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Paris–Nice
Paris-Nice logo.png
Race details
Date March
Region France
Nickname(s) The race to the sun
Discipline Road race
Type Stage race
Organiser ASO
Race director Christian Prudhomme
History
First edition 1933
Editions 68 (as of 2010)
First winner  Alphonse Schepers (BEL)
Most wins  Seán Kelly (IRL) (7 times)
Most recent  Alberto Contador (ESP)
Alberto Contador at the 2007 P-N

Paris–Nice, "the race to the sun", is a professional cycling stage race held each March.

The first Paris–Nice was in 1933 when the winner was Alfons Schepers from Belgium. The most successful cyclist in Paris–Nice was Seán Kelly from Ireland. He won seven consecutive titles (1982-1988).

Although the name is Paris–Nice, the race does not always start in Paris. It often starts in towns near or south of Paris. The last stage finishes every year on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice. The last or penultimate stage often passes the Col d'Eze, a mountain pass close to Nice.

During the 2003 race, Kazakhstan's Andrei Kivilev died due to head injury sustained in an accident. His death prompted the UCI to mandate the use of helmets in all competition, except for the last part of a race with an uphill finish. Subsequently, the rule was changed to require helmets at all times.

Paris–Nice is organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO). ASO also organizes other cycling races like the Tour de France and Paris-Roubaix and other sport events like Paris-Dakar and the Paris Marathon.

Paris–Nice has changed hands several times. It was run by the French cycling journalist Jean Leulliot and then, when he died, by his family. It was then taken over by the Tour de France winner, Laurent Fignon before it was passed to ASO. Since 2009, it has been one of the 24 races on the UCI's World Calendar, contributing towards the UCI World Ranking.


Contents

History

Albert Lucas in the early 1930s, created a cycling event to promote the two newspapers he ran Le Petit Journal and Le Petit Nice. The first is based in Paris, the second in Nice. In 1933, he created a stage race between these two cities. It takes place in March at the end of winter in the wake of the cycling season on track in which races six days are valued at the time. Lasting six days, the race is called "Six Days of the Route. The race must allow riders to race again on the road. Therefore, the route avoids the Alps and follows the valley of the Rhone. Only the hinterland Nicoya presents some difficulty. Seven editions were held until 1939. The Republican newspapers Lyon and Marseille are partners Matin newspaper Lejeune in organizing the race. In 1939, the organizers Ce Soir and Le Petit Nice, received support from L'Auto. In 1940, the Second World War prevented the holding of the race.

The newspaper Ce Soir organized the race in 1946. Despite the satisfaction of its journalists Georges Pagnoud and Francis Terbeen, it did not prolong the operation.

In 1951, the race was organized under the name "Paris-Côte d'Azur" by the magazine Road & Track, on the initiative of Jean Medecin, mayor of Nice, which aims to promote the Cote d'Azur. Ele is the name of Paris-Nice in 1954. During this period she went from the status of race preparation and training than a full race. In 1957, Jean Leulliot, race director since 1951, leaving Route and track which he is editor in chief. He becomes the organizer of the Paris-Nice via the World Society Six [1].

In 1959, the race is run on a course-Nice Paris-Rome in 1959 and gave rise to three classifications: one between Paris and Nice, a second between Nice and Rome, and a third summing the two. Faced with criticism of the length of the race (1 955 km), the formula was abandoned.

In 1966, the race was the scene of rivalry Raymond Poulidor-Jacques Anquetil who divides France.

From 1969, the finish was at the top of the Col d'Eze (today, the finish was on the Promenade of the English in Nice).

Leulliot Jean died in 1982. Her daughter Josette succeeded him as head of the World Society Six.

In 1988, the Irishman Sean Kelly wins for the seventh time in seven years (he still holds the record for wins).

In 2000, former cyclist Laurent Fignon became organizer of the event. In 2002, he sold the Paris-Nice in the company organizing the Tour de France (ASO).

