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Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Coat of arms or logo.
Type
Type Bicameral
Houses House of Lords
House of Commons
Leadership
Lord Speaker Lady Hayman, PC, (Non-affiliated)
since 4 May 2006
Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow MP, (Non-affiliated)
since 22 June 2009
Structure
Members 1,386
740 Peers
646 Members of Parliament (MPs)
Lords Political groups Labour Party, Conservative Party, Cross Benchers, Liberal Democrats, Lords Spiritual, UK Independence Party, Non-affiliated peers
House of Commons Political groups Labour Party, Conservative Party, Liberal Democrats, Democratic Unionist Party, Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru, Sinn Féin, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Ulster Unionist Party, Respect – The Unity Coalition
House of Commons Last election 5 May 2005
Meeting place
houses.of.parliament.overall.arp.jpg
Palace of Westminster, Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Website
http://www.parliament.uk/
Live Internet Simulcasts
.The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly referred to as the British Parliament, the Parliament at Westminster or, formerly, the Imperial Parliament) is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories.^ UK: Great Britain (the island) Northern Ireland.
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United Kingdom Parliament home page .
  • How Does The UK Parliament Work 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?.
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories.^ Parliament is the legislative body for the UK, with certain powers over dependent units.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The creation of the devolved Scottish parliament in particular, with powers to legislate over a wide range of issues, is beginning to add to differences between the constituent countries of the United Kingdom.

^ "Parliament is the highest legislative authority in the United Kingdom – the institution responsible for making and repealing UK law."
  • United Kingdom Parliament - Medical Marijuana - ProCon.org 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC medicalmarijuana.procon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.^ Were they still doing so, the modern Queen Elizabeth II would be Queen Elizabeth II/I, reflecting the fact that there never was a Queen Elizabeth I of Scotland.
  • Parliament of the United Kingdom - Wikinfo 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A constitutional monarchy , the United Kingdom is a Commonwealth Realm, sharing the same person — Queen Elizabeth II — with the fifteen other Realms as monarch and head of state, forming a personal union with each.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jun (1926) Birthday of Queen Elizabeth II .
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

.The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the House of Commons.^ Legislative--bicameral parliament: House of Commons, House of Lords.
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  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC clinton4.nara.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Background Notes Archive - Europe 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC gopher.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of offices in Parliament work for both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
  • UK Parliament - Job Opportunities 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.parliament.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] The Queen is the third component of the legislature.[2][3] .The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual (the senior bishops of the Church of England) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage) whose members are not elected by the population at large, but are appointed by the Sovereign on advice of the Prime Minister.^ The Church of England is a state church, and some of her bishops sit in the House of Lords .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, neither the Prime Minister nor members of the Government are elected by the House of Commons.

^ First prime minister fo england?
  • WikiAnswers - Who was the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009 the House of Lords also performed a judicial role through the Law Lords.^ Judicial --magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts, House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom Government Information 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.traveldocs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Judicial--magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts, House of Lords.
  • Background Notes: United Kingdom 6/97 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC clinton4.nara.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Background Notes Archive - Europe 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC gopher.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Open House London 2009 .
  • UK Parliament Events | Facebook 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

.The House of Commons is a democratically elected chamber with elections to it held at least every 5 years.^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bicameral, composed of the elected House of Commons and the .
  • United Kingdom - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.naturemagics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General elections are held at least every five years.

[5] .The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament"), in the City of Westminster in London.^ Both Houses meet in the Palace of Westminster , sometimes called the Houses of Parliament .
  • Parliament of the United Kingdom - Wikinfo 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wikinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament meets in the Palace of Westminster .

^ The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament"), in the City of Westminster in London .

.By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less often, the House of Lords, and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature.^ However, neither the Prime Minister nor members of the Government are elected by the House of Commons.

^ Greg Mulholland, a member of the House of Commons.
  • The United Kingdom Proves that Becoming Energy Efficient Helps the Environment& Grows the Economy - MPs Visit to Join Maine to Fight Global Warming. GovernorBaldacci mets with British lawmakers: Hon. Greg Mulholland, Member of Parliament; LordCorbett of Castle Vale; Governor John E. Baldacci; Rt. Hon. Greg Knight, Member ofParliament; Lord Harrison of Chester by Ramona du Houx 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC polarbearandco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays the Prime Minister and almost all the members of the Cabinet are members of the House of Commons.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by both the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland passing Acts of Union.^ Scotland’s separate parliament in Edinburgh ceased to exist in 1707 when the act of union united it with the Westminster parliament as the sole legislature for Great Britain.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts of pre-Union Irish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Act of Union of 1707 combined the Scottish and English parliaments , forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain , and the Act of Ireland (1801) united Britain and Ireland.
  • United Kingdom@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]
  • United Kingdom@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, in practice the parliament was a continuation of the English parliament with the addition of Scottish MPs and peers.^ The Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected by the English people and sit in the House of Commons.
  • About the United Kingdom - A Webquest for ESL Beginners 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ypanier.free.fr [Source type: General]

^ Delegated legislation made under powers not devolved to the Scottish Parliament has continued to originate in London.
  • Features - Devolution in the United Kingdom: A Revolution on Online Legal Research | LLRX.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, the Scottish Parliament has the power to pass or repeal legislation passed by the English Parliament, including education acts, or to amend portions of statutes.

.Parliament was further enlarged by the ratification by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland of the Act of Union (1800), which abolished the Irish Parliament; this added 100 Irish members to the Commons and 32 to the Lords to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.^ The article in the Act relating to the flag stated; "That it be the first Article of the Union of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, ....
  • United Kingdom - History of the Flag 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC flagspot.net [Source type: Original source]

^ List of Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament, 1801-1819 ...
  • United Kingdom Parliament - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:25 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Kingdom Parliament home page .
  • How Does The UK Parliament Work 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The Parliament of England had itself evolved from the early medieval councils that advised the sovereigns of England.^ Parliament evolved from the early medieval councils that advised the sovereigns of England and Scotland.

^ In the Middle Ages and early modern period there were three kingdoms within the British Isles — England , Scotland and Ireland — and these developed separate parliaments.

[6] .England has been called "the mother of parliaments",[7] its democratic institutions having set the standards for many democracies throughout the world,[8] and the United Kingdom parliament is the largest Anglophone legislative body in the world.^ The United Kingdom Parliament is sometimes called the "Mother of Parliaments", as the legislative bodies of many states, most notably those of the members of the Commonwealth, are modelled on it.

^ United Kingdom of Great England feat.
  • United Kingdom of Great England feat. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament is the legislative body for the UK, with certain powers over dependent units.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.In theory, supreme legislative power is vested in the Queen-in-Parliament; in practice in modern times, real power is vested in the House of Commons, as the Sovereign generally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords have been limited.^ The House of Commons is more powerful than the House of Lords.
  • Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC fact-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oral questions are answered by ministers at question time in the House of Commons.

^ The House of Commons is the centre of parliamentary power.

[10]

Contents

History

.In the Middle Ages and early modern period there were the four separate kingdoms of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales and these developed separate parliaments.^ By the end of the following century, four separate kingdoms had been established in Scotland.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The united kingdom: consists of the regions, England, Scotland, Wales and N.Ireland .
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The united kingdom: consists of the regions, England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland .
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Laws in Wales Acts of 1535–42 annexed Wales as part of England, the 1707 Acts of Union brought England and Scotland together under the Parliament of Great Britain,[11] and the 1800 Act of Union included Ireland under the Parliament of the United Kingdom and Ireland.^ The article in the Act relating to the flag stated; "That it be the first Article of the Union of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, ....
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^ Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each possess a legislature and government alongside that for the United Kingdom.
  • United Kingdom | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.koordinaten.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unbreakable Union of Northern Ireland , Scotland and Wales The England has welded forever to stand!
  • United Kingdom of Great England feat. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Parliament of England

.
English parliament in front of the king c.
^ English parliament in front of the king c.

^ This long struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament during the 17th century was finally resolved by the introduction of the Bill of Rights in 1689.
  • Closer Look: A Short History of Parliament: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Bill of Rights was enacted by the English Parliament and singed into law by King William III in 1689.
  • The English Bill of Rights and Its Influence on the United StatesConstitution 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.thegloriousrevolution.org [Source type: Original source]

1300
.The English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot.^ The idea of a parliament slowly emerged in Anglo-Saxon times.
  • Closer Look: A Short History of Parliament: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern parliaments trace their history to the 13th century, when the sheriffs of English counties sent knights to the king to provide advice on financial matters.
  • Parliament (United Kingdom government) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English Parliament traces its origins to the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot .

.In 1066, William of Normandy brought a feudal system, by which he sought advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws.^ In 1066, William of Normandy brought a feudal system, where he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws.

^ The conquest of England in 1066 by William, duke of Normandy ( William I of England), ended the Anglo-Saxon period.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lord William sent it down to me (the Educational being one of my Secretariat Departments) with a short note written at the foot adopting it and desiring it to be put in train to be brought before Council.

.In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured the Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of his royal council, which slowly developed into a parliament.^ King John’s signing of the Magna Carta illustrates: .
  • Closer Look: A Short History of Parliament: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1215, the tenants-in-chief secured the Magna Carta from John , which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of his royal council, which slowly developed into a parliament.

^ Perhaps Britain's best-known constitutional document directly linked to feudalism was the Magna Carta of 1215.

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.In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester summoned the first elected Parliament.^ Barons' War ; Montfort, Simon de, earl of Leicester ) were roughly contemporaneous with the first steps in the development of Parliament .
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simon de Montfort summoned first English parliament in which towns were represented.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester summoned the first elected , Parliament.

.The franchise in parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, extending to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings (Forty-shilling Freeholders).^ The franchise in parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, extending to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings ( Forty-shilling Freeholders).

^ Some wanted a fully democratic House of Commons, with equal sized constituencies, the franchise for all adult males, the secret ballot and annual general elections.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The country would be governed by the beliefs, values, and aspirations of the middle class rather than by those of the landed aristocracy.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the boroughs, the franchise varied across the country; individual boroughs had varying arrangements.^ In the boroughs, the franchise varied across the country; individual boroughs had varying arrangements.

^ There is wide variation across the country, with strong correlations between measures of social deprivation, educational attainment and educational prospects with the rate of teenage conceptions.
  • [10 Jun 1999] WOM/1131 : COMMITTEE ON ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN BEGINS CONSIDERATION OF UNITED KINGDOM REPORT 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This set the scene for the so-called "Model Parliament" of 1295 adopted by Edward I.^ This set the scene for the so-called " Model Parliament" of 1295 adopted by Edward I .

^ The parliament called in 1295, known as the Model Parliament and widely regarded as the first representative parliament, included the lower clergy for the first time as well as two knights from each county, two burgesses from each borough, and two citizens from each city.
  • Parliament (United Kingdom government) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Model Parliament of Edward I : knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the reign of Edward II, Parliament had been separated into two Houses: one including the nobility and higher clergy, the other including the knights and burgesses, and no law could be made, nor any tax levied, without the consent of both Houses as well as of the Sovereign.^ These two parliaments have only one house—the Legislative Assembly.
  • Closer Look: A Short History of Parliament: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Days on which one or both Houses of Parliament meet.

^ As with the State Opening, it is made to both Houses.

.When Elizabeth I was succeeded in 1603 by the Scottish King James VI (thus becoming James I of England), the countries both came under his rule but each retained its own Parliament.^ While maintaining separate parliaments, England and Scotland were ruled under one crown beginning in 1603, when James VI of Scotland succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I as James I of England.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Elizabeth I was succeeded in 1603 by the Scottish King James VI, (thus becoming James I of England), the countries both came under his rule but each retained its own Parliament.

^ At home, to ensure Scottish allegiance to England and prevent possible alliances with inimical countries, the Act of Union of Scotland and England was voted by the two parliaments in 1707, thereby formally creating the kingdom of Great Britain under one crown and with a single Parliament composed of representatives of both countries.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.James I's successor, Charles I, quarrelled with the English Parliament and, after he provoked the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, their dispute developed into the English Civil War.^ James I's successor, Charles I , quarrelled with the English Parliament and, after he provoked the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, their dispute developed into the English Civil War.

^ The immediate effect was to make the United Kingdom countries more open to trade and to developing the trappings of civilization already in place in other countries of Europe.

^ Under James II & VII , the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.

.Charles was executed in 1649 and under Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England the House of Lords was abolished, and the House of Commons made subordinate to Cromwell.^ The House of Lords is now a chamber that is subordinate to the House of Commons.

^ Mar 1649 Monarchy abolished in England .
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^ Jan 1649 King Charles I executed in England.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

.After Cromwell's death, the Restoration of 1660 restored the monarchy and the House of Lords.^ After Cromwell's death, the Restoration of 1660 restored the monarchy and the House of Lords.

^ The monarchy was restored in 1660, but the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688 confirmed the sovereignty of Parliament: a Bill of Rights was granted 1689.
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^ Execution of Charles I; Oliver Cromwell appointed Lord Protector in 1653; monarchy restored in 1660.
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.Amidst fears of a Roman Catholic succession, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 deposed James II (James VII of Scotland) in favour of the joint rule of Mary II and William III, whose agreement to the English Bill of Rights introduced a constitutional monarchy, though the supremacy of the Crown remained.^ Glorious Revolution confirmed power of Parliament; replacement of James II by William III resisted by Scottish Highlanders and Catholic Irish.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amidst fears of a Roman Catholic succession, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 deposed James II (James VII of Scotland) in favour of the joint rule of Mary II and William III , whose agreement to the English Bill of Rights introduced a constitutional monarchy , though the supremacy of the Crown remained.

^ At this time, the Bill of Rights was read to both William and Mary.
  • Constitutional Law in United Kingdom - British Constitution - Magna Carta, 1215 - 1689 English Bill of Rights 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the third time, a Convention Parliament, i.e., one not summoned by the king, was required to determine the succession.^ The threat of anarchy led to an invitation by a newly elected Parliament (the Convention Parliament) to Charles, son of Charles I, to become king, ushering in the Restoration (1660).
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January of 1689 a Convention assembled in London to determine the succession of the English Crown.
  • The English Bill of Rights and Its Influence on the United StatesConstitution 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.thegloriousrevolution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was possible for a king to summon a Parliament at the beginning of a reign to approve taxes, and then dissolve it, as James II did, for the remainder of his reign.
  • The English Bill of Rights and Its Influence on the United StatesConstitution 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.thegloriousrevolution.org [Source type: Original source]

Parliament of Wales

Debating chamber in the Senedd, the Welsh Assembly building.
.King Hywel Dda first codified Welsh Law in 945 with a parliamentary conference at Whitland, though subsequent Welsh law was revised by jurists as common law.^ In the 10th century, a Welsh king, Howel the Good (Hywel Dda), united Wales, codified the laws, and encouraged the Welsh bards.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first two are based mainly on common-law principles, except for a few areas.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They became more formalised in the 17th century and had virtual parliamentary status, though legislation passed there could be re-enacted by a subsequent parliament.
  • Guide to Scottish Parliament records - The National Archives of Scotland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nas.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perhaps the first proper parliament (though short-lived) was set up by Owain Glyndwr in 1404.[13] Following the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, Welsh constituencies sent MPs to the English Parliament.^ Acts of the English Parliament (1235 - 1707) .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Parliament-made law expressed in an Act.

^ "It is a perfectly proper use of the Parliament Act.
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[14] .However there was no lawmaking power specifically within Wales until the establishment of National Assembly for Wales under Government of Wales Act 1998.^ Government of Wales Act (31 Jul 1998) .
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Constitutional reform is also a current issue in the UK. The House of Lords has been subjected to ongoing reforms and National assemblies with varying degrees of power were created in Scotland , Wales , and Northern Ireland in 1999 .
  • Bambooweb: United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In late 1997, however, following approval of referenda by Scottish and Welsh voters (though only narrowly in Wales), the British Government introduced legislation to establish a Scottish Parliament and a Welsh Assembly.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parliament of Scotland

Parliament House in Edinburgh, the former home of the Estates of Scotland.
.From the time of Kenneth mac Alpin, the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Kingdom of Alba) had been ruled by chieftains and kings under the suzerainty of the King of Scots, all offices being filled through election by an assembly under the Gaelic system of tanistry, which combined a hereditary element with the consent of those ruled.^ Kings ¹ 840 - 858 Kenneth I mac Alpin (d.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From the time of Kenneth mac Alpin, the early Kingdom of Scotland (see Kingdom of Alba) had been ruled by chieftains and petty kings under the suzerainty of the King of Scots, all offices being filled through election by an assembly under the Gaelic system of tanistry, which combined a hereditary element with the consent of those ruled.

