Parkinson's disease: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

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Parkinson's disease
Classification and external resources

Illustration of the Parkinson disease by Sir William Richard Gowers from A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System in 1886
ICD-10 G20., F02.3
ICD-9 332
DiseasesDB 9651
MedlinePlus 000755
eMedicine neuro/304 neuro/635 in young
pmr/99 rehab
.Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.^ Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or PD ) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills , speech, and other functions.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson 's disease (a slowly progressing disease of the nervous system ca...
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson 's disease is a disorder that affects the central nervous system and motor skills.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders.^ There are other disorders that are called Parkinson-Plus diseases .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson 's disease is a difficult condition to diagnose.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson 's disease is a challenging and progressive condition.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is characterized by muscle rigidity, tremor, a slowing of physical movement (bradykinesia) and a loss of physical movement (akinesia) in extreme cases.^ Parkinsonism refers to all clinical states characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, and slowed movement (bradykinesia).
  • Parkinson Disease Overview -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Muscles may become rigid ( akinesia ).
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigidity and slowness of movement improve the most, but tremor also diminishes noticeably.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC maldeparkinson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine, which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain.^ The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia , normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine , which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally, these neurons produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine ,which is produced in the dopaminergic neurons of the brain.
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

.Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems.^ Secondary symptoms may include high level cognitive dysfunction and subtle language problems.
  • About: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Parkinson%27s_disease 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC dbpedia.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Method and composition for the treatment of parkinson's disease 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease - Health Web 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary symptoms of PD include Depression.
  • Senior and Older Adult Health Issues: Alzheimer's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional symptoms may include: .
  • FCA: Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.caregiver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.PD is both chronic and progressive.^ Parkinson's is both chronic and progressive.
  • Parkinson's - Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC apps.ashland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson\'s disease is both chronic and progressive.
  • Method and composition for the treatment of parkinson's disease 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease is both chronic and progressive.
  • H. Lundbeck A/S - Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lundbeck.com [Source type: Academic]

.PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive parkinsonism, a term which refers to the syndrome of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.^ The most common of these are motor freezing and postural instability with falls.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinsonism causes the same symptoms as Parkinson's disease (eg, resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability (see above).
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement and Cerebellar Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (Gelb et al.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.PD is also called "primary parkinsonism" or "idiopathic PD" (classically meaning having no known cause although this term is not strictly true in light of the plethora of newly discovered genetic mutations).^ (Idiopathic is the term for a disorder for which no cause has yet been identified).

^ This term distinguishes the primary disease from parkinsonism , which are the symptoms occurring from a known cause.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PARKINSON DISEASE CAUSE — The cause of Parkinson disease is not known.
  • Parkinson disease symptoms and diagnosis 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.While many forms of parkinsonism are "idiopathic", "secondary" cases may result from toxicity most notably of drugs, head trauma, or other medical disorders.^ Other substances may also interact with Parkinson's drugs.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease | ThirdAge Articles 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.thirdage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While most forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic, there are some cases where the symptoms may result from toxicity, drugs, genetic mutation, head trauma, or other medical disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease - Health Web 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.moonlightchest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinsonism may be caused by other disorders (such as secondary parkinsonism ) or certain medications.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Parkinson's Disease - NY Times Health Information 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Parkinson's Disease - NY Times Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease Medical Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Parkinson’s disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson’s disease - Lifespan 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lifespan.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson’s disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson’s disease - Shands Healthcare 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC shands.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease - Movement Disorders Center - Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.wfubmc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson’s disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The disease is named after English apothecary James Parkinson, who made a detailed description of the disease in his essay: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817).^ The disease is named after English apothecary James Parkinson , who made a detailed description of the disease in his essay: "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" (1817).
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^ However, the first systematic description of Parkinson's Disease is usually attributed to James Parkinson in 1817.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Who gets Parkinson's disease?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Classification

.The term Parkinsonism is used for symptoms of tremor, stiffness, and slowing of movement caused by loss of dopamine.^ The tremors caused by Parkinson's actually LIMIT movement.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ There are many other causes of parkinsonism, which is a group of symptoms that includes tremor, muscle stiffness, slow movement, and unsteady walking.
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Parkinsonism is used for symptoms of tremor, stiffness, and slowing of movement caused by loss of dopamine .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

."Parkinson's disease" is the synonym of "primary parkinsonism", i.e., isolated parkinsonism due to a neurodegenerative process without any secondary systemic cause.^ The primary symptoms of Parkinson's Disease are due to excessive muscle contraction.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Toxic causes of Parkinson's Disease .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What causes Parkinson's disease?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, it would be inaccurate to say that the cause is "unknown", because a small proportion is caused by genetic mutations.^ In some cases, it would be inaccurate to say that the cause is "unknown", because a small proportion is caused by genetic mutations.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ In recent years a number of specific genetic mutations causing Parkinson's disease have been discovered, including in certain populations ( Contursi , Italy).
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^ Most of the literature still says only a small percentage is genetic, but research is leaning in the direction of a larger percentage being caused by genetics.
  • Renegade Neurologist [Archive] - BrainTalk Communities 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC brain.hastypastry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible for a patient to be initially diagnosed with Parkinson's disease but then to develop additional features, requiring revision of the diagnosis.^ How is Parkinson's Disease diagnosed ?
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ List of famous Parkinson's disease patients .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His startling diagnosis: Parkinson's disease.
  • Are Pesticides Causing Parkinson's Disease? | Environment | AlterNet 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]
  • The Universal Seduction: Are Pesticides Causing Parkinson's Disease? 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC theuniversalseduction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Are Pesticides Causing Parkinson's Disease? | Environment | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[2]
.There are other disorders that are called Parkinson-plus diseases.^ There are other disorders that are called Parkinson-Plus diseases .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease Geriatrics 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease and other extrapyramidal disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Is Victory in Sight? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC vvv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other treatments for Parkinson's disease .
  • Parkinson's Disease | Health | Patient UK 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include: multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD).^ Progressive supranuclear palsy.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Corticobasal degeneration (CBD), essential tremor .
  • Parkinson Disease Overview -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Parkinson's-plus" — a group of diseases that includes corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and multiple system atrophy.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some include dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) — while idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients also have Lewy bodies in their brain tissue, the distribution is denser and more widespread in DLB. Even so, the relationship between Parkinson disease, Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) might be most accurately conceptualized as a spectrum, with a discrete area of overlap between each of the three disorders.^ Patients with parkinsonism (as opposed to idiopathic Parkinson's disease).

^ Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

^ [Levodopa-induced psychosis in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease].
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

The cholinesterase inhibiting medications have shown preliminary efficacy in treating the cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral aspects of the disease of both PD and DLB. .The natural history and role of Lewy bodies is little understood.^ The natural history and role of Lewy bodies is very little understood.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease Geriatrics 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers do not yet know why Lewy bodies form or what role they play in development of the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, Lewy bodies in human postmortem tissue immunostained for molecular chaperones, also suggesting that chaperones may play a role in Parkinson's disease progression.

.These Parkinson-plus diseases may progress more quickly than typical idiopathic Parkinson disease.^ As the disease progresses, walking may be affected.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Symptoms of Parkinson's 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.pdcaregiver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memory problems in Parkinson's are typically milder than in Alzheimer's disease.
  • FCA: Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.caregiver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patients with parkinsonism (as opposed to idiopathic Parkinson's disease).

.If cognitive dysfunction occurs before or very early in the course of the movement disorder, then DLBD may be suspected.^ If cognitive dysfunction occurs before or very early in the course of the movement disorder then DLBD may be suspected.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Cognitive problems also occur early in the course of the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's may be suspected in patients with the following symptoms: • Slowness and difficulty of movement.

Early postural instability with minimal tremor, especially in the context of ophthalmoparesis, should suggest PSP. Early autonomic dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and syncope, may suggest MSA. The presence of extreme asymmetry with patchy cortical cognitive defects such as dysphasia and apraxias (especially with "alien limb" phenomena) should suggest CBD.
.The usual anti-Parkinson's medications are typically either less effective or completely ineffective in controlling symptoms; patients may be exquisitely sensitive to neuroleptic medications like haloperidol, so correct differential diagnosis is important.^ PSP symptoms usually do not respond to medication.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many medical conditions may cause symptoms of Parkinson's disease: .
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Essential tremor may be mistaken for Parkinson's disease, but lacks all other features besides tremor, and has particular characteristics distinguishing it from Parkinson's disease, such as improvement with beta blockers and alcoholic beverages.^ Essential tremor may be mistaken for Parkinson's disease but lacks all other features besides tremor, and has particular characteristics distinguishing it from Parkinson's, such as improvement with beta blockers and alcoholic beverages .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease is found all over the world.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with essential tremor have no other parkinsonian features.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.Wilson's disease (hereditary copper accumulation) may present with parkinsonian features; young patients presenting with parkinsonism or any other movement disorder are frequently screened for this rare condition, because it may respond to medical treatment.^ Treatment for Parkinson's disease may include the following: .

^ Wilson's disease (hereditary copper accumulation) may present with parkinsonistic features; young patients presenting with parkinsonism or any other movement disorder must be screened for this rare yet eminently treatable condition by checking liver function, the iris for copper deposits and serum ceruloplasmin levels.

^ Young adults very rarely experience Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Typical tests are liver function, slit lamp examination for Kayser-Fleischer rings, and serum ceruloplasmin levels.^ Typical tests are liver function , slit lamp examination for Kayser-Fleischer rings , and serum ceruloplasmin levels.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ For instance, blood tests may be done to check for abnormal thyroid hormone levels or liver damage.
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^ If your symptoms and the doctor's findings during the examination are not entirely typical of Parkinson's disease, certain tests may be done to help diagnose other conditions with similar symptoms .
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Signs and symptoms

.Parkinson's disease affects movement, producing motor symptoms.^ Parkinson's disease and movement disorders.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
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[1] .Non-motor symptoms, which include autonomic dysfunction, cognitive and neurobehavioral problems, and sensory and sleep difficulties, are also common but are under-appreciated.^ Other motor symptoms include: .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common symptoms include: .
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^ Most common mood difficulties include: [ 1 ] .
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[1]

Motor

.Four motor symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.^ Treatment of non-motor PD symptoms .
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The four primary symptoms of PD are: .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Four symptoms are considered cardinal in PD: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.
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[1] .Tremor is the most apparent and well-known symptom.^ This is the most apparent and well-known symptom.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ While most forms of parkinsonism are idiopathic, there are some cases where the cause is known or suspected or where the symptoms result from another disorder.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the most apparent and well-known symptom, though an estimated 30% of patients have little perceptible tremor; these are classified as akinetic-rigid.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .It is most commonly a rest tremor: maximal when the limb is at rest and disappearing with voluntary movement and sleep.^ Motor symptoms The cardinal symptoms are: tremor: normally 4-7Hz tremor, maximal when the limb is at rest, and decreased with voluntary movement.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ The tremor happens when the limb is inactive--at rest.
  • Renegade Neurologist [Archive] - BrainTalk Communities 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC brain.hastypastry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When movement is initiated, the tremor disappears.
  • Renegade Neurologist [Archive] - BrainTalk Communities 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC brain.hastypastry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .It affects to a greater extent the most distal part of the extremity and is typically unilateral at onset.^ It is typically unilateral at onset.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ PD is usually most apparent when the affected part is at rest.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Though around 30% of PD sufferers do not have tremor at disease onset most of them would develop it along the course of the disease.^ Though around 30% of PD sufferers do not have tremor at disease onset most of them would develop it along the course of the disease.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fox, who suffers from Parkinsons disease, appears visibly racked by tremors in the ads.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common cause of non-Parkinson's tremor is essential tremor , a treatable condition that is often wrongly diagnosed as Parkinson's disease.
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[1] .Rigidity is due to joint stiffness and increased muscle tone, which combined with a resting tremor produce a ratchety, "cogwheel rigidity" when the limb is passively moved.^ People with PD often experience tremors, an increase in their muscle tone, called rigidity, and move ...
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In combination with a resting tremor, this produces a ratchety, " cogwheel " rigidity when the limb is passively moved.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In combination with a resting tremor, this produces a ratchety, " cogwheel rigidity" when the limb is passively moved.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Rigidity may be associated with joint pain, such pain being a frequent initial manifestation of the disease.^ Rasagiline (Azilect), another MAO-B inhibitor, was approved in May 2006 for the initial treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An over-responsive immune system triggered by initial damage may also play a role in perpetuating Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We conclude that intrastriatal L-dopa delivery may be a viable strategy for treatment and control of adverse side effects associated with oral L-dopa therapy such as on-off fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease.