In 2003, the race is marked by the death of Kazakh rider Andrei Kivilev, following a fall at the second stage, arriving at Saint-Etienne. Kivilev was not wearing a helmet. He died in the night and the next day, the entire peloton agreed to neutralize the third step, run at an extremely slow pace and without any breakaway attempts. The race resumed its normal appearance at the fourth step arriving at Mont Faron, which saw the victory of compatriot Kivilev, Alexandre Vinokourov, solo, brandishing a picture of his deceased friend via the line.

Before it's departure, the 2008 edition of the race was marked by controversy from the race organizer ASO, and the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). On March 7, 2008, two days before departure, Pat McQuaid (UCI president) announces that the teams will start the race will be excluded from the Union Cycliste Internationale. [2] The same day the association of Teams (AIGCP) majority vote (15 votes for and 8 abstention) in favor of participation in the race. The Court of Arbitration for Sport, which had been seized by the grouping of ProTour teams, meanwhile, declared itself incompetent to judge the legality of any penalties that may be taken against riders or teams.

Jerseys

The overall leader wears a yellow jersey since 2008. At the creation of the race in 1933, the jersey was blue and gold. Those colors evoke the Mediterranean and the sun and remain until 1939. In 1946, the jersey was green. In 1951, the organization opted for a yellow jersey with orange piping. It takes then takes the color white in 1955. This color is that of the overall leader until 2001. In 2002, following the redemption of the race by Amaury Sport Organization, organizer of the Tour de France, the jersey was yellow and white until 2007.

The leader of the points classification green jersey is one. It was already the case in creating this ranking in 1954. The jersey then rose for several years until 1984. The points classification disappears for up to 1996. Until 1999, it took the yellow sponsor Beghin-Say. It then becomes pink and purple in 2000 and 2001. As the jersey of overall leader, it changed color in 2002 and became green and white until 2006.

The distinctive jersey classification of the mountain is white polka dot red, like the Tour de France since the takeover by ASO in 2002. This classification was introduced in 1952. The jersey color has changed several times. During the 1970s, it was yellow and red. It was then white and purple. In 1984 the jersey became yellow and blue, the colors of the sponsor Crédit Lyonnais. It was blue in the following year. Agrigel became sponsor in 1990 and changed the colors to yellow and blue.

The jersey of young riders classification is white, since 2007. The jersey was blue and white from 2002 to 2006.

Starts

Paris was the city that the Paris-Nice started in until 1962. From 1963 and up, the race started from a different city almost every year. A total of 22 cities have hosted the start of Paris-Nice since that date. Most of them are located in Ile-de-France. Among these, Issy-les-Moulineaux city was held the start of the Paris-Nice nine times (1980, 1983, 1984 and 2002 to 2007) and Fontenay-sous-Bois six times (1975 and 1991 to 1995). The start of the race returned to Paris in 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990 and 2000. In 1982, the start was given Luingne Belgium (province of Hainaut). Four other cities outside the Paris region have welcomed the start: Villefranche-sur-Saone in 1988, Chateauroux in 1996, Nevers in 2001, and in 2008, Amilly.

Arrival

The arrival of Paris-Nice was located in Nice from 1933 to 1968, first on the Quai des USA until 1939, then the Parkway English from 1946 to 1968 . From 1968 to 1995, the race was completed in Col d'Eze. Only the 1977 edition returns to Nice due to landslides making the pass road impassable. The five arrived at the neck give rise to a duel between Eddy Merckx and Raymond Poulidor. The first three turned to the advantage of Merckx, the two following allow Poulidor to seize first place. It also beats the record for the ascent in 1972, 20 minutes and 4 seconds. The Dutch Joop Zoetemelk wins three times the neck of victory from 1973 to 1975, adding the final victory in 1974 and 1975. He repeats the feat in 1979, a year after his compatriot Gerrie Knetemann has done the same. The Irish rider won nine times the stage during the 1980s. From 1982 to 1988, the Irish Sean Kelly won seven times Paris-Nice, winning five of the Col d'Eze. He beat the record Poulidor in 1986. Stephen Roche, winner already in 1981, won the stage in 1985, 1987 and 1989. Four of the six recent arrivals to the neck are winning the winner of Paris-Nice: Tony Rominger in 1991 and 1994, Jean-François Bernard in 1992, Alex Zülle in 1993. During the last arrival, Vladislav Bobrik anticipates Laurent Jalabert.

