Paramount Television Network: Wikis

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Paramount Television Network
A stylized broadcasting tower atop a mountain high above the clouds, surrounded by a halo of 20 stars. Four lightning bolts emit from the top of the tower. The logo is superimposed over stormy clouds.
Type Broadcast television network
Country United States
Owner Paramount Pictures
Key people Paul Raibourn (President, Paramount Television Productions)[1]
Klaus Landsberg (Producer; VP, Paramount Television Productions)[2]
George T. Shupert (Executive, Program Sales, Paramount Television Productions)[3]
Burt Balaban (Executive, Programming)[3]
John Howell (Executive, Sales)[3]
Bernard Goodwin (VP, Paramount Television Productions)[4]
Launch date 1948[5]
Dissolved 1956

The Paramount Television Network was an ill-fated attempt by American film corporation Paramount Pictures to launch a successful television network in the late 1940s.[6] The company had built television stations KTLA in Los Angeles and WBKB in Chicago. It had also invested $400,000 in the DuMont Television Network, which operated stations WABD, WTTG, and WDTV in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. The subsequent clash between Paramount and DuMont has been called "part of one of the most unfortunate and dramatic episodes in the early history of the television industry."[7]

The Paramount Television Network aired several television programs, among them the Emmy award winning children's series Time For Beany. Hollywood entertainers appeared in Paramount television programs, which were filmed in Hollywood and distributed to an ad-hoc network of stations across the United States. Despite having over 40 affiliate stations in 1950, most of Paramount's series were never widely viewed outside the West Coast, and Paramount was prevented from acquiring additional television stations by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Paramount executives eventually gave up on the idea of a television network, but continued to produce series for other TV networks. In 1995, after decades of television production for other companies, Paramount would again enter the broadcast network field when the company launched the United Paramount Network (UPN).

Contents

Origins

Film corporation Paramount Pictures was founded in 1914 by William Wadsworth Hodkinson. The company was acquired by Famous Players-Lasky Corporation in 1916 and by the 1920s had become a major player in Hollywood; the company founded or acquired many film production and exhibition properties, among these the 2,000-screen theater chain United Paramount Theatres, newsreel service Paramount News, and animation studio Famous Studios. The company was one of the "big five" Hollywood studios. By the 1940s, however, Paramount was the party of several anti-trust lawsuits brought against the studio by the federal government, which accused Paramount of conducting monopolistic practices. Paramount was forced to sell off its theater division in 1949.[8]

As early as 1937, executives at Paramount Pictures had been interested in what was then the new medium of television. The following year, Paramount purchased a 40% interest in DuMont Laboratories, a pioneer in early television technology founded by Dr. Allen B. DuMont. Relations between Paramount and DuMont were strained as early as 1940, when Paramount, without DuMont, opened Chicago television station WBKB and Los Angeles station KTLA. Dr. DuMont claimed that the original 1937 acquisition proposal required that Paramount would expand its television interests "through DuMont". Paramount representative Paul Raibourn denied that any such restriction had ever been discussed (DuMont was vindicated on this point by a 1953 examination of the original draft document).[9] The stock in DuMont coupled with the Chicago and Los Angeles stations gave Paramount full or partial ownership of four of the first nine television stations in the United States.[10]

DuMont Laboratories launched the DuMont Television Network in 1946. Despite Paramount's partial ownership of DuMont, Paramount's two stations never aired television programs from DuMont's television network (with the exception of one year on KTLA in 1947–48), and in fact competed against DuMont's affiliates in Los Angeles and Chicago.[7] Paramount's construction of KTLA and WBKB, and its subsequent launch of the Paramount Television Network, "undercut" DuMont, a company it had invested in.[11]

Paramount's Los Angeles television station, KTLA, began commercial broadcasts in January 1947; its first evening broadcast was emceed by Bob Hope and featured Kirk Douglas, William Bendix, Dorothy Lamour, William Demarest, Ray Milland, and Cecil B. DeMille.[12] KTLA was the first commercial station west of the Mississippi River. Although other Los Angeles TV stations operated experimentally and soon received commercial licenses, KTLA had an important head start which resulted in a large viewership; one early audience estimate from the C.E. Hooper company indicated that KTLA was broadcasting 28 of the top 30 television series in Los Angeles.[13] The popularity of KTLA's local programs opened up the possibility that they might become national hits if released to other stations across the country.

Launch

Paramount's television division, Television Productions, Inc., created the Paramount Television Network in 1948.[5] Full-page advertisements announcing the newly created network ran in Billboard that year and in Television magazine early the following year.[14][15] Filming of programs took place at Paramount station KTLA in Los Angeles. A coaxial cable link between KTLA and KFMB-TV in San Diego transmitted a live signal to San Diego viewers.[16] Other television stations across the United States received Paramount programs via kinescope for airing; these filmed series allowed stations to "fill in" their schedules during hours when ABC, NBC, CBS, and DuMont were not broadcasting shows, or when none of the four networks' programs were particularly good. Station managers at WBKB-TV in Chicago also had plans to distribute kinescoped programs.[17]

Paramount management planned to acquire additional owned-and-operated stations; the company applied to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for additional stations in San Francisco, Detroit, and Boston.[18] Paramount's applications for three additional owned-and-operated stations, however, were denied by the FCC. A few years earlier, the FCC had placed a five-station cap on all television networks: no network was allowed to own more than five VHF television stations. Paramount was hampered by its stake in the DuMont Television Network. Although both DuMont and Paramount executives stated that the companies were separate, the FCC ruled that Paramount's partial ownership of DuMont meant that DuMont and Paramount were in theory branches of the same company. Since DuMont owned three television stations and Paramount owned two, the federal agency ruled neither network could acquire additional television stations. The FCC requested that Paramount relinquish its stake in DuMont, but Paramount refused.[18] According to at least one television historian, "Paramount's checkered antitrust history" helped convince the FCC that Paramount controlled DuMont.[19] Both television networks suffered as a result, with neither company able to acquire five owned-and-operated stations. Having five O&Os was critical because it meant the network's shows would be seen in at least five major American cities. Meanwhile, CBS, ABC and NBC had each acquired the maximum of five stations by the mid-1950s.

