Parkour (sometimes also abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement  (English: the art of moving) is the physical discipline of training to overcome any obstacle within one's path by adapting one's movements to the environment. It is a non-competitive, physical discipline of French origin in which participants run along a route, attempting to negotiate obstacles in the most efficient way possible, as if moving in an emergency situation. Skills such as jumping and climbing, or the more specific parkour moves are employed. The object of parkour is to get from one place to another using only the human body and the objects in the environment. The obstacles can be anything in one's environment, but parkour is often seen practiced in urban areas because of the many suitable public structures available such as buildings and rails.
Parkour is about getting from one place to another in the fastest way, only using the human body by vaulting jumping climbing and running up walls,rails and other obstacles unlike freerunning which involves flips and showing off what you can do.
Parkour practitioners are often called traceur if male, or traceuse if female
Parkour can be compared to some martial arts. In September 2009, American Parkour began a community effort to define parkour. They invited the entire community to post their personal definition of parkour. It was edited into the final version by a committee of American Parkour employees and people outside of American Parkour to ensure that it was truly a community effort. Their result:
Parkour is the physical discipline of training to overcome any obstacle within one's path by adapting one's movements to the environment.
- Parkour requires... consistent, disciplined training with an emphasis on functional strength, physical conditioning, balance, creativity, fluidity, control, precision, spatial awareness, and looking beyond the traditional use of objects.
- Parkour movements typically include... running, jumping, vaulting, climbing, balancing, and quadrupedal movement. Movements from other physical disciplines are often incorporated, but acrobatics or tricking alone do not constitute parkour.
- Parkour training focuses on... safety, longevity, personal responsibility, and self-improvement. It discourages reckless behavior, showing off, and dangerous stunts.
- Parkour practitioners value... community, humility, positive collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and the importance of play in human life, while demonstrating respect for all people, places, and spaces.—American Parkour Community Definition 
Two primary characteristics of parkour are efficiency and speed. Practitioners take the most direct path around an obstacle as rapidly as that path can be traversed. Developing one's level of spatial awareness is often used to aid development in these areas. Also, efficiency involves avoiding injuries, both short and long term. This idea embodying parkour's unofficial motto is être et durer (to be and to last). Those who are skilled at this activity normally have extremely keen spatial awareness.
Parkour's emphasis on efficiency distinguishes it from the similar practice of free running, which places more emphasis on freedom of movement and creativity.
Traceurs say that parkour also influences one's thought processes by enhancing self-confidence and critical-thinking skills that allow one to overcome everyday physical and mental obstacles. A study by Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence in France reflects that traceurs seek more excitement and leadership situations than gymnastic practitioners.
The first terms used to describe this form of training were l'art du déplacement and le parcours.
The term parkour (French pronunciation: [paʁˈkuʁ]) was coined by Hubert Koundé. It derives from parcours du combattant, the classic obstacle course method of military training proposed by Georges Hébert.
Before World War I, former French naval officer Georges Hébert traveled throughout the world. During a visit to Africa, he was impressed by the physical development and skills of indigenous tribes that he met:
Their bodies were splendid, flexible, nimble, skillful, enduring, and resistant but yet they had no other tutor in gymnastics but their lives in nature.—Georges Hébert, 
On May 8, 1902, the town of Saint-Pierre, Martinique, where he was stationed, suffered from the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée. Hébert coordinated the escape and rescue of some 700 people. This experience had a profound effect on him, and reinforced his belief that athletic skill must be combined with courage and altruism. He eventually developed this ethos into his motto: "être fort pour être utile" (be strong to be useful).
Inspired by indigenous tribes, Hébert became a physical education tutor at the college of Reims in France. He began to define the principles of his own system of physical education and to create various apparati and exercises to teach his méthode naturelle, which he defined as:
Methodical, progressive and continuous action, from childhood to adulthood, that has as its objective: assuring integrated physical development; increasing organic resistances; emphasizing aptitudes across all genres of natural exercise and indispensable utilities (walking, running, jumping, quadrupedal movement, climbing, equilibrium (balancing), throwing, lifting, defending and swimming); developing one's energy and all other facets of action or virility such that all assets, both physical and virile, are mastered; one dominant moral idea: altruism.—Georges Hébert, 
Hébert set up a méthode naturelle session consisting of ten fundamental groups: walking, running, jumping, quadrupedal movement, climbing, balancing, throwing, lifting, self-defense, swimming, which are part of three main forces:
During World War I and World War II, Hébert's teaching continued to expand, becoming the standard system of French military education and training. Thus, Hébert was one of the proponents of parcours — an obstacle course, developed by a Swiss architect, which is standard in the military training and led to the development of civilian fitness trails and confidence courses. Also, French soldiers and firefighters developed their obstacle courses known as parcours du combattant and parcours SP.