^ Local and General Elections (only held every four or five years) are held at this time, as well as elections for the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland’s Stormont, as well as the Welsh Assembly are held.

.After Macbeth was overthrown by Malcolm III in 1057 the feudal system of primogeniture was gradually introduced, as Scotland came increasingly under Norman influence.^ After Macbeth was overthrown by Malcolm III in 1057 the feudal system of primogeniture was gradually introduced, as Scotland came increasingly under Norman influence.

^ The pre-Celtic, Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Norse influences were blended in Britain under the Normans, Scandinavian Vikings who had lived in Northern France.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 1169, the island of Ireland came under British influence, and it became a colonial dependency in 1690.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the High Middle Ages the King's Council of Bishops and Earls evolved into the unicameral Estates of Parliament of 1235, with the colloquium at Kirkliston (the first meeting of Parliament for which records survive), which had both a political and judicial role.^ In the High Middle Ages the King's Council of Bishops and Earls evolved into the unicameral Estates of Parliament, with the colloquium at Kirkliston, of 1235 (the first meeting of Parliament for which records survive), which had both a political and judicial role.

^ In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester summoned the first elected , Parliament.

^ Barons' War ; Montfort, Simon de, earl of Leicester ) were roughly contemporaneous with the first steps in the development of Parliament .
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .From 1326 the Three Estates (Scots: Thrie Estaitis) had clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and the burgh Commissioners (approximately equivalent to early burgesses, later Members of Parliament, in the contemporaneous Parliament of England) sitting in a single chamber, with powers over taxation and a strong influence over justice, foreign policy, war, and legislation.^ From 1326 the Three Estates ( Scots : Thrie Estaitis ) had clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and the burgh Commissioners (approximately equivalent to early burgesses, later Members of Parliament, in the contemporaneous Parliament of England) sitting in a single chamber, with powers over taxation and a strong influence over justice, foreign policy, war, and legislation.

^ Foreign policy and criminal justice are implemented in Her Majesty's name, but the monarch has no real control over either.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barons' War ; Montfort, Simon de, earl of Leicester ) were roughly contemporaneous with the first steps in the development of Parliament .
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The Parliament chose a committee called the Lords of the Articles (comparable to a modern select committee) to draft legislation, which was then presented to the full Parliament to be confirmed.^ The Parliament chose a committee called the Lords of the Articles (comparable to a modern select committee) to draft legislation, which was then presented to the full Parliament to be confirmed.

^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica buildings, London, United Kingdom also called Palace of Westminster in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , the seat of the bicameral Parliament , including the House of Commons and the House of Lords .
  • Houses of Parliament (buildings, London, United Kingdom) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executive government rests nominally with the monarch but actually is exercised by a committee of ministers (cabinet) traditionally selected from among the members of the House of Commons and, to a lesser extent, the House of Lords.
  • Background Notes: United Kingdom 6/97 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Background Notes Archive - Europe 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC gopher.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[17][18]
.Following the Reformation and pressure from the Kirk, Catholic clergy were excluded from 1567, and after Protestant bishops were abolished in 1638 (see Bishops' Wars) the Scottish Parliament became an entirely lay legislature.^ Following the Reformation and pressure from the Kirk, Catholic clergy were excluded from 1567, and after Protestant bishops were abolished in 1638 (see Bishops' Wars) the Scottish Parliament became an entirely lay legislature.

^ Following referenda in 1997 and elections in 1999, a Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly opened in May 1999.
  • United Kingdom@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]
  • United Kingdom@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1652, under Cromwell, the Scottish Parliament was abolished, but Scots were able to send representatives to Westminster.
  • GCM021 Holyrood Horror? (Virtual Cache) in Southern Scotland, United Kingdom created by Firth of Forth 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .During the reign of James VI, the Lords of the Articles came more under the influence of the Crown, and following his accession to the throne of England in 1603 (see Union of the Crowns) he used them to run Scotland from London.^ In 1603 James VI of Scotland, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, succeeded to the throne of England as James I, and effected the Union of the Crowns.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scotland was united with England when James VI of Scotland was crowned James I of England in 1603.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reign of James VI, the Lords of the Articles came more under the influence of the Crown, and following his accession to the throne of England in 1603 (see Union of the Crowns) he used them to run Scotland from London.

.During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the Covenanting period (1638–51) the Scottish Parliament took control of the executive, effectively wresting sovereignty from Charles I.^ During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in the Covenanting period ( 1638– 51) the Scottish Parliament took control of the executive, effectively wresting sovereignty from Charles I .

^ Following the Reformation and pressure from the Kirk, Catholic clergy were excluded from 1567, and after Protestant bishops were abolished in 1638 (see Bishops' Wars) the Scottish Parliament became an entirely lay legislature.

^ Between 1639 and 1651, 1660-1 and again in 1688-9, parliament appointed a Committee of Estates, effectively a commission as it had wide legislative and executive powers but did not have to report to Parliament.
  • Guide to Scottish Parliament records - The National Archives of Scotland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nas.gov.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After Scotland was invaded by Oliver Cromwell, his Protectorate government imposed a brief Anglo-Scottish parliamentary union in 1657.
.The Scottish Parliament returned after the Restoration of Charles II to the thrones of England and Ireland in 1660 (he had already been crowned King of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651).^ Edward II, King of England (to 1327).
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1660, Charles II, eldest son of the executed king, regained the throne.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parliament was restored in 1661, but in 1707, with the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England, the Scottish Parliament was dissolved.
  • GCM021 Holyrood Horror? (Virtual Cache) in Southern Scotland, United Kingdom created by Firth of Forth 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After the Glorious Revolution formally changed England's monarch in February 1689, William II of Scotland (William III of England) summoned a Convention of the Estates, which considered competing letters from both William and from James VII of Scotland (James II of England), and set out its terms and conditions in the Claim of Right, and duly proclaimed William and Mary II to be the joint monarchs of Scotland, at Edinburgh on 11 April 1689.
.A new Scottish Parliament with devolved powers was created in 1999; see Scottish Parliament.^ The Scottish parliament has limited powers.

^ He continued, "Considering that the Union legislation extinguished the Parliaments of Scotland and England and replaced them by a new Parliament, I have difficulty in seeing why the new Parliament of Great Britain must inherit all the peculiar characteristics of the English Parliament but none of the Scottish."

^ On May 6th 1999, 292 years after the dissolution of the previous Parliament, the first elections to the new Scottish Parliament took place.
  • GCM021 Holyrood Horror? (Virtual Cache) in Southern Scotland, United Kingdom created by Firth of Forth 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parliament of Ireland

.The Irish Parliament was founded to represent the English community in the Lordship of Ireland, while the native or Gaelic Irish were ineligible to vote or stand for office, the first known meeting being in 1264. The English presence shrank to an enclave around Dublin known as the Pale.^ First representative parliament.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English presence shrank to an enclave around Dublin known as the Pale.

^ The Irish Parliament was founded to represent the English community in the Lordship of Ireland, while the native or Gaelic Irish were ineligible to vote or stand for office, the first known meeting being in 1264.

.In 1541 Henry VIII declared the Kingdom of Ireland and embarked on the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland.^ In 1541 Henry VIII declared the Kingdom of Ireland and embarked on the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland.

^ His successor, Henry VIII, broke with the Catholic church in Rome and declared himself the head of the Church of England.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland , which had been gradually brought under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Gaelic Irish lords were now entitled to attend the Irish Parliament as equals of the majority of English descent.^ Equal status for Gaelic, Scots and English.

^ The Gaelic Irish lords were now entitled to attend the Irish Parliament as equals of the majority of English descent.

^ After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Catholics were barred from voting or attending the Parliament in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 1652.

.Disputes followed the English Reformation, when most of the population remained Roman Catholic, and in 1613–15 constituencies were fixed so that Protestant settlers held the majority in the Irish Parliament, creating the foundation for the Protestant Ascendancy.^ Disputes followed the introduction of Protestantism as the state religion, when most of the population remained Roman Catholic, and in 1613– 15 constituencies were fixed so that Protestant settlers held the majority in the Irish Parliament.

^ Following the Reformation and pressure from the Kirk, Catholic clergy were excluded from 1567, and after Protestant bishops were abolished in 1638 (see Bishops' Wars) the Scottish Parliament became an entirely lay legislature.

^ Under James II & VII , the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.

.After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Catholics were barred from voting or attending the Parliament in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 1652.^ After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Catholics were barred from voting or attending the Parliament in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 1652.

^ Under James II & VII , the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.

^ Poyning's Law of 1494 had made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the Parliament of England, but the Constitution of 1782 removed these restrictions and about a decade later Catholics gained the right to vote, though they were still barred from membership.

.Under James II, the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.^ Under James II & VII , the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.

^ After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Catholics were barred from voting or attending the Parliament in the Cromwellian Act of Settlement 1652.

^ Supporters of James II (Jacobites) in Scotland and Ireland, aided by France, sought to restore the deposed Stuart line, but their insurrection was suppressed in 1690 at the Battle of the Boyne, fought on the banks of the Irish river of that name.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the victory of William III of England these gains were reversed, with the Penal Laws making things worse.^ After the victory of William III of England these gains were reversed, with the Penal Laws making things worse.

^ Poyning's Law of 1494 had made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the Parliament of England, but the Constitution of 1782 removed these restrictions and about a decade later Catholics gained the right to vote, though they were still barred from membership.

^ These are designed to work with current copyright law, and involve a fair degree of complication to make them work legally.
  • Epeus' epigone: 12/01/2005 - 01/01/2006 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC epeus.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Poyning's Law of 1494 had made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the Parliament of England, but the Constitution of 1782 removed these restrictions and about a decade later Catholics gained the right to vote, though they were still barred from membership.^ Constitution (None, all laws of Parliament) .
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Parliament-made law expressed in an Act.

^ Poyning's Law of 1494 had made the Irish Parliament subordinate to the Parliament of England, but the Constitution of 1782 removed these restrictions and about a decade later Catholics gained the right to vote, though they were still barred from membership.

Parliament of Great Britain

.Following the Treaty of Union in 1707, Acts of Union were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain.^ With the Act of Union 1707 , the separate kingdoms of England and Scotland, having shared the same monarch since 1603 , agreed to a permanent union as the Kingdom of Great Britain .
  • Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC fact-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Acts of the pre-Union Scottish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scotland’s separate parliament in Edinburgh ceased to exist in 1707 when the act of union united it with the Westminster parliament as the sole legislature for Great Britain.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain based in the former home of the English parliament.^ The Acts dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain based in the former home of the English parliament.

^ Acts of the English Parliament (1235 - 1707) .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the Treaty of Union in 1707, Acts of Union were passed in both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, which created a new Kingdom of Great Britain.

.All the traditions, procedures, and standing orders of the English parliament were retained, as were the incumbent officers, and English members comprised the overwhelming majority of the new body.^ He continued, "Considering that the Union legislation extinguished the Parliaments of Scotland and England and replaced them by a new Parliament, I have difficulty in seeing why the new Parliament of Great Britain must inherit all the peculiar characteristics of the English Parliament but none of the Scottish."

^ Ireland retained its separate parliament in Dublin throughout the eighteenth-century, but it failed to produce stable government because it excluded all representatives of the large Catholic majority in the country (even after propertied Catholics had received the vote in 1793).
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If, when called to order, the Member fails to retract or explain his words and make a satisfactory apology, he may be punished by a reprimand or commitment or under Standing Orders Nos.
  • IPS MONOGRAPHS-The RULING OF THE SPEAKER OF THE BANGLADESH PARLIAMENT (3rd PARLIAMENT) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.parliamentofbangladesh.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was not even considered necessary to hold a new general election.^ In that case, when Tony Blair resigns, his successor does not need to call an election, nor is it necessarily even desirable when we remember that he would in fact be continuing an agenda that was democratically legitimized by the 2005 general election, and that the new leader has the confidence of the house.

^ Results of 2005 United Kingdom General Election - Wikinews, the free news source .
  • Results of 2005 United Kingdom General Election - Wikinews, the free news source 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikinews.org [Source type: News]

^ New sessions also begin after a general election, so there may be multiple sessions for one year.

.While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, the legislation was now dealt with by the new parliament.^ A new law is under consideration by the Parliament.

^ While Scots law and Scottish legislation remained separate, the legislation was now dealt with by the new parliament.

^ In 1652, under Cromwell, the Scottish Parliament was abolished, but Scots were able to send representatives to Westminster.
  • GCM021 Holyrood Horror? (Virtual Cache) in Southern Scotland, United Kingdom created by Firth of Forth 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714 through an Act of Parliament, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.^ After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.

^ The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament.

^ Past Canadian prime ministers have normally asked the governor-general (who acts as Canada’s head of state) to prorogue Parliament only after the government has completed most of its legislative business in order to start afresh with a new speech from the throne outlining new priorities.

.Towards the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which was dominated by the English aristocracy, by means of patronage, but had ceased to exert direct power: for instance, the last occasion Royal Assent was withheld, was in 1708 by Queen Anne.^ Towards the end of the 18th century the monarch still had considerable influence over Parliament, which was dominated by the English aristocracy and by patronage.

^ An Act of Parliament becomes law when it has been approved by the monarch (known as Royal Assent ); the last refusal of assent was by Queen Anne in 1706.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Act of Parliament becomes a law officially when it has been signed by the Queen (referred to as being given "Royal Assent"); of note, however, is that no monarch has refused to assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .At general elections the vote was restricted to freeholders and landowners, in constituencies that were out of date, so that in many "rotten boroughs" seats could be bought while major cities remained unrepresented.^ At general elections the vote was restricted to landed gentry, in constituencies that were out of date, so that in many " rotten boroughs" seats could be bought while major cities remained unrepresented.

^ Some wanted a fully democratic House of Commons, with equal sized constituencies, the franchise for all adult males, the secret ballot and annual general elections.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In many cases, members of the Upper House also controlled tiny constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, and could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters.

.Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the Napoleonic Wars developed the government became repressive against dissent and progress toward reform was stalled.^ Reformers and Radicals sought parliamentary reform, but as the Napoleonic Wars developed the government became repressive against dissent and progress toward reform was stalled.

^ The Government was committed to having in place, in the post-devolution period, a structure to ensure women's development and progress.
  • [10 Jun 1999] WOM/1131 : COMMITTEE ON ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN BEGINS CONSIDERATION OF UNITED KINGDOM REPORT 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texts 4 to 7 are examples of government repression during the 1790s, when William Pitt and a clear majority of the propertied classes sought to curb the political activities of radical reformers who were sympathetic to French revolutionary principles.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

.The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801 by the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Union.^ The article in the Act relating to the flag stated; "That it be the first Article of the Union of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, ....
  • United Kingdom - History of the Flag 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC flagspot.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland , which had been gradually brought under English control between 1169 and 1691 , to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .
  • Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC fact-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1800, with the Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland, the United Kingdom formally came into being.
  • History - United Kingdom - tax, problem, growth, area, system, future, power, policy, sector 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century — the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice.^ The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century — the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice.

^ The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords , and a lower house, the House of Commons .

^ The legislative process usually involves both the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

.Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed.^ The Commons houses 646 members, directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed.

^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion.^ Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion.

^ Members are elected for two years.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Commons is the more important of the two chambers in Parliament, and its members are democratically elected.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In many cases, members of the Upper House also controlled tiny constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, and could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters.^ Members of the House of Lords, known as peers, are not elected and do not represent a constituency.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In many cases, members of the Upper House also controlled tiny constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, and could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters.

^ Some wanted a fully democratic House of Commons, with equal sized constituencies, the franchise for all adult males, the secret ballot and annual general elections.
  • Constitutions of the World Online - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.modern-constitutions.de [Source type: Original source]

.Many seats in the House of Commons were "owned" by the Lords.^ Many seats in the House of Commons were "owned" by the Lords.

^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

.After the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system in the lower House was much more regularised.^ After the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act of 1832, the electoral system in the lower House was much more regularised.

^ Both countries employ a bicameral system and use the same names for the upper and lower house being the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing pressure for reform of parliament in the 18 th and 19 th centuries led to a series of Reform Acts which extended the electoral franchise to most men (over 21) in 1867 and finally to women over 21 in 1928.

