," from April to September.

.The annual rainfall is about 46 in., fairly well distributed throughout the year, though the heaviest precipitation occurs in August, September and October.^ The annual rainfall is about 46 in., fairly well distributed throughout the year, though the heaviest precipitation occurs in August, September and October.

^ Rainfall occurs throughout the year but is usually heaviest between October and April; annual variations can be extreme.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temperatures are high in a humid subtropical climate in the summer months of October to March, while in the winter months of July to September night frosts may occur.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prevailing winds blow from the north or south.^ The prevailing winds blow from the north or south.

^ The south wind is dry, cool and invigorating, and banishes mosquitoes for a time; the north wind is hot, moist and relaxing.

^ Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and around the property (Resolución No.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.The south wind is dry, cool and invigorating, and banishes mosquitoes for a time; the north wind is hot, moist and relaxing.^ The prevailing winds blow from the north or south.

^ The south wind is dry, cool and invigorating, and banishes mosquitoes for a time; the north wind is hot, moist and relaxing.

^ In the drier winter months some parts of the country are at times subject to hot north winds and dust storms.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Violent wind storms generally come from the south.^ Violent wind storms generally come from the south.

.The fauna of Paraguay proper is practically the same as that of Brazil.^ The fauna of Paraguay proper is practically the same as that of Brazil.

.Caymans, water-hogs (capinchos), several kinds of deer (Cervus paludosus the largest), ounces, opossums, armadillos, vampires, the American ostrich, the ibis, the jabiru, various species popularly called partridges, the pato real or royal duck, the Palamedea cornuta, parrots and parakeets, are among the more notable forms.^ Caymans, water-hogs ( capinchos ), several kinds of deer ( Cervus paludosus the largest), ounces, opossums, armadillos, vampires, the American ostrich , the ibis , the jabiru , various species popularly called partridges, the pato real or royal duck , the Palamedea cornuta, parrots and parakeets, are among the more notable forms.

^ Among the local birds are toucan, ibis, heron, parrot, black duck, dove, partridge, rhea (American ostrich), and parakeet.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The animals of Paraguay include armadillo, capybara, tapir, jaguar, anteater, wild boar, deer, alligator, and various species of snake.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Insect life is peculiarly abundant; the red stump-like ant-hills are a feature in every landscape, and bees used to be kept in all the mission villages.^ Insect life is peculiarly abundant; the red stump-like ant -hills are a feature in every landscape, and bees used to be kept in all the mission villages.

^ That the income from work done by Indians on government reservations and religious missions should belong to all our brothers and sisters and not be used for the administrative expenses of the paternal agencies.

Population

.The great majority of the inhabitants are of Indian (Guarani) descent, with very slight traces of foreign blood.^ The great majority of the inhabitants are of Indian (Guarani) descent, with very slight traces of foreign blood.

^ A large majority of the people are of mixed white (especially Spanish) and Guaraní Indian descent.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Civilization has not made much progress, and the habits of the people are more primitive than those in the more advanced neighbouring republics.^ Civilization has not made much progress, and the habits of the people are more primitive than those in the more advanced neighbouring republics.

^ For progress has been made, and more was likely to be made in the future.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates that more people of Puerto Rican birth or ancestry live in the U.S. than in Puerto Rico.
  • Paraguay Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Paraguay, Paraguay Properties 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguaypropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a general rule the Para-, guayans are indolent, especially the men.^ As a general rule the Para -, guayans are indolent, especially the men.

.Climatic conditions obviate the necessity of any superfluity of clothing.^ Climatic conditions obviate the necessity of any superfluity of clothing.

.A cotton chemise, and a white manta wrapped in Moorish fashion over head and body, constitute the dress of the women; a cotton shirt and trousers that of the men.^ A cotton chemise, and a white manta wrapped in Moorish fashion over head and body, constitute the dress of the women; a cotton shirt and trousers that of the men.

Boots and shoes are worn only by the upper classes. .Goitre and leprosy are the only endemic diseases; but the natives, being underfed, are prone to diarrhoea and dyspepsia.^ Goitre and leprosy are the only endemic diseases; but the natives, being underfed, are prone to diarrhoea and dyspepsia .

.The common language of the country is Guarani, although in a few districts Tupi is spoken.^ The common language of the country is Guarani, although in a few districts Tupi is spoken.

^ Language: The official language is Spanish and Guarani; Guarani is spoken by most of the rural population.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is the language of business and government, and Guarani is spoken in everyday life.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country people as a rule understand a little Spanish, if living near any trading centre.^ The country people as a rule understand a little Spanish, if living near any trading centre.

^ Paraguay is a bilingual country; its official languages are Spanish and Guaran, which is commonly spoken by about 90 percent of the people.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

." New Australia " is a pastoral and agricultural settlement, originally founded in 1893 by immigrants from Australia as an experiment in communism.^ New Australia " is a pastoral and agricultural settlement, originally founded in 1893 by immigrants from Australia as an experiment in communism .

.The colony failed at first, and was reconstituted in 1894. The settlers numbered 161 in 1908. Immigration is on a small scale (1024 in 1908), but tends to increase; it is encouraged by the government, which seeks to divert to Paraguay some portion of the Italian labour immigrant into Brazil and Argentina.^ Immigration is on a small scale (1024 in 1908), but tends to increase; it is encouraged by the government, which seeks to divert to Paraguay some portion of the Italian labour immigrant into Brazil and Argentina.