[1] .Bradykinesia (slowness of movement) is the most characteristic clinical feature of PD and it produces difficulties not only with the execution of a movement but also with its planning and initiation.^ Slowness and difficulty of movement.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ One of the symptoms of PD is an inability to control movement, which leads to slowness, stiffness and involuntary shaking of hands, legs and head.
  • New once daily tablet for Parkinson's disease launched - News Press Release | PharmiWeb.com 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.pharmiweb.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chen-Plotkin responds: The cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's Disease are tremor, rigidity (stiffness), bradykinesia (slowness in movements) and problems with balance.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] The performance of sequential and simultaneous movements is also hindered.[1] .In the late stages of the disease postural instability is typical, which leads to impaired balance and falls.^ Postural instability, or impaired balance, causes patients to fall easily.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Postural instability : failure of postural reflexes , along other disease related factors such as orthostatic hypotension or cognitive and sensory changes, which lead to impaired balance and falls.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are not as effective against bradykinesia and posture problems and may increase the risk for dementia in late stages.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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[1]
.PD motor symptomatology is not limited to these four symptoms.^ The four primary symptoms of PD are: .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors may prescribe a variety of medications to treat the non-motor symptoms of PD, such as depression and anxiety.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It usually appears in the late stages of PD. [ 1 ] Other motor symptoms include: .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gait and posture disturbances such as decreased arm swing, a forward-flexed posture and the use of small steps when walking; speech and swallowing disturbances; and other symptoms such as a mask-like face expression or a small handwriting are only examples of the ample range of common motor problems that can appear with the disease.^ The only problem is the PD symptoms have worstened and I feel like hell.
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^ Difficulty with walking (gait disturbance) and balance (postural instability).
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^ Other motor symptoms include: .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Neuropsychiatric

Example of reported prevalences of mood problems in PD patients with dementia[1][3]
Mood problem Prevalence
Depression  58%
Apathy  54%
Anxiety  49%
.Parkinson's disease causes neuropsychiatric disturbances, which include mainly cognition, mood and behavior problems and can be as disabling as motor symptoms.^ Parkinson's disease causes a wide range of symptoms and complications.
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^ What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
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^ The symptoms of Parkinson's disease change as the disease progresses.
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[1]
.Cognitive disturbances occur even in the initial stages of the disease in some cases.^ In some cases, Parkinson's disease occurs in families.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most instances of Parkinson's disease occur after age 50, although the illness does occur in people between the ages of 30 and 50, or in rare cases at a younger age.
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^ Side effects, including nausea, dizziness, hallucinations and cognitive effects, tend to occur most commonly during the first few weeks after initiation of a dopamine agonist.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .A very high proportion of sufferers will have mild cognitive impairment as the disease advances.^ Most sufferers will have mild cognitive impairment as the disease advances.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease suffer not only from classic motor symptoms, but from deficits in cognitive function, primarily those subserved by the prefrontal cortex as well.

^ Dopamine agonists are particularly well suited for patients with newly diagnosed tremor-predominant disease and no cognitive impairment, but they are also useful in advanced patients with tremor that is refractory to levodopa and anticholinergics.

[1] .Most common cognitive deficits in non-demented patients are executive dysfunction, which translates into impaired set shifting, poor problem solving, and fluctuations in attention among other difficulties; Slowed cognitive speed, memory problems; specifically in recalling learned information, with an important improvement with cues; and visuospatial skills difficulties, which are seen when the person with PD is for example asked to perform tests of facial recognition and perception of line orientation.^ Urinary incontinence, memory or cognitive problems .
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dementia or other cognitive problems.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These effects extended to higher level cognitive function: tonic DA stimulation led to more overall working memory updating and concomitant distractibility, whereas enhanced phasic DA release led to greater selective updating for task-relevant (i.e., ``positively-valenced'') information, but difficulty in ignoring this information in a subsequent set-shift.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.Deficits tend to aggravate with time, developing in many cases into dementia.^ In any case, there is nothing to say that many things aren't going on at the same time.
  • Renegade Neurologist [Archive] - BrainTalk Communities 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC brain.hastypastry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Divide actions into separate events, which may prevent freezing that occurs from trying to coordinate too many physical operations at one time.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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.A person with PD has a six-fold increased risk of suffering it,[1] and the overall rate in people with the disease is around 30%.^ Regarding dementia; a person with PD has a six times increased risk of suffering it.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This could help doctors identify people at risk of the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with PD often experience tremors, an increase in their muscle tone, called rigidity, and move ...
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Moreover, prevalence of dementia increases in relation to disease duration, going up to 80%.^ Variations in the prevalence of the disease in individual racial groups in different geographic areas have suggested an increased risk associated with rural living.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no other studies have so far shown an increased prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Gulf War veterans either.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Costs go down and therefore it is more profitable to cut the price (increased sales more than make up for the cut in price).
  • Obama to Declare Carbon Dioxide Dangerous Pollutant « Watts Up With That? 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Dementia has been associated with a reduced quality of life in disease sufferers and caregivers, increased mortality and a higher probability of attending a nursing home.^ "Mortality in Parkinson's disease and its association with dementia and depression" .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Mortality and hallucinations in nursing home patients with advanced Parkinson's disease".
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mortality and hallucinations in nursing home patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.Cognitive problems and dementia are usually accompanied by behavior and mood alterations, although these kind of changes are also more common in those patients without cognitive impairment than in the general population.^ Involuntary movements, cognitive or behavioral problems .
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dementia and paranoia are more common than previously understood.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Dementia or other cognitive problems.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most frequent mood difficulties include depression, apathy and anxiety.^ Most common mood difficulties include: [ 1 ] .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Apathy [ 1 ] Anxiety: [ 1 ] Seventy percent of individuals with Parkinson's disease diagnosed with pre-existing depression go on to develop anxiety.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PSP patients often show alterations of mood and behavior, including depression and apathy as well as mild dementia.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Obsessive–compulsive behaviors such as craving, binge eating, hypersexuality, pathological gambling, or other, can also appear in PD, and have been related to a dopamine dysregulation syndrome associated with the medications for the disease.^ Obsessive–compulsive behaviors such as craving , binge eating , hypersexuality , pathological gambling , or other, can also appear in PD, and have been related to a dopamine dysregulation syndrome associated with the medications for the disease.
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^ Factors associated with dopaminergic drug-related pathological gambling in Parkinson disease.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathologic gambling in Parkinson's disease: a behavioral manifestation of pharmacologic treatment?
  • love and casino war poker blog: drug causes compulsive gambling 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC loveandcasinowar.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Other

.In addition to cognitive and motor symptoms PD can impair other body functions.^ Other motor symptoms include: .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dysarthria [ 1 ] Other motor symptoms: Fatigue Hypomimia : [ 1 ] a mask-like face Difficulty rolling in bed or rising from a seated position.
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^ Other motor symptoms include: Gait and posture disturbances: Shuffling: gait is characterized by short steps, with feet barely leaving the ground, producing an audible shuffling noise.
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.Sleep problems can be worsened by medications for PD, but they are a core feature of the disease.^ Sleep problems can be worsened by medications for PD, but they are a core feature of the disease.
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^ Two new dopamine agonists, pramipexole and ropinirole, have been reported to cause sudden-onset sleep spells in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) while they were driving.

^ However, the agent may worsen orthostatic hypotension, which may be a side effect of some of the PD medications.

[1] .They can manifest as excessive daytime somnolence, disturbances in REM sleep or insomnia.^ Excessive daytime somnolence Initial, intermediate, and terminal insomnia Disturbances in REM sleep: disturbingly vivid dreams, and REM Sleep Disorder, characterized by acting out of dream content — can occur years prior to diagnosis [ edit ] Perception .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Excessive daytime somnolence; Initial, intermediate, and terminal insomnia; Disturbances in REM sleep: disturbingly vivid dreams, and REM Sleep Disorder, characterized by acting out of dream content; Sensation disturbances: .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden-onset sleep as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Inappropriate Sleep Composite Score.

[1] .The autonomic system is altered which can lead for example to orthostatic hypotension, oily skin and seborrheic dermatitis, excessive sweating, urinary incontinence and altered sexual function.^ Orthostatic hypotension [ 1 ] Oily skin and seborrheic dermatitis [ 9 ] Urinary incontinence [ 1 ] (typically in later disease progression) and nocturia (getting up in the night to pass urine) Altered sexual function: [ 1 ] characterized by profound impairment of sexual arousal, behavior, orgasm, and drive is found in mid and late Parkinson disease.
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^ Problems with involuntary or automatic body functions, such as increased sweating, low blood pressure when the person stands up (orthostatic hypotension), and problems with sexual function .
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^ Early dementia, orthostatic hypotension (or other signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction), a wide-based gait, axial rigidity or lack of response to levodopa indicates that one of these other conditions may be present.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Constipation and gastric dysmotility can be severe enough to endanger comfort and health.^ Parkinson' disease causes constipation and gastric dysmotility that is severe enough to endanger comfort and even health.
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[5] .PD is also related to different ophthalmological abnormalities such as decreased blink rate and alteration in the tear film, leading to irritation of the eye surface, abnormalities in ocular pursuit and saccadic movements and limitations in the upward gaze.^ Decreased blink rate [ 1 ] Irritation of the eye surface [ 1 ] Alteration in the tear film [ 1 ] Visual hallucinations [ 1 ] Decreased eye convergence [ 1 ] Blepharospasm [ 1 ] Abnormalities in ocular pursuit and saccadic movements [ 1 ] Difficulties to open the eye-lids [ 1 ] Limitations in the upward gaze [ 1 ] [ edit ] Causes .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PD is related to different ophthalmological abnormalities produced by the neurological changes.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally spontaneous muscle movements, such as blinking, may need to be done consciously.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] Changes in perception include reduced sense of smell and sensation of pain and paresthesias.[1]

Causes

.Most people with Parkinson's disease are described as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).^ Patients with parkinsonism (as opposed to idiopathic Parkinson's disease).