.No longer dependent on the upper House for their seats, members of the House of Commons began to grow more assertive.^ No longer dependent on the upper House for their seats, members of the House of Commons began to grow more assertive.

^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Commons is the more powerful of the two houses.
  • United Kingdom - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.naturemagics.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.koordinaten.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parliament at night, with the London Eye visible in the background.
.The supremacy of the British House of Commons was established in the early 20th century.^ The supremacy of the House of Commons was clearly established during the early 20th century .

^ The uprisings of the early 20th Century eventually ended in Irish self-government and then independence.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2027008 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not until early 20th century when the Prime Minister's precedence in England was established 10 Dec 1905 that placed the Prime Minister, mentioned as such, in the order of precedence in England immediately after the Archbishop of York.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system in a manner detrimental to wealthy landowners.^ In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget," which made numerous changes to the taxation system in a manner detrimental to wealthy landowners.

^ In order to show the changes made in House of Commons Public Bill Committees, an illustrative “compare” version of any Bill reported from a Public Bill Committee after 1 April 2009 is available on this website.
  • Bills and Legislation - Finance Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ 'Money bills', concerned solely with taxation and public expenditure, are always introduced in the Commons and must be passed by the Lords promptly and without amendment.

.The House of Lords, which consisted mostly of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget.^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is bicameral , composed of the elected House of Commons and the unelected House of Lords , whose members are mostly appointed.
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords.^ The Liberals won control of Parliament.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The prime minister holds the executive power and is traditionally the leader of the majority party in Parliament.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(He did not reintroduce the land tax provision of the People's Budget).^ (He did not reintroduce the land tax provision of the People's Budget.

^ People that have been imprisoned or outlawed in accordance with the law of the land, people from a country that is at war with us, and merchants - who shall be dealt with as stated above - are excepted from this provision.
  • Constitutional Law in United Kingdom - British Constitution - Magna Carta, 1215 - 1689 English Bill of Rights 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords.^ In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords reluctantly passed the bill.

^ When the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith approached the King and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords.

^ It was passed by a large majority in the lower house but again was rejected by the unelected House of Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.^ In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords reluctantly passed the bill.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill (a bill dealing with taxation), and allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions (reduced to two sessions in 1949), after which it could become law over their objections.^ The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, allowed the Lords to delay a bill for a maximum of three sessions (reduced to two sessions in 1949), after which it could become law over their objections.

^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A power of delay was substituted, which was further curtailed by the Parliament Act of 1949.

.However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, The House of Lords has always retained the unrestricted power to be able to block and veto any bill outright which attempts to extend the life of parliament if the Lords do not believe it to be appropriate, democratic or fitting.^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A power of delay was substituted, which was further curtailed by the Parliament Act of 1949.

^ These limits to the power of the Lords are contained in the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949.

.In this case, the Parliament Acts can not be used to override the decision of the House of Lords.^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "It is a perfectly proper use of the Parliament Act.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Speaker of the House of Commons is expected to be non-partisan, and does not cast a vote except in the case of a tie; the Lord Speaker, however, votes along with the other Lords.

[citation needed]

Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

.The Government of Ireland Act 1920 created the parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and reduced the representation of both parts at Westminster.^ An act of the British Parliament, 1920, divided Northern from Southern Ireland, each with a parliament and government.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom, governed from London.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are created by Parliament and, as Northern Ireland experienced in 1972, can be abolished by Parliament.
  • Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC fact-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

.(The number of Northern Ireland seats was increased again after the introduction of direct rule in 1973.) The Irish Free State became independent in 1922, and in 1927 parliament was renamed the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.^ UK: Great Britain (the island) Northern Ireland.
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is why the official name for the UK is "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
  • The united kingdom, great britain and Britain are not the same thing?. And why so many names? 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British and Irish parliaments were united in 1801.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further reforms to the House of Lords have been made during the 20th century.^ Further reforms to the House of Lords have been made during the 20th century .

^ The Journals for the House of Commons and the House of Lords are the record of the proceedings of the houses, recording the decisions and actions made as opposed to the actual debates.

^ The proposals to reform the House of Lords initially called for all hereditary peers to lose their voting rights, but a compromise was reached that allowed them to be phased out gradually.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Life Peerages Act 1958 authorised the regular creation of life peerage dignities.^ In 1958, the Life Peerages Act authorised the regular creation of life peerage dignities.

^ By the 1960s, the regular creation of hereditary peerage dignities had ceased; thereafter, almost all new peers were life peers only.

^ Under the House of Lords Act 1999, only life peerage dignities (that is to say, peerage dignities which cannot be inherited) automatically entitle their holders to seats in the House of Lords.

.By the 1960s, the regular creation of hereditary peerage dignities had ceased; thereafter, almost all new peers were life peers only.^ By the 1960s, the regular creation of hereditary peerage dignities had ceased; thereafter, almost all new peers were life peers only.

^ In 1958, the Life Peerages Act authorised the regular creation of life peerage dignities.

^ Following a drastic reduction in the number of hereditary peerages, the House of Lords (July 2005) comprised 92 hereditary peers, 614 life peers, and 1 archbishop and 24 bishops of the Church of England, for a total of 731.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the Upper House (although it made an exception for 92 of them on a temporary basis, to be elected to life-terms by the other hereditary peers with bi-elections upon their death).^ Of the hereditary peers, only 92 — the Earl Marshal, the Lord Great Chamberlain and the 90 elected by other peers — retain their seats in the House.

^ In 1999, the government removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to hold seats in the House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

.The House of Lords is now a chamber that is subordinate to the House of Commons.^ The House of Lords is now a chamber that is subordinate to the House of Commons.

^ The House of Commons is a democratically elected chamber.

^ Both the House of Lords and the House of Commons have visitor's galleries where you can watch the proceedings.

Additionally, the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 led to abolition of the judicial functions of the House of Lords with the creation of the new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in October 2009.

Composition and powers

.The legislative authority, the Crown-in-Parliament, has three separate elements: the Monarch, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament is composed of the House of Lords (hereditary), the House of Commons (elected), and the sovereign.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Represent the House in its relations to the Crown, the House of Lords and other authorities; .

.No individual may be a member of both Houses, and members of the House of Lords are legally barred from voting in elections for members of the House of Commons.^ Members of the House of Lords may not stand for election to the House of Commons but are eligible for all other public offices.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ Lords of Parliament are legally barred from voting in elections for members of the House of Commons; the Sovereign by convention does not vote, although there is no statutory impediment.

.Royal Assent of the Monarch, represented by the government, is required for all Bills to become law, and certain Delegated Legislation must be made by the Monarch by Order-in-Council.^ If the government support this Bill, it will become law in 2000.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bills must be passed by both houses if they are to become law.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Amendments can be made to bills at certain stages.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Crown and HM Government also have executive powers which do not depend on Parliament, through prerogative powers including the appointment of the government.^ They are all British Crown Dependencies , which means that they are effectively self-governing with their own legislature and tax systems: the UK remains responsible for foreign policy and in certain circumstances has legal authority superior to the parliaments.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isle of Man, part of the British Isles, a Crown Dependency, with its own Parliament, laws, currency, and taxation.
  • Languages of the UK: List of the languages of the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC daytranslations.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The executive power of the Crown is exercised by the cabinet, headed by the prime minister.
  • United Kingdom: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prerogative powers include among others the abilities to dissolve Parliament, make treaties, declare war, award honours, and appoint officers and civil servants.^ Supreme legislative power is vested in parliament, which sits for five years unless dissolved sooner.
  • United Kingdom: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Monarch is head of the Armed Forces and is the only person who can declare war and peace, though these powers are exercised today only on the advice of responsible Ministers.
  • British Army- The Land Armed Forces of the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.battle-fleet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Prime Minister is the head of government who appoints other Ministers from Parliament to form the Cabinet.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice these are always exercised by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister and the other ministers of HM Government.^ The Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The monarch is chief of state and the prime minister is head of government.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dissolution of Parliament is effected by the Sovereign, always on the advice of the Prime Minister.

.The Prime Minister and government are directly accountable to Parliament, through its control of public finances, and to the public, through election of Members of Parliament.^ Each minister is an elected member of parliament.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ That election of members of parliament ought to be free.
  • Constitutional Law in United Kingdom - British Constitution - Magna Carta, 1215 - 1689 English Bill of Rights 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Command papers are presented to Parliament by government ministers.

.The Monarch also chooses the Prime Minister, who then forms a government from members of the houses of parliament.^ The Prime Minister is the head of government who appoints other Ministers from Parliament to form the Cabinet.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each minister is an elected member of parliament.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ A Member of Parliament who is not a member of a political party.

.This must be someone who can command a majority in the House of Commons.^ The House of Commons has 646 members who are directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
  • THE UNITED KINGDOM A HAVEN FOR PLANNING CRIME AND CRIMINALS 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.bushywood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labour has a 67-seat majority in the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom Companies - FTSE 100 (Emerginvest) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.emerginvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official Documents The official reference for Command, House of Commons, and some departmental papers, available free in PDF format from May 2005 to date.

.This is usually a straightforward decision, though occasionally the monarch has to make a judgment, as in the appointment of Alec Douglas-Home in 1963 when it was thought that the incumbent Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, had become ill with terminal cancer.^ Canada becomes the first independent dominion in the British Empire under the Dominion of Canada Act 1868 - Disraeli succeeds Derby as Prime Minister.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the first time 1869 - The Irish Church is disestablished.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy , with executive power exercised on behalf of the monarch by the prime minister and other cabinet ministers who head departments.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Upper House is formally styled The Right Honourable The Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament Assembled, the Lords Spiritual being clergymen of the Church of England and the Lords Temporal being Peers of the Realm.^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church of England is a state church, and some of her bishops sit in the House of Lords .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, since the passage of the Parliament Act 1911 the power of the House of Lords to reject bills passed by the House of Commons has been restricted, and further restrictions were placed by the Parliament Act 1949.

.The Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal are considered separate "estates," but they sit, debate and vote together.^ The Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal are considered separate " estates," but they sit, debate and vote together.

^ Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:- .
  • TREATY BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual (the senior bishops of the Church of England ) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage); its members are not elected by the population at large.

.Since the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, the powers of the House of Lords have been very much less than those of the House of Commons.^ However, since the passage of the Parliament Act 1911 the power of the House of Lords to reject bills passed by the House of Commons has been restricted, and further restrictions were placed by the Parliament Act 1949.

^ House of Commons is much more powerful than House of Lords.
  • Howstuffworks "Geography of The United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC geography.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

.All bills except money bills are debated and voted upon in House of Lords; however by voting against a bill, the House of Lords can only delay it for a maximum of two parliamentary sessions over a year.^ House of Lords (unelected) votes against reduction to 16.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In stage 2 the plenary session of Parliament debates and votes on the principles of the bill.
  • Features - Devolution in the United Kingdom: A Revolution on Online Legal Research | LLRX.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ House of Lords debate .
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this time, the House of Commons can force the Bill through without the Lords' consent under the Parliament Acts.^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords , and a lower house, the House of Commons .

^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The House of Lords can also hold the government to account through questions to government ministers and the operation of a small number of select committees.^ The House also scrutinizes the work of the Government - it does that by various means, including questioning ministers in the Chamber and through the Select Committee system.

^ Furthermore, the House of Lords Act 1999 severely curtailed the number of hereditary peers who could sit in the upper House - only 92 out of several hundred retain the right, through being elected by their fellow peers or by holding the royal offices of Earl Marshal or Lord Great Chamberlain.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UK also employs a second legislative chamber, the House of Lords , members of which are referred to as Lords and who are selected on the basis of experience and knowledge by their peers, with oversight of the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom - eRepublik Official Wiki 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The highest court in England & Wales and Northern Ireland used to be a committee of the House of Lords, but it became an independent supreme court in 2009.
.The Lords Spiritual formerly included all of the senior clergymen of the Church of England — archbishops, bishops, abbots and mitred priors.^ The Church of England is a state church, and some of her bishops sit in the House of Lords .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Church of England is based at Canterbury Cathedral and the Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Lords Spiritual formerly included all of the senior clergymen of the Church of England — archbishops, bishops, abbots and priors.

.Upon the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII the abbots and mitred priors lost their positions in Parliament.^ Upon the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII the abbots and priors lost their positions in Parliament.

^ Where a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged either to resign, or seek the dissolution of Parliament and a new general election.

.All diocesan bishops continued to sit in Parliament, but the Bishopric of Manchester Act 1847, and later acts, provide that only the 26 most senior are Lords Spiritual.^ The Parliament Act of 1911 stripped the House of Lords of most of its power.
  • Howstuffworks "History of the United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The remaining 21 Lords Spiritual are the most senior diocesan bishops, ranked in order of consecration.

^ All diocesan bishops continued to sit in Parliament, but the Bishopric of Manchester Act 1847, and later acts, provide that only the 26 most senior are Lords Spiritual.

.These always include the incumbents of the "five great sees", namely the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester.^ These always include the incumbents of the "five great sees", namely the Archbishop of Canterbury , the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of London, the Bishop of Durham and the Bishop of Winchester.

^ There are 2 provinces, Canterbury and York, each headed by an archbishop.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commonly used name for the tower derives from the largest of these bells, the 13 tonne Great Bell of Westminster, which is the real 'Big Ben'.
  • Houses of Parliament and Big Ben- London, United Kingdom - VirtualTourist.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.The remaining 21 Lords Spiritual are the most senior diocesan bishops, ranked in order of consecration.^ The remaining 21 Lords Spiritual are the most senior diocesan bishops, ranked in order of consecration.

^ Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:- .
  • TREATY BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC burmalibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual (the senior bishops of the Church of England ) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage); its members are not elected by the population at large.

.The Lords Temporal are all members of the Peerage.^ The Lords Temporal are all members of the Peerage.

^ The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual (the senior bishops of the Church of England ) and the Lords Temporal (members of the Peerage); its members are not elected by the population at large.

^ Members of the House of Lords may not stand for election to the House of Commons but are eligible for all other public offices.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Formerly, they were hereditary peers.^ Formerly, they were hereditary peers.

^ In the last few years the hereditary peers have lost the automatic right to attend the House of Lords, although they are allowed to elect a few of their number to represent them.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The right of some hereditary peers to sit in Parliament was not automatic: after Scotland and England united into Great Britain in 1707, it was provided that all peers whose dignities had been created by English Kings could sit in Parliament, but those whose dignities had been created by Scottish Kings were to elect a limited number of "representative peers". A similar arrangement was made in respect of Ireland when that nation merged with Great Britain in 1801, but when southern Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1922 the election of Irish representative peers ceased.^ Estonia's diplomatic representatives to the United Kingdom: .
  • Estonia and United Kingdom | Välisministeerium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.vm.ee [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The royal arms has a lion on the left representing England and unicorn on the right representing Scotland.
  • Howstuffworks "Geography of The United Kingdom" 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC geography.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Canute the Great divides England into four earldoms.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the Peerage Act 1963, the election of Scottish representative peers also ended, and all Scottish peers were granted the right to sit in Parliament.^ Acts of the pre-Union Scottish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By the Peerage Act 1963, the election of Scottish representative peers also ended, and all Scottish peers were granted the right to sit in Parliament.

^ The proposals to reform the House of Lords initially called for all hereditary peers to lose their voting rights, but a compromise was reached that allowed them to be phased out gradually.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the House of Lords Act 1999, only life peerages (that is to say, peerage dignities which cannot be inherited) automatically entitle their holders to seats in the House of Lords.^ Under the House of Lords Act 1999, only life peerage dignities (that is to say, peerage dignities which cannot be inherited) automatically entitle their holders to seats in the House of Lords.

^ In 1958, the Life Peerages Act authorised the regular creation of life peerage dignities.

^ (Note: The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic inheritance of seats in the Lords and permitted just 92 hereditary peers to remain.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the hereditary peers, only 92 — the Earl Marshal, the Lord Great Chamberlain and the 90 elected by other peers — retain their seats in the House.^ Members of the House of Lords, known as peers, are not elected and do not represent a constituency.
  • Life In The United Kingdom: A Journey To Citizenship (2nd Edition) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.britishexam.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Chapter 4: How The United Kingdom Is Governed 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC ebook.prepareuktest.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the hereditary peers, only 92 — the Earl Marshal, the Lord Great Chamberlain and the 90 elected by other peers — retain their seats in the House.