Author Timothy White has called Paramount's efforts to launch its own television service, which directly competed with the DuMont Television Network, an unwise decision; Paramount in effect was competing with itself. The resulting ill feelings between Paramount's and DuMont's executives continued to escalate throughout the early 1950s, and the lack of cooperation hindered both entities' network plans. According to White, by 1953, even the public pretense of cooperation between Paramount and DuMont was gone.[7]

Programs

The Paramount Television Network aired several television series during its years of operations. The following is a partial list:

  • Armchair Detective, a half-hour crime reenactment series[20] that was produced at KTLA and which aired on both CBS and Paramount stations[21]
  • Bandstand Revue,[22] a music program
  • Dixie Showboat, a weekly variety program
  • Frosty Frolics,[23] an ice skating show which also briefly aired (for four weeks) on ABC.
  • Harry Owens' Royal Hawaiians, a series featuring Hawaiian music airing in Los Angeles and San Francisco, which later moved to CBS
  • Hollywood Opportunity,[24] a talent show
  • Hollywood Reel, a Hollywood gossip program narrated by Hollywood columnist Erskine Johnson[25]
  • Hollywood Wrestling, a sports series
  • Latin Cruise, a musical series starring Bobby Ramos[20]
  • Magazine of the Week[26]
  • Meet Me in Hollywood[26]
  • Movietown RSVP,[24] a charades program
  • Olympic Wrestling,[24] an early professional wrestling series
  • Sandy Dreams,[23] a children's program which also briefly aired on ABC stations.
  • The Spade Cooley Show, a variety program hosted by Spade Cooley and featuring Dick Lane, Anita Aros, Phil Gray, and Kay Cee Jones
  • Time for Beany, a children's series which received an Emmy in 1949 (in the category Best Children's Show)[27]
  • Yer Ole Buddy[28]

Additionally, various press releases indicated that other KTLA series would be offered on the network. There is no indication, however, that the following series aired outside of Los Angeles:

Affiliates

The Paramount Television Network had more than 100 affiliate stations across the U.S. and also had at least two Canadian affiliates.

At its peak in late 1950, the Paramount Television Network was distributing five television series a week to over 40 affiliated television stations.[6] Most Paramount stations were in the United States, but at least two were Canadian stations.[32][33]

The table below lists stations which carried Paramount Television Network programs. Paramount's two owned-and-operated (O&O) stations, KTLA and WBKB, are shown in red. DuMont's O&Os, which aired little or no Paramount programming but which the FCC ruled were O&Os of the same entity, appear in green.

A number of stations carried Armchair Detective, Sandy Dreams, and Frosty Frolics when those programs were aired on CBS and ABC. Stations which aired those programs as part of an ABC or CBS affiliation are not shown in the table below.