^ There is no known way to prevent Parkinson's disease .
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toluene is a solvent that has been shown to cause or that has been associated with people with Parkinson's Disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are far less common causes of Parkinson's disease including genetic, toxins, head trauma, cerebral anoxia, and drug-induced Parkinson's disease.^ Toxin-induced parkinsonism .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking drugs for Parkinson's disease .
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dementia is common late in Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Genetic

.Someone who has Parkinson's disease is more likely to have relatives that also have Parkinson's disease.^ Older age made errors more likely in Parkinson's Disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Who gets Parkinson's disease?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Who can diagnose Parkinson's disease?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.However, the inheritance of Parkinson's disease is usually complex and not due to a single gene defect.^ The MRI in Parkinson's disease is usually normal.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson disease susceptibility genes .
  • Parkinson Disease Overview -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic defects are not typical in Parkinson's Disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

.A number of specific genetic mutations causing Parkinson's disease have been discovered.^ Genetic defects are not typical in Parkinson's Disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years a number of specific genetic mutations causing Parkinson's disease have been discovered, including in certain populations ( Contursi , Italy).
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years, a number of specific genetic mutations causing Parkinson's Disease have been discovered, including in certain populations ( Contursi ).
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

Genes identified as of 2008 are Alpha-synuclein (SNCA), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), parkin (PRKN), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 or dardarin) , PINK 1 and DJ-1.[6] With the exception of LRRK2 they account for a small minority of cases of PD.[6]
.The most common known genetic risk factor for Parkinson's is a mutated glucocerebrosidase gene, which is involved in Gaucher's disease; carriers of these mutations have a fivefold risk of developing Parkinson's.^ G2019S is the most common known genetic cause of Parkinson disease, found in 1-6% of U.S. and European PD patients.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent genetic studies in familial Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism have shown several gene mutations.

^ Environmental factors in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[7] .There is also recent evidence that a common gene defect contributes susceptibility to both Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's disease.^ Parkinson disease susceptibility genes .
  • Parkinson Disease Overview -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dementia is common late in Parkinson's disease.
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^ Depression is common in people with Parkinson's disease.
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[8]

Toxins

.One theory holds that many or even most cases of the disease may result from the combination of a genetically determined vulnerability to environmental toxins along with exposure to those toxins.^ Even in familial cases, exposure to toxins or other environmental factors may influence when symptoms of the disease appear or how the disease progresses.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many researchers now believe that PD results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ One theory holds that the disease may result in many or even most cases from the combination of a genetically determined vulnerability to environmental toxins along with exposure to those toxins.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .This hypothesis is consistent with the fact that Parkinson's disease is not distributed homogeneously throughout the population; its incidence varies geographically.^ Incidence of parkinsonism and Parkinson disease in a general population: The Rotterdam Study.
  • NEJM -- Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease vary from patient to patient.

^ The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease in an Australian population.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, it is not consistent with the fact that the first appearance of the syndrome predates the first synthesis of the compounds often attributed to causing Parkinson's disease.^ However, the precise means by which it causes Parkinson's Disease has still not been proven.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Does Parkinson's disease cause dementia?
  • Parkinson's Disease | Health | Patient UK 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What causes Parkinson's disease is unclear.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The toxins most strongly suspected at present are certain pesticides and transition-series metals such as manganese or iron, especially those that generate reactive oxygen species,[10][11] and/or bind to neuromelanin, as originally suggested by G.C. Cotzias.^ The most likely mechanism is generation of reactive oxygen species .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Iron and other transition metals such as copper bind to neuromelanin in the affected neurons of the substantia nigra .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The toxins most strongly suspected at present are certain pesticides and transition-series metals such as manganese or iron, especially those that generate reactive oxygen species , [ 15 ] [ 16 ] and/or bind to neuromelanin , as originally suggested by G.C. Cotzias.
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[12][13]
.In a longitudinal investigation, individuals who were exposed to pesticides had a 70% higher incidence of PD than individuals who were not exposed.^ In the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a longitudinal investigation, individuals who were exposed to pesticides had a 70% higher incidence of PD than individuals who were not exposed.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Patients who have had PD for fewer than 16 years may experience greater benefit from DBS than patients who have had the disease longer.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The trial will enroll patients who have been diagnosed with PD within the last 5 years and who have received levodopa therapy for no more than 2 years.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .Studies have found an increase in PD in individuals who consume rural well water; researchers theorize that water consumption is a proxy measure of pesticide exposure.^ The study demonstrated that consuming well water presumably contaminated with pesticides can increase the likelihood of Parkinson's Disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of Parkinson's disease with exposure to pesticides, farming, well water, and rural living.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of potentially confounding exposures, such as well-water consumption, farming, and rural living, have also been found to be associated with an increased risk of PD in a number of studies.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In agreement with this hypothesis are studies which have found a dose-dependent increase in PD in persons exposed to agricultural chemicals.^ In agreement with this hypothesis are studies which have found a dose-dependent increase in PD in persons exposed to agricultural chemicals.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ In agreement with this hypothesis are studies which have found a dose-dependent an increase in PD in persons exposed to agricultural chemicals.

^ Numerous studies have found an increase in Parkinson disease in persons who consume rural well water; researchers theorize that water consumption is a proxy measure of pesticide exposure.

[citation needed]
.Signs of mercury poisoning share different symptoms with PD such as tremor, psychosis, memory deficits, disturbances in muscle control and coordination,anosmia and failure of autonomic nervous system.^ The PD disease process also appears to impair nerve endings in the heart to cause dysautonomia -- changes in the autonomic (also called sympathetic) nervous system.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Norepinephrine, which is closely related to dopamine, is the main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, the part of the nervous system that controls many automatic functions of the body, such as pulse and blood pressure.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with PD often experience tremors, an increase in their muscle tone, called rigidity, and move ...
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Mercury has been suggested to have a role in the etiology of PD.[16] PD-like mercury poisoning can be treated with chelating agents such as penicillamine.^ The authors have suggested that such chronic exposure may play a role in glaucomatous neuronal loss.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DEP might be a useful therapeutic agent in treating patients with early-stage PD .
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These synergistic effects of combined PQ + MB, preferentially expressed in the nigrostriatal DA system, suggest that such mixtures could play a role in the etiology of PD .
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]

Head trauma

.Head trauma is considered a risk factor for PD since past episodes are reported more frequently by individuals with Parkinson's disease than by others in the population.^ Environmental risk factors in siblings with Parkinson's disease.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pesticides and risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Nevertheless recent primary studies have suggested that head trauma may actually be a result of early symptoms of clumsiness associated with PD,[19] or that there is no true relationship between severe head injury and the disease.^ The authors found no association between PD and alcohol consumption.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be an early marker of the disease.
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^ The four primary symptoms of PD are: .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[20]

Pathophysiology

.
Dopaminergic pathways of the human brain in normal condition (left) and Parkinson's disease (right).
^ The MRI in Parkinson's disease is usually normal.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are his behaviors normal to patients with Parkinson's disease?
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike tremor caused by Parkinson's disease, tremor caused by other conditions gets better when your arm or hand is not moving and gets worse when you try to move it.
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Red Arrows indicate suppression of the target, blue arrows indicate stimulation of target structure.
.The symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the greatly reduced activity of pigmented dopamine-secreting (dopaminergic) cells in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra (literally "black substance").^ "Dopamine agonists and sleep in Parkinson's disease."

^ Parkinson's disease is a chronic condition characterized by cell death of dopaminergic neurons mainly in the substantia nigra.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
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.These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement, in essence an inhibition of the direct pathway and excitation of the indirect pathway.^ Black-staining granules of neuromelanin within neurons of the substantia nigra The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement, in essence an inhibition of the direct pathway and excitation of the indirect pathway .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lack of dopamine results in increased inhibition of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which sends excitatory projections to the motor cortex , thus leading to hypokinesia .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

Black-staining granules of neuromelanin within neurons of the substantia nigra
.The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder.^ Black-staining granules of neuromelanin within neurons of the substantia nigra The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lack of dopamine results in increased inhibition of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which sends excitatory projections to the motor cortex , thus leading to hypokinesia .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement, in essence an inhibition of the direct pathway and excitation of the indirect pathway .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.The lack of dopamine results in increased inhibition of the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, which sends excitatory projections to the motor cortex, thus leading to hypokinesia.^ Evidence suggests that L-DOPA induces increases in dopamine, which then binds to supersensitive dopamine receptors, resulting in dyskinesia.

^ Because Parkinsons disease symptoms are due to a lack of the brain chemical dopamine, the main drug treatments help increase dopamine levels in the brain.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levodopa is better at improving motor problems than dopamine agonists but increases the risk of involuntary movements (dyskinesia).
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are four major dopamine pathways in the brain; the nigrostriatal pathway, referred to above, mediates movement and is the most conspicuously affected in early Parkinson's disease.^ "Dopamine agonists and sleep in Parkinson's disease."

^ Parkinson disease affects movement (motor symptoms).
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological disease that affects movement.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC maldeparkinson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The other pathways are the mesocortical, the mesolimbic, and the tuberoinfundibular.^ The other pathways are the mesocortical, the mesolimbic, and the tuberoinfundibular.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Parkinson's Disease Support Group - DailyStrength 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disruption of dopamine along the non-striatal pathways likely explains much of the neuropsychiatric pathology associated with Parkinson's disease.^ "Dopamine agonists and sleep in Parkinson's disease."

^ Pathology of Parkinson’s disease .
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Disruption of dopamine along the non-striatal pathways likely explains much of the neuropsychiatric pathology associated with Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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.The mechanism by which the brain cells in Parkinson's are lost may consist of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells.^ The precise mechanism whereby such aggregates of alpha-synuclein damage the cells is not known.
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^ The mechanism by which the brain cells in Parkinson's are lost may consist of an abnormal accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein bound to ubiquitin in the damaged cells.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The two diseases often coexist, and research suggests that Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease may sometimes share a common biologic origin, the accumulation of the protein alpha synuclein and Lewy bodies in the brain.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.The alpha-synuclein-ubiquitin complex cannot be directed to the proteasome.^ These filaments contain ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research suggests that three molecules are critical in the development of inherited PD: alpha synuclein, parkin, and ubiquitin, which all interact in the normal brain.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkin normally causes alpha synuclein to bind with a molecule called ubiquitin, which then triggers apoptosis causing this compound to self-destruct.

.This protein accumulation forms proteinaceous cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies.^ This protein accumulation forms proteinaceous cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Associated with this neuronal loss is the presence of large eosinophilic inclusions, called Lewy bodies, within the remaining pigmented neurons, made up of a series of proteins, including neurofilaments, -synuclein fibrils, ubiquitin, parkin, and proteasomal elements.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers do not yet know why Lewy bodies form or what role they play in development of the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The latest research on pathogenesis of disease has shown that the death of dopaminergic neurons by alpha-synuclein is due to a defect in the machinery that transports proteins between two major cellular organelles — the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus.^ Latest research on pathogenesis of disease has shown that the death of dopaminergic neurons by alpha-synuclein is due to a defect in the machinery that transports proteins between two major cellular organelles — the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus.

^ The alpha-synuclein gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

^ The latest research on pathogenesis of disease has shown that the death of dopaminergic neurons by alpha-synuclein is due to a defect in the machinery that transports proteins between two major cellular organelles — the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain proteins like Rab1 may reverse this defect caused by alpha-synuclein in animal models.^ Certain proteins like Rab1 may reverse this defect caused by alpha-synuclein in animal models.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Latest research on pathogenesis of disease has shown that the death of dopaminergic neurons by alpha-synuclein is due to a defect in the machinery that transports proteins between two major cellular organelles — the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus.