^ The settlers numbered 161 in 1908.

^ The colony failed at first, and was reconstituted in 1894.

.In 1908 the total foreign population numbered about 18,000, half of whom were natives of Argentina.^ In 1908 the total foreign population numbered about 18,000, half of whom were natives of Argentina.

^ The guarantee debt due to the Paraguay Central railway exceeds £1,500,000; and the total indebtedness of the republic on the 31st of December 1908 may be estimated at £7,650,000.

^ Besides the London debt, there are many other claims on Paraguay, including (1908) about £1,950,000 due to Brazil, about £2,500,000 due to Argentina, and an internal debt of £850,000.

.The principal towns are Asuncion, the capital (pop.^ The principal towns are Asuncion, the capital (pop.

^ Two anti-riot police died and five were injured in the collapse of part of Paraguay's principal stadium in the capital, Asuncion, medical officials said.
  • Paraguay: News & Videos about Paraguay - CNN.com 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.1905, 60,259), Villa Rica (25,000), Concepcion (15,000) and Villa del Pilar (10,000); these are described in separate articles.^ Villa Rica (25,000), Concepcion (15,000) and Villa del Pilar (10,000); these are described in separate articles.

Encarnacion on the Parana has a large transit trade.

Government

.The constitution of the republic was voted by a constituent assembly on the 25th of November 1870. Legislative power is vested in a Congress consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies, elected by universal manhood suffrage in the proportion of one senator for every 1 2,000 inhabitants and one deputy for every 6000. Every member of Congress receives a salary of about f200. The head of the executive is the president, chosen by an electoral college for four years, and only re-eligible after eight consecutive years.^ The Executive Power is exercised by the President of the Republic , a personal office elected by direct vote.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The governor and legislators are elected by popular vote every four years.
  • Paraguay Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Paraguay, Paraguay Properties 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguaypropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a republic with two legislative houses; its head of state and government is the president.
  • Paraguay -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He is aided by a cabinet of five ministers, responsible to Congress. .Should he die during his term, or otherwise become unable to fulfil his duties, the president is succeeded by the vice-president (similarly elected), who is ex officio chairman of the Senate.^ A bitter power struggle developed between Cubas and his vice president, Luis María Argaña, who was killed in a street ambush in Mar., 1999.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1992 Constitution incorporates the figure of the Vice-President, who, in case of impediment or temporary absence of the President, or also in case of a definite vacancy of the presidential office, substitutes the President with all the offices attributions.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under provisions of Constitution of 1967, chief administrator is president of the republic, elected by popular vote for five-year term.
  • Atlas - Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.map.freegk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, which is empowered to decide upon the constitutional validity of acts passed by Congress; its three members are appointed for four years by Congress, subject to the approval of the president.^ The highest judicial authority is the Supreme Court, which is empowered to decide upon the constitutional validity of acts passed by Congress; its three members are appointed for four years by Congress, subject to the approval of the president.

^ The judiciary, including the Supreme Court, is appointed.
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^ The Supreme Court of Justice has nine members.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are five courts of appeal, and inferior tribunals in all the large towns.^ There are five courts of appeal, and inferior tribunals in all the large towns.

^ There are also courts of appeal, the Tribunal of Jurors and Judges of First Instance, and judges of arbitration.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The members of the Appeals Tribunals and Courts in all the different matters are designated by the Supreme Court of Justice from shortlists of three candidates which are proposed by the Council of Magistrates.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The civil and criminal codes at Argentina have been adopted, almost without change.^ The civil and criminal codes at Argentina have been adopted, almost without change.

^ It also has codes related to procedural matters, such as the Criminal Code of Procedure, Civil Code of Procedure, Labor Code of Procedure, etc.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paraguay has legal codes relating to a variety of fields: Criminal, Civil and Commercial, Labor, Child and Adolescent (substantive codes).
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.For purposes of local administration the republic is divided into 23 counties (partidos), which are subdivided into communes.^ For purposes of local administration the republic is divided into 23 counties ( partidos ), which are subdivided into communes.

^ Physical Features.-The river Paraguay, running from north to south, divides the republic into two sections, the eastern section, or Paraguay Oriental, being the most important.

^ Paraguay is a republic consisting of the city of Asunción and seventeen additional departments, which are further subdivided into local administrative units known as municipios .
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Religion and Instruction

.Roman Catholicism is the established religion, but the constitution guarantees full liberty to all other creeds.^ Roman Catholicism is the established religion, but the constitution guarantees full liberty to all other creeds .

^ The new constitution does not establish an official religion, in contrast to its predecessor, in which Roman Catholicism was officially consecrated, to the extent that the President of the Republic had the obligation of professing it.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Catholicism is the established religion; most of the small number of Protestants are Mennonites.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Asuncion, the only bishopric in the state, is in the archiepiscopal province of Buenos Aires.^ ROAD: The roads from Rio and Sao Paulo to Asuncion (via the Iguazu Falls) are paved and generally good, as is the one from Buenos Aires.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also a number of scheduled flights to Asuncion from other south American cities, notably Buenos Aires, Santa Cruz (Bolivia) and Santiago (Chile).
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RAIL: There is no through service to Argentina, but a weekly train from Asuncion serves Posadas in Argentina by means of a train-ferry, with connections to Concordia and Buenos Aires.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Education is backward and was long neglected. .By law it is free and compulsory, but in some districts the attendance of many children is impossible.^ The six-year cycle of primary school was free and compulsory for children from ages seven to fourteen.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elementary education in Paraguay is free and nominally compulsory for children from 6 to 12 years of age.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elementary education in Paraguay is free and nominally compulsory for children from 7 to 13 years of age.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1907 there were 554 primary schools with 41,000 pupils.^ In the early 1990s about 721,000 pupils were enrolled in primary schools per year, and about 169,200 students attended secondary, vocational, and teacher training schools.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1997, 905,800 pupils were enrolled in primary schools and 327,800 students attended secondary, vocational, and teacher-training schools.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Defence

In 1908 the standing army, including cavalry, infantry and artillery, numbered about 1150 men; and there were five government steamers used for transport and revenue purposes.