^ Furthermore, the House of Lords Act 1999 severely curtailed the number of hereditary peers who could sit in the upper House - only 92 out of several hundred retain the right, through being elected by their fellow peers or by holding the royal offices of Earl Marshal or Lord Great Chamberlain.
  • British Pound, GBP, United Kingdom, Information on the Currency of the UK 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Commons, the last of the "estates" of the Kingdom, are represented in the House of Commons, which is formally styled The Honourable The Commons in Parliament Assembled (commons coming not from the term commoner, but from commune, the old French term for a district).^ The Commons, the last of the "estates" of the Kingdom, are represented in the House of Commons, which is formally styled The Honourable The Commons in Parliament Assembled ( commons coming not from the term commoner , but from commune , the old French term for a district).

^ The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and a parliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92 hereditary peers, and 26 bishops; and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularly elected members.
  • United Kingdom: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.The House currently consists of 646 members.^ The House currently consists of 646 members.

^ The House of Commons has 646 members who are directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
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^ The Commons houses 646 members, directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until the 2005 general election, it consisted of 659 members, but the number of Scottish Members was reduced by the Scotland Act 1998.^ Until the 2005 general election, it consisted of 659 members, but the number of Scottish Members was reduced by the Scotland Act 1998.

^ Scotland Act (19 Nov 1998) .
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An Act for the further regulating the Election of Members of Parliament, and preventing the irregular Proceedings of Sheriffs and other Officers in electing and returning such Members - known as the "Disenfranchising Act" c.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

.Each "Member of Parliament" or "MP" is chosen by a single constituency according to the First-Past-the-Post electoral system.^ Each "Member of Parliament" or "MP" is chosen by a single constituency according to the First-Past-the-Post electoral system.

^ The House of Commons has 646 members who are directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
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^ The Commons houses 646 members, directly elected from single-member constituencies based on population.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Universal adult suffrage exists for those 18 and over; citizens of the United Kingdom, and those of the Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth nations resident in the United Kingdom are qualified to vote.^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
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  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U.K., at 18.

^ Scotland is a nation within the United Kingdom.
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term of members of the House of Commons depends on the term of Parliament, a maximum of five years; a general election, during which all the seats are contested, occurs after each dissolution (see below).^ The term of members of the House of Commons depends on the term of Parliament; a general election, during which all the seats are contested, occurs after each dissolution (see below).

^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
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^ It occurs when Parliament reassembles after a general election, and each subsequent year; it is normally in November.

.All legislation must be passed by the House of Commons to become law and it controls taxation and the supply of money to the government.^ Bills must be passed by both houses if they are to become law.
  • Closer Look: A Comparison of the Australian and United States Federal Legislatures: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Government ministers (including the Prime Minister) must regularly answer questions in the House of Commons and there are a number of select committees that scrutinise particular issues and the workings of the government.^ Oral questions are answered by ministers at question time in the House of Commons.

^ The House also scrutinizes the work of the Government - it does that by various means, including questioning ministers in the Chamber and through the Select Committee system.

^ However, neither the Prime Minister nor members of the Government are elected by the House of Commons.

.There are also mechanisms that allow members of the House of Commons to bring to the attention of the government particular issues affecting their constituents.^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

^ UK MPs for resolving Kashmir issue [updated: 10-02-2009] A number of British Parliamentarians taking part in the House of Commons debate on Pakistan and....
  • The High Commission for Pakistan in United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.phclondon.org [Source type: General]

Procedure

See also the stages of a bill section in Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom
.Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament is composed of the House of Lords (hereditary), the House of Commons (elected), and the sovereign.
  • Culture of United Kingdom - traditional, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, immigrants, population, religion, Alternative name, History and ethnic relations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The parliament is bicameral, with an upper house, the House of Lords , and a lower house, the House of Commons .

.For the Commons, the approval of the Sovereign is theoretically required before the election of the Speaker becomes valid, but it is, by modern convention, always granted.^ For the Commons, the approval of the Sovereign is theoretically required before the election of the Speaker becomes valid, but it is, by modern convention, always granted.

^ The Commons perform the election; on the next day, they return to the House of Lords, where the Lords Commissioners confirm the election and grant the new Speaker the royal approval in the Sovereign's name.

^ Under modern conventions the Sovereign always grants the Royal Assent, in the Norman French words " La reyne le veult " (the Queen wishes it).

.The Speaker's place may be taken by three deputies, known as the Chairman, First Deputy Chairman and Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means.^ The Speaker's place may be taken by three deputies, known as the Chairman, First Deputy Chairman and Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means.

^ The above two incidences may or may not have actually taken place, as they were located in Africa .
  • Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article may be read in three parts: the first part deals with the life and times of Lord Macaulay, and the second part presents Macaulay's Minute on Indian Education.

.(They take their name from the Committee of Ways and Means, of which they were once presiding officers, but which no longer exists.^ (They take their name from the Committee of Ways and Means, of which they were once presiding officers, but which no longer exists.

^ Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration.
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  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Members of Parliament elected to preside over meetings of their respective Houses (the President and Speaker); they also take responsibility for the administration of the parliamentary departments.

)
.Prior to July 2006, the House of Lords was presided over by a Lord Chancellor (a Cabinet member), whose influence as Speaker was very limited (whilst the powers belonging to the Speaker of the House of Commons are vast).^ The House of Commons is the centre of parliamentary power.

^ The majority of cabinet members will be from the House of Commons, the rest from the House of Lords.
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^ The House of Commons is the more powerful of the two houses.
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  • United Kingdom | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.koordinaten.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as part of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the position of Speaker of the House of Lords (as it is termed in the Act) was separated from the office of Lord Chancellor, though the Lords remain largely self-governing.^ However, as part of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, the position of Speaker of the House of Lords (as it is termed in the Act) was separated from the office of Lord Chancellor, though the Lords remain largely self-governing.

^ The government is now intent on a separation of these powers and on the abolition of the office of Lord Chancellor.

^ However, some specific acts are still used on a day-to-day basis and will not be repealed in the immediate term, e.g.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

.Decisions on points of order and on the disciplining of unruly members are made by the whole body in the Upper House, but by the Speaker alone in the Lower House.^ Decisions on points of order and on the disciplining of unruly members are made by the whole body in the Upper House, but by the Speaker alone in the Lower House.

^ The Members of Parliament elected to preside over meetings of their respective Houses (the President and Speaker); they also take responsibility for the administration of the parliamentary departments.

^ In the House of Commons, no further amendments may be made, and the passage of the motion "That the Bill be now read a third time" is passage of the whole bill.

.Speeches in the House of Lords are addressed to the House as a whole (using the words "My Lords"), but those in the House of Commons are addressed to the Speaker alone (using "Mr Speaker" or "Madam Speaker").^ During debates in the House of Commons all speeches are addressed to the Speaker or one of the Deputy Speakers.

^ Speeches in the House of Lords are addressed to the House as a whole (using the words "My Lords"), but those in the House of Commons are addressed to the Speaker alone (using "Mr Speaker" or "Madam Speaker").

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

.Speeches may be made to both Houses simultaneously.^ As with the State Opening, it is made to both Houses.

^ If passed in identical form by both Houses, it may be presented for the Sovereign's Assent.

^ In the House of Commons, no further amendments may be made, and the passage of the motion "That the Bill be now read a third time" is passage of the whole bill.

.As of March 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy was the most recent person to address both Houses.^ Only the most recent selection lists are available, for Bills currently before a Public Bill Committee or on the floor in the House of Commons.
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The Queen in Parliament is most clearly demonstrated in the annual State Opening of Parliament, when The Queen opens Parliament in person and addresses both Houses in The Queen's Speech.

[22]
.Both Houses may decide questions by voice vote; members shout out "Aye" and "No" in the Commons — or "Content" and "Not-Content" in the Lords —, and the presiding officer declares the result.^ The question may be decided without voting, or by a simple majority vote.

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The majority of cabinet members are from the House of Commons, the rest from the House of Lords .
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  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pronouncement of either Speaker may be challenged, and a recorded vote (known as a division) demanded.^ The pronouncement of either Speaker may be challenged, and a recorded vote (known as a division) demanded.

^ This has led to what is known as the West Lothian question: the situation where Westminster MPs for Scottish constituencies may vote on legislation that will have no direct effect on Scotland.

^ The Speaker's place may be taken by three deputies, known as the Chairman, First Deputy Chairman and Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means.

.(The Speaker of the House of Commons may choose to overrule a frivolous request for a division, but the Lord Speaker does not have that power).^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The House of Commons is the centre of parliamentary power.

^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

.In each House, a division requires members to file into one of the two lobbies alongside the Chamber; their names are recorded by clerks, and their votes are counted as they exit the lobbies to re-enter the Chamber.^ Members have to file through one of two division lobbies, one for the Ayes to vote yes, one for the Noes to vote no.

^ One surprise vote was the election of ex-Labour member George Galloway in Bethnal Green & Bow, in East London.
  • Results of 2005 United Kingdom General Election - Wikinews, the free news source 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikinews.org [Source type: News]

^ If this is the case, the Father of the House calls on one member to move the motion than the former Speaker should take the Chair as Speaker-elect.

.The Speaker of the House of Commons is expected to be non-partisan, and does not cast a vote except in the case of a tie; the Lord Speaker, however, votes along with the other Lords.^ The Speaker of the House of Commons is expected to be non-partisan, and does not cast a vote except in the case of a tie; the Lord Speaker, however, votes along with the other Lords.

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

.Both Houses normally conduct their business in public, and there are galleries where visitors may sit.^ Warrants normally were required for a police search of private premises; however, a police officer may enter and search without a warrant "any premises if he or she reasonably suspects a terrorist is to be found there."
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If passed in identical form by both Houses, it may be presented for the Sovereign's Assent.

^ Journalists accredited to report on parliamentary proceedings; the special galleries in both Houses in which accredited journalists sit to observe parliamentary debates.

Term

.Following a general election, a new Parliamentary session begins.^ Following a general election, a new Parliamentary session begins.

^ The maximum parliamentary term is 5 years, but the prime minister may ask the monarch to dissolve Parliament and call a general election at any time.
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^ Where a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged either to resign, or seek the dissolution of Parliament and a new general election.

.Parliament is formally summoned 40 days in advance by the Sovereign, who is the source of parliamentary authority.^ Parliament is formally summoned 40 days in advance by the Sovereign, who is the source of parliamentary authority.

^ After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.

^ Parliament is the national legislature of the UK. It is the ultimate legislative authority in the UK, according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the day indicated by the Sovereign's proclamation, the two Houses assemble in their respective chambers.^ On the day indicated by the Sovereign's proclamation, the two Houses assemble in their respective chambers.

^ When the two houses disagree on a non-money bill, the Parliament Act can be invoked to ensure that the will of the elected chamber prevails.

^ The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster (commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament"), in the City of Westminster in London .

.The Commons are then summoned to the House of Lords, where Lords Commissioners (representatives of the Sovereign) instruct them to elect a Speaker.^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

^ The House of Commons is a democratically elected chamber.

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

.The Commons perform the election; on the next day, they return to the House of Lords, where the Lords Commissioners confirm the election and grant the new Speaker the royal approval in the Sovereign's name.^ The Commons perform the election; on the next day, they return to the House of Lords, where the Lords Commissioners confirm the election and grant the new Speaker the royal approval in the Sovereign's name.

^ Both houses of the British Parliament are presided over by a speaker, the Speaker of the House for the Commons and the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords.

^ The Commons are then summoned to the House of Lords, where Lords Commissioners (representatives of the Sovereign) instruct them to elect a Speaker.

.The business of Parliament for the next few days of its session involves the taking of the oaths of allegiance.^ The business of Parliament for the next few days of its session involves the taking of the oaths of allegiance.

^ To avoid the delay of opening a new session in the event of an emergency during the long summer recess, Parliament is no longer prorogued beforehand, but only after the Houses have reconvened in the autumn; the State Opening follows a few days later.

^ The next session of Parliament begins under the procedures described above, but it is not necessary to conduct another election of a Speaker or take the oaths of allegiance afresh at the beginning of such subsequent sessions.

.Once a majority of the members has taken the oath in each House, the State Opening of Parliament may occur.^ As with the State Opening, it is made to both Houses.

^ Once a majority of the members has taken the oath in each House, the State Opening of Parliament may occur.

^ To avoid the delay of opening a new session in the event of an emergency during the long summer recess, Parliament is no longer prorogued beforehand, but only after the Houses have reconvened in the autumn; the State Opening follows a few days later.

.The Lords take their seats in the House of Lords Chamber, the Commons appear at the Bar (immediately outside the Chamber), and the Sovereign takes his or her seat on the throne.^ The House of Lords is now a chamber that is subordinate to the House of Commons.

^ The Lords take their seats in the House of Lords Chamber, the Commons appear at the Bar (immediately outside the Chamber), and the Sovereign takes his or her seat on the throne.

^ The House of Commons is a democratically elected chamber.

.The Sovereign then reads the Speech from the Throne — the content of which is determined by the Ministers of the Crown — outlining the Government's legislative agenda for the upcoming year.^ The Sovereign then reads the Speech from the Throne — the content of which is determined by the Ministers of the Crown — outlining the Government's legislative agenda for the upcoming year.

^ After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.

^ Important bills that form part of the Government's agenda (as stated in the Speech from the Throne) are generally considered matters of confidence.

.Thereafter, each House proceeds to the transaction of legislative business.^ Thereafter, each House proceeds to the transaction of legislative business.

^ Permanent rules governing the conduct of business in the House, e.g., the stages through which Bills proceed, conduct of debate, etc.

^ Once each House formally sends its reply to the Speech, legislative business may commence, appointing committees, electing officers, passing resolutions and considering legislation.

.By custom, before considering the Government's legislative agenda, a bill is introduced pro forma in each House — the Select Vestries Bill in the House of Lords and the Outlawries Bill in the House of Commons.^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ By custom, before considering the Government's legislative agenda, a bill is introduced pro forma in each House — the Select Vestries Bill in the House of Lords and the Outlawries Bill in the House of Commons.

.These bills do not become laws; they are ceremonial indications of the power of each House to debate independently of the Crown.^ These bills do not become laws; they are ceremonial indications of the power of each House to debate independently of the Crown.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the pro forma bill is introduced, each House debates the content of the Speech from the Throne for several days.^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ After the pro forma bill is introduced, each House debates the content of the Speech from the Throne for several days.

^ Important bills that form part of the Government's agenda (as stated in the Speech from the Throne) are generally considered matters of confidence.

.Once each House formally sends its reply to the Speech, legislative business may commence, appointing committees, electing officers, passing resolutions and considering legislation.^ Once each House formally sends its reply to the Speech, legislative business may commence, appointing committees, electing officers, passing resolutions and considering legislation.

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (They take their name from the Committee of Ways and Means, of which they were once presiding officers, but which no longer exists.

.A session of Parliament is brought to an end by a prorogation.^ Each session is ended by prorogation.

^ A session of Parliament is brought to an end by a prorogation.

^ Each usually lasts for one year - normally ending in October or November when Parliament is 'prorogued', followed shortly by the State Opening of Parliament, marking the beginning of the new session.

.There is a ceremony similar to the State Opening, but much less well-known.^ There is a ceremony similar to the State Opening, but much less well-known.

^ If, on the other hand, open citizenship agreements are maintained, there is scope for tactical citizenship as dissonance increases between the independent states.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The publicity, if there was much, may have raised the profile of flags, and encouraged the idea that the Union Jack could be used by the general population, as well as being an emblem of the state.
  • United Kingdom - History of the Flag 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC flagspot.net [Source type: Original source]

.Normally, the Sovereign does not personally attend the prorogation ceremony in the House of Lords; he or she is represented by Lords Commissioners.^ Normally, the Sovereign does not personally attend the prorogation ceremony in the House of Lords; he or she is represented by Lords Commissioners.

^ The Commons are then summoned to the House of Lords, where Lords Commissioners (representatives of the Sovereign) instruct them to elect a Speaker.

^ The Speaker of the House of Commons is expected to be non-partisan, and does not cast a vote except in the case of a tie; the Lord Speaker, however, votes along with the other Lords.

.The next session of Parliament begins under the procedures described above, but it is not necessary to conduct another election of a Speaker or take the oaths of allegiance afresh at the beginning of such subsequent sessions.^ The business of Parliament for the next few days of its session involves the taking of the oaths of allegiance.

^ The next session of Parliament begins under the procedures described above, but it is not necessary to conduct another election of a Speaker or take the oaths of allegiance afresh at the beginning of such subsequent sessions.

^ The parliamentary session year does not necessarily correspond with the calendar year, as it begins in November and runs to the next October.