^ According to one theory, Parkinson's disease may result from abnormal deposits of synuclein (a protein in the brain that helps nerve cells communicate).
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Excessive accumulations of iron, which are toxic to nerve cells, are also typically observed in conjunction with the protein inclusions.^ Excessive accumulations of iron, which are toxic to nerve cells, are also typically observed in conjunction with the protein inclusions.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine then accumulates in the surviving nerve cells.

^ According to one theory, Parkinson's disease may result from abnormal deposits of synuclein (a protein in the brain that helps nerve cells communicate).
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Iron and other transition metals such as copper bind to neuromelanin in the affected neurons of the substantia nigra.^ Iron and other transition metals such as copper bind to neuromelanin in the affected neurons of the substantia nigra .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Black-staining granules of neuromelanin within neurons of the substantia nigra The direct pathway facilitates movement and the indirect pathway inhibits movement, thus the loss of these cells leads to a hypokinetic movement disorder.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurons in the substantia nigra may be vulnerable to oxidant stress because (a) the metabolism of dopamine generates peroxides, which, in the presence of iron, can lead to the formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl free radical; and (b) neuromelanin within nigral neurons can bind metals such as iron and aluminum and thereby promote the site-specific formation of free radicals.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Neuromelanin may be acting as a protective agent.^ Neuromelanin may be acting as a protective agent.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So, neuromelanin may be acting as a protective agent.

^ These data suggest that CoQ10 may play a role in cellular dysfunction found in PD and may be a potential protective agent for parkinsonian patients .
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most likely mechanism is generation of reactive oxygen species.^ Its neurotoxicity has been related to the production of reactive oxygen species.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We have reported that estradiol protects dopaminergic neurons against NO-mediated glutamate neurotoxicity by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.

^ "Human alpha-synuclein over-expression increases intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and susceptibility to dopamine."

[10] .Iron also induces aggregation of synuclein by oxidative mechanisms.^ Iron induces aggregation of synuclein by oxidative mechanisms.

^ Iron also induces aggregation of synuclein by oxidative mechanisms.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The precise mechanism whereby such aggregates of alpha-synuclein damage the cells is not known.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Similarly, dopamine and the byproducts of dopamine production enhance alpha-synuclein aggregation.^ Similarly, dopamine and the byproducts of dopamine production enhance alpha-synuclein aggregation.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "The herbicide paraquat causes up-regulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in mice: paraquat and alpha-synuclein" .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If so, a loss of soluble alpha-synuclein, by reduced expression or aggregation, could increase dopamine synthesis with an accompanying increase in reactive dopamine metabolites.

.The precise mechanism whereby such aggregates of alpha-synuclein damage the cells is not known.^ The precise mechanism whereby such aggregates of alpha-synuclein damage the cells is not known.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alpha-synuclein can also be found in another neurodegenerative disease known as multiple system atrophy.
  • Pathology of Degenerative CNS Diseases 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC library.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Overexpression of wild-type or A53T mutant alpha-synuclein did not significantly alter tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels in our stably transfected cells.

.The aggregates may be merely a normal reaction by the cells as part of their effort to correct a different, as-yet unknown, insult.^ The aggregates may be merely a normal reaction by the cells as part of their effort to correct a different, as-yet unknown, insult.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And you may be surprised by their different reactions.
  • Living With Parkinson's - For Patients and Caregivers - Guide For The Newly Diagnosed - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.michaeljfox.org [Source type: General]

^ These brain cells are normally responsible for production of the brain chemical, dopamine, which aids in transmission of messages in the parts of the brain that control smooth movement and coordination.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC maldeparkinson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Based on this mechanistic hypothesis, a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's has been generated by introduction of human wild-type alpha-synuclein into the mouse genome under control of the platelet-derived-growth factor-β promoter.^ MPTP and paraquat in mouse models of parkinsonism.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "From single extracellular unit recording in experimental and human Parkinsonism to the development of a functional concept of the role played by the basal ganglia in motor control."

^ The element being researched, alpha-synuclein, has never been shown to cause Parkinson's Disease, but has instead has been found only to be affected as a result of it.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.A recent view of Parkinson's disease implicates specialized calcium channels that allow substantia nigra neurons, but not most neurons, to repetitively fire in a "pacemaker" like pattern.^ Inflammation and neuronal degeneration of the substantia nigra (SN) occur in Parkinson's disease (PD).

^ A recent view of Parkinson's disease implicates specialized calcium channels that allow substantia nigra neurons, but not most neurons, to repetitively fire in a "pacemaker" like pattern.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Organochlorine insecticides in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease" .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.The consequent flooding of calcium into these neurons may aggravate damage to mitochondria and may cause cell death.^ This is caused by damage to nerve cells in...
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cell damage is caused.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dopamine neurons generated by these stem cells show electrophysiological and behavioural properties expected of neurons from the midbrain.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.One study has found that, in experimental animals, treatment with a calcium channel blocker isradapine had a substantial protective effect against the development of Parkinson's disease.^ BRAIN: Coffee protects seniors against Parkinson 's disease .
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson's disease is found all over the world.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Diagnosis

18F PET scan shows decreased dopamine activity in the basal ganglia, a pattern which aids in diagnosing Parkinson's disease.
.Typically, the diagnosis is based on medical history and neurological examination conducted by interviewing and observing the patient in person using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.^ A diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is based on your medical history and a thorough neurological exam .
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A full history, including family history and neurological examination, was completed for each patient.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with parkinsonism (as opposed to idiopathic Parkinson's disease).

.A radiotracer for SPECT scanning machines called DaTSCAN and made by General Electric is specialized for diagnosing Parkinson's Disease, but it is only marketed in Europe.^ How is Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in June 2006.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson 's disease is a difficult condition to diagnose.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to this, the disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately, especially in its early stages.^ The disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinsons disease is difficult to diagnose in its early stages.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to this, the disease can be difficult to diagnose accurately, especially in its early stages.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to symptom overlap with other diseases, only 75% of clinical diagnoses of PD are confirmed to be idiopathic PD at autopsy.^ Due to symptom overlap with other diseases, only 75% of clinical diagnoses of PD are confirmed to be idiopathic PD at autopsy.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I was diagnosed with PD by a local neurologist and confirmed by Mayo Clinic.
  • Renegade Neurologist [Archive] - BrainTalk Communities 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC brain.hastypastry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson's disease is a form of parkinsonism - a more general term used to refer to the set of symptoms that is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease but sometimes stems from other causes.
  • GHI Your Health: Parkinson's Disease Basics 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .Early signs and symptoms of PD may sometimes be dismissed as the effects of normal aging.^ Early signs and symptoms of PD may sometimes be dismissed as the effects of normal aging.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About.com: Early Signs of PD .
  • Parkinson's Disease - PD - WebPartner Feed 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.webpartner.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Q. What's an early sign or symptom of Parkinson's disease?
  • Parkinson's disease herbs vitamins supplements : by Ray Sahelian, MD, parkinson's natural therapy symptom parkinson'svitamins and herbs 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.The physician may need to observe the person for some time until it is apparent that the symptoms are consistently present.^ The physician may need to observe the person for some time until it is apparent that the symptoms are consistently present.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The physician may need to observe the patient for some time until it is apparent that the tremor is consistently present and is joined by one or more of the other classic symptoms.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms were not documented until 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy [48] by the British physician James Parkinson .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Usually doctors look for shuffling of feet and lack of swing in the arms.^ Usually doctors look for shuffling of feet and lack of swing in the arms.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients have difficulty starting to walk, turning, and stopping; the gait becomes shuffling with short steps, and the arms are held flexed to the waist and do not swing with the stride.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement and Cerebellar Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once started, people often shuffle, taking short steps, keeping their arms bent at the waist, and not swinging their arms.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Movement Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Doctors may sometimes request brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases.^ But you may have tests to help your doctor rule out other diseases that could be causing your symptoms.
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tests may be needed to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors may sometimes request brain scans or laboratory tests in order to rule out other diseases.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, CT and MRI brain scans of people with PD usually appear normal.^ However, CT and MRI brain scans of people with PD usually appear normal.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, those people that have them are usually unaware of them.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The MRI in Parkinson's disease is usually normal.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clinical practice guidelines introduced in the UK in 2006 state that the diagnosis and follow-up of Parkinson's disease should be done by a specialist in the disease, usually a neurologist or geriatrician with an interest in movement disorders.^ The MRI in Parkinson's disease is usually normal.
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Treatment

.Parkinson's disease is a chronic disorder that requires broad-based management including patient and family education, support group services, general wellness maintenance, physiotherapy, exercise, and nutrition.^ Voice therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease .
  • The National Center for Voice and Speech 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.ncvs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ List of famous Parkinson's disease patients .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Physiotherapy for patients with Parkinson's Disease: a comparison of techniques.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .One could consult an occupational therapist on a broad range of methods, therapy, and assistive equipment to make Parkinson's more manageable in the areas of personal care, productivity and leisure.^ Ari asks: Are there centers in the NYC or Palm Beach Gardens Florida area who specialize in rehabilitation for persons with Parkinson's disease ?
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microsoft could have cut more employees just by slowing down hiring and doing what they do every year - "managing out" employees they want to get rid of.
  • Mini-Microsoft: Microsoft Layoff 2009 - Day 2 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC minimsft.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The deficiency of some other substances such as choline could even make Parkinson's Disease less likely.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.At present, there is no cure for PD, but medications or surgery can provide relief from the symptoms.^ There are no blood or laboratory tests available to diagnose PD. At present, there is no cure for PD, but a variety of medications provide dramatic relief from the symptoms.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC maldeparkinson.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But a variety of medications provide dramatic relief from the symptoms.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no cure for Parkinson's disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

Levodopa

Stalevo for treatment of Parkinson's disease
.The most widely used form of treatment is L-dopa in various forms.^ The most common drugs used in the treatment are: .
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most widely used form of treatment is L-dopa in various forms.