Station City State
or
province
Paramount
programs
aired
KOAT-TV Albuquerque New Mexico Hollywood Wrestling[34]
WLEV-TV Allentown Pennsylvania Hollywood Wrestling[35]
KFDA-TV Amarillo Texas Hollywood Wrestling[36]
WSB-TV Atlanta Georgia Hollywood Wrestling[37]
WJBF Augusta Georgia Hollywood Wrestling[38]
KMMT-TV Austin Minnesota Hollywood Wrestling[39]
WBAL-TV Baltimore Maryland Hollywood Wrestling (c. 1951)[40]
WAAM-TV Baltimore Maryland Hollywood Wrestling (c. 1955)[41]
Sandy Dreams[42]
Time For Beany[43]
Baton Rouge Louisiana Time For Beany[44]
WAFM-TV Birmingham Alabama Time For Beany (c. 1951)[45]
WBRC Birmingham Alabama Hollywood Reel[46]
Time For Beany (c. 1953)[47]
WNAC-TV Boston Massachusetts Armchair Detective[48]
Dixie Showboat[49]
Hollywood Reel[50]
Hollywood Wrestling[51]
Time For Beany[52]
KGBT-TV Brownsville Texas Hollywood Wrestling[53]
WBEN-TV Buffalo New York Hollywood Reel[54]
Time For Beany[55]
WWTV Cadillac Michigan Hollywood Wrestling[56]
KCRG-TV Cedar Rapids Iowa Hollywood Wrestling[57]
WBTV Charlotte North Carolina Hollywood Wrestling[58]
WBKB Chicago Illinois Paramount O&O (to 1953)[6] aired:
Hollywood Reel[59]
Hollywood Wrestling[15]
Olympic Wrestling[60]
Time For Beany[61]
WENR-TV Chicago Illinois Frosty Frolics[62]
Hollywood Reel (c. 1950)[63]
WGN-TV Chicago Illinois Time For Beany
(after October 1952)[64]
WCPO-TV Cincinnati Ohio Dixie Showboat[65]
Hollywood Wrestling[66]
WKRC-TV Cincinnati Ohio Bandstand Revue[67]
Time For Beany[68]
WEWS-TV Cleveland Ohio Frosty Frolics[69]
Hollywood Reel (c. 1952)[70]
Time For Beany (c. 1953)[71]
WHK-TV Cleveland Ohio Metropolitan O&O
(never signed on)[72]
WJW-TV Cleveland Ohio Armchair Detective[73]
Bandstand Revue (mid-1955)[74]
Hollywood Wrestling[75]
Time For Beany (c. 1950)[76]
WNBK Cleveland Ohio Bandstand Revue (late 1955)[77]
Hollywood Reel (c. 1950)[78]
WBNS-TV Columbus Ohio Hollywood Reel[79]
Time For Beany[80]
WFAA/
KBTV
Dallas Texas Armchair Detective[81]
Hollywood Wrestling[82]
Time For Beany (c. 1950)[83]
4.75 hrs of Paramount per wk[24]
KRLD-TV Dallas Texas Time For Beany (c. 1953)[84]
WOC-TV Davenport Iowa Dixie Showboat[85]
Hollywood Reel[86]
Hollywood Wrestling[87]
WHIO-TV Dayton Ohio Hollywood Wrestling[88]
KBTV Denver Colorado Hollywood Reel[32]
Hollywood Wrestling[22]
KFEL-TV Denver Colorado Hollywood Wrestling[89]
WOI-TV Des Moines Iowa Hollywood Reel[90]
WWJ-TV Detroit Michigan Bandstand Revue (mid-1955)[91]
Time For Beany (c. 1953)[92]
WJBK Detroit Michigan Bandstand Revue (late 1955)[93]
Time For Beany (c. 1952)[94]
WEAU-TV Eau Claire Wisconsin Hollywood Wrestling[95]
KTSM-TV El Paso Texas Time For Beany[96]
WDAY-TV Fargo North Dakota Hollywood Wrestling[97]
KQTV Fort Dodge Iowa Hollywood Wrestling[98]
KMJ-TV Fresno California Time For Beany[99]
WOOD-TV Grand Rapids Michigan Hollywood Wrestling[100]
WFMY-TV Greensboro North Carolina Hollywood Wrestling[101]
WSVA-TV Harrisonburg Virginia Hollywood Wrestling[102]
KGMB Honolulu Hawaii Time For Beany[32]
KPRC-TV Houston Texas Hollywood Wrestling[103]
Time For Beany[104]
KID-TV Idaho Falls Idaho Hollywood Wrestling[105]
WFBM-TV Indianapolis Indiana Dixie Showboat[106]
Hollywood Reel[107]
Hollywood Wrestling[108]
Time For Beany[109]
WJTV Jackson Mississippi Hollywood Wrestling[35]
KRCG Jefferson City Missouri Hollywood Wrestling[110]
WJHL-TV Johnson City Tennessee Hollywood Wrestling[111]
KCMO-TV Kansas City Missouri Hollywood Wrestling[112]
KCTY-TV Kansas City Missouri DuMont O&O (1953–1954)
WDAF-TV Kansas City Missouri Hollywood Reel[113]
KHOL-TV Kearney Nebraska Hollywood Wrestling[114]
KPLC Lake Charles Louisiana Hollywood Wrestling[115]
WGAL Lancaster Pennsylvania Hollywood Wrestling[116]
KSWO-TV Lawton Oklahoma Time For Beany[35]
Hollywood Wrestling[35]
KOLN Lincoln Nebraska Time For Beany[35]
KTLA Los Angeles California Paramount O&O;[6]
originated programs
Louisville Kentucky Hollywood Wrestling[117]
KDUB-TV Lubbock Texas Time For Beany[118]
WLVA-TV Lynchburg Virginia Hollywood Wrestling[35]
WHBQ-TV Memphis Tennessee Hollywood Wrestling[119]
WISN-TV/
WTVW
Milwaukee Wisconsin Bandstand Revue (late 1955)[120]
Hollywood Wrestling[121]
Station City State
or
province
Paramount
programs
aired
WTMJ-TV Milwaukee Wisconsin Bandstand Revue (mid-1955)[122]
Hollywood Reel[123]
KEYD-TV Minneapolis Minnesota Hollywood Wrestling[22]
WCCO-TV Minneapolis Minnesota Time For Beany[124]
KNOE-TV Monroe Louisiana Hollywood Wrestling[125]
Montreal Quebec Hollywood Wrestling[32]
Nashville Tennessee Hollywood Wrestling[126]
WNHC-TV New Haven Connecticut Armchair Detective[127]
Time For Beany[128]
WDSU New Orleans Louisiana Dixie Showboat[129]
Time For Beany[130]
WABD New York City New York DuMont O&O
WOR-TV New York City New York Time For Beany[131]
WPIX New York City New York Dixie Showboat[132]
Norfolk Virginia Hollywood Wrestling[126]
KWTV Oklahoma City Oklahoma Hollywood Wrestling[133]
WKY-TV Oklahoma City Oklahoma Time For Beany[134]
KMTV-TV Omaha Nebraska Hollywood Wrestling[135]
WOW-TV Omaha Nebraska Hollywood Reel[136]
WCAU Philadelphia Pennsylvania Armchair Detective[137]
Hollywood Wrestling[138]
Time For Beany (c. 1953)[139]
WFIL-TV Philadelphia Pennsylvania Frosty Frolics[140]
Hollywood Reel[141]
Sandy Dreams[142]
Time For Beany (c. 1950)[143]
KPHO-TV Phoenix Arizona Time For Beany[144]
WDTV Pittsburgh Pennsylvania DuMont O&O
Hollywood Reel[145]
KPTV Portland Oregon Hollywood Reel[146]
Hollywood Wrestling[89]
Bandstand Revue[147]
Time For Beany[89]
WJAR Providence Rhode Island Bandstand Revue[120]
Time For Beany[148]
Providence Rhode Island Hollywood Wrestling[126]
Reading Pennsylvania Hollywood Wrestling[149]
KZTV Reno Nevada Bandstand Revue[150]
Hollywood Wrestling[151]
Time For Beany[152]
WTVR-TV Richmond Virginia Hollywood Wrestling[153]
Rochester New York Hollywood Reel[154]
WHBF-TV Rock Island Illinois Time For Beany[155]
KEMO St. Louis Missouri Hollywood Wrestling[156]
KSD-TV St. Louis Missouri Bandstand Revue[157]
Time For Beany[158]
St. Louis Missouri Hollywood Reel[154]
KSTP-TV St. Paul Minnesota Bandstand Revue[22]
Hollywood Wrestling[159]
KDYL-TV Salt Lake City Utah Time For Beany[160]
KSL-TV Salt Lake City Utah Hollywood Reel[161]
Hollywood Wrestling[162]
KEYL San Antonio Texas Armchair Detective[20]
Latin Cruise[20]
Hollywood Reel[163]
Hollywood Wrestling[164]
Movietown, RSVP[165]
Time For Beany[166]
KFMB-TV San Diego California Hollywood Opportunity[26]
Magazine of the Week[26]
Meet Me in Hollywood[26]
Time For Beany[167]
Your Old Buddy[26]
Coaxial cable feeds[16]
6 hrs. of Paramount per wk.[26]
KGO-TV San Francisco California Harry Owens Show (c. 1951)[168]
Hollywood Reel[169]
Hollywood Wrestling[41]
Sandy Dreams[170]
KPIX San Francisco California Bandstand Revue[147]
Frosty Frolics[171]
Harry Owens Show (c. 1952)[172]
Time For Beany[92]
WRGB Schenectady New York Time For Beany[173]
KING-TV Seattle Washington Dixie Showboat[174]
Time For Beany[175]
KTVW Seattle Washington Hollywood Wrestling[22]
KOMO-TV Seattle Washington Bandstand Revue[22]
Hollywood Wrestling[176]
KELO-TV Sioux Falls South Dakota Hollywood Wrestling[177]
KHQ-TV Spokane Washington Time For Beany[178]
WWLP Springfield Massachusetts Time For Beany[35]
Springfield Missouri Time For Beany[44]
WHEN-TV Syracuse New York Hollywood Reel[179]
WSYR-TV Syracuse New York Hollywood Wrestling[180]
KMO-TV Tacoma Washington Hollywood Wrestling[181]
KTNT-TV Tacoma Washington Bandstand Revue[182]
WSPD-TV Toledo Ohio Hollywood Wrestling[183]
KOTV Tulsa Oklahoma Hollywood Wrestling (c. 1954)[184]
KTVK Tulsa Oklahoma Hollywood Wrestling (c. 1955)[185]
KHQ-TV Walla Walla Washington Time For Beany[186]
WTOP-TV Washington District
of Columbia
Bandstand Revue[187]
Time For Beany (c. 1951)[188]
WTTG Washington District
of Columbia
DuMont O&O
Hollywood Reel[189]
Time For Beany (c. 1952)[190]
KWWL Waterloo Iowa Hollywood Wrestling[191]
WSAU-TV Wausau Wisconsin Hollywood Wrestling[192]
WEAT-TV West Palm Beach Florida Hollywood Wrestling[193]
KTVH Wichita Kansas Hollywood Wrestling[194]
CBWT Winnipeg Manitoba Hollywood Wrestling[33]
WSBA-TV York Pennsylvania Hollywood Wrestling[35]
KIVA Yuma Arizona Hollywood Wrestling[195]