Finance

.The financial situation of Paraguay has been a source of anxiety for many years.^ From 1860-1954, a period of 94 years, Paraguay had 40 different presidents, many of whom were removed by strikes or revolution.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1885, after interest had been unpaid for i i years on bonds amounting to £1,505,400, an agreement was made for the issue of new scrip to the value of £850,000 in quittance of all claims for capital and arrears of interest, certain public lands being also ceded to the bondholders as compensation.^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims more than 74,000 members in Paraguay and that its membership has doubled in the past five years.
  • Top20Paraguay.com - Your Top20 Guide to Paraguay! 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.top20paraguay.com [Source type: News]

^ Currently, three confederations of peasant organizations work to promote peasants' interests in national public policy discussion and occasionally intervene to support peasants in land conflicts.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 10, 2006, the budget crisis was resolved with a new tax reform agreement so that all government employees could return to work.
  • Paraguay Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Paraguay, Paraguay Properties 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguaypropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1895 an arrangement was made for a reduction of the rate of interest, for the funding of the arrears, and for the creation of a sinking fund. .The government were unable to meet their obligations under the new contract, and in 1898 the outstanding amount had risen to £994, 600. Provision has now been made for the service of this foreign debt, and the authorities have been able regularly to meet the service of the coupons.^ In the first year of his term Duarte Frutos faced an impoverished economy, large foreign debt obligations, worker strikes, and land redistribution demands.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February, Governor-General Manuel Macías inaugurated the new government under the Autonomous Charter.
  • Paraguay Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Paraguay, Paraguay Properties 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguaypropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

The total outstanding on the 31st of December 1908 was £831,850. Besides the London debt, there are many other claims on Paraguay, including (1908) about £1,950,000 due to Brazil, about £2,500,000 due to Argentina, and an internal debt of £850,000. The guarantee debt due to the Paraguay Central railway exceeds £1,500,000; and the total indebtedness of the republic on the 31st of December 1908 may be estimated at £7,650,000.
1906
1907
1908
Revenue
Expenditure
£452,812
454,564
£635,000
677,982
£599,828
506,502
.The revenue is derived mainly from import duties, and the most important branches of expenditure are the salaries of public officials, the army, public instruction and debt.^ Most of health services coverage is provided by public institutions, especially the PHSWM that along the Health Services of the Army and the Police, looks after half of the Paraguayan population.
  • http://www.paho.org/english/dd/ais/cp_600.htm 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.paho.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Customs duties furnish an important part of the country's revenues, but are significantly undercollected due to smuggling.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The estimated revenue and expenditure for the three years1906-1908are shown in the following table: - The budget for 1906 remained in force in 1907 and 1908.

Industry

.The principal industries are the cultivation and preparation of yerba mate (Paraguayan tea), cattle-farming, fruitgrowing, tobacco-planting and timber-cutting.^ The principal industry of Paraguay is farming.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sugar cane juice, known as mosto, and the national red wine are worth trying, as is yerba mate, a refreshing drink popular with nearly all Paraguayans.
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade increased as Paraguayan products found markets, immigration was encouraged, and farming and modest little industries prospered fitfully.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yerba mate, classified as Ilex paraguayensis, is a shrub.^ A cup of mate tea on fresh leaves (Ilex paraguayensis) .
  • Paraguay Stock Photo Images. 83 Paraguay royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

The leaves are stripped, withered, rolled and sorted, then packed in sacks and exported, chiefly to Argentina. .Paraguayan tea is used in place of the ordinary tea or coffee in many parts of South America.^ Nowadays we don´t know much about these people, whom lived in most parts of South America...
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This trip covers almost the whole of South America in one big circuit encompassing all the famous sights and lesser-known but equally exciting places.

^ South America Tours and South America Travel is part of the South America Travel Network .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medical experts state that the beverage infused from the leaves has a stimulating effect, and is also slightly diuretic. The total amount exported from Paraguay in 1908 was 4133 tons. .The majority of the yerbales (tea plantations) were formerly the property of the government, but have been acquired by private enterprise.^ With regard to privatization, the Government saw to the passing of Law 126/91 laying down the privatization arrangements for State enterprises.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An important feature about yerba mate is the small expense necessary for its production, and the cheap rate, notwithstanding the high tariff on its importation, at which it can be placed on the Argentine market as compared with ordinary tea or Brazilian coffee.^ Given its small internal market, the Government has encouraged the development of an outward-looking growth model through the opening up of external markets and production switching.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They have always played an important role in agriculture, both in subsistence production and in the production of cash crops on small peasant farms.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cattle industry comes next in importance. .The number of animals was estimated at 5,500,000 on the 31st of December 1908; an increase of about 45% since the census of 1899. The animals are small, but Durham and Hereford bulls have been introduced from Argentina to improve the breed.^ Output increased from 11,500 to 12,000 tons.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Japanese settlers and their descendants are estimated to number about eight thousand, and the Mennonites approximately fifteen thousand.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The increase in the herds has caused the owners of saladero establishments in Argentina and Uruguay to try the working of factories in Paraguay for the preparation of tasajo (jerked beef) and the manufacture of extract of meat.^ Paraguay prepares to face Uruguay and Ecuador .