^ The most widely used form of treatment is L-dopa in various forms, although due to feedback inhibition, L-dopa causes a reduction in the endogenous formation of L-dopa.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.L-dopa is transformed into dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (often known by its former name dopa-decarboxylase).^ The second step in the biosynthesis of dopamine is biosynthesised by the enzyme Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase [4.1.1.28] (which is more commonly called by its former name dopa decarboxylase).
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L-dopa is transformed into dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons by L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (often known by its former name dopa-decarboxylase).
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tyrosine is an amino acid that can be converted into L-dopa.
  • Parkinson's disease herbs vitamins supplements : by Ray Sahelian, MD, parkinson's natural therapy symptom parkinson'svitamins and herbs 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, only 1-5% of L-DOPA enters the dopaminergic neurons.^ However, only 1-5% of L-DOPA enters the dopaminergic neurons.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common pharmacological treatment, L-dopa, initially provides adequate symptomatic relief but frequently loses its effect as dopaminergic neurons continue to die.
  • American Gulfwar Veterans Association: Gulf War veterans with Parkinson's, check in PLEASE! 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.gulfwarvets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • American Gulfwar Veterans Association: Gulf War veterans with Parkinson's, check in PLEASE! 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.gulfwarvets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first clinical signs of PD, however, become apparent only after the loss of about 70-80% of dopaminergic neurons (Schapira 1999), and although the diagnosis of PD is entirely clinical, histopathology on autopsy is the only way to definitively confirm a diagnosis.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The remaining L-DOPA is often metabolised to dopamine elsewhere, causing a wide variety of side effects.^ The remaining L-DOPA is often metabolised to dopamine elsewhere, causing a wide variety of side effects.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levodopa can have a variety of side effects.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ L-dopa It is the most widely used drug but also causes many side effects because only 1-5% of L-dopa enters dopaminergic neurons rest is metabolized to dopamine elsewhere.
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to feedback inhibition, L-dopa results in a reduction in the endogenous formation of L-dopa, and so eventually becomes counterproductive.^ The most widely used form of treatment is L-dopa in various forms, although due to feedback inhibition, L-dopa causes a reduction in the endogenous formation of L-dopa.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to feedback inhibition, L-dopa results in a reduction in the endogenous formation of L-dopa, and so eventually becomes counterproductive.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pellagra might be expected as a result of this inhibition of endogenous synthesis of nicotinamide nucleotides, but has not been reported in patients treated with either drug.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbidopa and benserazide are dopa decarboxylase inhibitors.^ Carbidopa and benserazide are dopa decarboxylase inhibitors.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Benserazide and carbidopa, decarboxylase inhibitors used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, have been shown to inhibit the enzyme kynurenine hydrolase in rat and mouse liver.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tyrosine and tryptophan have been assayed spectrofluorometrically in postmortem human brain areas of patients with Parkinson's disease treated orally with or without 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) plus the peripherally acting decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.They help to prevent the metabolism of L-dopa before it reaches the dopaminergic neurons and are generally given as combination preparations of carbidopa/levodopa (co-careldopa) (e.g.^ This is not a practical concern when levodopa is combined with carbidopa.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pyridoxine increases peripheral metabolism of levodopa if given in the absence of carbidopa.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another drug Levodopa is given in combination with carbidopa for Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease Treatment | Natural Treatment for Parkinsons Disease Symptoms | Alternative Medicine, Remedies 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sinemet, Parcopa) and benserazide/levodopa (co-beneldopa) (e.g.^ Levodopa can also be combined with benserazide (Madopar) with similar results, but Sinemet is almost always used in America.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

Madopar). .There are also controlled release versions of Sinemet and Madopar that spread out the effect of the L-dopa.^ There are also controlled release versions of Sinemet and Madopar that spread out the effect of the L-dopa.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L-dopa is now rarely used by itself, but rather in combination with carbidopa (Sinemet) or benserazide (Madopar) that protects it from breaking down before it reaches the brain tissue.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Is Victory in Sight? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC vvv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ L-dopa usually comes in two different formats : either the immediate release version, which satisfies the immediate need for L-dopa, or the controlled release version, which avoids the excessive effects of L-dopa by spreading out the effect over time.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

.Duodopa is a combination of levodopa and carbidopa, dispersed as a viscous gel.^ This is not a practical concern when levodopa is combined with carbidopa.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Duodopa is a combination of levodopa and carbidopa, dispersed as a viscous gel.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levodopa-carbidopa, one of the main medications we use to treat Parkinson's, is a combination of the active medication (levodopa) and an agent to keep it from being used outside of the brain (carbidopa).
  • Q&A Sessions | Parkinson's Disease & Movement Disorders Center | Penn Comprehensive Neuroscience Center 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using a patient-operated portable pump, the drug is continuously delivered via a tube directly into the upper small intestine, where it is rapidly absorbed.^ Using a patient-operated portable pump, the drug is continuously delivered via a tube directly into the upper small intestine, where it is rapidly absorbed.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Apomorphine can be administered via subcutaneous injection using a small pump which is carried by the patient.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The surgical operations that are used to treat Parkinson's patients and the success and risks involved with each method.
  • Parkinson's Disease | Helpful Info About Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.allaboutparkinsons.com [Source type: General]

.Another drug, Stalevo (carbidopa, levodopa and entacapone), is also available for treatment.^ Levodopa, a dopamine structural analog, is the best currently available medication for the treatment of Parkinsons disease.

^ Treatment with levodopa and other dopaminergic drugs often alleviates these pains to some extent.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Stalevo combines entacapone and levodopa into a single pill.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tolcapone inhibits the COMT enzyme, thereby prolonging the effects of L-dopa, and so has been used to complement L-dopa.^ Tolcapone inhibits the COMT enzyme, thereby prolonging the effects of L-dopa, and so has been used to complement L-dopa.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Talcopone inhibits the COMT enzyme, thereby prolonging the effects of L-Dopa.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The remaining 95% of the remaining L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery by enzymes and is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream where it causes side effects including nausea and dizzyiness.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, due to its possible side effects such as liver failure, it's limited in its availability.^ However, newer antidepressants have few such side effects.
  • Living With Parkinson's - For Patients and Caregivers - Guide For The Newly Diagnosed - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.michaeljfox.org [Source type: General]

^ However you can get side effects.
  • Parkinson's disease | Life and style | BMJ Group 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ However, due to its possible side effects such as liver failure, it's limited in its availability.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.A similar drug, entacapone has not been shown to cause significant alterations of liver function and maintains adequate inhibition of COMT over time.^ A similar drug, entacapone has not been shown to cause significant alterations of liver function and maintains adequate inhibition of COMT over time.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A similar drug, entacapone, has similar efficacy and has not been shown to cause significant alterations of liver function.

^ A similar drug, entacapone was released in 2000 and has similar efficacy but has not been shown to cause significant alterations of liver function.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[26]

Dopamine agonists

.The dopamine agonists bromocriptine, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole , piribedil, cabergoline, apomorphine, and lisuride are moderately effective.^ These drugs, which include bromocriptine, pergolide, apomorphine, pramipexole, and ropinirole, mimic the role of dopamine in the brain.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs that mimic dopamine (dopamine agonists) Apomorphine Bromocriptine Pergolide Pramipexole Ropinirole .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The drugs studied have included ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, and pergolide.

.These have their own side effects including those listed above in addition to somnolence, hallucinations and/or insomnia.^ All of these side effects have disappeared.
  • love and casino war poker blog: drug causes compulsive gambling 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC loveandcasinowar.com [Source type: General]

^ These have their own side effects including those listed above in addition to somnolence, hallucinations and /or insomnia.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These have their own side effects including those listed above in addition to somnolence, hallucinations and/or insomnia.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Several forms of dopamine agonism have been linked with a markedly increased risk of problem gambling.^ Increasing in problem severity as doses increased.
  • Compulsive Gambler Wins Lawsuit Over Mirapex // Pharmalot 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.pharmalot.com [Source type: General]

^ Several forms of dopamine agonism have been linked with a markedly increased risk of problem gambling .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since that time, we've done a lot of research and are finding out, just as all of you are, about the link between dopamine agonists and compulsive gambling.
  • love and casino war poker blog: drug causes compulsive gambling 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC loveandcasinowar.com [Source type: General]

.Dopaminergic treatment for depression in patients with Parkinson disease may be associated with impulse control disorders.^ Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the treatment for Parkinson's disease?
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression in Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Dopamine agonists initially act by stimulating some of the dopamine receptors.^ Dopamine agonists initially act by stimulating some of the dopamine receptors.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine agonists initially stimulate the dopamine receptors but then make them progressively less sensitive.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine agonists work by stimulating the dopamine receptors.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, they cause the dopamine receptors to become progressively less sensitive, thereby eventually increasing the symptoms.^ Dopamine agonists initially stimulate the dopamine receptors but then make them progressively less sensitive.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dopamine receptors that respond to dopamine becomes far more sensitive.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, they cause the dopamine receptors to become progressively less sensitive, thereby eventually increasing the symptoms.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dopamine agonists can be useful for patients experiencing on-off fluctuations and dyskinesias as a result of high doses of L-dopa.^ They are useful adjuncts to levodopa in patients with end-of-dose fluctuations.

^ Dopamine agonists can be useful for patients experiencing on-off fluctuations and dyskinesias as a result of high doses of L-dopa.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients receiving a relatively high dose of L-dopa and requiring the addition of a dopamine agonist to control motor fluctuations or dyskinesias, ropinirole was significantly more effective than bromocriptine.

.Apomorphine can be administered via subcutaneous injection using a small pump which is carried by the patient.^ Apomorphine can be administered via subcutaneous injection using a small pump which is carried by the patient.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using a patient-operated portable pump, the drug is continuously delivered via a tube directly into the upper small intestine, where it is rapidly absorbed.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After an initial "apomorphine challenge" in hospital to test its effectiveness and brief patient and primary caregiver (often a spouse or partner), the latter of whom takes over maintenance of the pump.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.A low dose is automatically administered throughout the day, reducing the fluctuations of motor symptoms by providing a steady dose of dopaminergic stimulation.^ A low dose is automatically administered throughout the day, reducing the fluctuations of motor symptoms by providing a steady dose of dopaminergic stimulation.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of surgery is to smooth the effect of medication throughout the day so that both dyskinesias and the depths of “off” time can be reduced.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low dietary iron increased serum total iron binding capacity and provided protection against the adverse effects of MPTP on motor function.
  • Researchers Agree Iron Causes Parkinsons - sci.med | Google Groups 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After an initial "apomorphine challenge" in hospital to test its effectiveness and brief patient and primary caregiver (often a spouse or partner), the latter of whom takes over maintenance of the pump.^ After an initial "apomorphine challenge" in hospital to test its effectiveness and brief patient and primary caregiver (often a spouse or partner), the latter of whom takes over maintenance of the pump.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We have challenged this view, based on the so-called 'indirect pathway', by recording apomorphine effects from both structures of parkinsonian patients, at rest and during passive movements.

^ We tested the hypothesis that in patients with PD and depression, there was regional dysfunction involving brain areas previously implicated in functional imaging studies of patients with primary depression.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.The injection site must be changed daily and rotated around the body to avoid the formation of nodules.^ Modifying your activities and your home , such as simplifying your daily activities and changing the location of furniture so that you can hold on to something as you move around the house.
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apomorphine is also available in a more acute dose as an autoinjector pen for emergency doses such as after a fall or first thing in the morning.^ Patients may begin to notice more pronounced symptoms before their first dose of medication in the morning, and they may develop muscle spasms or other problems when each dose begins to wear off.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A physician and a nurse spent 10 hours with each patient from the first morning dose of levodopa during daily activities at home and at work.

^ Patients may first notice slowness ( bradykinesia ) or tremor in the morning before the next dose is due.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nausea and vomiting are common, and may require domperidone (an antiemetic).^ Nausea and vomiting are common, and may require domperidone (an antiemetic).
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Side effects may include paranoia, hallucinations, confusion, dyskinesias, nightmares, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It causes vomiting and needs to be used with an anti-nausea drug, such as domperidone.

.Pramipexole was proposed in late 2009 as an early-stage treatment alternative to Levodopa.^ The extension phase of the long-term study comparing pramipexole with levodopa is ongoing, and follow-up information may help to establish the value of this treatment strategy.

^ A powerful early response to the drug levodopa (the primary treatment for Parkinson's).

^ Despite these concerns, pramipexole does have a role in the treatment of PD in all stages of the illness and may arguably be the treatment of choice in early disease.

[28]
Recently there has been a consensus that younger patients first be treated with dopamine agonists while older patients be given Levodopa[29]

MAO-B inhibitors

.Selegiline and rasagiline reduce the symptoms by inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B).^ Selegiline (Eldepryl) reduces the symptoms by inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), which inhibits the breakdown of dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selegiline and rasagiline reduce the symptoms by inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B).
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rasagiline reduced apoptosis with much more potency than selegiline, and the protection required 20 min pre-incubation before SIN-1 treatment.

