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The Paramara dynasty was an early medieval Indian dynasty who ruled over Malwa region in central India. This dynasty was founded by Upendra in c.800. The most significant ruler of this dynasty was Bhoja I. The seat of the Paramara kingdom was Dhara Nagari (the present day Dhar city in Madhya Pradesh state).[1] The main sources for the history of the Paramara dynasty are the Navasahasankacharita of Padmagupta and the Udaypur Prashasti found in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh.



The Harsola Copper plate inscription of Siyaka II, 949

The Paramaras were a rajput clan, who began as feudatories of the Rashtrakutas, but revolted against their overlords at the end of the 10th century. Although the earlier tradition relates them with the Rashtrakutas, later tradition provides an interesting narrative regarding the origin of the name, Paramara. According to this tradition, the Kamadhenu (a cow which grants all wishes of one) of the sage Vasishtha was stolen by another sage Vishvamitra. Vasishtha therefore made an offering to the sacrificial fire at Mount Abu. A hero sprang out from the sacrificial fire and brought back the cow to the sage Vasishtha, who bestowed the name Paramara (slayer of the enemy) on him.[2][3]


Upendra was the first known ruler of this dynasty. He had two sons, Vairisimha and Dambarasimha. His elder son, Vairisimha succeeded his father.

Siyaka II

Siyaka II succeeded his father Vairisimha II. He was also known as Harsha. He had two sons by his queen Vadaja, Vakpatiraja and Sindhuraja. His elder son Vakpatiraja succeeded him.

Vakpatiraja II

Munja, also known as Utpala or Vakpatiraja II succeeded his father Siyaka II. He assumed the titles, Shrivallabha, Prithvivallabha and Amoghavarsha. He defeated the Kalachuri king Yuvaraja II and captured his capital Tripuri. He also defeated the Guhilas of Medapata (Mewar) and plundered the capital Aghata (Ahar). He defeated the Chalukya ruler Mularaja of Anahilapataka.


Sindhuraja succeeded his elder brother Vakpatiraja II. He assumed the titles, Kumaranarayana and Navasahasanka. The Navasahasankacharita provides information about his reign. It describes how he helped a Naga king, Shankhapala of the Barsur in the present-day Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh state against Vajrankusha, a ruler of Vairagad in the present-day Chandrapur district in Maharashtra state and married his daughter Shashiprabha. He was succeeded by his son Bhoja I.

Bhoja I

Bhoja I was the most well-known ruler of this dynasty. He was a scholar and established a centre for Sanskrit studies in Dhara Nagari, his capital. 23 works are ascribed to him, which include the Samaranganasutradhara.

The rulers of Paramara dynasty

  1. Upendra (c. 800 – c. 818)
  2. Vairisimha I (c. 818 – c. 843)
  3. Siyaka I (c. 843 – c. 893)
  4. Vakpatiraja I (c. 893 – c. 918)
  5. Vairisimha II (c. 918 – c. 948)
  6. Siyaka II (c. 948 – c. 974)
  7. Vakpatiraja II (c. 974 – c. 995)
  8. Sindhuraja (c. 995 – c. 1010)
  9. Bhoja I (c. 1010 – c. 1055)
  10. Jayasimha I (c. 1055 – c. 1060)
  11. Udayaditya (c. 1060 – c. 1087)
  12. Lakshmanadeva (c. 1087 – c. 1097)
  13. Naravarman (c. 1097 – c. 1134)
  14. Yasovarman (c. 1134 – c. 1142)
  15. Jayavarman I (c. 1142 – c. 1160)
  16. Vindhyavarman (c. 1160 – c. 1193)
  17. Subhatavarman (c. 1193 – c. 1210)
  18. Arjunavarman I (c. 1210 – c. 1218)
  19. Devapala (c. 1218 – c. 1239)
  20. Jaitugideva (c. 1239 – c. 1256)
  21. Jayavarman II (c. 1256 – c. 1269)
  22. Jayasimha II (c. 1269 – c. 1274)
  23. Arjunavarman II (c. 1274 – c. 1283)
  24. Bhoja II (c. 1283 – ?)
  25. Mahlakadeva (c. ? – c. 1305)

See also




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