^ Charles de Gaulle visited South America with stops in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil.
  • Timeline Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Paraguay later tried without success to extradite Lino Oviedo from Argentina for involvement in the assassination.
  • Timeline Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Both grasses and climate are against sheep-farming on a large scale.^ Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.Oranges are exported to Buenos Aires, Rosario and Montevideo, and are largely used for fattening hogs.^ Bus: There are daily services from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Santa Fe, Rosario, Cordoba and Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay).
  • Embassy of Paraguay in the Republic of Korea 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.embaparcorea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colonists also chafed under the economic dominance of Buenos Aires and taxation of their exports by the Argentinians.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The orange groves are often uncultivated, but yield abundantly; 10,700,000 dozens of oranges were exported in 1908. Pineapples are also exported, and sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and ramie are cultivated.^ In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is estimated at over 10,000 hectares.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some 65,000 hectares of sugarcane produced 3.2 million tons of sugar in 1987, including 7,500 tons of sugar exports valued at US$2.3 million.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1987 approximately 9.2 million hectares of coffee yielded 18.4 million tons of exports with an estimated value of US$44.7 million.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tobacco, although of inferior quality, is grown to a considerable extent; the quantity exported rose from about 35 tons in 1900 to 5014 tons in 1908. Tobacco is chiefly exported to Germany.^ Cotton exports in 1987 earned about US$100 million, with most exports going to Uruguay, Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and Japan.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The staple diet of the Paraguayans is still, as when the Spaniards first came, maize and mandioca (the chief ingredient in the excellent chipa or, Paraguayan bread), varied, it may be, with the seeds of the Victoria regia, whose magnificent blossoms are the great feature of several of the lakes and rivers.^ Mandioca root is commonly served boiled, and its starch is a main ingredient of several traditional foods, including chipa (a dense, baked bread of mandioca starch and cheese) and mbejú (an unleavened fried bread).
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1814 the first of the three great dictators who were to mold Paraguay came to power.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The forests abound in such timber as quebracho, cedar, curupey, lapacho and urundey. Some of these, such as the lapacho and quebracho, are of rare excellence and durability, as is shown by the wonderful state of preservation in which the woodwork of early Jesuit churches still remains. .Fifteen plants are known to furnish dyes, and eight are sources of fibre - the caraguatay especially being employed in the manufacture of the exquisite nanduty or spider web lace of the natives.^ Nanduti (spider web) lace is the most famous Paraguayan handicraft.
  • Paraguay Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rum, sugar, bricks, leather, furniture and extract of meat are manufactured.
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
Imports
Exports
£7 1 3, 1 4 6
639,252
£935,7 o 3
566,602
£ 1, 2 53,439
539,028
£ 1 ,57 2, 2 55
647,222
£814,591
773,419

Commerce

.The commercial situation of Paraguay has improved in consequence of the investment of foreign capital in industrial enterprise.^ Economic conditions have improved dramatically since the Great Depression due to external investment in capital-intensive industries such as petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and technology.
  • Paraguay Property For Sale, Beachfront Real Estate In Paraguay, Paraguay Properties 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC paraguaypropertylocator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Asunción (pop., 2001 est., 1,302,000), the capital of Paraguay, is also its leading city and commercial center.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal articles imported are textiles, hardware, wines, rice, flour, canned goods and general provisions; the exports are yerba mate, hides, hair, dried meat; wood, oranges, tobacco.^ At present, the food, beverages, tobacco, textiles, leather, wood and furniture industries have the highest average levels of protection.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the important products are packed meat and other foodstuffs, textiles, wood products, and chemicals.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the export trade is with Buenos Aires or Montevideo.^ Colonists also chafed under the economic dominance of Buenos Aires and taxation of their exports by the Argentinians.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The values for the five years1904-1908were: - Of the imports into Paraguay, 29% came from Germany in 1908, 21% from the United Kingdom and 19% from Argentina.^ Paraguay is a republic consisting of the city of Asunción and seventeen additional departments, which are further subdivided into local administrative units known as municipios .
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The marked increase in imports over the last five years is due mainly to the sharp rise in trade and tourism generated in the frontier cities of Paraguay with Brazil and Argentina, resulting in a trade imbalance.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argentina provide most of Paraguay's imports, followed by the United States and Japan.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Communications