.MAO-B breaks down dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons, so inhibiting it will result in inhibition of the breakdown of dopamine.^ MAO-B breaks down dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons, so inhibitting it will result in inhibition of the breakdown of dopamine.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selegiline (Eldepryl) reduces the symptoms by inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), which inhibits the breakdown of dopamine secreted by the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs that inhibit dopamine breakdown (MAO-B inhibitors) Selegiline (deprenyl) .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Metabolites of selegiline include L-amphetamine and L-methamphetamine (not to be confused with the more notorious and potent dextrorotary isomers).^ Metabolites of selegiline include L-amphetamine and L-methamphetamine (not to be confused with the more notorious and potent dextrorotary isomers).
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ By-products of selegiline include amphetamine and methamphetamine - each can have side effects that kill Dopaminergic neurons, thus worsen the clinical case.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients treated with selegiline report psychomotor enhancement, perhaps related to the methamphetamine metabolite of the drug.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.This might result in side effects such as insomnia.^ This might result in side effects such as insomnia.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This might result in side effects such as insomnia .

^ As a result, side effects are reduced.
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Use of L-dopa in conjunction with selegiline has increased mortality rates that have not been effectively explained.^ Use of L-dopa in conjunction with selegiline has increased mortality rates that have not been effectively explained.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of L-DOPA in conjunction with Selegiline has increased mortality rates that have not been effectively explained.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Nitecapone and selegiline as effective adjuncts to L-DOPA in reserpine-induced catatonia in mice."

.Another side effect of the combination can be stomatitis.^ Another side effect of the combination can be stomatitis .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Your doctor will use the drug or combination of drugs that addresses the widest range of symptoms while minimizing side effects.
  • Parkinson's Disease | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard preparations (Sinemet, Atamet) combine levodopa with carbidopa, which improves the action of levodopa and reduces some of its side effects, particularly nausea.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.One report raised concern about increased mortality when MAO-B inhibitors were combined with L-dopa;[30] however subsequent studies have not confirmed this finding.^ One report raised concern about increased mortality when MAO-B inhibitors were combined with L-dopa; [ 38 ] however subsequent studies have not confirmed this finding.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, depression can be treated with standard anti-depressant drugs such as amitriptyline or fluoxetine (however, as stated earlier, fluoxetine should not be combined with MAO-B inhibitors).
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Initial studies demonstrate that the MAO-B inhibitor L-deprenyl (selegiline) delays the development of disability in otherwise untreated patients with early Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Unlike other non selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tyramine-containing foods do not cause a hypertensive crisis.^ Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors .
  • Parkinson's Disease | Health | Patient UK 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors .
  • Parkinson's Disease - un knol de Daniel 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike other non selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tyramine-containing foods do not cause a hypertensive crisis.

Surgery and deep brain stimulation

Illustration showing an electrode placed deep seated in the brain
.Treating Parkinson's disease with surgery was once a common practice, but after the discovery of levodopa, surgery was restricted to only a few cases.^ Vitamin D deficiency is common in Parkinson's disease.
  • Evansville,IN Parkinson's Disease; Parkinson's disease results from ... 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.stmarys.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery Treating PD with surgery was once a common practice.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery is not a cure for Parkinson's disease.
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Studies in the past few decades have led to great improvements in surgical techniques, and surgery is again being used in people with advanced PD for whom drug therapy is no longer sufficient.^ Studies in the past few decades have led to great improvements in surgical techniques, and surgery is again being used in people with advanced PD for whom drug therapy is no longer sufficient.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Things to take into consideration: No drug on today's market has been proven to slow or stop PD. Available drugs only mask the symptoms.
  • Living With Parkinson's - For Patients and Caregivers - Guide For The Newly Diagnosed - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.michaeljfox.org [Source type: General]

^ Although depression is very common in PD, there have been surprisingly few controlled studies.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.Deep brain stimulation is presently the most used surgical means of treatment, but other surgical therapies that have shown promise include surgical lesion of the subthalamic nucleus[32] and of the internal segment of the globus pallidus, a procedure known as pallidotomy.^ Deep brain stimulation is presently the most used surgical means of treatment, but other surgical therapies that have shown promise include surgical lesion of the subthalamic nucleus [ 40 ] and of the internal segment of the globus pallidus , a procedure known as pallidotomy .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stimulation of either the globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus can reduce tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Deep brain stimulation Pallidotomy Thalamotomy Neurotransplantation .
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]

Neurorehabilitation

.There is partial evidence that speech or mobility problems can improve with rehabilitation although studies are still scarce and of low quality.^ There is partial evidence that speech or mobility problems can improve with rehabilitation although studies are still scarce and of low quality.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Rehabilitation can help patients improve their mobility, speech, and functional abilities.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Regular physical exercise and/or therapy can be beneficial to the patient for maintaining and improving mobility, flexibility, strength, gait speed, and quality of life; [ 44 ] and speech therapy may improve voice and speech function.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

[34][35][36][37] .Regular physical exercise and/or therapy can be beneficial to the patient for maintaining and improving mobility, flexibility, strength, gait speed, and quality of life;[36] and speech therapy may improve voice and speech function.^ Regular physical exercise and/or therapy are beneficial to the patient and essential for maintaining and improving mobility, flexibility, balance and a range of motion, and for a better resistance against many of the secondary symptoms and side effects.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therapeutic strategies to improve patient function and quality of life."

^ Rehabilitation can help patients improve their mobility, speech, and functional abilities.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

[37] .One of the most widely practiced treatment for the speech disorders associated with Parkinson's disease is the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT).^ Parkinson's disease and movement disorders.
  • Update on Parkinson's Disease - April 15, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parkinson's disease may be one of the most baffling and complex of the neurological disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

.LSVT focuses on increasing vocal loudness.^ LSVT focuses on increasing vocal loudness.

[38]

Prognosis

.PD is not considered to be a fatal disease by itself, but it progresses with time.^ PD is not considered to be a fatal disease by itself, but it progresses with time.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ PD is not by itself a fatal disease, but it does get worse with time.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, several lines of laboratory research suggest that dopamine agonists might protect dopaminergic neurons in PD and retard the rate of disease progression.

.The average life expectancy of a PD patient is generally lower than for people who do not have the disease.^ The average life expectancy of a PD patient is generally lower than for people who do not have the disease.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The average life expectancy of a PD patient is generally the same as for people who do not have the disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers are now looking for a biomarker a biochemical abnormality that all patients with Parkinson's disease might share that could be picked up by screening techniques or by a simple chemical test given to people who do not have any parkinsonian symptoms.
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

[39] .In the late stages of the disease, PD may cause complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls that can lead to death.^ Can lead to aspiration , pneumonia , and death.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the late stages of the disease, PD may cause complications such as choking, pneumonia, and falls that can lead to death.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Apomorphine has been introduced in the treatment of late-stage Parkinson's Disease (PD).

.The progression of symptoms in PD may take 20 years or more.^ The progression of symptoms in PD may take 20 years or more.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important for those who have the condition to recognize that while the physical symptoms may be ours and ours alone, the emotional repercussions can be much more widespread.
  • Living With Parkinson's - For Patients and Caregivers - Guide For The Newly Diagnosed - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.michaeljfox.org [Source type: General]

^ Things to take into consideration: No drug on today's market has been proven to slow or stop PD. Available drugs only mask the symptoms.
  • Living With Parkinson's - For Patients and Caregivers - Guide For The Newly Diagnosed - The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.michaeljfox.org [Source type: General]

.In some people, however, the disease progresses more quickly.^ In some people, however, the disease progresses more quickly.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, for some people the disease progresses quickly, and in others it does not.
  • Symptoms - Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.pdf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some people the disease progresses quickly, in others it does not.
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthieryou.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Information on Parkinson's Disease - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.healthnewsflash.com [Source type: Academic]

.There is no way to predict what course the disease will take for an individual person.^ There is no known way to prevent Parkinson's disease .
  • Health Information 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.coxhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Advanced Search 3 February 2010 17:22 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fox's disease is taking its predictable course.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ As yet, there is no way to predict or prevent the disease.

.With appropriate treatment, most people with PD can live productive lives for many years after diagnosis.^ With appropriate treatment, most people with PD can live productive lives for many years after diagnosis.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for people with PD. .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But although Parkinson's disease may eventually be disabling, the disease often progresses gradually, and most people have many years of productive living after a diagnosis.
  • Natural Remedies and Supplements to help treat Parkinson's Disease. 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are some indications that PD acquires resistance to drug treatment by evolving into a Parkinson-plus disorder, usually Lewy body dementia, although transitions to progressive supranuclear palsy or multiple system atrophy are not unknown.^ Progressive supranuclear palsy.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug Treatments Medications for PD fall into three categories.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are other disorders that are called Parkinson-Plus diseases .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[40][41]
.One commonly used system for describing how the symptoms of PD progress is called the Hoehn and Yahr scale.^ One commonly used system for describing how the symptoms of PD progress is called the Hoehn and Yahr scale .
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^ One commonly used system for describing how the symptoms of PD progress is called the Hoehn and Yahr scale.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The PD disease process also appears to impair nerve endings in the heart to cause dysautonomia -- changes in the autonomic (also called sympathetic) nervous system.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

.Another commonly used scale is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).^ Another commonly used scale is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores were not affected by this medication.

^ Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This much more complicated scale has multiple ratings that measure motor function, and also mental functioning, behavior, mood, and activities of daily living.^ This much more complicated scale has multiple ratings that measure motor function, and also mental functioning, behavior, mood, and activities of daily living.
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^ The four-part scale measures mental effects, limitations in activities of daily living, motor impairment, and treatment or disease complications.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - December 15, 2006 - American Family Physician 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This much more complicated scale has multiple ratings that measure mental functioning, behavior, and mood; activities of daily living; and motor function.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Both the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the UPDRS are used to measure how individuals are faring and how much treatments are helping them.^ Both the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the UPDRS are used to measure how individuals are faring and how much treatments are helping them.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The subjects underwent evaluation with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at the screening, baseline, and 1-, 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-month visits.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This much more complicated scale has multiple ratings that measure motor function, and also mental functioning, behavior, mood, and activities of daily living.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.It should be noted that neither scale is specific to Parkinson's disease; that patients with other illnesses can score in the Parkinson's range.^ List of famous Parkinson's disease patients .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with parkinsonism (as opposed to idiopathic Parkinson's disease).

^ Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
  • Parkinson's Disease : University of Michigan Health System 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for parkinson disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
     no data      less than 5      5-12.5      12.5-20      20-27.5      27.5-35      35-42.5      42.5-50      50-57.5      57.5-65      65-72.5      72.5-80      more than 80
.According to some sources, Parkinson's disease is marginally less prevalent in those of African ancestry.^ Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Europe: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's Disease consequently occurs when the effect of dopamine is less than that of acetylcholine.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NMDA antagonists are showing some promise for reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease, particularly tremor.

