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.
Map of different governmental systems
Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament are denoted in red.
^ What's the difference between a constitutional monarchy, a republic system, and a parliamentary democracy?
  • What's the difference between a constitutional monarchy, a republic system, and a parliamentary democracy? - Yahoo!7 Answers 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being a figurehead, often either a president (elected either popularly or by the parliament) or by a hereditary monarch (often in a constitutional monarchy).
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

^ States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange —the former being constitutional monarchie s where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republic s whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state are denoted in orange.^ In parliamentary republics the head of state is usually a president.
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange —the former being constitutional monarchie s where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republic s whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential systems combine the offices of head of government and head of state in the president, but aim to check the power of the government of the day by separating power between the president, a powerful legislature , and an independent judiciary .
  • Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform - parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.citizensassembly.bc.ca [Source type: Original source]

Parliamentary republics where the role of the head of government and head of state are combined are denoted in green.
.A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined.^ In essence, the executive is independent of the legislative branch.
  • Units and Self-Tests 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.athabascau.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Divison of executive power in the parliamentary system.

.In such a system, the head of government is both de facto chief executive and chief legislator.^ The President is both the chief executive and the head of state.
  • Parliamentary versus Presidential governments 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike a presidential or republican form of government, parliamentary democracy includes the executive, the first minister (Premier or Prime Minister) and cabinet ministers, as part of the legislative assembly.
  • Parliamentary Reform and the Citzens' Assembly 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.strategicthoughts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The mongrel executive mixing parliamentary and presidential systems has created an executive that controls all branches of government: executive, parliament and judiciary.
  • allAfrica.com: Kenya: ODM Roots for Parliamentary System in New Law 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

.Parliamentary systems are characterized by no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a different set of checks and balances compared to those found in presidential systems.^ As opposed to a parliamentary system, a presidential structure boasts a separation of executive and legislature.
  • At heart, the difference between the parliamentary and presidentialgovernment structures is minute 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems, unlike presidential systems, are typified by a fusion of powers between the legislative and executive branches.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Directorial systems • Presidential systems • Parliamentary systems .
  • Politcal Systems of Spain and the European Union 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gseabroad.com [Source type: Academic]

.Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being a figurehead, often either a president (elected either popularly or by the parliament) or a hereditary monarch (often in a constitutional monarchy).^ It is the government, Regeringen - consisting of the prime minister and the other ministers - that governs the state and is answerable to the parliament, Riksdagen.
  • Government: Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.sverigeturism.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Who picks the prime minister within the parliamentary system of government?
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Background

.The term parliamentary system does not mean that a country is ruled by different parties in coalition with each other.^ What does the term 'Responsible Government' mean?
  • Chapters and Self-Tests 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.athabascau.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A parliamentary system offers other advantages.
  • DrPolitics.com -- America Needs a Parliamentary System. By Ted Rueter 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.drpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This does not mean that Parliamentary government is superior to a Presidential system.
  • Separation of Powers and Parliamentary Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.southsearepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such multi-party arrangements are usually the product of an electoral system known as proportional representation.^ The system of proportional representation, on the other hand, favors small parties.
  • Interest Groups - Political Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Two-Party vs. Multi-Party System .
  • Interest Groups - Political Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the opposition parties demand that the electoral system be changed to a proportional representation system was not accepted.
  • African Studies Quarterly - John Ishiyama - Alternative Electoral Systems and the 2005 Ethiopian Parliamentary Election 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many parliamentary countries, especially those that use "first past the post" voting, have governments composed of one party.^ Parliamentary countries that use first past the post voting usually have governments composed of one party.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First past the post.
  • General (UK Parliamentary) elections - About my vote, produced by The Electoral Commission 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.aboutmyvote.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In what countries do they use the parliamentary system?
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, parliamentary systems in continental Europe do use proportional representation, and tend to produce election results in which no single party has a majority of seats.^ The system of proportional representation, on the other hand, favors small parties.
  • Interest Groups - Political Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC xroads.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This system allows the division of the seats among the parties in proportion to the results achieved.
  • Parliamentary election 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.senate.be [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, parliamentary systems in continental Europe do use proportional representation , and tend to produce election results in which no single party has a majority of seats.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.Proportional representation in a non-parliamentary system does not have this result (Arguelles, 2009).^ Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System .
  • Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System | Ian Welsh 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ianwelsh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Proportional representation in a non-parliamentary system obviously does not have this result.
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How does parliamentary system works?
  • WikiAnswers - How does a parliamentary system of government work 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parliamentarianism may also be for governance in local governments.^ Parliamentarianism may also be for governance in local governments.
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Parliamentarianism may also be heeded for governance in local governments.