.Instead, the State Opening of Parliament proceeds directly.^ Instead, the State Opening of Parliament proceeds directly.

^ The Queen in Parliament is most clearly demonstrated in the annual State Opening of Parliament, when The Queen opens Parliament in person and addresses both Houses in The Queen's Speech.

^ Once a majority of the members has taken the oath in each House, the State Opening of Parliament may occur.

.To avoid the delay of opening a new session in the event of an emergency during the long summer recess, Parliament is no longer prorogued beforehand, but only after the Houses have reconvened in the autumn; the State Opening follows a few days later.^ Following the State Opening, the government's programme is debated by both Houses.

^ As with the State Opening, it is made to both Houses.

^ To avoid the delay of opening a new session in the event of an emergency during the long summer recess, Parliament is no longer prorogued beforehand, but only after the Houses have reconvened in the autumn; the State Opening follows a few days later.

.Each Parliament comes to an end, after a number of sessions, either by the command of the Sovereign or by effluxion of time, the former being more common in modern times.^ A session of Parliament is brought to an end by a prorogation.

^ Each Parliament comes to an end, after a number of sessions, either by the command of the Sovereign or by effluxion of time, the former being more common in modern times.

^ After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.

.The dissolution of Parliament is effected by the Sovereign, always on the advice of the Prime Minister.^ The dissolution of Parliament is effected by the Sovereign, always on the advice of the Prime Minister.

^ He has the right to dissolute the parliament and to assign the new prime minister.
  • United Kingdom — the database of addresses and phone numbers of companies and city objects — United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC citycatalogue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Hanoverian George I ascended the throne in 1714, power began to shift from the Sovereign, and by the end of his reign the position of the ministers — who had to rely on Parliament for support — was cemented.

.The Prime Minister may seek dissolution because the time is politically advantageous to his or her party.^ The Prime Minister may seek dissolution because the time is politically advantageous to his or her party.

^ The origin of the term prime minister and the question to whom it should originally be applied have long been issues of scholarly and political debate.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for a few weeks in 1935 because a United Kingdom including Ireland needed to have a twentieth-century Irish prime minister sooner or later.
  • Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the Prime Minister loses the support of the House of Commons, he must either resign or seek dissolution of Parliament to renew his or her mandate.^ A ministry must always retain the confidence and support of the House of Commons.

^ Where a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged either to resign, or seek the dissolution of Parliament and a new general election.

^ The dissolution of Parliament is effected by the Sovereign, always on the advice of the Prime Minister.

.Originally there was no fixed limit on the length of a Parliament, but the Triennial Act 1694 set the maximum duration at three years.^ Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

^ Originally there was no fixed limit on the length of a Parliament, but the Triennial Act 1694 set the maximum duration at three years.

^ Triennial Act sets the maximum duration of a parliament to three years 1695 - Lapse of the Licensing Act 1697 - Peace of Ryswick between the allied powers of the League of Augsburg and France ends the French War.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the frequent elections were deemed inconvenient, the Septennial Act 1715 extended the maximum to seven years, but the Parliament Act 1911 reduced it to five.^ Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

^ As the frequent elections were deemed inconvenient, the Septennial Act 1716 extended the maximum to seven years, but the Parliament Act 1911 reduced it to five.

^ This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years up to its dissolution in 1800 .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

.During the Second World War, the term was temporarily extended to ten years by Acts of Parliament.^ During the Second World War , the term was temporarily extended to ten years by Acts of Parliament.

^ Under James II & VII , the Catholics regained ground and during the Jacobite war in Ireland he agreed to the Irish Parliament's demands for autonomy and restitution of lands.

^ After the death of William's second son, Henry I , the country was subjected to a period of civil war that ended one year before the accession of Henry II in 1154.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the end of the war the maximum has remained five years.^ Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

^ Since the end of the war the maximum has remained five years.

^ After the death of William's second son, Henry I , the country was subjected to a period of civil war that ended one year before the accession of Henry II in 1154.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern Parliaments, however, rarely continue for the maximum duration; normally, they are dissolved earlier.^ Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

^ Modern Parliaments, however, rarely continue for the maximum duration; normally, they are dissolved earlier.

^ Far more compelling for Parliament however is that if they do not equalise the ages of consent, a change will be forced upon them.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, the 52nd, which assembled in 1997, was dissolved after four years.^ For instance, the 52nd, which assembled in 1997, was dissolved after four years.

.Formerly, the demise of the Sovereign automatically brought a Parliament to an end, the Crown being seen as the caput, principium, et finis (beginning, basis and end) of the body, but this is no longer the case.^ Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each usually lasts for one year - normally ending in October or November when Parliament is 'prorogued', followed shortly by the State Opening of Parliament, marking the beginning of the new session.

^ For an end to pensioner poverty The Scottish Socialist Party rejects the myth that we can no longer afford to treat our elderly citizens with dignity and respect.

.The first change was during the reign of William and Mary, when it was seen to be inconvenient to have no Parliament at a time when succession to the Crown could be disputed, and an act was passed that provided that a Parliament was to continue for six months after the death of a Sovereign, unless dissolved earlier.^ The first change was during the reign of William and Mary, when it was seen to be inconvenient to have no Parliament at a time when succession to the Crown could be disputed, and an act was passed that provided that a Parliament was to continue for six months after the death of a Sovereign, unless dissolved earlier.

^ Formerly, the demise of the Sovereign automatically brought a Parliament to an end, the Crown being seen as the caput, principium, et finis (beginning, basis and end) of the body, but this is no longer the case.

^ However, since the passage of the Parliament Act 1911 the power of the House of Lords to reject bills passed by the House of Commons has been restricted, and further restrictions were placed by the Parliament Act 1949.

.(This provision is today contained in the Representation of the People Act 1867.^ The Representation of the People Act 1867 brought this arrangement to an end.

^ Today the states containing the greatest number of people claiming Scottish ancestry are California, Florida, Texas, New York, and Michigan.
  • AllGov - Nations - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.After each Parliament concludes, the Crown issues writs to hold a general election and elect new members of the House of Commons.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

.Membership of the House of Lords does not change due to dissolution.^ Membership of the House of Lords does not change due to dissolution.

^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Speaker of the House of Commons is expected to be non-partisan, and does not cast a vote except in the case of a tie; the Lord Speaker, however, votes along with the other Lords.

Each Parliament that assembles following a general election is deemed to be distinct from the one which just concluded, and is separately numbered, the present Parliament being the Fifty-Fourth Parliament of the United Kingdom since the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. (Previous Parliaments were "of Great Britain" or "of England", "of Scotland" or "of Ireland".)

Legislative functions

Parliament meets in the Palace of Westminster.
.Laws can be made by Acts of the United Kingdom Parliament.^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acts of predecessor states of the United Kingdom .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Laws can be made by Acts of the United Kingdom Parliament.

.While Acts can apply to the whole of the United Kingdom including Scotland, due to the continuing separation of Scots law many Acts do not apply to Scotland and are either matched by equivalent Acts that apply to Scotland alone or, since 1999, by legislation set by the Scottish Parliament relating to devolved matters.^ Acts of the pre-Union Scottish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jul 1999 First Scottish parliament since 1707 opens.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign relations of the United Kingdom .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has led to a paradox known as the West Lothian question.^ Baker seeks end to West Lothian question .
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has led to what is known as the West Lothian question: the situation where Westminster MPs for Scottish constituencies may vote on legislation that will have no direct effect on Scotland.

.The existence of a devolved Scottish Parliament means that while Westminster MPs from Scotland may vote directly on matters that affect English constituencies, they may not have much power over their laws effecting their own constituency.^ The Scottish parliament has limited powers.

^ This has led to what is known as the West Lothian question: the situation where Westminster MPs for Scottish constituencies may vote on legislation that will have no direct effect on Scotland.

^ He continued, "Considering that the Union legislation extinguished the Parliaments of Scotland and England and replaced them by a new Parliament, I have difficulty in seeing why the new Parliament of Great Britain must inherit all the peculiar characteristics of the English Parliament but none of the Scottish."

.While any Act of the Scottish Parliament may be overturned, amended or ignored by Westminster, in practice this has yet to happen.^ Acts of the pre-Union Scottish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acts of Parliament that are held by the UIUC library may be found by using UIUC's Online Library Catalog.

^ This has led to what is known as the West Lothian question: the situation where Westminster MPs for Scottish constituencies may vote on legislation that will have no direct effect on Scotland.

.Furthermore, the existence of the Legislative Consent Motion enables English MPs to vote on issues nominally devolved to Scotland, as part of United Kingdom legislation.^ Scotland is a nation within the United Kingdom.
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Universal adult suffrage exists for those 18 and over; citizens of the United Kingdom, and those of the Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth nations resident in the United Kingdom are qualified to vote.

^ The Parliament of the United Kingdom and Her Majesty's Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland and Scotland and all non-transferred matters for Wales, but not in general on matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly , Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly .
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since there is no devolved "English Parliament", the converse is not true.^ No monarch has been allowed in since 1642 when the King tried to have some Members of Parliament arrested.

^ Lord Advocate as Lord President of the Court of Session, he stated, "The principle of unlimited sovereignty of Parliament is a distinctively English principle and has no counterpart in Scottish constitutional law."

^ Lords of Parliament are legally barred from voting in elections for members of the House of Commons; the Sovereign by convention does not vote, although there is no statutory impediment.

.Laws, in draft form known as bills, may be introduced by any member of either House, but usually a bill is introduced by a Minister of the Crown.^ Laws, in draft form known as bills, may be introduced by any member of either House, but usually a bill is introduced by a Minister of the Crown.

^ A draft law takes the form of a parliamentary bill.

^ A bill introduced by a Minister is known as a "Government Bill"; one introduced by another member is called a " Private Member's Bill".

.A bill introduced by a Minister is known as a "Government Bill"; one introduced by another member is called a "Private Member's Bill". A different way of categorising bills involves the subject.^ Bills brought in by other members of Parliament are known as Private Member's Bill.

^ A different way of categorising bills involves the subject.

^ A Bill introduced by a Minister on behalf of the government.

Most bills, involving the general public, are called "Public Bills". A bill that seeks to grant special rights to an individual or small group of individuals, or a body such as a local authority, is called a "Private Bill". A Public Bill which affects private rights (in the way a Private Bill would) is called a "Hybrid Bill".
.Private Members' Bills make up the majority of bills, but are far less likely to be passed than government bills.^ Private Members' Bills make up only about one in eight of bills, and are far less likely to be passed than government bills.

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are three methods for an MP to introduce a Private Member's Bill.^ There are three methods for an MP to introduce a Private Member's Bill.

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

^ The formal process by which the House is notified of the intentions of Members to introduce Bills, ask questions, or move motions.

.The Private Members' Ballot (once per Session) put names into a ballot, and those who win are given time to propose a bill.^ "Handout bills" are when a government hands proposed bills to MPs who win Private Members' Ballots.

^ The Private Members' Ballots put names into a ballot, and those who win are given time to propose a bill.

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

.The Ten Minute Rule is another method, where MPs are granted ten minutes to outline the case for a new piece of legislation.^ The Ten Minute Rule is another method, where MPs are granted ten minutes to outline the case for a new piece of legislation.

^ "This is a piece of legislation driven by Metropolitan, London attitudes and is completely out of step with the rest of the country," she told a news conference.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Factortame case, the European Court of Justice ruled that UK courts could have powers to overturn UK legislation contravening EU law.

.Standing Order 57 is the third method, which allows a bill to be introduced without debate if a day's notice is given to the Table Office.^ All members may speak and vote and for lengthy or complex bills the debate may be spread over several days.

^ House of Lords Home Page House of Lords publications on the internet include Debates, Minutes and Order Papers, Public Bills, and Select Committee reports.

^ In the House of Commons the report stage is usually followed immediately by the bill's third reading debate.

.Filibustering is a danger, as an opponent to a bill can waste much of the limited time allotted to it.^ Filibustering is a danger, as an opponent to a bill can waste much of the limited time allotted to it.

.Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

^ Private bills are concerned with individuals or specific local areas of the U.K., and become Local Acts or Personal Acts if they are passed.

^ In 2008, Members of Parliament and human rights groups demanded an independent inquiry into the use of UK territory by CIA “torture flights,” as fresh questions emerged over the government’s handling of the issue.
  • AllGov - Nations - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Governments can sometimes attempt to use Private Members' Bills to pass things it would rather not be associated with.^ Governments can sometimes attempt to use Private Members' Bills to pass things it would rather not be associated with.

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

^ If the Bill is not passed by the House of Lords in this session, the government has the power to submit the Bill for Royal Assent (a formality - last refused in 1706) without it having been passed by the Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

."Handout bills" are bills which a government hands to MPs who win Private Members' Ballots.^ "Handout bills" are when a government hands proposed bills to MPs who win Private Members' Ballots.

^ There are three methods for an MP to introduce a Private Member's Bill.

^ Private Members' Bills have no chance of success if the current government opposes them, but they are used in moral issues: the bills to decriminalise homosexuality and abortion were Private Members' Bills, for example.

.Each Bill goes through several stages in each House.^ Each Bill goes through several stages in each House.

^ The passage through the second House is not a formality, and bills can be further amended.

^ Bills which have had their committee stage entirely on the floor of the House do not normally receive a full report stage debate.

.The first stage, called the first reading, is a formality.^ The first stage, called the first reading, is a formality.

At the second reading, the general principles of the bill are debated, and the House may vote to reject the bill, by not passing the motion "That the Bill be now read a second time". Defeats of Government Bills are extremely rare, the last being in 2005.
.Following the second reading, the bill is sent to a committee.^ Following the second reading, the bill is sent to a committee.

^ Following its passage in one House, the bill is sent to the other House.

^ Once the House has considered the bill, the third reading follows.

.In the House of Lords, the Committee of the Whole House or the Grand Committee are used.^ Although the House of Lords may scrutinise the executive through Question Time and through its committees, it cannot bring down the Government.

^ House of Lords Home Page House of Lords publications on the internet include Debates, Minutes and Order Papers, Public Bills, and Select Committee reports.

^ In the House of Lords, the Committee of the Whole House or the Grand Committee are used.

.Each consists of all members of the House; the latter operates under special procedures, and is used only for uncontroversial bills.^ The House currently consists of 646 members.

^ Each consists of all members of the House; the latter operates under special procedures, and is used only for uncontroversial bills.

^ The current house consists of appointed life peers who hold their seats for life and 92 hereditary peers who will hold their seats only until final reforms have been agreed upon and implemented.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the House of Commons, the bill is usually committed to a Public Bill Committee, consisting of between 16 and 50 members, but the Committee of the Whole House is used for important legislation.^ The House currently consists of 646 members.

^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House of Commons bills can be either public bills or private bills.

.Several other types of committees, including Select Committees, may be used, but rarely.^ Several other types of committees, including Select Committees, may be used, but rarely.

^ You may quote other posts using [quote] tags.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Depending on the type of information you are searching for, it may be necessary to use an index.

.A committee considers the bill clause by clause, and reports the bill as amended to the House, where further detailed consideration ("consideration stage" or "report stage") occurs.^ The passage through the second House is not a formality, and bills can be further amended.

^ A fortnight after a standing committee has examined a bill it then reports its decisions for consideration by the House as a whole.

^ A committee considers the bill clause by clause, and reports its proposed amendments to the entire House, where further detailed consideration occurs.

.However, a practice which used to be called the kangaroo (Standing Order 31) allows the Speaker to select which amendments are debated.^ However, the kangaroo (Standing Order 31) allows the Speaker to select which amendments are debated.

^ Allocation of time motions (commonly called 'guillotine motions') which were used to curtail debate after a considerable time had already been spent on a bill, and .

^ House of Lords Home Page House of Lords publications on the internet include Debates, Minutes and Order Papers, Public Bills, and Select Committee reports.

.This device is also used under Standing Order 89 by the committee chairman, to restrict debate in committee.^ This device is commonly used under Standing Order 89 by the committee chairman on behalf of the government, to restrict debate in committee.

^ House of Lords Home Page House of Lords publications on the internet include Debates, Minutes and Order Papers, Public Bills, and Select Committee reports.

^ Standing Order 58 is the third method, which allows a bill to be introduced without debate if a day's notice is given to the Speaker.

.Once the House has considered the bill, the third reading follows.^ After passing its third reading in one House a bill is sent to the other House where it passes through all the stages once more.

^ In the Commons substantive amendments cannot be made to a bill at this stage and the third reading debate is usually short.

^ In the House of Commons the report stage is usually followed immediately by the bill's third reading debate.