[42] .The average crude prevalence is estimated at being from 120-180 out of 100,000 among the caucasian (white) community.^ The average crude prevalence is estimated at being from 120-180 out of 100,000 among the caucasian (white) community.
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^ By the time we figured out it was Mirapex and I stopped the drug, I had lost $120,000.
  • love and casino war poker blog: drug causes compulsive gambling 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC loveandcasinowar.com [Source type: General]

^ Parkinson's disease is widespread, with a prevalence estimated between 100 and 250 cases per 100,000 in North America.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[43] .For the Parsi community in Mumbai, India the rate is approximately double.^ Globally, prevalence estimates range from a low of 7 per 100,000 in Ethiopia to a high of 329.3 per 100,000 in Nebraska, U.S.A., and 328.3 cases per 100,000 in the Parsi community in Bombay, India.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[43][44]

History

James Parkinson
.Symptoms of Parkinson's disease have been known and treated since medieval times, most notably by Averroes.^ When symptoms resemble Parkinson's disease but have an identifiable cause, the syndrome is known as parkinsonism .
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the most apparent and well-known symptom.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ Reaction time and vigilance in Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[45]
.However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms were not documented until 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy[46] by the British physician James Parkinson.^ However, it was not formally recognized and its symptoms were not documented until 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy [ 54 ] by the British physician James Parkinson .
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^ The disease was first formally recognised and its symptoms documented in 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy by the British physician Dr James Parkinson ; the associated biochemical changes in the brain of patients were identified in the 1960s .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "An essay on the shaking palsy.
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.Parkinson's disease was then known as paralysis agitans, the term "Parkinson's disease" being coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot.^ Parkinson's disease was then known as paralysis agitans , the term "Parkinson's disease" being coined later by Jean Martin Charcot .
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease was then known as paralysis agitans, the term "Parkinson's disease" being coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot.

^ Parkinson's disease was then known as paralysis agitans , the term "Parkinson's disease" being coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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[47]
.The underlying biochemical changes in the brain were identified in the 1950s due largely to the work of Swedish scientist Arvid Carlsson, who later won a Nobel Prize.^ However, it is actually due to the biochemical mechanisms not working properly.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease was first formally recognised and its symptoms documented in 1817 in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy by the British physician Dr James Parkinson ; the associated biochemical changes in the brain of patients were identified in the 1960s .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

L-dopa entered clinical practice in 1967,[48] and the first large study reporting improvements in patients with Parkinson's disease resulting from treatment with L-dopa was published in 1968.[49]

Research directions

Animal models

.The tragedy of a group of drug addicts in California in the early 1980s who consumed a contaminated and illicitly produced batch of the synthetic opiate MPPP brought to light MPTP as a cause of Parkinson symptoms.^ The chemical MPTP also causes a permanent form of parkinsonism that closely resembles PD. Investigators discovered this reaction in the 1980s when heroin addicts in California who had taken an illicit street drug contaminated with MPTP began to develop severe parkinsonism.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinson's Disease: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe Parkinson's-like symptoms have been described in people who took an illegal drug contaminated with the chemical MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and in people who contracted a particularly severe form of influenza during an epidemic in the early 1900s.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because Parkinsons disease symptoms are due to a lack of the brain chemical dopamine, the main drug treatments help increase dopamine levels in the brain.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.This made it possible to develop the first animal model for Parkinson's.^ This made it possible to develop the first animal model for Parkinson's.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Mucuna pruriens endocarp - not a new treatment for parkinson's disease - has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's disease herbs vitamins supplements : by Ray Sahelian, MD, parkinson's natural therapy symptom parkinson'svitamins and herbs 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This compound induces Parkinson's disease symptoms, and its discovery has allowed researchers to create animal model s of Parkinson's disease and advance their understanding of it.
  • Parkinson's disease@Everything2.com 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

.MPTP's toxicity likely comes from the generation of reactive oxygen species through tyrosine hydroxylation.^ We have reported that estradiol protects dopaminergic neurons against NO-mediated glutamate neurotoxicity by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.

^ "Human alpha-synuclein over-expression increases intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and susceptibility to dopamine."

^ MPTP inhibits tyrosine hydroxylation, which is essential for the formation of dopamine.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] The book The Case of the Frozen Addicts by William Langston documents this tragedy and describes the first attempts at fetal brain tissue transplants to treat PD.
.Other toxin-based models employ PCBs,[51] paraquat[52] (a herbicide) in combination with maneb (a fungicide),[53] rotenone[54] (an insecticide), and specific organochlorine pesticides including dieldrin[55] and lindane.^ The decrease in the number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons was progressive, particularly in the oldest mice given paraquat and maneb in combination.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This rekindled an interest in the possible role of exogenous toxicants in the development of PD and parkinsonism generally, in particular, compounds that are toxicologically or structurally similar to MPTP, including pesticides such as rotenone and paraquat (Goldman and Tanner 1998).
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as a preferential target of repeated exposures to combined paraquat and maneb: implications for Parkinson's disease" .
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[56]

Gene therapy

.Currently under investigation is gene therapy.^ Gene Therapy Currently under investigation is gene therapy.

^ Currently under investigation is gene therapy.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Agents currently under investigation as neuroprotective agents include anti-apoptotic drugs (CEP 1347 and CTCT346), lazaroids, bioenergetics, antiglutamatergic agents and dopamine receptors.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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.This involves using a non-infectious virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus (STN).^ This involves using a non-infectious virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus (STN).
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ This involves using a harmless virus to shuttle a gene into a part of the brain called the subthalamic nucleus (STN).

^ Deep brain stimulation is presently the most used surgical means of treatment, but other surgical therapies that have shown promise include surgical lesion of the subthalamic nucleus [ 40 ] and of the internal segment of the globus pallidus , a procedure known as pallidotomy .
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.The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme called glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyses the production of a neurotransmitter called GABA.^ The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme called glutamic acid decarboxylase ( GAD ), which catalyses the production of a neurotransmitter called GABA .
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The gene used leads to the production of an enzyme called glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which catalyses the production of a neurotransmitter called GABA. GABA acts as a direct inhibitor on the overactive cells in the STN. GDNF infusion involves the infusion of GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) into the basal ganglia using surgically implanted catheters.

^ Using adeno-associated viral vector-mediated somatic cell gene transfer, we expressed glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of the neurotransmitter GABA, in excitatory glutamatergic neurons of the STN in rats.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[57] GABA acts as a direct inhibitor on the overactive cells in the STN.
.GDNF infusion involves the infusion of GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) into the basal ganglia using surgically implanted catheters.^ GDNF infusion involves the infusion of GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) into the basal ganglia using surgically implanted catheters.
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^ Deep-brain stimulation is a surgical technique that involves implanting electrodes in a target area of the brain.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Marked dopaminergic cell loss subsequent to developmental, intranigral expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor."

.Via a series of biochemical reactions, GDNF stimulates the formation of L-dopa.^ Via a series of biochemical reactions, GDNF stimulates the formation of L-dopa.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The primary natural means via which cell damage can occur in Parkinson's Disease is due to the reaction from L-tyrosine to L-dopa not taking place.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.GDNF therapy is still in development.^ GDNF therapy is still in development.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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Neuroprotective treatments

.Neuroprotective treatments are at the forefront of PD research, but are still under clinical scrutiny.^ Neuroprotective Treatments Neuroprotective treatments are at the forefront of PD research, but are still under clinical scrutiny.

^ Neuroprotective treatments are at the forefront of PD research, but are still under clinical scrutiny.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The research projects consist of seven "neuroprotective approaches", and two projects concerning the treatment of dyskinesia.
  • Parkinson's Disease News 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC viartis.net [Source type: Academic]

[58] .These agents could protect neurons from cell death induced by disease presence resulting in a slower progression of disease.^ These agents could protect neurons from cell death induced by disease presence resulting in a slower progression of disease.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ These agents could protect neurons from cell death induced by disease presence resulting in a slower pregression of disease.

^ Includes news on parkinson's disease (PD) - nerve cell loss in the brain (substantia nigra) resulting in less dopamine production, leading to movement difficulties.
  • Parkinson's Disease News from Medical News Today 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.Agents currently under investigation as neuroprotective agents include anti-apoptotic drugs (CEP 1347 and CTCT346), lazaroids, bioenergetics, antiglutamatergic agents and dopamine receptors.^ Gene Therapy Currently under investigation is gene therapy.

^ Agents currently under investigation as neuroprotective agents include anti-apoptotic drugs (CEP 1347 and CTCT346), lazaroids, bioenergetics, antiglutamatergic agents and dopamine receptors.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agents currently under investigation as neuroprotective agents include apoptotic drugs (CEP 1347 and CTCT346), lazaroids, bioenergetics, antiglutamatergic agents and dopamine receptors.

[59] .Clinically evaluated neuroprotective agents are the monoamine oxidase inhibitors selegiline[60] and rasagiline, dopamine agonists, and the complex I mitochondrial fortifier coenzyme Q10.^ Selegiline and rasagiline reduce the symptoms by inhibiting monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B).
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinically evaluated neuroprotective agents are the monoamine oxidase inhibitors selegiline [ 61 ] and rasagiline, dopamine agonists, and the complex I mitochondrial fortifier coenzyme Q10 .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike other non selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors , tyramine-containing foods do not cause a hypertensive crisis.
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Neural transplantation

.The first prospective randomised double-blind sham-placebo controlled trial of dopamine-producing cell transplants failed to show an improvement in quality of life although some significant clinical improvements were seen in patients below the age of 60.[61] A significant problem was the excess release of dopamine by the transplanted tissue, leading to dystonias.^ Their problem is usually with only one cell type, which is the one that produces dopamine.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, after showing that the clinical improvement is different depending on the type of tissue transplanted, we comment on the probable reason for the improvement seen in patients with implants.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Placebo-controlled clinical trials have shown that dopamine agonists have anti-parkinsonian effects in patients with early PD. More importantly, four different prospective double-blind studies have demonstrated that initiating symptomatic therapy with a dopamine agonist is associated with a significantly reduced risk for development of motor complications than is initial treatment with a dopamine agonist.

[62] .Research in African green monkeys suggests that the use of stem cells might in future provide a similar benefit without inducing dystonias.^ What do YOU have against stem cell research?
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ Research in African green monkeys suggests that the use of stem cells might in future provide a similar benefit without inducing dystonias.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm in favor of stem cell research.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

[63]

Alternative Treatments

.Nutrients have been used in clinical studies and are used by people with PD in order to partially treat PD or slow down its deterioration.^ Nutrients Nutrients have been used in clinical studies and are widely used by people with Parkinson's disease in order to partially treat PD or slow down its deterioration.

^ Nutrients have been used in clinical studies and are used by people with PD in order to partially treat PD or slow down its deterioration.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nutrients have been used in clinical studies and are widely used by people with Parkinson's Disease in order to partially treat Parkinson's Disease or slow down its deterioration.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.The L-dopa precursor L-tyrosine was shown to relieve an average of 70% of symptoms.^ The L-dopa precursor L-tyrosine was shown to relieve an average of 70% of symptoms.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Due to feedback inhibition, L-dopa can also eventually cause the symptoms of Parkinson's disease that it initially relieves.

^ Ferrous iron, the essential cofactor for L-dopa biosynthesis was shown to relieve between 10% and 60% of symptoms in 110 out of 110 patients.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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[64] .Ferrous iron, the essential cofactor for L-dopa biosynthesis was shown to relieve between 10% and 60% of symptoms in 110 out of 110 patients.^ Those shown to be essential for the formation of dopamine are ferrous iron and zinc.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ferrous iron, the essential cofactor for L-dopa biosynthesis was shown to relieve between 10% and 60% of symptoms in 110 out of 110 patients.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The L-dopa precursor L-tyrosine was shown to relieve an average of 70% of symptoms.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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[65] .[66] More limited efficacy has been obtained with the use of THFA, NADH, and pyridoxine—coenzymes and coenzyme precursors involved in dopamine biosynthesis.^ More limited efficacy has been obtained with the use of THFA, NADH, and pyridoxine - coenzymes and coenzyme precursors involved in dopamine biosynthesis.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The development of L-Dopa followed a rationale approach: first, the discovery of dopamine deficiency in the striatum of patients with PD; and then the use of precursor of dopamine.