.Numerous ocean-going liners, most of which fly the Brazilian or the Argentine flag, ply on the Paraguay and the Parana; smaller vessels ascend the tributary streams, which are also utilized for floating lumber down to the ports.^ The most recent Mennonite settlements in Paraguay were founded in 1948 by fellow believers of Menno Colony—Sommerfelder and Chortitzer Mennonites from southern Manitoba, and a smaller contingent from Saskatchewan.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay Most observers estimate that between 300,000 and 350,000 Brazilians settled in eastern Paraguay in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay are very happy to let Argentina have most of the ball, safe in the knowledge that they are going to do bugger all with it, and then hit them on the break.
  • Paraguay v Argentina - as it happened | Rob Smyth | Football | guardian.co.uk 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Out of 1320 ships which entered Asuncion in 1908 and 1184 which cleared, none was of British or United States nationality.^ Paraguay is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Organization of American States (OAS), the World Trade Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, and the Southern Common Market (Mercosur).
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Brazilian Lloyd S. S. Co. provides direct and regular communication between Asuncion and New York. .The only railway in the republic is the Paraguay Central which was open in 1906 between Asuncion and Pirap6 (154 m.^ Laws are the only norms that create, modify or nullify rights or obligations in the Republic of Paraguay.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the "continental divide" between the watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Paraná.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Eusebio Ayala Y Choferes Del Chaco, Asuncion only for persons physically present in Paraguay.
  • Paraguay Reciprocity Schedule 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: Reference]

). The completion of the line to Encarnacion was then undertaken (1906-1911), a train-ferry across the Parana affording connexion with Posadas. .These extensions, and the alteration of gauge to that of the Argentine North-Eastern, were carried out mainly at the cost of the Argentine government, which acquired a controlling interest in the Paraguay Central.^ Paraguay is carrying out substantial reforms aimed at encouraging the private exploration and exploitation of natural resources such as oil, natural gas and various metals.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Bank of Paraguay (1952) issues currency and controls exchange.
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^ The government required all religious groups to register with the Ministry of Education and Culture but imposed no controls on these groups, and many unregistered churches existed.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were intended to shorten the journey between Buenos Aires and Asuncion from 5 days to 36 hours.^ Tango Lessons in Buenos Aires (7 days) .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chile, Andes & Buenos Aires (10 days) .
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are some fairly good wagon roads, and the government appropriates annually a considerable sum for their extension.^ Although the government generally respected the human rights of its citizens, there were serious abuses in some areas.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the law prohibits such practices, there were reports that some government officials continued to employ them.
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^ There were credible allegations that some government officials occasionally spied on individuals and monitored communications for partisan or personal reasons.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Post and Telegraph

.Paraguay entered the Universal Postal Union in 1884. Telegraph lines connect Asuncion with other towns, and two cables put the republic in communication with the rest of the world by way of Corrientes and Posadas.^ Paraguay had two universities: the National University and the Catholic University.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 11/4/09)(AP, 11/5/09) 2009 Nov 15, In Paraguay 1,200 people escaped a fire that destroyed a supermarket on the outskirts of Asuncion, killing two people.
  • Timeline Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Only about one-third of Paraguay consists of rainforest; the other two-thirds are semiarid and infertile.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Money and Credit

.The banks open for business in 1904 were the Mercantile Bank, the Territorial Bank, the Bank of Los Rios & Co., and the Agricultural Bank: the last named has a capital of 20 7,59 0, advanced by the government, and lends money to the agricultural and industrial classes.^ Although this economic model is still being followed, the Government has made great efforts as regards agricultural diversification and is encouraging the country's industrialization.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Paraguayan Bank, with a capital of £600,000, was opened in 1905, and the state bank (Banco de la Republica), with a total authorized capital of £4,000,000, was opened on the 30th of June 1908. The Conversion Office, which is authorized to sell or lend gold, receives a fixed revenue of £30,000 from certain import and export dues; it was reorganized in 1903 for the administration of the public debt.^ In 1537 Spanish adventurers seeking gold established a fort on the Paraguay River, calling it Nuestra Señora de la Asunción.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting in the world's highest capital city La Paz and taking in the spectacular carnival city of Rio de Janeiro, this tour offers fantastic urban experiences.

^ Starting in 2004, a Resident Public Debt Advisor, a Resident Budget Advisor, and a Resident Tax Advisor from the Department of Treasury have been working with Paraguayan counterparts to implement essential reforms.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the same year the gold and silver coinage of Paraguay were legally standardized as identical with those of Argentina (5 gold dollars or pesos = £ 1); but paper money is about the only circulating medium, and gold commands a high premium (1600% in December 1908).^ Tabesa’s CEO Ortiz was blunt when asked about Paraguay’s quid pro quo: “We give them money,” he said of politicians during election time.
  • Articles:Listing Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

^ On December 19, 2003, U.S. and Paraguayan officials signed a new memorandum of understanding (MOU) to strengthen the legal protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights in Paraguay.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about one-third of Paraguay consists of rainforest; the other two-thirds are semiarid and infertile.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The normal value of the paper or currency dollar is about 4s. 8d. (For purposes of conversion the gold dollar has been taken at 5 =£1 throughout this article, and the currency dollar at 50 = £1.) Weights and Measures. - The metric system is officially adopted, but the weights in common use are the tonelada (2025 lb), the quintal (101.4 lb), the arroba (2 5.35 lb), the libra (1.014 Ib) and the onza (. 0616 lb). The unit for liquid measure is the cuarta (. 1665 gallon); for dry measure the almud (. 66 bushel) and fanega (12 bushels). The land measures are the legua (2.689 m.). the sino (691 sq. yds.), and the legua cuadrada (121 sq. m.).