^ Parliamentarianism may also be heeded for governance in local governments .
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council as a part of the parliamentary system.^ Divison of executive power in the parliamentary system.

^ An example is the city of Oslo , which has an executive council as a part of the parliamentary system.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems have an Executive Council that is composed of the chair and the Executive Cabinet.
  • Separation of Powers and Parliamentary Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.southsearepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

.The council-manager system of municipal government used in some U.S. cities bears many similarities to a parliamentary system.^ The council-manager system of municipal government used in some U.S. cities bears many similarities to a parliamentary system.
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Define parliamentary system of government?
  • WikiAnswers - How does a parliamentary system of government work 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canadas parliamentary system of Government .
  • Canada's Government web page 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mrdowling.com [Source type: Original source]

.Students of democracy such as Arend Lijphart divide parliamentary democracies into two different systems, the Westminster and Consensus systems (See Lijphart 1999 for this section).^ Democracy does not necessarily mean parliamentary democracy, nor the Westminster system of government.

^ Majoritarian and consensual systems The theory of democracy .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Westminster-style parliamentary democracy .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Government type 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Original source]

.
The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom.
^ In the United Kingdom , whose Westminster system has been adopted in many countries, the executive branch is not entirely separate from the legislative branch.
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Westminster is the British Parliament, which meets at Westminster Palace in London.
  • Parliamentary Glossary T to Z: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Other authorities from Westminster-style Parliaments, particularly the United Kingdom, Australia, India and New Zealand, are consulted whenever necessary.
  • Parliamentary Procedure— General Article — Compendium of Procedure Home — House of Commons . Canada 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The Westminster system originates from the British Houses of Parliament.
  • The Westminster system, is usually found in Commonwealth of Nations countries, although it is not universal within nor exclusive to Commonwealth countries.^ Westminster System or Westminster Models tend to be found in Commonwealth of Nations countries, although they are not universal within and exclusive to Commonwealth Countries.

    ^ The Westminster Parliament and the Westminster system of government are not synonymous.
    • The Westminster system of government « Lords of the Blog 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC lordsoftheblog.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Parliament is housed in Westminster Palace .
    • parliamentary law Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about parliamentary law 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is more important than committees.^ The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber.
    • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is relatively more important than committees.
    • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These committees are concerned with the administration of the Parliament.
    • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Introduction 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

    .Some parliaments in this model are elected using a plurality voting system (first past the post), such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use proportional representation, such as Ireland and New Zealand.^ The voting system used is a form of proportional representation, known as the Hare-Clark system.

    ^ F. Parliamentary committee system of New Zealand .
    • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some parliaments in this model are elected using " First Past the Post " electoral systems, (e.g.
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The Australian House of Representatives is elected using instant-runoff voting while the Senate is elected using proportional representation through single transferable vote.^ Through party discipline can have it passed in the House of Representatives and Senate.
    • Separation of Powers and Parliamentary Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.southsearepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Australian House of Representatives is elected using the alternative or preferential vote while the Senate is elected using PRSTV (proportional representation through the single transferable vote ).
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am planning to vote for the Australian Greens in both the Senate and the House of Reps.
    • Election 2001 - Direct Democracy not Parliamentary Rule 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Even when proportional representation systems are used, the voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather than a party list.^ The voting system used is a form of proportional representation, known as the Hare-Clark system.

    ^ Proportional representation systems are used, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures.
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That means each vote goes to a specific candidate rather than to a political party.
    • Afghanistan: Delay Foreseen For Parliamentary Elections - Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2010 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.rferl.org [Source type: News]

    .This model does allow for a greater separation of powers than the Western European model, since the governing party will often not have a majority in the upper house.^ This model does allow for a greater separation of powers than the Western European Model, although the extent of the separation of powers is nowhere near that of the presidential system of United States .
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This model does allow for a greater separation of powers than the Western European Model, although the extent of the separation of powers is nowhere near that of the United States.