End of network

In May 1951 ABC chairman Edward Noble and United Paramount Theatres president Leonard Goldenson announced a proposed merger between their companies. The plan was to merge ABC and its five television stations with United Paramount Theatres, a company only recently spun off from Paramount Pictures. UPT also owned the Chicago station, WBKB; that station would have to be sold in order to stay under the five-station cap. Because the proposed merger involved the sale of a television station, it required the approval of the Federal Communications Commission, which opened a hearing on the issue that August. The proposed deal was complex, and would affect many parties involved in television broadcasting other than ABC, including Paramount, DuMont, and CBS (CBS executives wanted to purchase WBKB). During the hearing, Allen DuMont asked the FCC to force Paramount to sell its share of the DuMont Network. He stated that Paramount in effect owned two television networks, the PTN and DuMont; the FCC had similarly forced NBC to sell off one of its two radio networks eight years earlier due to concerns about multi-network ownership. Paramount executives, however, cavalierly denied ever having operated a television network. Evidence presented against Paramount included network affiliation contracts and advertisements for the Paramount Television Network from 1951.[6] Despite Paramount executives' testimony, advertisements for the Paramount Television Network ran as late as 1952.[196]

After a grueling two-year trial, the federal agency allowed the ABC-UPT merger, but never ruled on Paramount's partial ownership of a second network; Paramount was allowed to retain its shares in DuMont. Leo Resnick, hearing examiner for the Commission, concluded that Paramount did not control DuMont; this ruling would have allowed both Paramount and DuMont to expand to five stations each, but the FCC rejected this portion of Resnick's findings. Paramount and DuMont were restricted to a total of five stations. The ruling "ensured that television broadcasting would be controlled by the same three companies that had dominated radio broadcasting, thus fostering a lack of diversity in both station and network ownership".[6]

The 1953 merger of ABC and United Paramount Theatres lead to the divestiture of Paramount's Chicago station, WBKB, which was sold to CBS (it is now WBBM-TV). Paramount retained its Los Angeles station, KTLA, and applied to the FCC for a new station in Boston, but the construction permit was never granted.[9] By this time, Paramount's television arm was called Paramount TV Productions, Incorporated.[197] The company continued to distribute programs nationally, however, and continued to sign network affiliation agreements with local television stations.[198]

With just one owned and operated station, Paramount's program service never gelled into a true television network; television historians such as McNeil (1996) consider Paramount programs syndicated rather than network series.[199] While the Paramount series Hollywood Wrestling and Time For Beany were widely seen on stations across the United States, most other Paramount television programs were seen in only a handful of markets (another exception, Hollywood Reel, had been seen in Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Columbus, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Omaha, Pittsburgh, Rochester, San Francisco, Seattle, St. Louis, Syracuse, and Washington, DC in 1950).[154]

American Vitamin Corporation, Paramount's sponsor for both The Spade Cooley Show and Frosty Frolics, pulled its sponsorship in October 1951.[200] In June 1953 it was announced that Time For Beany and Paramount Television Productions were "calling it a day".[201] Paramount ended production of the series in October 1953; rival Los Angeles station KTTV and independent distributor Consolidated Television took over production and distribution, respectively, of Time For Beany.[202] Independent distributor Cinema-Vue took over Hollywood Wrestling.[203] By late 1955, Billboard reported the Paramount Network consisted of just 15 stations airing Bandstand Revue. Billboard called this a "sort of" network.[198] Management changes at KTLA, coupled with low local ratings, caused the cancellation of Bandstand Revue in October 1956.[204]

By Autumn 1955, Hollywood insiders were predicting that Paramount would launch a major television network using KTLA and the DuMont stations. Articles reported that Paramount was seeking television scripts and was constructing theaters and studios which rivaled those of ABC, CBS, and NBC.[198] In a dramatic move, Paramount's board of directors seized control of DuMont Laboratories in a boardroom coup in August 1955. DuMont's board of directors was replaced by Paramount executives. Dr. DuMont was removed as president of the company, and DuMont Network operations ceased the following year.[205] However, no combined Paramount-DuMont network ever materialized; according to television historian Timothy White, by this time "a television network was no longer among Paramount's plans for exploitation of the small screen".[7] Paramount sold its interest in DuMont (by this time renamed "Metropolitan Broadcasting Company") in 1959;[205] the sale ended Paramount's first, early ventures into network television.

Later Paramount networks

Despite Paramount's failure to build a national broadcast television network, the company retained KTLA, and executives at Paramount continued to toy with the idea of entering the television medium once more. After acquiring Desilu Productions in 1967, the company continued to produce series seen on the "big three" television networks. Among these programs were Here's Lucy, Mission: Impossible, and Mannix for CBS; The Brady Bunch, The Odd Couple, and Happy Days for ABC; and (in later years) Family Ties and Cheers for NBC.[206][207][208] KTLA was eventually sold to actor and singer Gene Autry for $12 million in 1964.[209]

In 1978 Paramount CEO Barry Diller planned to launch the Paramount Television Service, a new "fourth television network";[210] its programming would have consisted of only one night a week. Thirty "Movies of the Week" would have followed Star Trek: Phase II on Saturday nights. This plan was aborted when the decision was made to transform Phase II into Star Trek: The Motion Picture.

On January 16, 1995, Paramount launched the United Paramount Network (UPN), a new broadcast television network.[211] Despite eleven years on the air, UPN never made a profit;[212] The New Yorker reported that the network had lost $800 million during its first five years of operation.[213] UPN ceased operations in 2006, when it merged with the WB Television Network to form the CW Television Network.[214] Today Paramount's television division is part of CBS Television Studios.