History

.In 1527 Sebastian Cabot reached Paraguay and built a fort called Santo Espiritu.^ In 1537 Spanish adventurers seeking gold established a fort on the Paraguay River, calling it Nuestra Señora de la Asunción.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Asuncion was founded on the 15th of August 1535 by Juan de Ayolas, and his successor, Martinez de Ira]a, determined to make it the capital of the Spanish possessions east of the Andes.^ The city was founded in 1537 by Juan de Salazar y Espinoza, a Spanish explorer who led an expedition upriver from the fort at Buenos Aires.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar founded Asuncion on the Feast Day of the Assumption, August 15, 1537.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this centre Spanish adventurers pushed east to La Guayra, beyond the Parana, and west into the Gran Chaco; and before long vast numbers of the less warlike natives were reduced to serfdom.^ In 1537 Spanish adventurers seeking gold established a fort on the Paraguay River, calling it Nuestra Señora de la Asunción.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: East of the Paraguay River there are grassy plains, wooded hills, tropical forests; west of the Paraguay River (Chaco region) is low, flat, marshy plain.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Paraguay R. divides the landlocked country into sharply contrasting regions, namely, in the W, the Gran Chaco, or Paraguay Occidental, and in the E, Paraguay proper, or Paraguay Oriental.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name Paraguay was applied not only to the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, but to the whole Spanish territory, which now comprises parts of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones, and part of Santa Fe.^ The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterward, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) - between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay - Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.brockisd.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Iguacu river forms the border between Brazil and Argentina and you can visit the falls from either country - indeed, you should see the view from both.
  • Perfection in Paraguay - Americas, Travel - The Independent 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

.It was not till 1620 that Paraguay proper and Rio de la Plata or Buenos Aires were separated as distinct governments, and they were both dependent on the vice-royalty of Peru till 1776, when Buenos Aires was erected into a viceroyalty, and Paraguay placed under its jurisdiction.^ In 1537 Spanish adventurers seeking gold established a fort on the Paraguay River, calling it Nuestra Señora de la Asunción.
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^ Colonial Paraguay and the territory of present-day Argentina were ruled jointly until 1620, when they became separate dependencies of the viceroyalty of Peru.
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^ Paraguay became an unimportant border dependency of Buenos Aires, the capital of the viceroyalty, and sank gradually into relative insignificance until the early 19th century.
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.The first Christian missions in Paraguay were established by the Franciscans - Armenta, Lebron, Solano (who was afterwards canonized as the " Apostle of Paraguay ") and Bolanos - between 1542 and 1560; but neither they nor the first Jesuit missionaries, Salonio, Field and Ortega, were allowed to make their enterprise a permanent success.^ The culture of Paraguay has remained isolated and therefore has retained many features introduced in the 16th and 17th centuries by the Spanish conquerors, artisans, and Jesuit missionaries.
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^ Cotton was one of Paraguay's oldest crops, grown since the time of the Jesuit missions.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest well-defined Paraguayan art dates from colonial times when Jesuit and Franciscan missions established art schools.
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.This fell to the lot of the second band of Jesuits, Cataldino, Mazeta and Lorenzana, who began work in 1605. Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.^ They prospered fairly well in Canada until World War I, when the Canadian government began to more fully nationalize its various ethnic elements.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ombudsman employed approximately 160 lawyers and support personnel, including 70 who worked in municipal offices outside Asuncion.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Argentinians deposed the Spanish viceroy in 1810, they attempted to extend their control to include the territory of Paraguay.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was only by the powerful assistance of Zabala, governor of Buenos Aires, that the anti-Jesuit and quasi-national party which had been formed under Antequera was crushed in 1735. In 1750, however, Ferdinand VI.^ In 1750 King Ferdinand VI of Spain, by the Treaty of Madrid, ceded Paraguayan territory including seven reducciones to Portugal, and the Jesuits incited a Guaraní revolt against the transfer.
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^ However, he permitted trade only under his supervision, guaranteeing that the nation reaped the benefits, and strictly controlled the movements of foreigners in the national territory.
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^ Colonists also chafed under the economic dominance of Buenos Aires and taxation of their exports by the Argentinians.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of .Spain ceded to the Portuguese, in exchange for the fortified village of Colonia del Sacramento (Uruguay), both the district of La Guayra and a territory of some 20,000 sq.^ In the mid-1980s, about 20,000 students were enrolled in the National University and some 8,000 in the Catholic University.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1776 Spain created the viceroyalty of La Plata, which comprised present-day Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia.
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^ Territorial losses exceeded 142,500 sq km (55,000 sq mi).
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m. east of the Uruguay. .The Jesuits resisted the transference, and it was only after several engagements that they were defeated by the combined forces of Spain and Portugal.^ In 1750 King Ferdinand VI of Spain, by the Treaty of Madrid, ceded Paraguayan territory including seven reducciones to Portugal, and the Jesuits incited a Guaraní revolt against the transfer.
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.The treaty was revoked by Spain in 1761, but the missions never recovered their prosperity, and the Jesuits were finally expelled in 1769. In 1811 Paraguay declared itself independent of Spain; by 1814 it was a despotism in the hands of Dr J. G. R. Francia.^ As a historical reference, since its independence from Spain in 1811 Paraguay has ratified four constitutions.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paraguay declared its independence by overthrowing the local Spanish authorities in May 1811.
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^ Singling some out by name, the president declared "they should be expelled from Paraguay."
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.On Francia's death, in 1840, the chief power passed to his nephew, Carlos Antonio Lopez, who in 1862 was succeeded by his son Francisco Solano Lopez.^ Father and son dictators Carlos Antonio Lpez and Francisco Solano Lpez succeeded Francia from 1841 to 1862 and 1862 to 1870, respectively.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At his death in 1862 López was succeeded by his son, Francisco Solano López.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Francia's death in 1840, the presidency was assumed by Carlos Antonio López and then, in 1862, by López's son, Francisco Solano.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1864 a dispute arose between the younger Lopez and the Brazilian government, and Lopez marched an army through Argentine territory to invade southern Brazil.^ The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterward, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874.
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^ One of these was the Chaco War in the 1930's, in which the Mennonites, by settling on territory in dispute between Paraguay and Bolivia , played an unintentional part.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This act induced the governments of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina to combine for the purpose of suppressing Lopez.^ The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterward, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1864, Francisco Solano López declared war on the powerful Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The War of the Triple Alliance (1865–1870), in which Paraguay fought against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, continues to haunt the national consciousness and remains a potent national symbol.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The invasion of Paraguay then took place, and a struggle involving an enormous sacrifice of life and treasure lasted for five years, only coming to a close when the Paraguayan forces were totally defeated and Lopez was killed at the battle of Aquidaban on the 1st of March 1870. During this warfare every male Paraguayan capable of bearing arms was forced to fight, whole regiments being formed of boys of from 12 to 15 years of age.^ The United States has played important roles in defending Paraguay's democratic institutions, in helping resolve the April 1996 crisis, and in ensuring that the March 1999 change of government took place without further bloodshed.
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^ The law prohibits work by children under age 14 and permits minors between 15 and 18 years of age to work only with parental authorization and in conditions that are not dangerous or unhealthy.
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^ Elected for a five year term, and not entitled to reelection, the President represents the State, directs the nations general administration, obeys and executes the Constitution and the Law, directs external relations and is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

