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For other uses of the term in other fields, see parity.

In medicine, parity is a technical term that refers to the number of times a woman or female animal has given birth. A woman who has given birth a particular number of times is referred to as para 0, para 1, para 2, para 3 and so on.

  • A woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks is referred to as being nulliparous, a nullipara or para 0. [1]
  • A woman in her first pregnancy can also be referred to as being primipara which can be shortened to primip.
  • Biparous or bipara are sometimes used as synonyms for para 2.
  • A woman who has given birth two or more times is referred to as multiparous or just as a multip. The term multiparous can also describe a birth of more than one offspring at once, in contrast to a uniparous birth of one offspring.
  • Grand multipara refers to a (grand multiparous) woman who has given birth five or more times.

Parity is recorded in the format, T-P-A-L:

is the number of term births (twins and other multiple births count as 1)
is the number preterm births (twins and other multiple births count as 1)
is the number of abortions (spontaneous or induced)
is the number of living children.

For example, parity of a woman who has given birth at term once and has had one miscarriage would be recorded as P 1-0-1-1. This notation is not standardized and can lead to misinterpretations. [1]

Term births are those occurring at 37 weeks or beyond. Preterm births are those that occur before 37 weeks.


  1. ^ a b F. Gary Cunningham, 2005. Williams Obstetrics, 22nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies.

See also


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