^ The second step in the biosynthesis of dopamine is biosynthesised by the enzyme Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase [4.1.1.28] (which is more commonly called by its former name dopa decarboxylase).
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .Vitamin C and vitamin E in large doses are commonly used by patients in order to theoretically lessen the cell damage that occurs in PD. This is because the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase require these vitamins in order to nullify the superoxide anion, a toxin commonly produced in damaged cells.^ Vitamin C and Vitamin E in large doses are commonly used by patients in order to lessen the cell damage that occurs in Parkinson's Disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell damage occurs in all cells.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase require these vitamins in order to nullify the superoxide anion, a toxin commonly produced in damaged cells.

.However, in the randomized controlled trial, DATATOP of patients with early PD, no beneficial effect for vitamin E compared to placebo was seen.^ Pergolide monotherapy in the treatment of early PD: a randomized, controlled study.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment - December 15, 2006 - American Family Physician 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the randomized controlled trial, DATATOP of patients with early PD, no beneficial effect for vitamin E compared to placebo was seen.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The first prospective randomised double-blind sham-placebo controlled trial of dopamine-producing cell transplants failed to show an improvement in quality of life although some significant clinical improvements were seen in patients below the age of 60.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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[60] .Coenzyme Q10 has more recently been used for similar reasons.^ Coenzyme Q10 has more recently been used for similar reasons.
  • Parkinsons Disease Clinical Trials 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ These limitations were overcome recently by Tanner and colleagues, [ 30 ] who found a similar risk of 3.8, with increasing risk associated with more severe injury and hospitalization.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lamotrigine with coenzyme Q10 was more effective than coenzyme Q10 alone.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

MitoQ is a newly developed synthetic substance that is similar in structure and function to coenzyme Q10. Most of these therapies are covered in Dr. Laurie Mischley's Natural Therapies for Parkinson's Disease.[68]
.Studies looking at qigong in PD have not reached consensus on its efficacy.^ Studies looking at qigong in PD have not reached consensus on its efficacy.
  • Parkinson's disease - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Qigong There have been two studies looking at qigong in Parkinson's disease.

^ Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of all of these agents in patients with mild cognitive impairment in early PD. .
  • Treatment of Early Parkinson’s Disease 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC content.karger.com [Source type: Academic]

[69][70]
Mucuna pruriens, is a natural source of therapeutic quantities of L-dopa, and has been under some investigation.[71]

Society and culture

Research and Support Organizations

.In 1957, William Black, President of Chock full o'Nuts coffee company, founded the Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) after one of his company's employees was diagnosed with Parkinson's.^ Parkinson's disease is found all over the world.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So it definitely has the potential to be one of the factors that contributes to the original onset of Parkinson's Disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is one of the most common forms of familial Parkinson's disease.
  • Parkinson's Disease - Abstracts : Online Reference for Health Concerns 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Black launched the organization with a $250,000 grant to support Parkinson's Research.^ Parkinson's disease is widespread, with a prevalence estimated between 100 and 250 cases per 100,000 in North America.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The NINDS also supports 11 Morris K. Udall Parkinson’s Disease Research Centers of Excellence throughout the country.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

[72] .While at first a regional organization, PDF expanded the scope of its activities throughout the U.S., and merged with the United Parkinson Foundation in 1999. Today, PDF focuses on funding research to learn the causes of and find a cure for Parkinson's, as well providing education and support for people with Parkinson's in the U.S. Since it was founded in 1957, PDF has provided more than $80 million to research.^ Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) 1359 Broadway Suite 1509 New York, NY 10018 info@pdf.org http://www.pdf.org Tel: 212-923-4700 800-457-6676 Fax: 212-923-4778 National nonprofit organization that supports Parkinson's disease research, patient education, and public advocacy programs.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research Grand Central Station P.O. Box 4777 New York, NY 10163 http://www.michaeljfox.org Tel: 212-509-0995 Dedicated to advancing a cure for Parkinson’s disease by identifying promising research and raising funds for research support.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dementia is three to six times more common in the elderly Parkinson patient than in the average older adult.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.The European Parkinson's Disease Association is an organization based in Europe that supports Parkinson's disease research.^ A radiotracer for SPECT scanning machines called DaTSCAN and made by General Electric is specialized for diagnosing Parkinson's Disease, but it is only marketed in Europe.
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^ Prevalence of Parkinson's disease in Europe: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts.
  • Pesticides and Parkinson's Disease--Is There a Link? 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC ehp03.niehs.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In previous work, neural network simulations accounted for response selection deficits associated with BG dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Actor Michael J. Fox, whose book, Lucky Man (2000), focused on his experiences with the disease and his career and family travails in the midst of it, established The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research to develop a cure for Parkinson's disease.^ There is no cure for Parkinson's disease.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no cure for Parkinsons disease.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research (MJFF) has awarded approximately $1.2 million to fund six projects that will investigate dyskinesias, the involuntary, uncontrollable movements that are a frequent side-effect of treatment and are distinct from the tremors commonly associated with Parkinson's disease.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

.Another foundation that supports Parkinson's research was established by professional cyclist Davis Phinney.^ In addition, both research groups show that the PINK1 protein acts upstream of Parkin, another protein linked to the sporadic forms of Parkinson's.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The NINDS also supports 11 Morris K. Udall Parkinson’s Disease Research Centers of Excellence throughout the country.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This resource is sponsored by the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation in collaboration with the American Parkinson Disease Association , the Parkinson’s Action Network , the Parkinson Alliance , the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research , the National Parkinson Foundation , WE MOVE , and the NINDS. .
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Davis Phinney Foundation strives to improve the lives of those living with Parkinson's disease.^ The Davis Phinney Foundation strives to improve the lives of those living with Parkinson's disease.
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^ In 1957, William Black, President of Chock full o'Nuts coffee company, founded the Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) after one of his company's employees was diagnosed with Parkinson's.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease suffer not only from classic motor symptoms, but from deficits in cognitive function, primarily those subserved by the prefrontal cortex as well.

Notable sufferers

.In addition to Michael J. Fox and Davis Phinney, famous sufferers include Pope John Paul II, baseball manager Sparky Anderson, playwright Eugene O'Neill, political commentator Michael Kinsley, artist Salvador Dalí, hockey player Brent Peterson, boxer Muhammad Ali, basketball player Brian Grant, evangelist Billy Graham and former US Attorney General Janet Reno.^ In addition to Michael J. Fox and Davis Phinney , famous sufferers include Pope John Paul II , playwright Eugene O'Neill , artist Salvador Dalí , hockey player Brent Peterson , boxer Muhammad Ali , evangelist Billy Graham and former US Attorney General Janet Reno .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another famous sufferer of young-onset Parkinson's is Michael J. Fox , whose book, Lucky Man (2000), focused on his experiences with the disease and his career and family travails in the midst of it.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So far, I like them very much--about 175 attorneys in five locations throughout the US. In addition, one of those locations is in Minnesota where the Mayo Clinic is.
  • love and casino war poker blog: drug causes compulsive gambling 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC loveandcasinowar.com [Source type: General]

Political figures suffering from it have included Adolf Hitler (not confirmed), Francisco Franco, Deng Xiaoping and Mao Zedong, and former Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau. .Numerous actors have also been afflicted with Parkinson's such as: Terry-Thomas, Deborah Kerr, Kenneth More, Vincent Price, Jim Backus and Michael Redgrave.^ Numerous actors have also been afflicted with Parkinson's such as: Terry-Thomas , Deborah Kerr , Kenneth More , Vincent Price , Jim Backus and Michael Redgrave .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

.Helen Beardsley (of Yours, Mine and Ours fame) also suffered from this disease toward the end of her life.^ One last note: If your ‘wife’ honestly suffers from Parkinson’s disease, my heart and prayers go out to her.
  • Compulsive Gambler Wins Lawsuit Over Mirapex // Pharmalot 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC www.pharmalot.com [Source type: General]

.James Doohan also suffered from Parkinson's disease, and later, Alzheimer's.^ James Doohan also suffered from Parkinson's Disease, and later, Alzheimer's.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parkinson's disease was then known as paralysis agitans , the term "Parkinson's disease" being coined later by Jean-Martin Charcot .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to some studies, patients with drug-induced parkinsonism may actually be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease later in life.
  • Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC adam.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.Director George Roy Hill (The Sting, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid) also suffered from Parkinson's disease.^ Fox, who suffers from Parkinsons disease, appears visibly racked by tremors in the ads.
  • Limbaugh�s False Smears of Michael J. Fox [Archive] - Harmony Central Musician Community Forums 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC acapella.harmony-central.com [Source type: General]

^ Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease suffer not only from classic motor symptoms, but from deficits in cognitive function, primarily those subserved by the prefrontal cortex as well.

^ In the United States, at least 500,000 people are believed to suffer from Parkinson's disease, and about 50,000 new cases are reported annually.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

.The film Awakenings (starring Robin Williams and Robert De Niro and based on genuine cases reported by Oliver Sacks) deals sensitively and largely accurately with a similar disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism.^ A total of 181 cases of Parkinson's disease were reported between1988 and 2000.
  • روانشناسی فیزیولوژیک(احمد فروتن) 9 February 2010 16:14 UTC ahmad6261.blogfa.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The film Awakenings (starring Robin Williams and Robert De Niro and based on genuine cases reported by Oliver Sacks ) deals sensitively and largely accurately with a similar disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism .
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1957, William Black, President of Chock full o'Nuts coffee company, founded the Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) after one of his company's employees was diagnosed with Parkinson's.
  • http://w2.hidemyass.com/index.php?q=aHR0cDovL2VuLndpa2lwZWRpYS5vcmcvd2lraS9QYXJraW5zb24lMjdzX2Rpc2Vhc2U%3D 28 January 2010 0:38 UTC w2.hidemyass.com [Source type: Academic]

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External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.Named after English physician James Parkinson (1755-1824).^ British physician James Parkinson .
  • Parkinson's Disease Symptoms, Cure, Cause, Treatment, Homeopathy Remedies for Parkinsons Disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC health.hpathy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ James Parkinson (1755-1824) was an English physician.
  • H. Lundbeck A/S - Parkinson's disease 6 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.lundbeck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1817, an English physician named Dr. James Parkinson called it "Shaking Palsy."
  • Parkinson's Disease 18 September 2009 9:34 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noun

Singular
Parkinson’s disease
Parkinson’s disease (uncountable)
  1. (neurology, pathology) A chronic neurological disorder resulting in lack of control over movement; poor balance and coordination; and similar symptoms.

Synonyms

Translations


Simple English

Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson disease or just PD) is a slow damaging disease of the central nervous system in which dopamine is lost . It hurts the patient's movement skills and their speech, but the former is much more specific. Sometimes it can also affect their mood, behavior, and thinking.

Details

Parkinson's Disease can cause the brain to not respond, and paralyze the patient. The disease could give the patient slow reaction time and poor hand to mind coordination.

Other websites



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 05, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Parkinson's disease, which are similar to those in the above article.








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