Even women were used as beasts of burden to carry ammunition and stores, and when no longer capable of work were left to die by the roadside or murdered to avoid any ill consequences occurring from their capture. .When the war broke out the population of Paraguay was 1,337,439; when hostilities ceased it consisted of 28,746 men, 106,254 women above 15 years of age, and 86,079 children.^ The law prohibits work by children under age 14 and permits minors between 15 and 18 years of age to work only with parental authorization and in conditions that are not dangerous or unhealthy.
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^ Although poor families value education, their children often must miss classes or drop out an early age to help the family financially.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay's swine population amounted to roughly 1.3 million in the late 1980s and had grown at a rate of 6 percent a year in the first half of the decade.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the retreat of the Paraguayans the dictator ordered every town and village passed through to be razed to the ground, and every living animal for which no use could be found to be slaughtered.^ While Francia recognized the land claims of some indigenous villages, Paraguayans later appropriated indigenous land through force, fraud, and bureaucratic maneuvers.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the end came the country and people were in a state of absolute prostration.^ With support from the United States, the Organization of American States, and other countries in the region, the Paraguayan people rejected an April 1996 attempt by then-Army Chief Gen.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the death of Lopez the government was administered by a triumvirate consisting of Cirilo Rivarola, Carlos Loizaga and Jose Diaz de Bedoza, until, in November 1870, the present constitution was formulated.^ The country's formative years saw three strong leaders who established the tradition of personal rule that lasted until 1989: Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia, Carlos Antonio Lopez, and his son, Francisco Solano Lopez.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The policy of Brazil was for a time directed towards the annexation of Paraguay; the debt due to Brazil on account of the war was assessed at £40,000,000, a sum which Paraguay could never hope to pay; and it was not until 1876 that the Brazilian army of occupation was wholly withdrawn.^ The time after the Paraguayan war against Brazil , Uruguay , and Argentina (1864-1870), in which most of the men of Paraguay were killed and in which it suffered great territorial losses, was a time of political chaos.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The younger Lopez waged a war against Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil (War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-70) in which Paraguay lost half its population; afterward, Brazilian troops occupied the country until 1874.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Livestock breeding is a major agricultural occupation; Paraguay has approximately 7.8 million cattle, 350,000 horses, 380,000 sheep, and 2.6 million pigs.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the rivalry between Brazil and Argentina, and the necessity of maintaining the balance of power among the South American republics, enabled Paraguay to remain independent.^ Paraguay is a land-locked nation of 157,047 square miles (406,752 square kilometers) in South America, surrounded by Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia.
  • Culture of Paraguay - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, rituals 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plants and animals of Paraguay are substantially the same as those of neighboring South American countries.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay (country), officially Republic of Paraguay, inland republic in South America, bordered on the north-west and north by Bolivia, on the east by Brazil, and on the south and south-west by Argentina.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No violent constitutional change took place after 1870, though there have been spasmodic outbreaks of revolution, as in 1881, in 1894, in 1898, in December 1904 - when a somewhat serious civil war was ended by the peace of Pilcomayo - in July 1908 and in September 1909. None of these disturbances deeply or permanently affected the welfare of the republic, nor were all of them accompanied by bloodshed.^ The United States has played important roles in defending Paraguay's democratic institutions, in helping resolve the April 1996 crisis, and in ensuring that the March 1999 change of government took place without further bloodshed.
  • Paraguay (08/09) 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overcrowding, insufficient infrastructure, unsanitary living conditions, and mistreatment were the most serious problems affecting all prisoners.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the 1865-70 war, military officers began to replace civilians as politicians but this fact represented no change in the country's pattern of dictatorial rule.
  • Map Zones : Paraguay Map 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC kids.mapzones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the presidency of J. B. Egusquiza (1894-1898) the boundary dispute with Bolivia became acute; but war was averted, largely owing to the success of the revolution, which forced the president to resign.^ In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comander of the Paraguayan Armed Forces during the Chaco War, later President of the Republic.
  • GlobaLex - A Guide to the Legal System and Legal Research in Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The main interest of recent Paraguayan history is economic rather than political.^ This protection pattern largely reflects other MERCOSUR members' interests rather than those of Paraguay, whose manufacturing sector is relatively undeveloped.
  • WTO | Trade policy review - Paraguay 1997 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In that history the gradual development of commerce, the financial reforms in 1895, and the extension of the Paraguay Central railway after 1906, were events of far greater importance than any political movement which took place between 1870 and 1910.
Bibliography. - .For an account of physical features, inhabitants, products, &c., see H. Decoud, Geografia de la republica del Paraguay (5th ed., Leipzig, 1906); E. de B. La Dardye, Paraguay: the Land and the People, ed.^ In 1537 Spanish adventurers seeking gold established a fort on the Paraguay River, calling it Nuestra Señora de la Asunción.
  • PARAGUAY, 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretación preliminar del medio físico y de la vegetación del Chaco Boreal.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Eusebio Ayala Y Choferes Del Chaco, Asuncion only for persons physically present in Paraguay.
  • Paraguay Reciprocity Schedule 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: Reference]