.In the House of Commons, no further amendments may be made, and the passage of the motion "That the Bill be now read a third time" is passage of the whole bill.^ The passage through the second House is not a formality, and bills can be further amended.

^ If each House insists on its amendments a bill may be lost.

^ Commons 2nd Reading (no debate) .
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

.In the House of Lords further amendments to the bill may be moved.^ If each House insists on its amendments a bill may be lost.

^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

.After the passage of the third reading motion, the House of Lords must vote on the motion "That the Bill do now pass."^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ House of Lords (unelected) votes against reduction to 16.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following its passage in one House, the bill is sent to the other House.^ The passage through the second House is not a formality, and bills can be further amended.

^ After passing its third reading in one House a bill is sent to the other House where it passes through all the stages once more.

^ In the House of Commons the report stage is usually followed immediately by the bill's third reading debate.

.If passed in identical form by both Houses, it may be presented for the Sovereign's Assent.^ A bill must be passed by both houses before it becomes law as an official Act of Parliament.

^ It took three years to get the bill for the London - Birmingham railway, which was passed at last in the session of 1833, obtaining the royal assent on the 8th of May.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The procedure for passing the different types of Bills is broadly similar in both Houses.
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

.If one House passes amendments that the other will not agree to, and the two Houses cannot resolve their disagreements, the bill fails.^ Amendments have to be agreed by both Houses.

^ Two Anglican Archbishops and 24 Bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not afforded this privilege.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, since the passage of the Parliament Act 1911 the power of the House of Lords to reject bills passed by the House of Commons has been restricted, and further restrictions were placed by the Parliament Act 1949. If the House of Commons passes a public bill in two successive sessions, and the House of Lords rejects it both times, the Commons may direct that the bill be presented to the Sovereign for his or her Assent, disregarding the rejection of the Bill in the House of Lords.^ House of Commons bills can be either public bills or private bills.

^ The final stage of a Bill's progress in a House of Parliament before it is passed.

^ The House of Commons is the centre of parliamentary power.

.In each case, the bill must be passed by the House of Commons at least one calendar month before the end of the session.^ Each returns one MP to the House of Commons.

^ Sessional papers include Command Papers, House of Commons Papers and Bills, and House of Lords Papers and Bills.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

.The provision does not apply to bills originated in the House of Lords, to bills seeking to extend the duration of a Parliament beyond five years, or to Private Bills.^ Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.A special procedure applies in relation to bills classified by the Speaker of the House of Commons as "Money Bills". A Money Bill concerns solely national taxation or public funds; the Speaker's certificate is deemed conclusive under all circumstances.^ The House of Commons selects its own Speaker.

^ As well as voting on in-game laws, the House of Commons votes on other UK laws, such as constitutional issues, government structure, government procedure and any schemes or projects that might draw significant public funds.
  • United Kingdom - eRepublik Official Wiki 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the House of Lords fails to pass a Money Bill within one month of its passage in the House of Commons, the Lower House may direct that the Bill be submitted for the Sovereign's Assent immediately.^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ Public General Acts are public bills which have passed in both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

^ It was passed by a large majority in the lower house but again was rejected by the unelected House of Lords.
  • Age of Sexual Consent -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even before the passage of the Parliament Acts, the Commons possessed pre-eminence in cases of financial matters.^ Acts of the pre-Union Scottish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acts of pre-Union Irish Parliament .
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Public bills undergo a process of discussion, amendment, and revision before they pass and turn into Acts of Parliament.

.By ancient custom, the House of Lords may not introduce a bill relating to taxation or Supply, nor amend a bill so as to insert a provision relating to taxation or Supply, nor amend a Supply Bill in any way.^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The House of Commons is free to waive this privilege, and sometimes does so to allow the House of Lords to pass amendments with financial implications.^ Two Anglican Archbishops and 24 Bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not afforded this privilege.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The House of Lords remains free to reject bills relating to Supply and taxation, but may be overruled easily if the bills are Money Bills.^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
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^ (Note: The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic inheritance of seats in the Lords and permitted just 92 hereditary peers to remain.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speaker pro tempore of the House of Lords 25 Apr 1660 - 29 May 1660 Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester(b.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

.(A bill relating to revenue and Supply may not be a Money Bill if, for example, it includes subjects other than national taxation and public funds).^ United Kingdom News Overview No other nation on earth holds a closer relationship, or more vital historical link, with the United States than does the United Kingdom.
  • AllGov - Nations - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The SSP stands for: * An expanded Scottish National Health Service fully funded by progressive taxation, publicly owned and delivered free at the point of need.

^ There is not a single word in any public instructions, from which it can be inferred that the Indian Government ever intended to give any pledge on this subject, or ever considered the destination of these funds as unalterably fixed.

.The last stage of a bill involves the granting of the Royal Assent.^ Act (Royal Assent granted) = Amendment Paper = Bill = Committee information .
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The Royal Assent has not been refused since 1707 when Queen Anna refused it for a Bill for setting militia in Scotland.

^ When a bill has completed all its parliamentary stages, it receives Royal Assent from the Queen.

.Theoretically, the Sovereign may either grant the Royal Assent (that is, make the bill a law) or withhold it (that is, veto the bill).^ In order to allow them to do so in the best way they could, their counts were granted royal or palatine ("from the palace") powers within their territories, making these territories nearly sovereign jurisdictions with their own administrations and courts.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An Act of Parliament does not become law until it has been signed by the monarch (known as Royal Assent ), although not one has refused assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708 .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Parliament has the theoretical power to make or repeal any law, in actual practice the weight of 700 years of tradition restrains arbitrary actions.
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.Under modern conventions the Sovereign always grants the Royal Assent, in the Norman French words "La reyne le veult" (the Queen wishes it; "Le roy" instead in the case of a king).^ If passed and granted Royal Assent, it becomes an Act.

^ In the words of a French writer" The queen wrote both to the king of Prussia and to the emperor Napoleon .
  • Victoria of the United Kingdom - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Act (Royal Assent granted) = Amendment Paper = Bill = Committee information .
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The last refusal to grant the Assent was in 1708, when Queen Anne withheld her Assent from a bill "for the settling of Militia in Scotland", in the words "La reyne s'avisera" (the Queen will think it over).^ Queen Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to recognise the Scottish militia.
  • United Kingdom History History Timeline - Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.workmall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Royal Assent has not been refused since 1707 when Queen Anna refused it for a Bill for setting militia in Scotland.

^ An Act of Parliament does not become law until it has been signed by the monarch (known as Royal Assent ), although not one has refused assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708 .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, every bill obtains the assent of all three components of Parliament before it becomes law (except where the House of Lords is over-ridden under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949).^ All bills go through both Houses before becoming Acts, and start in either House.

^ Constitution (None, all laws of Parliament) .
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These limits to the power of the Lords are contained in the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949.

.The words "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-", or, where the House of Lords' authority has been overridden by use of the Parliament Acts, the words "BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-" appear near the beginning of each Act of Parliament.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These limits to the power of the Lords are contained in the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949.

^ An Act for explaining and amending an Act, intituled, An Act for real Union and Division of Parishes; and for confirming an Exchange made of a Piece of Ground, whereon the Parish-church and Vicarage-house of the Parish of Saint Anne in the Suburbs of the City of Dublin was by a former Act of Parliament directed to be built, for another Piece of Ground; and for appropriating such other Piece of Ground to the same Uses c.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

These words are known as the enacting formula.

Judicial functions

.Prior to the creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in October 2009, Parliament also used to perform several judicial functions.^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geraldine Mature couple saltcoats , United Kingdom November 24, 2009 .
  • Booking.com: The Parliament House Hotel, Edinburgh, United Kingdom - 321 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Donna Solo traveller Inverness , United Kingdom December 6, 2009 .
  • Booking.com: The Parliament House Hotel, Edinburgh, United Kingdom - 321 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

.The Queen-in-Parliament constituted the highest court in the realm for most purposes, but the Privy Council had jurisdiction in some cases (for instance, appeals from ecclesiastical courts).^ The House of Lords is the highest court in the land for all criminal and civil cases in England , Wales , and Northern Ireland , and for all civil cases in Scots law.
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Judicial Committee of the Privy Council" is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the UK overseas territories, and the British crown dependencies.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their decisions may be appealed to the Crown Courts, which also hear criminal cases requiring a jury trial, or to the High Courts.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The jurisdiction of Parliament arose from the ancient custom of petitioning the Houses to redress grievances and to do justice.^ Top Overview and availability Guest reviews The guest reviews are submitted by our customers after their stay at The Parliament House Hotel .
  • Booking.com: The Parliament House Hotel, Edinburgh, United Kingdom - 321 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

.The House of Commons ceased considering petitions to reverse the judgements of lower courts in 1399, effectively leaving the House of Lords as the court of last resort.^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

^ The Journals for the House of Commons and the House of Lords are the record of the proceedings of the houses, recording the decisions and actions made as opposed to the actual debates.

^ The UK also employs a second legislative chamber, the House of Lords , members of which are referred to as Lords and who are selected on the basis of experience and knowledge by their peers, with oversight of the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom - eRepublik Official Wiki 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times, the judicial functions of the House of Lords were performed not by the whole House, but by a group of "Lords of Appeal in Ordinary" (judges granted life peerage dignities under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 by the Sovereign) and by "Lords of Appeal" (other peers with experience in the judiciary).^ Judicial --magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts, House of Lords.
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^ Two Anglican Archbishops and 24 Bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not afforded this privilege.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Following a drastic reduction in the number of hereditary peerages, the House of Lords (July 2005) comprised 92 hereditary peers, 614 life peers, and 1 archbishop and 24 bishops of the Church of England, for a total of 731.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, these judicial functions were transferred to the newly created Supreme Court in 2009, and the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary became the first Justices of the Court.^ Courts of Justice (Dublin) Act 1795 c.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, and the Crown Courts); Scotland´s Court of Session and Court of the Justiciary .
  • United Kingdom - SPAMfighter 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.spamfighter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roman and modern continental influences; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations .
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.Peers who hold high judicial office are no longer allowed to vote or speak in the Lords until they retire as Justices.^ The current house consists of appointed life peers who hold their seats for life and 92 hereditary peers who will hold their seats only until final reforms have been agreed upon and implemented.
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^ Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration.
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  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His assertion came after comments from two other ministers that seemed to hint at a cooling of relations with the US. New Foreign Office Minister Lord Malloch Brown claimed the UK and the US would no longer be “joined at the hip” on foreign policy.
  • AllGov - Nations - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 19th century, Acts allowed for the appointment of Scottish Lords of Appeal in Ordinary and ended appeal in Scottish criminal matters to the House of Lords, so that the High Court of Justiciary became the highest criminal court in Scotland.^ Hear appeals in the House of Lords, the highest Court of Appeal in Britain .

^ Judicial --magistrates' courts, county courts, high courts, appellate courts, House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliamentary News Release at www.scottish.parliament.uk ↑ Andrew Hardie, Baron Hardie , (former) Lord Advocate, - " In a small country like Scotland, the courts have not had sufficient cases in the area of private law to allow the private law to be developed by judicial decision ".
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nowadays the House of Lords legislative committee usually has a minimum of two Scottish Judges to ensure that some experience of Scots law is brought to bear on Scottish appeals in civil cases, from the Court of Session.^ The House of Lords is the highest court in the land for all criminal and civil cases in England , Wales , and Northern Ireland , and for all civil cases in Scots law.
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hear appeals in the House of Lords, the highest Court of Appeal in Britain .

^ The legislative process usually involves both the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

.Certain other judicial functions have historically been performed by the House of Lords.^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two Anglican Archbishops and 24 Bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not afforded this privilege.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The other chamber of Parliament, the appointed House of Lords, has the power to revise and delay, but not block the implementation of laws.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Until 1948, it was the body in which peers had to be tried for felonies or high treason; now, they are tried by normal juries. .When the House of Commons impeaches an individual, the trial takes place in the House of Lords.^ It is bicameral , composed of the elected House of Commons and the unelected House of Lords , whose members are mostly appointed.
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executive power rests nominally with the monarch but actually is exercised by a committee of ministers (cabinet) traditionally selected from among the members of the House of Commons and, to a lesser extent, the House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Impeachments are now rare; the last one occurred in 1806. In 2006, a number of MPs attempted to revive the custom, having signed a motion for the impeachment of Tony Blair, but this was unsuccessful.^ An MP may ask up to two oral questions and any number of written questions a day, although he or she may ask one oral question of a particular minister on any day.

^ Tony Blair, MP Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs--The Rt.

Relationship with the Government

.The British Government is answerable to the House of Commons.^ Last week members of British Parliament took America to task for Hot 97's Tsunami song, in the house of Commons.
  • UPDATED: Miss Jones' Comeback Postponed, British Parliament and Howard Stern Speak on Hot 11 September 2009 13:48 UTC www.hiphopmusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ The leader of the political party which commands a majority of seats in the House of Commons is normally invited by the monarch to form a government and act as prime minister.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, neither the Prime Minister nor members of the Government are elected by the House of Commons.^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
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^ Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

^ The Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, the Queen requests the person most likely to command the support of a majority in the House, normally the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons, to form a government.^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ The leader of the political party which commands a majority of seats in the House of Commons is normally invited by the monarch to form a government and act as prime minister.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately, the Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

.So that they may be accountable to the Lower House, the Prime Minister and most members of the Cabinet are, by convention, members of the House of Commons.^ It elects 18 members to the House of Commons.
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^ The majority of cabinet members are from the House of Commons, the rest from the House of Lords .
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  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government is formed on the basis of a majority of seats in the House of Commons, which are contested in elections held at least every five years; elections for members of Parliament took place on May 5.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last Prime Minister to be a member of the House of Lords was Alec Douglas-Home, 14th Earl of Home, who became Prime Minister in 1963. To adhere to the convention under which he was responsible to the Lower House, he disclaimed his peerage and procured election to the House of Commons within days of becoming Prime Minister.^ The majority of cabinet members are from the House of Commons, the rest from the House of Lords .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of cabinet members will be from the House of Commons, the rest from the House of Lords .
  • United Kingdom | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.koordinaten.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the House of Lords are not elected.

.Governments have a tendency to dominate the legislative functions of Parliament, by using their in-built majority in the House of Commons, and sometimes using their patronage power to appoint supportive peers in the Lords.^ The House of Commons is the centre of parliamentary power.

^ The House of Commons is the more powerful of the two houses.
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  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom | Koordinaten / Informationen / Encyclopedia of terms - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.koordinaten.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

.In practice, governments can pass any legislation (within reason) in the Commons they wish, unless there is major dissent by MPs in the governing party.^ In practice, the government provided protection against refoulement , the return of persons to a country where they feared persecution; however, the government limited this right for persons from "safe countries of origin."
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ The legislative primacy of the House of Commons over the Lords was confirmed in the 20 th century by the passing of the Parliamentary Acts of 1911 and 1949.

.But even in these situations, it is highly unlikely a bill will be defeated, though dissenting MPs may be able to extract concessions from the government.^ But to talk of a Government pledging itself to teach certain languages and certain sciences, though those languages may become useless, though those sciences may be exploded, seems to be quite unmeaning.

^ These may be preceded by consultation papers, sometimes called Green Papers which set out government proposals that are still taking shape and seek comments from the public.

^ In a scenario of English and Welsh voters saying "No" to Scottish independence (though unlikely) how would a UK Government respond?
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

In 1976, Lord Hailsham created a now widely used name for this behaviour, in an academic paper called "elective dictatorship".
.Parliament controls the executive by passing or rejecting its Bills and by forcing Ministers of the Crown to answer for their actions, either at "Question Time" or during meetings of the parliamentary committees.^ Oral questions are answered by ministers at question time in the House of Commons.

^ Prime Minister's Question Time is an important aspect of parliamentary control of Government, when issues and grievances are raised by MPs and information sought about the Government's plans.

^ In the House of Commons, amendments to a Bill can be submitted during a Bill's committee stage and report stage.
  • Bills and Legislation - Crossrail Bill 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC services.parliament.uk [Source type: Academic]

.In both cases, Ministers are asked questions by members of their Houses, and are obliged to answer.^ Oral questions are answered by ministers at question time in the House of Commons.

^ If this is the case, the Father of the House calls on one member to move the motion than the former Speaker should take the Chair as Speaker-elect.

^ This is followed by a further answer by the minister, and there may then be further supplementary questions other MPs.