References

  1. ^ "Tele is Radio Costs". Billboard: 17. 1946-10-26. 
  2. ^ Billboard 62 (21): cover. 1950-05-27. 
  3. ^ a b c "Shupert Joins Peerless TV". Billboard: 12. 1951-11-03. 
  4. ^ "Sunrise Corp. Buys WLOD". Billboard: 34. 1965-06-12. 
  5. ^ a b Schatz, Thomas (1999). Boom and Bust: American Cinema in the 1940s. University of California Press. pp. 433. ISBN 0520221303. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g White, Timothy R. (1992). "Hollywood on (Re)Trial: The American Broadcasting-United Paramount Merger Hearing". Cinema Journal (University of Texas Press) 31 (3): 19–39. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1225506. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d White, Timothy R. (1992). Hollywood's Attempt to Appropriate Television: The Case of Paramount Pictures. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI. pp. 107–131. 
  8. ^ Nelmes, Jill (2003). An Introduction to Film Studies (3 ed.). Routledge. pp. 16. ISBN 0415262682. 
  9. ^ a b Hess, Gary Newton (1979). An Historical Study of the DuMont Television Network. New York: Arno Press. pp. 91. ISBN 0-405-11758-2. 
  10. ^ Lev, Peter (2006). The Fifties: Transforming the Screen, 1950-1959. University of California Press. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0520249666. 
  11. ^ Auter, P.J.; Boyd, D.A. (1995). "DuMont: The Original Fourth Television Network". Journal of Popular Culture 29: 63–83. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1995.00063.x. http://www.auter.tv/info/publications/articles/DuMontJPC.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  12. ^ "Para's KTLA Bows Jan. 22; Hope Emcee - Star-Studded Cast Inked". Billboard: 10. 1947-01-18. 
  13. ^ "Honors to KTLA In March, April L.A. TV Hooper". Billboard: 13. 1949-06-11. 
  14. ^ Billboard 60 (21): 9. 1948-05-22. http://books.google.com/books?id=LEUEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA9&dq=%22Paramount+Television+Network%22&lr=&as_pt=MAGAZINES&cd=3#v=onepage&q=%22Paramount%20Television%20Network%22&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  15. ^ a b Jajkowski, Steve (2001). "Chicago Television - WBKB Channel 4". ChicagoTelevision.com. http://chicagotelevision.com/WBKB.htm. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  16. ^ a b "First Coast Network: KTLA Pioneers in Hookup with San Diego", Long Beach Independent: 14c, 1949-10-16 
  17. ^ "WBKB Adds Heft to Indie Position Thru Programming". Billboard: 15. 1948-12-04. 
  18. ^ a b Browne, Nick (1994). American Television: New Directions in History and Theory. Routledge. pp. 32. ISBN 3718605635. http://books.google.com/books?id=yuU72DJI97UC&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=%22Paramount+Pictures%22%2B%22FCC%22%2B%22San+Francisco%22&source=bl&ots=P5gty-Ek5k&sig=BeHzHTfkTi1WDYO0vIGQREMaGsU&hl=en&ei=DbwRS-CEI5TmswOWjNDCAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CCMQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=%22Paramount%20Pictures%22%2B%22FCC%22%2B%22San%20Francisco%22&f=false. 
  19. ^ Boddy, William (1992). Fifties Television: the Industry and Its Critics. University of Illinois Press. pp. 56. ISBN 025206299X. 
  20. ^ a b c d "Hollywood shows on KEYL", San Antonio Light: 54, 1950-02-19 
  21. ^ The Daily Messenger (Canandaigua, NY): pp. 4. 1949-07-06. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 16. 1955-09-10. 
  23. ^ a b Roman, James (2005). From Daytime to Primetime: the History of American Television Programs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0313361692. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Para Mapping Kine Network". Billboard: 13, 43. 1949-09-17. 
  25. ^ "Spinning the Dial", Long Beach Independent: 34, 1951-01-24 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "KFMB-TV Rebeams 6 hrs. of KTLA Segs". Billboard: 11. 1949-06-04. 
  27. ^ McNeil, Alex (1997). Total Television (4th ed.). Penguin. pp. 1040. ISBN 0-14-024916-8. 
  28. ^ Hilmes, Michele (1999). Hollywood and Broadcasting: From Radio to Cable. University of Illinois Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 0252068467. http://books.google.com/books?id=X4hr1AdKbYMC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=%22yer+ole+buddy%22%2B%22paramount%22&source=bl&ots=_dOzHhwoJT&sig=5m912m61jCNkRWO-W99LA5t-XBc&hl=en&ei=DzpOSt26HJDSsgOr8uSqDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. 
  29. ^ "'Girls Only' (Nix, Men!)", Long Beach Independent: 14c, 1949-10-16 
  30. ^ a b "KTLA to Film, Distribute Own Tele Stanza". Billboard: 6. 1954-01-23. 
  31. ^ "KTLA Renews Cooley". Billboard: 17. 1949-01-15. 
  32. ^ a b c d "TV Film Purchases". Billboard: 10. 1952-12-13. 
  33. ^ a b "Television". Winnipeg Free Press (Winnipeg, MB): pp. 12. 1954-08-21. 
  34. ^ The New Mexican (Santa Fe, NM): pp. 15-A. 1955-02-03. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h "Monthly TV Film Buying Report". Billboard: 31. 1953-04-25. 
  36. ^ "Today's TV Programs". Pampa Daily News (Pampa, TX): pp. 11. 1953-10-30. 
  37. ^ "Top 10 Shows Each Day of the Week in ATLANTA". Billboard: 8. 1951-12-01. 