.E. G. Ravenstein (London, 1892); W. Vallentin, Paraguay: das Land der Guaranis (Berlin, 1907); R. V. F. Trevenfeld, Paraguay in Wort and Bild (Berlin, 1904); H. Mangels, Wirtschaftliche, naturgeschichtliche and klimatologische Abhandlungen aus Paraguay (Munich, 1904); W. B. Grubb, Among the Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco (London, 1904); E. Bolland, Exploraciones practicadas en el Alto Paraguay y en la Laguna Gaiba (Buenos Aires, 1901).^ Presencia menonita en el Paraguay.
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spectacular highlights of Bolivia and northern Argentina, we travel across the centre of the continent from La Paz to Buenos Aires.

^ Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve reseña de su vegetación.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

.Commerce and Finance: British consular reports (London, annual); Report of the Council of the Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (London, annual); statistical publications of the Paraguay government and presidential messages, in Spanish (Asuncion, annual); Revue du Paraguay (Asuncion, monthly); Paraguay (Washington, Bureau of Amer.^ The Spanish impact on Paraguay goes back to 1537 with the founding of the first settlement, Asuncion .
  • Paraguay — GAMEO 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.gameo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BILL CORMIER ASUNCION, Paraguay - The victory of the "bishop of the poor" in Paraguay's presidential election expands a wave of leftist leadership across Latin America and further isolates the few remaining conservative governments.
  • Keyword: paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unpublished report of the Technical and Economic Co-operation between the Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asunción, Paraguay .
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

Republics, 2nd ed. 1902). History: P. de Angelis, Coleccion de documentos, &c. .(1835); H. Charlevoix, Histoire de Paraguay (1835); G. Funes, Ensayo de la historia civil del Paraguay, &c.^ Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretación preliminar del medio físico y de la vegetación del Chaco Boreal.
  • Paraguay 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Presidencia de la Republica del · Paraguay .
  • GlobalTower.com: Paraguay Resource Directory 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.globaltower.com [Source type: News]

.(1816); Lozano, Historia de la .conquista del Paraguay (Buenos Aires, 1873-1874); R. B. Cunninghame Graham, A Vanished Arcadia (London, 1901); C. A. Washburn, The History of Paraguay (New York, 1871); E. C. Jourdan, Guerra do Paraguay (Rio de Janeiro, 1890); R. F. Burton, Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay (London, 1870); A. Audibert, Question de limites entre el Paraguay y Bolivia (Asuncion, 1901); H. Decoud, List of Books.^ SouthAmerica.travel is based with offices in Washington & Stuttgart, Germany and with their own South America Incoming Tour Operator offices in Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Lima.
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spectacular highlights of Bolivia and northern Argentina, we travel across the centre of the continent from La Paz to Buenos Aires.

^ Paraguay Roundtrip "La Vida Paraguaya" 11 days / 10 nights Untouched nature, rough gaucho, the old and new, historical and modern prospering Paraguay.
  • Paraguay Tours - 4* & 5* Custom Paraguay Tours & Paraguay Travel Vacations 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.. relating to Paraguay
(Washington, 1905).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also paraguay

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Paraguay
Plural
-
Paraguay
  1. Country in South America; the Republic of Paraguay.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Czech

Proper noun

Paraguay
  1. Paraguay

Dutch

Proper noun

Paraguay n.
  1. Paraguay

Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Paraguay
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Paraguay
  1. Paraguay

Declension

Derived terms

  • paraguaylainen

French

Proper noun

Paraguay m.
  1. Paraguay

Derived terms

  • Paraguayen
  • paraguayen

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Paraguay
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Paraguay n.
  1. Paraguay

Derived terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Paraguay
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Paraguay m.
  1. Paraguay

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Paraguay
  1. Paraguay

Related terms


Spanish

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. .If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.^ Please try the following: • If you typed the page address in the Address bar, make sure that it is spelled correctly.
  • Paraguay: News & Videos about Paraguay - CNN.com 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Paraguay: News & Videos about Paraguay - CNN.com 16 January 2010 21:29 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Paraguay f.
  1. Paraguay

Related terms


Swedish

Proper noun

Paraguay
  1. Paraguay

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Paraguay, which are similar to those in the above article.








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