.Although the House of Lords may scrutinise the executive through Question Time and through its committees, it cannot bring down the Government.^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The House also scrutinizes the work of the Government - it does that by various means, including questioning ministers in the Chamber and through the Select Committee system.

^ Oral questions are answered by ministers at question time in the House of Commons.

.A ministry must always retain the confidence and support of the House of Commons.^ The main job of Backbenchers is to support the leadership of their respective parties in the House of Commons.

^ Ultimately, the Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ 'Money bills', concerned solely with taxation and public expenditure, are always introduced in the Commons and must be passed by the Lords promptly and without amendment.

.The Lower House may indicate its lack of support by rejecting a Motion of Confidence or by passing a Motion of No Confidence.^ The Assembly had been suspended since October 2002 due to a lack of cross-community support, but was fully restored on 8th May, 2007.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Canadian House of Commons was so impressed by her display of courage during an apparent attack on her life that it passed a motion praising her composure.
  • � Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Sources �"; 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aadet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Lords may take a part in shaping legislation, but it cannot permanently block a bill passed by the Commons, and it has no authority over money bills.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Confidence Motions are generally originated by the Government in order to reinforce its support in the House, whilst No Confidence Motions are introduced by the Opposition.^ Rugby league originates from and is generally played in the North of England, whilst Rugby Union is played predominantly in Wales , Northern Ireland and Southern England.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, no MP may speak twice to the same motion, except to clarify part of a speech that has been misunderstood or 'by leave of the House'.

^ Ultimately, the Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

.The motions sometimes take the form "That this House has [no] confidence in Her Majesty's Government" but several other varieties, many referring to specific policies supported or opposed by Parliament, are used.^ Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration.
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  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identity within the UK 2 UK terminology 2.1 Legal terminology 2.1.1 Terminology in the Acts of Union 2.1.2 Current Legal Terminology 2.2 "Countries of the United Kingdom" 2.3 Other terms in use 3 See also 4 References .
  • Countries of the United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a variety of other indexes to use when looking for U.K. government publications, and some of them may be more appropriate depending on the time period and scope of your research.

.For instance, a Confidence Motion of 1992 used the form, "That this House expresses the support for the economic policy of Her Majesty's Government."^ The government has yet to choose whether to support the euro currency, which could be adopted following a positive economic assessment and a future referendum.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ A coalition government was formed in 1973 when moderates won election to a new one-house Assembly.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a motion may theoretically be introduced in the House of Lords, but, as the Government need not enjoy the confidence of that House, would not be of the same effect as a similar motion in the House of Commons; the only modern instance of such an occurrence involves the 'No Confidence' motion that was introduced in 1993 and subsequently defeated.^ A bill may be introduced in either house.

^ The legislative process usually involves both the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

^ House of Lords Papers and Bills: House of Lords papers and bills are similar to those of the House of Commons, except the House of Lords is not permitted to deal with taxation.

.Many votes are considered votes of confidence, although not including the language mentioned above.^ Recent immigrants, especially from the Commonwealth, speak many other languages, including Gujarati, Hindi , Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali, Cantonese, Turkish and Polish.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Important bills that form part of the Government's agenda (as stated in the Speech from the Throne) are generally considered matters of confidence.^ Within many multi-national states, devolution, confederation or federation is adopted as a form of government which is accepted by minority and majority national groups.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, no MP may speak twice to the same motion, except to clarify part of a speech that has been misunderstood or 'by leave of the House'.

^ The role of the Lords is generally recognized to be complementary to that of the Commons and it acts as a revising chamber for many of the more important and controversial bills.

.The defeat of such a bill by the House of Commons indicates that a Government no longer has the confidence of that House.^ Although these are still used to some extent for this purpose and as geographical areas, they are no longer the sole basis for local government administration.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Government can only remain in office for as long as it has the support of a majority in the House of Commons.

^ The leader of the political party which commands a majority of seats in the House of Commons is normally invited by the monarch to form a government and act as prime minister.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same effect is achieved if the House of Commons "withdraws Supply", that is, rejects the budget.^ The Budget is announced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the House of Commons and details are published in the Financial Statement and Budget Report (the 'red book').

.Where a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the Prime Minister is obliged either to resign, or seek the dissolution of Parliament and a new general election.^ At any time up to the end of this period, a general election can be held for a new House of Commons.

^ The Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government is answerable chiefly to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister is drawn from this chamber of Parliament by constitutional convention.
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.Where a Prime Minister has ceased to retain a majority in that vote and requests a dissolution, the Sovereign can in theory reject his request, forcing his resignation and allowing the Leader of the Opposition to be asked to form a new government.^ The Prime Minister is the head of government.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the monarch is head of state and technically holds all executive power, it is the prime minister who is the head of government.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, the new Freedom of Information Act doesn't have the teeth to force the government and private companies to be open about their activities.

This power is used extremely rarely. .The conditions that should be met to allow such a refusal are known as the Lascelles Principles.^ Refuse the use of any public facilities to known racist organisations such as the British National Party and the National Front.

.These conditions and principles are merely informal conventions; it is possible, though highly improbable, for the Sovereign to refuse dissolution for no reason at all.^ It's always possible, though, as I said, that the option might still be independence vs. Calman in a second or conclusive referendum, with no option or say on its own constitutional future being offered to England at all.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is not merely an assumption, but an assumption contrary to all reason and experience.

^ The impact of these developments on social conditions was enormous, but the most significant socioeconomic fact of all from 1750 to 1850 was the growth of population.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, the House of Commons' scrutiny of the Government is very weak.^ The leader of the political party which commands a majority of seats in the House of Commons is normally invited by the monarch to form a government and act as prime minister.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Government is formed on the basis of a majority of seats in the House of Commons, which are contested in elections held at least every 5 years; the most recent elections were in 2001.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The government is answerable chiefly to the House of Commons , from which constitutional convention requires that the Prime Minister be chosen.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the first-past-the-post electoral system is employed in elections, the governing party tends to enjoy a large majority in the Commons; there is often limited need to compromise with other parties.^ Though coalition and minority governments have been an occasional feature of Parliamentary politics, the first-past-the-post electoral system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each has in the past century relied upon a third party to deliver a working majority in Parliament .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though coalition and minority governments have been an occasional feature of Parliamentary politics, the first-past-the-post electoral system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each has in the past century relied upon a third party to deliver a working majority in Parliament [ General Election results through time, 1945-2001 ] BBC News, Accessed May 19 , 2006 .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there have been occasional coalition and minority governments, the first-past-the-post electoral system used for general elections tends to maintain the dominance of these two parties, though each has in the past century relied upon a third party to deliver a working majority in Parliament.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern British political parties are so tightly organised that they leave relatively little room for free action by their MPs.^ The most recent general election was held in 2001; a number of political parties participated in the election, and it was free and fair.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Government is working closely with the Irish Government and Northern Ireland political parties to create the conditions that would allow the restoration of devolved government to take place.

^ The entire party found the Queen "better informed on both the substance and the politics of Canada's constitutional case than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".
  • � Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Sources �"; 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.aadet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, MPs may be expelled from their parties for voting against the instructions of party leaders.^ I took part of course against the innovations which this party wanted to introduce, and I carried with me the vote of the majority of the Council of Education.

^ It is unclear though how many who voted for the Party remain wedded to an ethnicised view of Scottishness.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of the latter NGO a vote was taken which received 7 votes in favour, 6 against, and 5 abstentions.
  • Welcome to The Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.netherlandsmission.org [Source type: News]

During the 20th century, the Government has lost confidence issues only three times — twice in 1924, and once in 1979.

Sovereignty

Several different views have been taken of Parliament's sovereignty. According to the jurist Sir William Blackstone, "It has sovereign and uncontrollable authority in making, confirming, enlarging, restraining, abrogating, repealing, reviving, and expounding of laws, concerning matters of all possible denominations, ecclesiastical, or temporal, civil, military, maritime, or criminal … it can, in short, do every thing that is not naturally impossible."
A different view has been taken by the Scottish judge Lord Cooper of Culross. When he decided the 1953 case of MacCormick v. Lord Advocate as Lord President of the Court of Session, he stated, "The principle of unlimited sovereignty of Parliament is a distinctively English principle and has no counterpart in Scottish constitutional law." He continued, "Considering that the Union legislation extinguished the Parliaments of Scotland and England and replaced them by a new Parliament, I have difficulty in seeing why the new Parliament of Great Britain must inherit all the peculiar characteristics of the English Parliament but none of the Scottish." Nevertheless, he did not give a conclusive opinion on the subject. .Thus, the question of Parliamentary sovereignty appears to remain unresolved.^ It is the ultimate legislative authority in the United Kingdom, according to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty (however, questions over sovereignty have been brought forward because of the UK 's entry in to the European Union ).
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parliament has not passed any Act defining its own sovereignty.^ A bill must be passed by both houses before it becomes law as an official Act of Parliament.

^ In May the Scottish Parliament passed the "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005," providing similar definitions and punishments as in the laws for England and Wales.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public bills undergo a process of discussion, amendment, and revision before they pass and turn into Acts of Parliament.

.A related possible limitation on Parliament relates to the Scottish legal system and Presbyterian faith, preservation of which were Scottish preconditions to the creation of the unified Parliament.^ The Scottish parliament has limited powers.

^ A 1979 referendum on the creation of an elected Scottish assembly was defeated, but a proposal to create a regional legislature with limited taxing authority passed by a landslide Sept.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the Parliament of the United Kingdom was set up in reliance on these promises, it may be that it has no power to make laws that break them.^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
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  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Act of Parliament does not become law until it has been signed by the Queen (being given Royal Assent), although no monarch has refused to assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne in 1708.
  • THE UNITED KINGDOM A HAVEN FOR PLANNING CRIME AND CRIMINALS 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.bushywood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Parliament has the theoretical power to make or repeal any law, in actual practice the weight of 700 years of tradition restrains arbitrary actions.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parliament's power has often been eroded by its own Acts. .Acts passed in 1921 and 1925 granted the Church of Scotland complete independence in ecclesiastical matters.^ In May the Scottish Parliament passed the "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005," providing similar definitions and punishments as in the laws for England and Wales.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christ Church Grants Act 1481 Town of Ardee Act 1481 [ edit ] 1 & 2 Hen.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the first acts of a future socialist government in an independent Scotland would be take into public ownership the key North Sea oilfields and installations.

.More recently, its power has been restricted by membership of the European Union, which has the power to make laws enforceable in each member state.^ The .eu domain is also shared with other European Union member states.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Parliament has the theoretical power to make or repeal any law, in actual practice the weight of 700 years of tradition restrains arbitrary actions.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relatively good economic performance has complicated the BLAIR government's efforts to make a case for Britain to join the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1000Dictionaries.com: United Kingdom: population, area, statistics, maps, flags, religions, languages 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.1000dictionaries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Factortame case, the European Court of Justice ruled that British courts could have powers to overturn British legislation contravening European law.^ Roman and modern continental influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; British courts and legislation are increasingly subject to review by European Union courts .
  • CIA - The World Factbook 2002 -- United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The case that precipitated the ruling was brought to the public’s attention by British and Irish human rights groups, after the Irish authorities asked the government whether it was monitoring Irish telephone conversations.
  • AllGov - Nations - United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sheriff Courts have restricted sentencing power but can remit cases to the High Court for disposal if they so choose.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament has also created national devolved assemblies with legislative authority in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.^ Instead, the home nations compete individually as England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, the home nations compete individually as England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland .
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, the home nations compete individually as England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland .
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parliament still has the power over areas for which responsibility lies with the devolved institutions, but would gain the agreement of those institutions to act on their behalf.^ Responsibility for education lies with the Scottish Parliament.

^ The House of Lords, although shorn of most of its powers, can still review, amend, or delay temporarily any bills except those relating to the budget.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1999 both Scotland and Wales have assumed some regional governmental powers through the institution of a parliament and an assembly, respectively.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, it has granted the power to make regulations to Ministers of the Crown, and the power to enact religious legislation to the General Synod of the Church of England.^ General Synod Measures are measures passed by the General Synod of the Church of England.

^ Religious independence was secured when the Church of England was separated from the authority of the pope in 1534.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is reflected throughout British public life, for instance, there are established state churches in England and Scotland and the Head of State is a Christian monarch crowned by an Arch-bishop in a church.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Measures of the General Synod and, in some cases proposed statutory instruments made by ministers, must be approved by both Houses before they become law.^ A bill must be passed by both houses before it becomes law as an official Act of Parliament.

^ The law stipulates that the health and safety of employees not be placed at risk, and, in practice, it was generally and effectively enforced by the Health and Safety Executive, which could initiate criminal proceedings in appropriate cases.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be manifestly absurd to educate the rising generation with a view to a state of things which we mean to alter before they reach manhood.

) .In every case aforementioned, authority has been conceded by Act of Parliament and may be taken back in the same manner.^ Acts of Parliament that are held by the UIUC library may be found by using UIUC's Online Library Catalog.

^ In May the Scottish Parliament passed the "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005," providing similar definitions and punishments as in the laws for England and Wales.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes may come about formally through new acts of Parliament, informally through the acceptance of new practices and usage, or by judicial precedents.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is entirely within the authority of Parliament, for example, to abolish the devolved governments in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland or to leave the EU. However, Parliament also revoked its legislative competence over Australia and Canada with the Australia and Canada Acts: although the Parliament of the United Kingdom could pass an Act reversing its action, it would not take effect in Australia or Canada as the competence of the Imperial Parliament is no longer recognised there in law.^ English law , which applies in England and Wales; Northern Ireland law, which applies in Northern Ireland, and Scots Law in Scotland.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is no law prohibiting exile, the government did not employ it.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Devolved government was reestablished in Northern Ireland in December 1999.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One well-recognised exception to Parliament's power involves binding future Parliaments. .No Act of Parliament may be made secure from amendment or repeal by a future Parliament.^ As these two countries are legally separate, any amendment to or repeal of a law in one jurisdiction will have no effect on that law in the other.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In May the Scottish Parliament passed the "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005," providing similar definitions and punishments as in the laws for England and Wales.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes may come about formally through new acts of Parliament, informally through the acceptance of new practices and usage, or by judicial precedents.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, although the Act of Union 1800 states that the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland are to be united "forever", Parliament permitted southern Ireland to leave the United Kingdom in 1922.