  38. ^ "WJBF Channel... 6". Aiken Standard and Review (Aiken, SC): pp. 6. 1955-08-01. 
  39. ^ "Television Schedule February 6 To 13". Mason City Globe-Gazette (Mason City, IA): pp. 4. 1955-02-04. 
  40. ^ "Television Log". The Capital (Annapolis, MD): pp. 3. 1951-03-03. 
  41. ^ a b "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 12. 1955-10-08. 
  42. ^ "Television Programs". Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, NJ): pp. 17. 1950-11-17. 
  43. ^ "Television Programs". The Gettysburg Times (Gettysburg, PA): pp. 10. 1951-03-14. 
  44. ^ a b "Where Syndicated Series Are Showing". Billboard: 16. 1953-05-30. 
  45. ^ The Anniston Star (Anniston, AL): pp. 12. 1950-10-26. 
  46. ^ The Anniston Star (Anniston, AL): pp. 5. 1951-12-28. 
  47. ^ The Anniston Star (Anniston, AL): pp. 14. 1953-02-26. 
  48. ^ "Daily Guide: Radio & Television". Fitchburg Sentiel (Fitchburg, MA): pp. 19. 1949-09-21. 
  49. ^ "Weekend Television Programs". Portsmouth Herald (Portsmouth, NH): pp. 9. 1951-01-06. 
  50. ^ "Television Programs". Portland Press Herald (Portland, ME): pp. 9. 1951-04-07. 
  51. ^ "13 City ARB Ratings of Syndicated Shows". Billboard: 12. 1952-12-13. 
  52. ^ "TV High Spots". Lowell Sun (Lowell, MA): pp. 54. 1951-07-29. 
  53. ^ "Saturday's TV". The Brownsville Herald (Brownsville, TX): pp. 10. 1955-04-29. 
  54. ^ "Television". Dunkirk Evening Observer (Dunkirk, NY): pp. 13. 1950-02-15. 
  55. ^ "Television & Radio Programs". The Derrick (Oil City, PA): pp. 6. 1953-04-10. 
  56. ^ "Television Log". The Record-Eagle (Traverse city, MI): pp. 7. 1955-05-02. 
  57. ^ "Weekly Television Programs". The Oelwein Daily Register (Oelwein, IA): pp. 5. 1954-10-23. 
  58. ^ "Top 10 TV Shows Each Day of the Week in CHARLOTTE, NC". Billboard: 12. 1952-11-01. 
  59. ^ "Radio and Television". Racine Journal-Times (Racine, WI): pp. 32. 1951-02-28. 
  60. ^ "Coast TV Outlets Use More Eastern Kine Originations". Billboard. 1949-08-27. 
  61. ^ "Radio and Television". Racine Journal-Times (Racine, WI): pp. 17. 1950-09-11. 
  62. ^ "Weekly TV Roundup". The Star (Chicago, IL). 1951-10-05. 
  63. ^ "French Sardine Bites on 'Hollywood Reel'". Billboard: 7. 1950-01-28. http://books.google.com/books?id=JEUEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=%22Hollywood+Reel%22%2B%22St.+Louis%22&source=bl&ots=N4u8z6RCd8&sig=5kaca1lSEjDykSmX5ai_JGQrQ_k&hl=en&ei=oNgQS7nFO42NnQeoyIjZAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22Hollywood%20Reel%22%2B%22St.%20Louis%22&f=false. 
  64. ^ "TV Film Purchases". Billboard: 9. 1952-10-04. 
  65. ^ "Television Programs". Hamilton Daily News Journal (Hamilton, OH): pp. 10. 1950-12-23. 
  66. ^ "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 18. 1955-08-27. 
  67. ^ "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 18. 1955-08-27. 
  68. ^ "Television Programs". Hamilton Daily New Journal (Hamilton, OH): pp. 8. 1950-12-12. 
  69. ^ The Evening Independent (Massillon, OH): pp. 11. 1951-09-29. 
  70. ^ "Television Programs". East Liverpool Review (East Liverpool, OH): pp. 12. 1952-06-25. 
  71. ^ The Coshocton Tribune (Coshocton, OH): pp. 4. 1953-02-10. 
  72. ^ Jones, Vane A. (Summer 1958). North American Radio-TV Station Listings. Howard W. Sams. 
  73. ^ "Week's Television Schedule of Cleveland Stations". Plain Dealer (Cleveland, OH): pp. 22-E. 1949-12-18. 
  74. ^ "Television". The Coshocton Tribune (Coshocton, OH): pp. 4. 1955-08-27. 
  75. ^ "Television". The Coshocton Tribune (Coshocton, OH): pp. 14. 1953-12-11. 
  76. ^ New Castle News (New Castle, PA): pp. 30. 1950-06-08. 
  77. ^ "Television Programs". The Chronicle Telegram (Elyria, OH): pp. 9. 1955-10-10. 
  78. ^ Chronicle Telegram (Elyria, OH): pp. 12. 1950-03-21. 
  79. ^ "Program Schedule". The Times Recorder (Zanesville, OH): pp. 26. 1950-04-28. 
  80. ^ "Television". The Newark Advocate (Newark, OH): pp. 10. 1951-05-02. 
  81. ^ "Television". Dallas Morning News (Dallas, TX): pp. I-11. 1949-10-11. 
  82. ^ "TV Listings - Paris Area". The Paris News (Paris, TX): pp. 13. 1953-08-02. 
  83. ^ "Television Today". Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, TX): pp. 6. 1950-04-30. 
  84. ^ "Television Schedules". Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, TX): pp. 4. 1953-04-16. 
  85. ^ "Television Log". Burlington Hawk-Eye Gazette (Burlington, IA): pp. 8. 1951-09-08. 
  86. ^ The Cedar Rapids Gazette (Cedar Rapids, IA): pp. 33. 1951-11-29. 
  87. ^ "Television Programs". The Waterloo Daily Courier (Waterloo, IA): pp. 23. 1951-06-15. 
  88. ^ "Television Guide". The Lima News (Lima, OH): pp. 22. 1950-11-02. 
  89. ^ a b c "TV Film Purchases". Billboard: 16. 1952-10-18. 
  90. ^ Cedar Rapids Gazette (Cedar Rapids, IA): pp. 31. 1951-11-22. 
  91. ^ "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 9–10. 1955-07-16. 
  92. ^ a b "14-City May ARB Ratings of Syndicated Shows". Billboard. 1953-07-25. 
  93. ^ "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 21. 1955-09-17. 
  94. ^ "ARB Ratings of Non-Network TV Films". Billboard: 14. 1952-11-22. 
  95. ^ The Daily Telegram (Eau Claire, WI): pp. 13. 1954-09-18. 