Raymond Belle was born in French Indochina (now Vietnam). His father died during the First Indochina War and Raymond was separated from his mother during the division of Vietnam in 1954. He was taken by the French Army in Da Lat and received a military education and training that shaped his character.
After the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Raymond was repatriated to France and completed his military education in 1958. At age 19, his dedication to fitness helped him serve in Paris's regiment of sapeurs-pompiers (the French fire service).
With his athletic ability, Raymond became the regiment's champion rope-climber and joined the regiment's elite team, composed of the unit's fittest and most agile firefighters. Its members were the ones called for the most difficult and dangerous rescue missions.
Lauded for his coolness, courage, and self-sacrifice, Raymond played a key role in the Parisian firefighters' first helicopter-borne operation. His many rescues, medals, and exploits gave him a reputation of being an exceptional pompier and inspired the next young generation, especially his son, David Belle.
Born in a firefighter's family, David was influenced by stories of heroism. Raymond introduced his son David to obstacle course training and the méthode naturelle. David participated in activities such as martial arts and gymnastics and sought to apply his athletic prowess for some practical purpose. At age 17, David left school seeking freedom and action. He continued to develop his strength and dexterity in order to be useful in life, as Raymond had advised him.
It was the end of the day. I was just doing stuff with a bunch of kids. I fall all the time — I fall like the monkeys — but it never shows up on film, because they just want the spectacular stuff.
After moving to Lisses commune, David Belle continued his journey with others. "From then on we developed," says Sébastien Foucan in Jump London, "And really the whole town was there for us; there for parkour. You just have to look, you just have to think, like children." This, as he describes, is "the vision of parkour."
In 1997, David Belle, Jussi Joensuu, Ashkan Irani, Jordan Hess, Yann Hnautra, Charles Perrière, Malik Diouf, Guylain N'Guba-Boyeke, Châu Belle-Dinh, and Williams Belle created the group called Yamakasi, whose name comes from the Lingala language of Congo, and means strong spirit, strong body, strong man, endurance. After the musical show Notre Dame de Paris, Belle and Foucan split up due to money and disagreements over the definition of l'art du déplacement, The film Yamakasi, in 2001, and the French documentary Génération Yamakasi were created without Belle and Foucan.
Over the years, as dedicated practitioners improved their skills, their numbers of moves grew. Building-to-building jumps and drops of over a story became common in media portrayals, often leaving people with a slanted view of parkour. Actually, ground-based movements are more common than anything involving rooftops, because legal accessibility in urban areas is difficult. From the Parisian suburbs, parkour went on to become a widely practised activity outside of France.
According to Williams Belle, the philosophies and theories behind parkour are an integral aspect of the art, one that many non-practitioners have never been exposed to. Belle trains people because he wants "it to be alive" and for "people to use it". Châu Belle Dinh explains it is a "type of freedom" or "kind of expression"; that parkour is "only a state of mind" rather than a set of actions, and that it is about overcoming and adapting to mental and emotional obstacles as well as physical barriers.
A recent convention of parkour philosophy has been the idea of "human reclamation". Andy (Animus of Parkour North America) clarifies it as "a means of reclaiming what it means to be a human being. It teaches us to move using the natural methods that we should have learned from infancy. It teaches us to touch the world and interact with it, instead of being sheltered by it."
"It is as much as a part of truly learning the physical art as well as being able to master the movements, it gives you the ability to overcome your fears and pains and reapply this to life as you must be able to control your mind in order to master the art of parkour."