In 1996, the arrival back on the promenade of the English because of the low number of spectators moving Col d'Eze and large budget available to the city of Nice. In 1996 and 1997, the last step is a cons-trial run in Nice, won by Chris Boardman and Viatcheslav Ekimov. From 1998, the last step is disputed online, starting and arriving in Nice. From 1998 to 2002, steps end with a sprint finish. The Belgian Tom Steels needed twice. In 2003, the winner David Bernabeu escaped, was downgraded to doping. Since 2005, the last stage has a mountain path, through the cervix Gateway La Turbie and the Col d'Eze. In 2007, Alberto Contador took first place at Davide Rebellin by attacking on the climb of Eze.

Stage Finishes

Nice is the city that hosted the most stage finishes: 68 in 67 editions. Only the 1991 edition does not present arrival in Nice. Saint-Etienne has been a stage town 58 times. She has been without interruption from 1935 to 1939 and from 1953 to 1995. Col d'Eze saw 29 departures. Followed Nevers (20 arrivals, particularly during the years 1930, 1950 and 1990), Mandelieu (17 from 1979 to 1995, including 3 Col du Grand Duke), Vergèze (15 ) Cannes (14), Marseille (13), Montceau-les-Mines (12 from 1960 to 1966), Manosque (10).

While the mountains are avoided in the creation of Paris-Nice, the ribs are then more importance in the race. In addition to the Col d'Eze, which becomes the place of arrival from 1969 to 1995, the number of steps ending with a growing rise in the 1980s. The Mount Faron, introduced in 1968, is a place stage finish in 1974, 1975, from 1986 to 1992 and 2002, 2003 and 2005, as the Chalet-Reynard on the [[Mount Ventoux] ] in 1984, 1986 and 1987 and the Col du Grand Duke in Mandelieu la Napoule from 1991 to 1993. The 1986 edition presents and three mountain finishes. The Mont Serein in 2008 and Lure mountain in 2009 are the last two climbs which made their final appearance on the route Paris-Nice. The Lure mountain had never been taken by an international race