  96. ^ "KTSM-TV on the Air". El Paso Herald-Post (El Paso, TX): pp. 10. 1953-01-03. 
  97. ^ "Radio - TV". Daily Journal (Fergus Falls, MN): pp. 4. 1954-03-31. 
  98. ^ "T. V. Station KQTV Back On The Air October 29th". The Ruthven Free Press (Ruthven, IA): pp. 1. 1955-10-12. 
  99. ^ Fresno Bee Republican: 19, 1953-06-10 
  100. ^ "Saturday, October 18th TV Schedule". The Holland Evening Sentinel (Holland, MI): pp. 3. 1952-10-18. 
  101. ^ "TV Schedule". The Daily Times-News (Burlington, NC): pp. 2. 1952-06-26. 
  102. ^ Harrisonburg Daily News Record (Harrisonburg, VA): pp. 4. 1955-06-25. 
  103. ^ "Saturday's Radio and TV Programs". Galveston Daily News (Galveston, TX): pp. 21. 1953-02-14. 
  104. ^ Galveston Daily News (Galveston, TX): pp. 25. 1951-06-03. 
  105. ^ "Television Log". Idaho State Journal (Pocatello, ID): pp. 10. 1954-06-15. 
  106. ^ Kokomo Tribune (Kokomo, IN): pp. 14. 1950-10-21. 
  107. ^ "Friday Evening TV Programs". Logansport Press (Logansport, IN): pp. 6. 1951-05-04. 
  108. ^ "Television Schedule". Anderson Daily Bulletin (Anderson, IN): pp. 17. 1955-03-21. 
  109. ^ "Monday Afternoon TV Programs". Logansport Press (Logansport, IN): pp. 6. 1951-05-20. 
  110. ^ "Hollywood Wrestling Returns to KRCG-TV". Jefferson City Post-Tribune (Jefferson City, MO): pp. 6. 1955-08-12. 
  111. ^ Kingsport Times (Kingsport, TN): pp. 7. 1954-04-02. 
  112. ^ "Radio and Television Programs". Atchison Daily Globe (Atchison, KS): pp. 9. 1955-04-03. 
  113. ^ Atchison Daily Globe (Atchison, KS): pp. 4. 1950-11-19. 
  114. ^ Billboard: 12. 1955-09-03. 
  115. ^ Lake Charles American Press (Lake Charles, LA): pp. 20. 1955-03-14. 
  116. ^ Lebanon Daily News (Lebanon, PA): pp. 21. 1954-03-04. 
  117. ^ "Monthly TV Film Buying Report". Billboard: 31. 1953-04-25. 
  118. ^ Evening Journal (Lubbock, TX): pp. 7. 1953-03-06. 
  119. ^ "Television — Tonight, Tomorrow — WMCT Channel 5, & WHBQ Channel 13". Blytheville Courier News (Blytheville, AR): pp. 7. 1955-06-25. 
  120. ^ a b "Market-By-Market Ratings". Billboard: 9. 1955-10-15. 
  121. ^ "Television". The Sheboygan Press (Sheboygan, WI): pp. 17. 1955-05-20. 
  122. ^ "Television: WTMJ (Channel 4)". Sheboygan Journal (Sheboygan, WI): pp. 7. 1955-07-29. 
  123. ^ "Television: WTMJ-TV". Sheboygan Journal (Sheboygan, WI): pp. 11. 1951-07-05. 
  124. ^ "Television Programs". The Winona Republican-Herald (Winona, MN): pp. 10. 1952-01-30. 
  125. ^ "Daily T-V Program". Ruston Daily Leader (Ruston, LA): pp. 3. 1955-08-30. 
  126. ^ a b c "Current TV Film Series". Billboard: 24. 1952-06-28. 
  127. ^ "On the Air Today". Naugatuck Daily News (Naugatuck, CT): pp. 3. 1949-10-12. 
  128. ^ "On Television Today". The Bridgeport Telegram (Bridgeport, CT): pp. 11. 1951-07-16. 
  129. ^ "WDSU Channel 6". Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA): pp. 6. 1951-01-28. 
  130. ^ "WDSU Channel 6". Times-Picayune (New Orleans, LA): pp. 18. 1953-08-17. 
  131. ^ "Television Programs". Trenton Evening Times (Trenton, NJ): pp. 11. 1951-01-30. 
  132. ^ "On Television Today". Bridgeport Telegram (Bridgeport, CT): pp. 24. 1951-04-14. 
  133. ^ The Ada Evening News (Ada, OK): pp. 5. 1954-02-21. 
  134. ^ "WKY-TV This Week". The Daily Oklahoman (Oklahoma City, OK): pp. 21. 1951-06-24. 
  135. ^ "Daily Radio And TV Programs". Council Bluffs Nonpareil (Council Bluffs, IA): pp. 10. 1955-02-15. 
  136. ^ "Daily Radio, TV Programs". Council Bluffs Nonpareil (Council Bluffs, IA): pp. 7. 1950-02-21. 
  137. ^ "Television Programs". The Chester Times (Chester, PA): pp. 17. 1949-08-10. 
  138. ^ "13-City Nov. ARB Ratings of Syndicated Shows". Billboard: 14. 1953-01-17. 
  139. ^ "Television-Radio Programs". Chester Times (Chester, PA): pp. 18. 1953-08-25. 
  140. ^ "Television Programs". The Chester Times (Chester, PA): pp. 24. 1951-10-10. 
  141. ^ "Television Programs". Chester Times (Chester, PA): pp. 9. 1950-10-21. 
  142. ^ "Television Programs". The Chester Times (Chester, PA): pp. 7. 1950-10-14. 
  143. ^ Lebanon Daily News (Lebanon, PA): pp. 7. 1950-03-10. 
  144. ^ "Arizona Television Schedule". Broadcasting101. http://www.broadcasting101.ws/arizona_tv_sked-1951-1952.htm. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  145. ^ "Television". The Evening Standard (Uniontown, PA): pp. 11. 1951-03-24. 
  146. ^ "G. F. Johnson Presents This Week's Television Programs". The Oregonian (Portland, OR): pp. 10. 1953-01-25. 
  147. ^ a b "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 10. 1955-07-30. 
  148. ^ "Television Programs". Newport Daily News (Newport, RI): pp. 13. 1950-10-11. 
  149. ^ "Where Syndicated Series Are Showing". Billboard: 22. 1953-01-17. 
  150. ^ "KZTV Channel 8". Nevada State Journal (Reno, NV): pp. 17. 1954-03-24. 
  151. ^ "KZTV Log". Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, NV): pp. 11. 1955-03-26. 
  152. ^ "KZTV Programs". Reno Evening Gazette (Reno, NV): pp. 10. 1953-10-10. 
  153. ^ "TV Today and Tomorrow". Harrisonburg Daily News Record (Harrisonburg, VA): pp. 5. 1954-11-10. 
  154. ^ a b c Johnston, Erskine (1950-02-18). "In Hollywood". Dunkirk Evening Observer (Dunkirk, NY): pp. 7. 