Competition pushes people to fight against others for the satisfaction of a crowd and/or the benefits of a few business people by changing its mindset. Parkour is unique and cannot be a competitive sport unless it ignores its altruistic core of self development. If parkour becomes a sport, it will be hard to seriously teach and spread parkour as a non-competitive activity. And a new sport will be spread that may be called parkour, but that won't hold its philosophical essence anymore.—Erwan Hebertiste
There are fewer predefined movements in parkour than in gymnastics, as there is no list of "moves". Each obstacle a traceur faces presents a unique challenge. The ability to overcome the challenge depends on multiple factors, for example, on body type, speed, angle of approach, the physical make-up of the obstacle. Parkour is about training the "bodymind" to react to those obstacles appropriately with a technique that is effective. Often that technique cannot and need not be classified and given a name. In many cases effective parkour techniques depend on fast redistribution of body weight and the use of momentum to perform seemingly difficult or impossible body maneuvers at great speed. Absorption and redistribution of energy is also an important factor, such as body rolls when landing which reduce impact forces on the legs and spine, allowing a traceur to jump from greater heights than those often considered sensible in other forms of acrobatics and gymnastics.
According to David Belle, you want to move in such a way that will help you gain the most ground as if escaping or chasing something. Also, wherever you go, you must be able to get back, if you go from A to B, you need to be able to get back from B to A, but not necessarily with the same movements or passements.
Despite this, there are many basic versatile and effective techniques that are emphasized for beginners. Most important are good jumping and landing techniques. The roll, used to limit impact after a drop and to carry one's momentum onward, is often stressed as the most important technique to learn. Parkour has sometimes received concerns for its health issues due to large drops. Communities in Great Britain have been warned by law enforcement or fire and rescue of the risk in jumping off high buildings. Although David Belle has never been seriously injured while practicing parkour, there is no careful study about the health issues of large drops and traceurs stress gradual progression to avoid any problems. Despite this, the American traceur Mark Toorock and Lanier Johnson, executive director of the American Sports Medicine Institute say that injuries are rare because parkour is based on the control of movements, not on what cannot be controlled.
Some movements defined in parkour are:
|Atterrissage [ateʁisaʒ] or réception [ʁesɛpsjɔ̃]||Landing||Bending the knees when toes make contact with ground (never land flat footed; always land on toes and ball of your foot).|
|Équilibre [ekilibʁ]||Balance||Walking along the crest of an obstacle; literally "balance."|
|Équilibre de chat||Cat balance||Quadrupedal movement along the crest of an obstacle.|
|Franchissement [fʁɑ̃ʃismɑ̃]||Underbar||Jumping or swinging through a gap between obstacles; literally "to cross" or "to break through."|
|Lâché [laʃe]||Lache, swing||Hanging drop; lâcher literally meaning "to let go." To hang or swing (on a bar, on a wall, on a branch) and let go, dropping to the ground or to hang from another object. This can refer to almost all hanging/swinging type movements.|
|Passe muraille [pas myʁaj]||Pop vault, wall hop, Wallpass, wallrun||Overcoming a tall structure, usually by use of a step off the wall to transform forward momentum into upward momentum, then using the arms to climb onto and over the object.|
|Dyno (shortened from "Dynamic", opposite to "Static")||This movement comes from climbing terminology, and encompasses leaping from a position similar to an armjump, then grabbing an obstacle usually higher than the initial starting place, often used for an overhang. This movement is used when a simpler movement is not possible.|
|Passement [pasmɑ̃]||Vault, Pass||To move over an object with one's hand(s) on an object to ease the movement.|
|Demitour [dəmi tuʁ]||Turn vault, Turn Down||A vault or dropping movement involving a 180° turn; literally "half turn." This move is often used to place yourself hanging from an object in order to shorten a drop or prepare for a jump.|
|Passement||Speed vault||To overcome an obstacle by jumping side-ways first, then placing one hand on the obstacle to self-right your body and continue running.|
|Thief/Lazy vault||To overcome an obstacle by using a one-handed vault, then using the other hand at the end of the vault to push oneself forwards in order to finish the move.|
|Saut de chat [sod ʃa]||Cat pass/jump, (king) kong vault, monkey vault||The saut de chat involves diving forward over an obstacle so that the body becomes horizontal, pushing off with the hands and tucking the legs, such that the body is brought back to a vertical position, ready to land.|