Winners

Rider Team
1933 Belgium Schepers, AlphonseAlphonse Schepers (BEL) La Francaise
1934 Belgium Rebry, GastonGaston Rebry (BEL) Alycon
1935 France Vietto, ReneRené Vietto (FRA)
1936 France Archambaud, MauriceMaurice Archambaud (FRA) Mercier-Hutchinson
1937 France Lapebie, RogerRoger Lapébie (FRA) Mercier-Hutchinson
1938 Belgium Lowie, JulesJules Lowie (BEL) Pélissier-Mercier-Hutchinson
1939 France Archambaud, MauriceMaurice Archambaud (FRA) Mercier-Hutchinson
1946 Italy Camellini, FermoFermo Camellini (ITA) Olmo
1951 Belgium Decock, RogerRoger Decock (BEL) Bertin
1952 France Bobet, LouisonLouison Bobet (FRA) Stella-Huret
1953 France Munch, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Munch (FRA) Arliguie-Hutchinson
1954 Belgium Impanis, RaymondRaymond Impanis (BEL) Mercier-BP-Hutchinson
1955 France Bobet, JeanJean Bobet (FRA) L.Bobet-BP-Hutchinson
1956 Belgium Bruyne, Fred DeFred De Bruyne (BEL) Mercier-BP-Hutchinson
1957 France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) Helyett
1958 Belgium Bruyne, Fred DeFred De Bruyne (BEL) Carpano
1959 France Graczyck, JeanJean Graczyck (FRA) Helyett
1960 Belgium Impanis, RaymondRaymond Impanis (BEL) Faema
1961 France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) Helyett-Fynsec
1962 Belgium Planckaert, JosephJoseph Planckaert (BEL) Flandria-Faema
1963 France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) St.Raphael-Gitane
1964 Netherlands Janssen, JanJan Janssen (NED) Pelforth-Sauvage
1965 France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) Ford-Gitane
1966 France Anquetil, JacquesJacques Anquetil (FRA) Ford-Hutchinson
1967 United Kingdom Simpson, TomTom Simpson (GBR) Peugeot-BP-Michelin
1968 Germany Wolfshohl, RolfRolf Wolfshohl (GER) Bic
1969 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Faema
1970 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Faemino
1971 Belgium Merckx, EddyEddy Merckx (BEL) Molteni
1972 France Poulidor, RaymondRaymond Poulidor (FRA) Gan-Mercier-Hutchinson
1973 France Poulidor, RaymondRaymond Poulidor (FRA) Gan-Mercier-Hutchinson
1974 Netherlands Zoetemelk, JoopJoop Zoetemelk (NED) Gan-Mercier-Hutchinson
1975 Netherlands Zoetemelk, JoopJoop Zoetemelk (NED) Gan-Mercier-Hutchinson
1976 France Laurent, MichelMichel Laurent (FRA) Miko-De Gribaldy
1977 Belgium Maertens, FreddyFreddy Maertens (BEL) Flandria-Velda
1978 Netherlands Knetemann, GerrieGerrie Knetemann (NED) TI-Raleigh
1979 Netherlands Zoetemelk, JoopJoop Zoetemelk (NED) Miko-Mercier
1980 France Duclos-Lassalle, GilbertGilbert Duclos-Lassalle (FRA) Peugeot-Esso-Michelin
1981 Republic of Ireland Roche, StephenStephen Roche (IRL) Peugeot-Esso-Michelin
1982 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Sem-France Loire
1983 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Sem-France Loire
1984 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Skil-Sem-Reydel
1985 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Skil-Sem-Reydel
1986 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Kas-Mavic
1987 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Kas
1988 Republic of Ireland Kelly, SeanSean Kelly (IRL) Kas-Mavic
1989 Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain (ESP) Reynolds
1990 Spain Indurain, MiguelMiguel Indurain (ESP) Banesto
1991 Switzerland Rominger, TonyTony Rominger (SUI) Toshiba
1992 France Bernard, Jean-FrancoisJean-Francois Bernard (FRA) Banesto
1993 Switzerland Zulle, AlexAlex Zülle (SUI) ONCE
1994 Switzerland Rominger, TonyTony Rominger (SUI) Mapei-Clas
1995 France Jalabert, LaurentLaurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE
1996 France Jalabert, LaurentLaurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE
1997 France Jalabert, LaurentLaurent Jalabert (FRA) ONCE
1998 Belgium Vandenbroucke, FrankFrank Vandenbroucke (BEL) Mapei-Bricobi
1999 Netherlands Boogerd, MichaelMichael Boogerd (NED) Rabobank
2000 Germany Kloden, AndreasAndreas Klöden (GER) Team Telekom
2001 Italy Frigo, DarioDario Frigo (ITA) Fassa Bortolo
2002 Kazakhstan Vinokourov, AlexandreAlexandre Vinokourov (KAZ) Team Telekom
2003 Kazakhstan Vinokourov, AlexandreAlexandre Vinokourov (KAZ) Team Telekom
2004 Germany Jaksche, JorgJörg Jaksche (GER) Team CSC
2005 United States Julich, BobbyBobby Julich (USA) Team CSC
2006 United States Landis, FloydFloyd Landis (USA) Phonak
2007 Spain Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador (ESP) Discovery Channel
2008 Italy Rebellin, DavideDavide Rebellin (ITA) Gerolsteiner
2009 Spain Sanchez, Luis LeonLuis León Sánchez (ESP) Caisse d'Epargne
2010 Spain Contador, AlbertoAlberto Contador (ESP) Astana

References

External links

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