  155. ^ Dixon Evening Telegraph (Dixon, IL): pp. 6. 1951-04-27. 
  156. ^ "Radio and Television Programs". The Edwardsville Intelligencer (Edwardville, IL): pp. 8. 1955-08-01. 
  157. ^ "Radio and Television Programs". The Edwardsville Intelligencer (Edwardsville, IL): pp. 7. 1955-09-16. 
  158. ^ "KSD-TV Program Channel 5". Alton Evening Telegraph (Alton, IL): pp. 14. 1950-03-06. 
  159. ^ "Television Schedules". The Winona Republican-Herald (Winona, MN): pp. 7. 1953-10-15. 
  160. ^ The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, UT): pp. 25. 1951-07-27. 
  161. ^ "Daily Television Guide". Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden, UT): pp. 11A. 1950-10-18. 
  162. ^ "Current Television Station Programs". The Daily Herald (Provo, UT): pp. 2-A. 1954-03-26. 
  163. ^ "Radio & Television Listings". San Antonio Express (San Antonio, TX): pp. 23. 1953-08-23. 
  164. ^ "TV Programs For All Week". San Antonio Express (San Antonio, TX): pp. 69. 1953-01-25. 
  165. ^ "Spotlighting the Dial". San Antonio Express (San Antonio, TX): pp. 14B. 1950-03-24. http://www.jjonz.us/RadioLogs/pagesnfiles/logs_files_RH/1950s_RH/50-54/1950/50rh_03Mar/50-03-24-%28Fri%29_%5BSAE%5D.pdf. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  166. ^ San Antonio Express (San Antonio, TX): pp. 9. 1951-06-28. 
  167. ^ "Television". Redlands Daily Facts (Redlands, CA): pp. 12. 1952-12-05. 
  168. ^ "U.A. Sponsors Owens in S.F.". Billboard: 3. 1951-10-06. 
  169. ^ "Tonight on TV". The Times (San Mateo, CA): pp. 15. 1950-04-28. 
  170. ^ Franklin, Bob (1950-11-16). "Show Time". Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA): pp. 63. 
  171. ^ "TV Programs". Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA): pp. 9. 1953-10-10. 
  172. ^ Abbe, James (1952-01-06). "On the Air". The Oakland Tribune (Oakland, CA): pp. 2-B. 
  173. ^ "Television Program Today". The Oneonta Star (Oneonta, NY): pp. 15. 1952-12-22. 
  174. ^ "This Week in TV". Seattle Daily Times (Seattle, WA): pp. 9-S. 1951-04-01. 
  175. ^ "The Week in Televistion (sic)". Seattle Daily Times (Seattle, WA): pp. 18. 1952-02-24. 
  176. ^ Lowes, Glenna M. (1954-01-29). "TV Notebook: Many Changes Noted in Time Schedules". Seattle Daily Times (Seattle, WA): pp. 20. 
  177. ^ "WNBT, WTVJ, and KELO-TV get nod". Billboard: 10. 1954-02-20. 
  178. ^ "Television - Monday". Walla Walla Union-Bulletin (Walla Walla, WA): pp. 13. 1953-03-30. 
  179. ^ "Television Talk". The Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY): pp. 16. 1950-02-26. 
  180. ^ "Television". Syracuse Herald Journal (Syracuse, NY): pp. 16. 1953-08-21. 
  181. ^ "Daily TV Schedules". The Daily Chronicle (Centralia, WA): pp. 5. 1953-09-21. 
  182. ^ "TV Programs". The Daily Chronicle (Centralia, WA): pp. 7. 1955-10-08. 
  183. ^ "Current TV Film Series". Billboard: 12. 1952-06-21. 
  184. ^ "TV Schedule, Sat., Jan. 9th". Miami Daily News-Record (Miami, OK): pp. 3. 1954-01-08. 
  185. ^ "The Nation's Top Television Programs". Billboard: 32. 1955-08-06. 
  186. ^ "Television - Tuesday". Walla Walla Union-Bulletin (Walla Walla, WA): pp. 13. 1953-06-09. 
  187. ^ "The Nation's Top 10 Television Programs". Billboard: 14. 1955-10-01. 
  188. ^ "Television Log". The Capital (Anapolis, MD): pp. 3. 1951-06-02. 
  189. ^ "Television Highlights". Cumberland Evening Times (Cumberland, MD): pp. 21. 1952-05-07. 
  190. ^ "Television Highlights". The Cumberland Evening Times (Cumberland, MD): pp. 19. 1952-08-27. 
  191. ^ "TV Programs". The Oelwein Daily Register (Oelwein, IA): pp. 7. 1954-06-28. 
  192. ^ "WSAU-TV Channel 7". Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune (Wisconsin Rapids, WI): pp. 2. 1954-12-10. 
  193. ^ "Radio & Television". Fort Pierce News-Tribune (Fort Pierce, FL): pp. 5. 1956-07-26. 
  194. ^ "The Week on Television". Hutchinson News-Herald (Hutchinson, KS): pp. 10. 1954-09-25. 
  195. ^ "KIVA Channel 11". The Yuma Daily Sun (Yuma, AZ): pp. 10. 1955-10-28. 
  196. ^ "Isn't it "Time For Beany" in Your Market?". Billboard: 37. 1952-06-14. http://books.google.com/books?id=dR0EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA37&dq=%22Paramount+Television+Network%22%2B%22Billboard%22&as_pt=MAGAZINES&client=firefox-a&cd=4#v=onepage&q=%22Paramount%20Television%20Network%22%2B%22Billboard%22&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  197. ^ "13-City Jan. ARB Ratings of Syndicated Shows". Billboard: 20. 1953-03-21. 
  198. ^ a b c "Para Looms as TV Biggie of Majors". Billboard: 2–6. 1955-10-08. 
  199. ^ McNeil, Alex (1996). Total Television (4 ed.). New York: Penguin. pp. 184, 840. ISBN 0-14-02-4916-8. 
  200. ^ "AVC Pulls Out of TV". Billboard: 11. 1951-10-20. 
  201. ^ "Hollywood on TV". The Yuma Daily Sun (Yuma, AZ): pp. 12. 1953-06-23. 
  202. ^ "Consolidated to Sell 'Beany'". Billboard: 11. 1953-10-03. 
  203. ^ "This Week's Film Buys". Billboard: 14. 1956-07-28. 
  204. ^ "KTLA Drops 2 TV Music Segs". Billboard: 11. 1956-10-20. 
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  209. ^ "Autry Buys Station For $12 Million". Billboard: 20. 1964-06-06. 
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