|Dash vault||This vault involves using the hands to move oneself forwards at the end of the vault. One uses both hands to overcome an obstacle by jumping feet first over the obstacle and pushing off with the hands at the end. Visually, this might seem similar to the saut de chat, but reversed. Allegedly David Belle has questioned the effectiveness of this movement.|
|Reverse vault||A vault involving a 180° rotation such that the traceur's back faces forward as they pass the obstacle. The purpose of the rotation is ease of technique in the case of otherwise awkward body position or loss of momentum prior to the vault.|
|Kash vault||This vault is a combination of two vaults; the kong vault and the dash vault. After pushing off with the hands in a kong vault, the body continues past vertical over the object until the feet are leading the body. The kash vault is then finished by pushing off the object at the end, as in a dash vault.|
|Planche [plɑ̃ʃ]||Muscle-up or climb-up||To get from a hanging position (wall, rail, branch, arm jump, etc) into a position where your upper body is above the obstacle, supported by the arms. This then allows for you to climb up onto the obstacle and continue.|
|Roulade [ʁulad]||Roll||A forward roll where the hands, arms and diagonal of the back contact the ground, often called breakfall. Used primarily to transfer the momentum/energy from jumps and to minimize impact, preventing a painful landing. It is identical to the basic Kaiten or Ukemi and it was taken from Martial Arts such as Judo, Ninjutsu, Jujutsu, Hapkido and Aikido.|
|Saut de bras [sodbra]||Arm jump, cat leap, cat grab||To land on the side of an obstacle in a hanging/crouched position, the hands gripping the top edge, holding the body, ready to perform a muscle up.|
|Saut de fond [sodfɔ̃]||Drop||Literally 'jump to the ground' / 'jump to the floor'. To jump down, or drop down from something.|
|Saut de détente [sodə detɑ̃t]||Gap jump, running jump||To jump from one place/object to another, over a gap/distance. This technique is most often followed with a roll.|
|Saut de précision [so d presiziɔ̃] or précision [presiziɔ̃]||Precision||Static or moving jump from one object to a precise spot on another object. This term can refer to any form of jumping however.|
|Saut de mur||Wall Jump, Tic-Tac or Tac Vault||To step off a wall in order to overcome another obstacle or gain height to grab something|
Unlike many other activities, parkour is not currently practiced in dedicated public facilities (e.g., skateparks), although efforts are being made to create places for it. Traceurs practice parkour in urban areas like gyms, parks, playgrounds, offices, and abandoned structures. Concerns have been raised regarding trespassing, damage of property, and the practice in inappropriate places. However, most traceurs will take care of their training spots and will remove themselves quickly and quietly from a public place if asked.
There is also the concern that practitioners are needlessly risking damage to both themselves and rooftops by practicing at height, with police forces calling for practitioners to stay off the rooftops. Some figures within the parkour community agree that this sort of behaviour is not to be encouraged. These issues, however, do not appear to apply to the majority of practitioners whose relationship with authorities is generally a positive one.
Comfortable athletic shoes, that are generally light, with good grip, are encouraged. Various sport shoes manufacturers around the world started offering parkour specific lines. Some traceurs use sweat-bands for forearm protection, or even thin athletic gloves to protect the hands, but most traceurs advise against this, as it reduces grip and feel.
Since parkour is closely related to méthode naturelle, sometimes practitioners train barefooted to be able to move efficiently without depending on their gear. David Belle has said: "bare feet are the best shoes!"
The term freerunning was coined during the filming of Jump London, as a way to present parkour to the English-speaking world. Although, as noted above, parkour and freerunning are considered to be slightly different by some people, the founders and principal practitioners in Europe do not recognize any distinction, and use all names interchangeably for the discipline.
Understand that this art has been created by few soldiers in Vietnam to escape or reach: and this is the spirit we'd like parkour to keep. You have to make the difference between what is useful and what is not in emergency situations. Then you'll know what is parkour and what is not. So if you do acrobatics things on the street with no other goal than showing off, please don't say it's parkour. Acrobatics existed long time ago before parkour.—David Belle or PAWA team, or both, 
When questions are raised between the differences of parkour and freerunning, the Yamakasi group deny the differences and say: "parkour, l'art du deplacement, freerunning, the art of movement... they are all the same thing. They are all movement and they all came from the same place, the same nine guys originally. The only thing that differs is each individual's way of moving". Thus leading to what they view as separation of parkour community or wasting energy debating the differences when one should follow his/her own way and find why practice.
