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Parliament of Romania
Parlamentul României
6th Legislature
Coat of arms or logo.Coat of arms or logo.
Type
Type Bicameral
Houses Senatul
Camera Deputaţilor
Leadership
President of the Senate Mircea Geoană, Social Democratic Party
since 19 December 2008
President of the Chamber of Deputies Roberta Anastase, Democratic Liberal Party
since 19 December 2008
Structure
Members 137 Senators
334 Deputies
Seats in the Romanian Senate - 6th Legislature.png
Senate Political groups      PD-L (51)
     PSD + PC (48 + 1)
     PNL (28)
     UDMR (9)
Seats in the Romanian Chamner of Deputies - 6th Legislature.png
Chamber of Deputies Political groups      PD-L (115)
     PSD + PC (110 + 3)
     PNL (65)
     UDMR (22)
     National minorities (18)
     Independents (1)
Senate Committees
Chamber of Deputies committees
Joint committees

Election
Senate Voting system 1992 - 2008: Closed list, D'Hondt method
since 2008: Mixed member proportional representation
Chamber of Deputies Voting system 1992 - 2008: Closed list, D'Hondt method
since 2008: Mixed member proportional representation
Senate Last election 30 November 2008
Chamber of Deputies Last election 30 November 2008
Meeting place
Palace of the Parliament.jpg
Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest
Website

The Parliament of Romania is made up of two chambers:

Prior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but each house has designated matters it gets to deliberate before the other, in capacity of "deciding chamber" (Romanian: cameră decizională). If that first chamber adopts a law proposal (relating to its competences), it is passed on to the other one, which can approve or reject. If it makes amendments, the bill is sent back to the deciding chamber, the decision of which is final.

In 2009, a referendum was held to consult the population about turning the parliament into a unicameral body and reducing the number of representatives to 300. Although the referendum passed, the results are not binding, a referendum explicitly mentioning the modification of the constitution being required to achieve this.[1]

Contents

History

The parliamentary history of Romania starts in Wallachia, where a constitutional document was adopted, the Regulamentul Organic ("Organic Statute" or "Organic Regulation"); a year later, this same statute was implemented in Moldavia as well. The organic regulation laid the foundations for the parliamentary institution in the Romanian Principalities.

The Paris Convention of August 19, 1858 and, especially, the Statutul Dezvoltător ("Expanding Statute") of that convention (which introduced a bicameral parliament, by founding the Corpul Ponderator, later renamed Senat), adopted on the initiative of prince (Domnitor) Alexandru Ioan Cuza, by means of a plebiscite in 1864, perfected and enlarged the principle of national representation. Under the political regime established by the Paris Convention, the legislative power faced an obvious process of modernization, and the legislative power as National Representation, which operated in accordance with the organization and operation mode of parliaments in Western Europe at that time.[2]

The historical process of formation of the Parliament of Romania in the modern age strongly boosted the affirmation of national sovereignty, subsequently leading to the Union of the two Principalities, in 1859. Under the dome of the Romanian Parliament, on 9 May 1877, the Declaration of Romania's Independence was read, and, in 1920, the documents of union with Transylvania and Bessarabia under the Treaty of Trianon were read, the formal beginning of Greater Romania.

In February 1938, amid the rather chaotic European political association that eventually led to World War II, King Carol II, who always tended to favor his own personal rule over parliamentarism, imposed a rule of authoritarian monarchy. Under the royal dictatorship, the parliament became merely a decorative body, deprived of its main attributes.

Carol abdicated in September 1940, and the succeeding fascist National Legionary State suspended parliament. The National Legionary State as such lasted less than five months, but it was succeeded by Ion Antonescu's military dictatorship, and parliament remained suspended. After 23 August 1944, under the pressure of Soviet and other communist forces, the parliament was re-organized as a single legislative body, the Assembly of Deputies, changed under the 1948 constitution, into the Great National Assembly, a merely formal body, totally subordinate to the power of the Romanian Communist Party.

The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 opened the road for Romanians to restore authentic pluralistic electoral democracy, respecting human rights, and observing the separation of powers and the rulers' responsibility before representative bodies. Thanks to the documents issued by the provisional revolutionary power, Romania has returned to a bicameral parliamentary system. All these stipulations can be found in the country's new Constitution, approved by referendum in 1991.

During more than a decade of post-communist transition, the Chamber of Deputies and Senate debated and adopted numerous laws and regulations aimed at reforming the entire society on a democratic basis, guaranteeing respect of fundamental human rights, promoting reform and privatization, consolidating market economic institutions and those of a state ruled by law, which led to Romania's integration into such institutions at NATO and the European Union.

Functioning

Prior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. This French procedure proved to be extremely long and inefficient with respect to the expectations of the Romanians towards democracy. After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but in some matters one is "superior" to the other, being called "decision chamber" ("cameră decizională"). This eliminates the process of "negotiation" between the two houses, and keeps the Senate as the upper house and the Chamber as the lower house.

Composition

Romania

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Romania



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2008-present

e • d  Seats in the Senate of Romania, 6th legislature
Party Election seating Lost Won Present seating
Seats  % Seats  %
  Democratic Liberal Party 51 37.22% ±0 +1 52 37.96%
  Social Democratic Party + Conservative Party 49
(48+1)
35.77% -1 ±0 48
(47+1)
35.77%
  National Liberal Party 28 21.17% -4 ±0 24 18.98%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 9 6.57% ±0 ±0 9 6.57%
  Independents ±0 +4 4 0.73%;
Total 137 100 137 100
e • d  Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania, 6th legislature
Party 30 November 2008 Lost Won Present
Seats  % Seats  %
  Democratic Liberal Party 115 34.43% ±0 +2 117 34.53%
  Social Democratic Party + Conservative Party 114
(111+4)
34.13% -8 ±0 106
(102+4)
32.13%
  National Liberal Party 65 19.46% -11 ±0 54 16.51%
  Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania 22 6.59% ±0 ±0 22 6.59%
  Independents ±0 +16 16 4.80%;
  Ethnic minorities parties 18 5.39% ±0 ±0 18 5.40%
Total 334 100 333 100

2004 - 2008

References

External links


Simple English

Parliament of Romania
Parlamentul României
6th Legislature
File:Coat of arms of the Chamber of Deputies of
Type
Type Bicameral
Houses Senatul
Camera Deputaţilor
Leadership
President of the Senate Mircea Geoană, Social Democratic Party
since 19 December 2008
President of the Chamber of Deputies Roberta Anastase, Template:PD-L - RO
since 19 December 2008
Structure
Members 137 Senators
334 Deputies
File:Seats in the Romanian Senate - 6th
Senate Political groups       PD-L (51)
      PSD + PC (48 + 1)
      PNL (28)
      UDMR (9)
File:Seats in the Romanian Chamner of Deputies - 6th
Chamber of Deputies Political groups       PD-L (115)
      PSD + PC (110 + 3)
      PNL (65)
      UDMR (22)
      National minorities (18)
      Independents (1)
Senate Committees
Chamber of Deputies committees
Joint committees

Election
Senate Voting system 1992 - 2008: Closed list, D'Hondt method
since 2008: Mixed member proportional representation
Chamber of Deputies Voting system 1992 - 2008: Closed list, D'Hondt method
since 2008: Mixed member proportional representation
Senate Last election 30 November 2008
Chamber of Deputies Last election 30 November 2008
Meeting place
Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest
Website
http://www.parlament.ro/

The Parliament of Romania is made up of two parts: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Under 2003, they had identical powers, and after 2003, laws still have to be approved by both parts in order to be passed into law, but in some matters, one part of the Parliament is superior to the others.

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