Privileges

Each House of Parliament possesses and guards various ancient privileges. .The House of Lords relies on inherent right.^ In 1999, the government removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to hold seats in the House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the case of the House of Commons, the Speaker goes to the Lords' Chamber at the beginning of each new Parliament and requests representatives of the Sovereign to confirm the Lower House's "undoubted" privileges and rights.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other chamber of Parliament, the House of Lords, is appointed.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ceremony observed by the House of Commons dates to the reign of King Henry VIII. Each House is the guardian of its privileges, and may punish breaches thereof.^ Anglicanism is the state religion that has been established in England since 1534 during the reign of King Henry VIII. During his reign, England broke ties with the Roman Catholic church and established the Church of England as the official religion of England.
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^ In the elections of May, 1997, Labour won 418 seats in the House of Commons by following a centrist political strategy.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Lords may take a part in shaping legislation, but it cannot permanently block a bill passed by the Commons, and it has no authority over money bills.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The extent of parliamentary privilege is based on law and custom. .Sir William Blackstone states that these privileges are "very large and indefinite", and cannot be defined except by the Houses of Parliament themselves.^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The foremost privilege claimed by both Houses is that of freedom of speech in debate; nothing said in either House may be questioned in any court or other institution outside Parliament.^ Two Anglican Archbishops and 24 Bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not afforded this privilege.
  • 2004 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Anglican archbishops and 24 bishops receive automatic membership in the House of Lords, while clergy from other faiths are not automatically granted this privilege.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament House, Edinburgh is the seat of the supreme courts of Scotland.
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another privilege claimed is that of freedom from arrest; at one time this was held to apply for any arrest except for high treason, felony or breach of the peace but it now excludes any arrest on criminal charges; it applies during a session of Parliament, and 40 days before or after such a session.^ An Act to make it High Treason in this Kingdom to impeach the Succession of the Crown, as limited by several Acts of Parliament c.
  • Wikisource:List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland - Wikisource 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The parties reached agreement on the mechanism for administration of police and justice issues in 2008, and legislation to legally transfer this authority is now before the Parliament in London.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicola Sturgeon declared during one edition of Question Time that independence for Scotland meant independence for England.
  • The Challenges of a Dis-United Kingdom | openDemocracy 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Members of both Houses are no longer privileged from service on juries.^ There were 24 minority members of the House of Lords and no minorities among the 12 Law Lords.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
Both Houses possess the power to punish breaches of their privilege. .Contempt of Parliament — for example, disobedience of a subpoena issued by a committee — may also be punished.^ In May the Scottish Parliament passed the "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005," providing similar definitions and punishments as in the laws for England and Wales.
  • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The House of Lords may imprison an individual for any fixed period of time, but an individual imprisoned by the House of Commons is set free upon prorogation.^ The UK also employs a second legislative chamber, the House of Lords , members of which are referred to as Lords and who are selected on the basis of experience and knowledge by their peers, with oversight of the House of Commons.
  • United Kingdom - eRepublik Official Wiki 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executive power rests nominally with the monarch but actually is exercised by a committee of ministers (cabinet) traditionally selected from among the members of the House of Commons and, to a lesser extent, the House of Lords.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speaker pro tempore of the House of Lords 25 Apr 1660 - 29 May 1660 Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester(b.
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

[25] .The punishments imposed by either House may not be challenged in any court, and the Human Rights Act does not apply.^ Roman and modern continental influences; has nonbinding judicial review of Acts of Parliament under the Human Rights Act of 1998; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations .
  • 1000Dictionaries.com: United Kingdom: population, area, statistics, maps, flags, religions, languages 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.1000dictionaries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, without specific implementing domestic legislation, such as that for the European Convention on Human Rights , it is not normally possible to invoke international law in UK courts.
  • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Majoor gives his perspective - based on his chairmanship of the Third Commission - on the challenges the UN faces in the area of human rights, as well as the areas of peace and security, and development.
  • Welcome to The Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.netherlandsmission.org [Source type: News]

[26]

Emblem

The crowned portcullis
The portcullis on a British one penny coin (pre redesign)
.The quasi-official emblem of the Houses of Parliament is a crowned portcullis.^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The portcullis was originally the badge of various English noble families from the 14th century.^ By the end of the 14th century, foreign trade, originally based on wool exports to Europe, had emerged as a cornerstone of national policy.
  • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It went on to be adopted by the kings of the Tudor dynasty in the 1500s, under whom the Palace of Westminster became the regular meeting place of Parliament.^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament: The building: The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, including its only medieval survival, Westminster Hall, built by William Rufus 1097-99.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scotland obtained representation in (what then became) the British Parliament at Westminster, and the Scottish Parliament was abolished.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The crown was added to make the badge a specifically royal symbol.
.The portcullis probably first came to be associated with the Palace of Westminster through its use as decoration in the rebuilding of the Palace after the fire of 1512. However, at the time it was only one of many symbols.^ Parliament: The building: The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, including its only medieval survival, Westminster Hall, built by William Rufus 1097-99.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lions have been used as heraldic devices many times, including in the royal arms of both the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Kingdom of Gwynedd in Wales .
  • United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never again during her reign did the queen live in London, and Buckingham Palace was only used for occasional visits of a few days.
  • Victoria of the United Kingdom - LoveToKnow 1911 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The widespread use of the portcullis throughout the Palace dates from the nineteenth century, when Charles Barry and Augustus Pugin used it extensively as a decorative feature in their designs for the new Palace built following the disastrous 1834 fire.^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New ICC building is the 'Peace Palace of the 21 st century' .
  • Welcome to The Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.netherlandsmission.org [Source type: News]

^ Jozias van Aartsen, the mayor of the Hague - the city in which the International Criminal Court is based, called the new designs of the ICC building the Peace Palace of the 21 st century.
  • Welcome to The Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.netherlandsmission.org [Source type: News]

.The crowned portcullis came to be accepted during the 20th century as the emblem of both houses of parliament.^ Sovereignty rests in Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the crown.
  • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was simply a result of custom and usage rather than a specific decision. .The emblem now appears on official stationery, publications and papers, and is stamped on various items in use in the Palace of Westminster, such as cutlery, silverware and china.^ Parliament: The building: The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, including its only medieval survival, Westminster Hall, built by William Rufus 1097-99.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
  • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dutch Human Rights Defenders Tulip, an award with which the Netherlands honours and publicises the work of human rights defenders the world over, has now been officially registered.
  • Welcome to The Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.netherlandsmission.org [Source type: News]

[27]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Legislative Chambers: Unicameral or Bicameral?". Democratic Governance. United Nations Development Programme. http://www.undp.org/governance/docs/Parl-Pub-chambers.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  2. ^ "Parliament and Crown". How Parliament works. Parliament of the United Kingdom. http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/role/parliament_crown.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  3. ^ Direct.gov.uk
  4. ^ "Different types of Lords". How Parliament works. Parliament of the United Kingdom. http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/members/lords_types.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  5. ^ "How MPs are elected". How Parliament works. Parliament of the United Kingdom. http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/members/electing_mps.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  6. ^ "Parliament: The political institution". History of Parliament. Parliament of the United Kingdom. http://www.parliament.uk/about/history/institution.cfm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  7. ^ "Messers. Bright And Scholefield At Birmingham", The Times: 9, 19 January 1865 
  8. ^ Jenkin, Clive. "Debate: 30 Jun 2004: Column 318". House of Commons debates. Hansard. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmhansrd/vo040630/debtext/40630-15.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  9. ^ "Escort Notes" (pdf). New Hampshire. http://www.visitnh.gov/pdf/EscortNotes00.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  10. ^ "Queen in Parliament". The Monarchy Today: Queen and State. The British Monarchy. http://www.royal.gov.uk/OutPut/Page4691.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  11. ^ "Act of Union 1707". United Kingdom Parliament. http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  12. ^ "Act of Union (Ireland) 1800 (c.38): Article Third". UK Statute Law. Ministry of Justice. http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?LegType=All+Legislation&title=union&Year=1800&searchEnacted=0&extentMatchOnly=0&confersPower=0&blanketAmendment=0&sortAlpha=0&TYPE=QS&PageNumber=1&NavFrom=0&parentActiveTextDocId=1473067&ActiveTextDocId=1473077&filesize=477. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  13. ^ Group wants Glyndwr Parliament, BBC 10/8/2004
  14. ^ Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542: see Laws in Wales Act 1535 and Laws in Wales Act 1542 from the Statute Law Database
  15. ^ K. Brown and R. Tanner, History of the Scottish Parliament, i, 'introduction'.
  16. ^ Brown and Tanner, passim; R. Tanner, The Late Medieval Scottish Parliament; K. Brown and A. Mann, History of the Scottish Parliament
  17. ^ R. Rait, 'Parliaments of Scotland' (1928)
  18. ^ R. Tanner, 'The Lords of the Articles before 1542', in Scottish Historical Review (2000)
  19. ^ Rait, Parliaments of Scotland
  20. ^ Act of Union 1707, Article 1.
  21. ^ Black, Jeremy (2004). Parliament and Foreign Policy in the Eighteenth Century. England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 21. ISBN 0521833310. http://books.google.com/books?id=cWGk4-59GGIC&pg=PA21&dq=british+royal+veto+1708&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=Kv-5R4ipBJLuiQGz8MXpBw&sig=f90r67srH03baeip6-_ljFnmFoA. 
  22. ^ "Sarkozy: We are stronger together". BBC News. 2008-03-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7313570.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
  23. ^ "United Kingdom; Member of Parliament". PARLINE database on national parliaments. Inter-Parliamentary Union. http://www.ipu.org/parline-e/reports/2336_D.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  24. ^ May, Erskine (2004). Parliamentary Practice. Lexis Nexis UK. pp. 119, 125. ISBN 0406970947. 
  25. ^ "Parliament (United Kingdom government)". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-444244/Parliament. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  26. ^ Human Rights Act 1998, section 6(3).
  27. ^ The Portcullis (factsheet), House of Commons Information Office, November 2007

References

  • Blackstone, Sir William. (1765). .Commentaries on the Laws of England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • K. M. Brown and R. J. Tanner, The History of the Scottish Parliament volume 1: Parliament and Politics, 1235-1560 (Edinburgh, 2004)
  • Davies, M. (2003).^ Various laws and procedures award some degree of recognition to other indigenous languages of the UK: for example, the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly are devolved political bodies which have named Scots Gaelic and Welsh as official languages of their nations.
    • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For real independence On Saturday 9 October 2004 the Queen came to officially open the new Scottish Parliament building at Holyrood.

    ^ January 8, 2010 MORE ON GREAT BRITAIN AND: LEGISLATURES AND PARLIAMENTS , POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT , BROWN, GORDON Heavy Snow Causes Disruptions in Britain .
    • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Companion to the Standing Orders and guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords, 19th ed.
  • Farnborough, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron. (1896). .Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George the Third, 11th ed.^ For a standard general history, see Sir George Clark, ed., The Oxford History of England (2d ed., 16 vol., 1937-91).
    • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • "Parliament." (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • R. Rait, The Parliaments of Scotland (Glasgow, 1924)
  • R. J. Tanner, 'The Lords of the Articles before 1540: a reassesment', Scottish Historical Review, LXXIX (October 2000)

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-05-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
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  • United Kingdom Parliament.^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
    • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The state actually began to take its present shape with the Acts of Union 1707, which united the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to create a "United Kingdom of Great Britain".

    ^ In 1707, the Act of Union received Royal assent, abolishing England and Scotland as separate kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain with a single Parliament.

    .Official website.
  • The Parliamentary Archives of the United Kingdom.^ OFFICIAL NAME: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Geography Area: 243,000 sq.
    • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with a population of 60.4 million, is a constitutional monarchy with a democratic, parliamentary government.
    • 2005 Country Report on Human Rights Practices in the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Church of England and the Church of Scotland are the official churches in their respective parts of the country, but most religions found in the world are represented in the United Kingdom.
    • United Kingdom (10/09) 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official website.
  • Video and audio of parliamentary proceedings
  • [1] BBC Parliament
  • History of Parliament.^ Parliament: The building: The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, including its only medieval survival, Westminster Hall, built by William Rufus 1097-99.
    • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Australia The official site explains the history of the Palace of Westminster, with the present Houses of Parliament designed by Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin.
    • UK Parliament: The building - UK Parliament - Parliament: The building 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.civildir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official website.
  • The British Broadcasting Corporation.^ Official website of the British Monarchy ] [ Official website of the United Kingdom Government ] [ Official tourist guide to Britain ] [ Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom ] from Wikitravel .
    • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (2005). ."A–Z of Parliament."
  • International Association of Business and Parliament - UK Parliament Scheme
  • Information links to Government, political parties and statistics.
  • The Guardian. (2005).^ Free trade, as advocated by the ruling coalition in the Scottish Parliament, the UK government and the World Trade Organisation (WTO) sounds fair, but isn't.

    ^ Template:PDFlink ↑ Office for National Statistics "UK 2005: The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" p.
    • United Kingdom - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ January 8, 2010 MORE ON GREAT BRITAIN AND: LEGISLATURES AND PARLIAMENTS , POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT , BROWN, GORDON Heavy Snow Causes Disruptions in Britain .
    • Great Britain News - Breaking World United Kingdom News - The New York Times 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Special Report: House of Commons."
  • The Guardian. (2005). "Special Report: House of Lords."
  • Parliamentary procedure site at Leeds University
  • Works by the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Project Gutenberg
  • A Short History of the Scottish Parliament

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Parliament of the United Kingdom
(1707—)
The legislative branch of the UK Government comprising the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the .Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories.^ United Kingdom Parliament home page .
  • How Does The UK Parliament Work 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ UKYP serves the youth of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
  • Youth Parliament of Manitoba 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.ypmanitoba.ca [Source type: News]

^ Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has bad teeth and a funny accent because it is British .
  • Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It alone has parliamentary sovereignty, conferring it ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories.^ Parliament alone has parliamentary sovereignty and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the United Kingdom and its territories.
  • Parliament of the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.nydailynews.com [Source type: General]

^ It alone has parliamentary sovereignty.

^ The reception was supported by Countdown 2010, together with the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology and the UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum.
  • Raising the profile of biodiversity at the UK Parliament 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.countdown2010.net [Source type: News]

At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.
Wikipedia logo .Wikipedia has more on:
Parliament of the United Kingdom.
^ United Kingdom Parliament home page .
  • How Does The UK Parliament Work 18 September 2009 9:19 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Parliament is the national legislature of the United Kingdom.
  • United Kingdom - United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.naturemagics.com [Source type: Original source]
  • United Kingdom - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More related topics: Parliament of the United Kingdom and .

Works on Wikisource

External links

.
  • United Kingdom Parliament.^ United Kingdom Parliament: Written Answers to Questions [14 Jun 2005].
    • article_25.html 18 September 2009 9:25 UTC www.cropgen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is automatically the leader of the party with the most members of Parliament elected.
    • Gordon Brown is new Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC digg.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sponsored the visit of the Leader of the House and the Leader of the biggest opposition to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
    • REMARKS BY THE SPEAKER OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY HON. N. MOTSAMAI ON THE OCCASION OF THE OPENING OF THE  TENTH MEETING OF THE FIRST SESSION OF THE SIXTH PARLIAMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF LESOTHO 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.lesotho.gov.ls [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official website.
  • The Parliamentary Archives of the United Kingdom.^ Hemingford, Dennis Henry Herbert,  1947   What Parliament is and does, being an introduction to Parliamentary government in the United Kingdom  University Press, Cambridge [Eng.
    • What Parliament is and does, being an introduction to Parliamentary government in the United Kingdom | National Library of Australia 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC catalogue.nla.gov.au [Source type: General]

    ^ Parliament.UK : United Kingdom Parliament website homepage that brings information in making new laws and what the government is doing.
    • A1WebDirectory.org - United Kingdom Directory 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.a1webdirectory.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Visas Employment Studying and Teaching Practical Info » Home » News » 2008 Archives » State visit to the United Kingdom State visit to the United Kingdom .
    • State visit to the United Kingdom - France in the United States/ Embassy of France in Washington 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC fr.ambafrance-us.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Official website.
  • History of Parliament.^ United Kingdom Parliament    Official site containing information about the workings of the government and links to external websites for Statutes and Statutory Instruments.
    • Home - United Kingdom Legal Research - LibraryGuides at Pace University School of Law 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC libraryguides.law.pace.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Login Copy & paste this link to your blog or website to reference this page Related Searches English parliament British parliament House of commons History of british ...
    • Parliament Definition | Definition of Parliament at Dictionary.com 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sources: 17th Century Includes extensive official and private records of Parliament, and the urban history of London, Glasgow, Cardiff and other major cities.
    • Britain 1689-1815 - EuroDocs 10 January 2010 0:17 UTC eudocs.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Official website.

Simple English

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the highest legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. It alone has parliamentary sovereignty over all other political bodies. At its head is the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II.

The parliament has an upper house, the House of Lords, and a lower house, the House of Commons. The Queen is the third part of Parliament.

Parliament developed from the early medieval councils of bishops and earls that advised the sovereigns of England.

Contents

History

In the Middle Ages and early modern period there were three kingdoms within the British IslesEngland, Scotland and Ireland — and these developed separate parliaments. The 1707 Acts of Union brought England and Scotland together under the Parliament of Great Britain, and the 1800 Act of Union included Ireland under the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Parliament of England

File:Medieval parliament
English parliament in front of the king c. 1300

The English Parliament has its origins in the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot. In 1066, William of Normandy brought a feudal system, where he sought the advice of a council before making laws. In 1215, this council got the Magna Carta from King John, which established that the king may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of his royal council, which slowly developed into a parliament.

In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester called the first elected Parliament. The Laws in Wales Acts of 153542 annexed Wales as part of England and brought Welsh representatives to Parliament.

When Elizabeth I was succeeded in 1603 by the Scottish King James VI of Scotland, (James I of England), the countries both came under his rule but each retained its own Parliament.

Parliament of Scotland

File:Parliament House,
Parliament House in Edinburgh, the former home of the Estates of Scotland.

In the Scotland in the High Middle Ages the King's Council of Bishops and Earls was the beginning of the Parliament of 1235.

[[File:|thumb|200px|The Irish House of Commons by Francis Wheatley (1780).]]

Parliament of Ireland

The Irish Parliament was founded to represent the English community in the Lordship of Ireland, but the native or Gaelic Irish were not allowed to vote or stand for office, the first known meeting being in 1264. In 1541 Henry VIII declared the Kingdom of Ireland. The Gaelic Irish lords were now entitled to attend the Irish Parliament as equals of the majority of English descent.

Other pages

The English Wikibooks has more about this subject:

References

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Parliament of the United Kingdom, which are similar to those in the above article.








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