After the attention that parkour received following the film Casino Royale, militaries from different countries began looking for ways to incorporate parkour into training. The British Royal Marines hired parkour athletes to train their members. Colorado Parkour began a project to introduce parkour into the U.S. military and parkour is slowly being introduced into the USMC.
Parkour has appeared in various television advertisements, news reports and entertainment pieces, often combined with other forms of acrobatics, such as free running, street stunts and tricking.
(Le) Parkour (sometimes abbreviated to PK) or l'art du déplacement (English: the art of movement) is a physical art of French origin, founded by David Belle, the aim of which is to move from point A to point B as efficiently and quickly as possible, using principally the abilities of the human body. It is meant to help one overcome obstacles, which can be anything in the surrounding environment — from branches and rocks to rails and concrete walls — so parkour can be practiced in both rural and urban areas. Male parkour practitioners are recognized as traceurs and female as traceuses.
parkour m. (plural parkour)
Le Parkour (also called Parkour, and abbreviated PK) is a physical discipline of French origin in which participants attempt to pass obstacles in the most efficient way possible as if moving in an emergency situation, using skills such as jumping and climbing, or the more specific parkour moves. The obstacles can be anything in one's environment, but parkour is often seen practiced in urban areas because of many suitable public structures that are accessible to most people, such as buildings and rails. Parkour also has a deep mental and spiritual side; based around the overcoming of fears and mental obstacles in an altruistic way which may one day prove beneficial to the community.
Another discipline which is related on the surface is Freerunning, which is a break-away discipline formed by Sebastien Foucan, where the freerunner moves through their environment in anyway they wish, which often includes acrobatic manouveres such as flips and kicks. These movements are generally accepted as not parkour because they are not the most efficient way of moving through an environment.
For more exercise descriptions along with a workout of the day, go to http://www.americanparkour.com
It should be noted that although these movements are named, due to the infinite possibilities of an environment, there is an infinite variation in the number of movements which can be applied as different situations will require adaption. Another important factor is that because parkour emphasizes efficiency, although several movements may be used to cross an obstacle, the fastest is considered to be the "best" parkour. Just as a martial artist may not pick the most suited movement in the heat of the moment, a practitioner of parkour may use a less efficient movement while missing a potentially more efficient option, be it because of lack of experience or a misjudgment of the obstacle to be overcome. Nonetheless, the ultimate goal of parkour is to minimize these misjudgements and be as efficient as possible as often as possible. On-the-spot judgment thus becomes an important part of the practice.
These are considered to be Freerunning or Tricking.
Many traceurs, including a large majority of veterans and those who learn from them, have foregone certain movements in training. Specifically, most traceurs do not practice drops higher than 6 feet or any rooftop jumping. This is to better preserve the body and the image of Parkour, so that spreading the art becomes easier to do. It has also become somewhat of a debate as to whether or not drops should be considered a "move" at all. It should be noted that some traceurs still practice drops and rooftops.
Parkour is an activity in which the goal is to move from one place to another as quickly and efficiently as possible, using the abilities of the human body. Parkour helps to overcome barriers, and is practiced in rural and urban areas. Parkour practitioners are called to as traceurs, or traceuses for females.
Founded by David Belle in France, practitioners only use efficient movements to develop their bodies and minds, and to be able to overcome barriers in an emergency. It may also be a form of entertainment or a hobby.
Parkour is a physical activity which is difficult to categorize. It is not an extreme sport, but an art or discipline that resembles self-defense in the martial arts. David Belle explain that the spirit of parkour is guided in part by the notions of "escape" and "reach", using quick thinking with dexterity to get out of difficult situations. So, when faced with a hostile conflict with a person, someone will speak, fight, or flee. As martial arts are a form of training for the fight, parkour is a form of training to escape from damage. Because of its unique nature, it is often said that parkour is in its own category: "parkour is parkour."
An important characteristic of parkour is efficiency. Traceurs move not only as fast as they can, but also in the least energy-consuming and most direct way possible. This characteristic distinguishes it from the similar practice of free running, which places more emphasis on freedom of movements, such as acrobatics. Efficiency also involves avoiding injuries, short and long-term..
Parkour is also known to have an influence on traceur's thought process. Traceurs and traceuses experience a change in their critical thinking skills which helps them overcome physical and mental obstacles in everyday life.
|Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found|