    ^ With a majority, the government has the power to govern.
    • Units and Self-Tests 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.athabascau.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .However, parliamentary systems still feature a lesser separation of powers than is found in democratic presidential systems.^ The parliamentary system is a better system of government than the presidential system .
    • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Directorial systems • Presidential systems • Parliamentary systems .
    • Politcal Systems of Spain and the European Union 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gseabroad.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In the parliamentary system, the legislative branch is given more power than in a presidential system .
    • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

    .June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]
  • Western European parliamentary model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and usually have semi-cyclical debating chambers.^ Spain, Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and have hemi-cyclical debating chambers.

    ^ Spain , Germany ) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and have semi-cyclical debating chambers.
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ June 2009 - Elections European Parliament .
    • Welcome to The European Parliamentary Forum on Population and Development (EPF) website 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.iepfpd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Consensus systems are identified by proportional representation, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures.^ There would be more parties.
    • courier-journal.com | Point Taken blog | The Courier-Journal 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Proportional electoral systems are used, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures.

    ^ Proportional representation systems are used, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures.
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber.^ The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber.
    • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The emphasis has tended to be on the chamber rather than committee.
    • The Westminster system of government « Lords of the Blog 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC lordsoftheblog.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These parliaments tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of parliament is relatively more important than committees.
    • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    .This model is sometimes called the West German Model since its earliest exemplar in its final form was in the Bundestag of West Germany (which became the Bundestag of Germany upon the absorption of the GDR by the FRG).^ This model is sometimes called the West German Model since its earliest exemplar in its final form was in the Bundestag of West Germany (which became the Bundestag of Germany upon the absorption of the GDR by the FRG ).
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This Model of Parlimanetarism is sometimes called the West German Model- since it was used in the Parliament of the West German, later united Germany Parliament.

    ^ The Us Supreme Court is the leading one worldwide.The abortion law in germany was copied by the bundestag.Then the Supreme Court of the FRG striked it down partially .
    • Marginal Revolution: Are Parliamentary systems better? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.marginalrevolution.com [Source type: General]

    .Unlike in Germany however, some West European countries' parliaments (e.g., the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland) implement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers.^ Some parliaments, however, do not have a history of monarchy.
    • Parliamentary versus Presidential governments 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What is the principle of separation of powers?
    • 15. Parliamentary Principles: FAQ; Parliamentary Education Office, Parliament of Australia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At Community level, however, the powers of the European Parliament remain limited.
    • European University Institute - RSC Working Paper, No 98/11, Dehousse, Renaud, European Institutional Architecture after Amsterdam: Parliamentary System or Regulatory Structure? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.eui.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliament upon being appointed (or elected) minister.^ In what countries do they use the parliamentary system?
    • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ South Australia, along with Victoria, were the first places in the world to use the secret ballot, and for many years this system was known in the United States as "the Australian ballot".
    • South Australia's Parliamentary Constitution 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.sa.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The origin of the Franking System was a decree of the Council of State in 1652 , by which correspondence to and from Members of Parliament and of certain State Officials was permitted to pass free through the post.
    • Free Franks: Some markings used for the Parliamentary Franking System in the U.K 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC earsathome.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, ministers in those countries usually actively participate in parliamentary debates - the main difference being their inability to vote.^ As long as we get those parliamentary debates.
    • Should the US shift from a presidential system to a parliamentary system? - AbsolutePunk.net 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.absolutepunk.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government being the prime minister or premier , and the head of state often being an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or hereditary monarch .
    • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being an appointed figurehead or hereditary monarch with only minor or ceremonial powers.

    Switzerland is considered one the purest examples of a consensus system.
.There also exists a Hybrid Model, the semi-presidential system, drawing on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems, for example the French Fifth Republic.^ The parliamentary system of government can also be contrasted with hybrid systems that include aspects of both the parliamentary and presidential governments.
  • Parliamentary Government in Canada: Basic Organization and Practices | Mapleleafweb.com 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mapleleafweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Directorial systems • Presidential systems • Parliamentary systems .
  • Politcal Systems of Spain and the European Union 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gseabroad.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There also exists a Hybrid Model, the semi-presidential system , drawing on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems, for example the French Fifth Republic .
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.Much of Eastern Europe has adopted this model since the early 1990s.^ Much of Eastern Europe has adopted this model since the early 1990s.

.Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ on whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament to form, rather than just the absence of its disapproval, and under what conditions (if any) the government has the right to dissolve the parliament, like Jamaica and many others.^ The parliamentary system is a better system of government than the presidential system .
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems - Other systems .
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We need you and your like in our parliament more than ever.
  • CLARIFICATION OF PARLIAMENTARY ALLOWANCES | MingCampbell.org.uk 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mingcampbell.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.A Parliamentary system may consist of two styles of Chambers of Parliament one with two chambers (or houses): an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house.^ Rather, the President may dissolve the parliaments Lower House, the National Assembly (but not the upper house, Senate).
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament consists of two chambers, the House of Commons, consisting of members of parliament who are elected, and the House of Lords, consisting of unelected peers.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A591383 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parliament of Ontario is unicameral and so consists of one House, the Legislative Assembly.
  • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This style of two houses is called bicameral system.^ This House believes in the two-party system.
  • POTENTIAL TOPICS FOR DEBATE 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC debate.uvm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, most parliamentary systems are bicameral , with an upper house designed to check the power of the lower (from which the executive comes).
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For example In the U.S. the President acts like a Prime Minister (in the Westminster style system we tend to call it Prime Minister.
  • What's the difference between a constitutional monarchy, a republic system, and a parliamentary democracy? - Yahoo!7 Answers 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Legislatures with only one house are known as unicameral system.^ Other systems - Unicameral and bicameral legislatures .
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is only one House of Parliament in Queensland, the Legislative Assembly.
  • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas the doctrine of separation of powers in the U.S. system does not require the executive branch to hold a majority in the legislature, in Great Britain the ministers of the crown hold office only so long as they enjoy the support of a majority in the House of Commons.
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the commonly attributed advantages to parliamentary systems is that it's faster and easier to pass legislation[1].This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature.^ Which is easier to pass laws in Parliamentary system or?
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature .
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The role of the Legislature is to enact and pass legislation.
  • Parliament of Tonga - Acts 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC parliament.gov.to [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, this would amount to the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) possessing more votes in order to pass legislation.^ There would be more parties.
  • courier-journal.com | Point Taken blog | The Courier-Journal 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.courier-journal.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The role of the Legislature is to enact and pass legislation.
  • Parliament of Tonga - Acts 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC parliament.gov.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The executive must keep a majority in the legislature in order to remain in power.
  • At heart, the difference between the parliamentary and presidentialgovernment structures is minute 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature.^ In the presidential system, the executive and legislature are elected separately.
  • The Westminster system of government « Lords of the Blog 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC lordsoftheblog.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Executives and legislatures - Monarchical systems .
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties, then stalemate can occur.^ If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties, then stalemate can occur.

^ If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties , then stalemate can occur.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The US and UK have different political systems.
  • Dealing with the worst | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Former US President Bill Clinton often faced problems in this regard, since the Republicans controlled Congress for much of his tenure.^ Former US President Bill Clinton often faced problems in this regard, since the Republicans controlled Congress for much of his tenure.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Former US President Bill Clinton often faced problems in this regard, since the Republicans controlled Congress for much of his tenure as President.

^ Both Clinton and Obama acted because their party controlled both houses of Congress, and control of the party equaled control of the government.
  • Obama Tries the Parliamentary System by Dick Morris on Creators.com - A Syndicate Of Talent 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.creators.com [Source type: General]
  • Dick Morris and Eileen McGann : Obama Tries the Parliamentary System - Townhall.com 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

.Accordingly, the executive within a presidential system might not be able to properly implement his or her platform/manifesto.^ As opposed to a parliamentary system, a presidential structure boasts a separation of executive and legislature.
  • At heart, the difference between the parliamentary and presidentialgovernment structures is minute 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ If this kind of government system be implemented in our country, there will be greater possibilities that might happened.
  • Toward Federal Parliamentary Democracy? | Socyberty 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems, unlike presidential systems, are typified by a fusion of powers between the legislative and executive branches.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

.Evidently, an executive in any system (be it parliamentary, presidential or semi-presidential) is chiefly voted into office on the basis of his or her party's platform/manifesto.^ Fruits and Votes » Presidential & Parliamentary Systems google yahoo bing .
  • Fruits and Votes » Presidential & Parliamentary Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC fruitsandvotes.com [Source type: News]

^ Presidential and parliamentary systems - - Unitary and federal systems .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In parliamentary systems, the chief executives term of office is directly linked with that of the legislature, while in presidential systems the terms are not linked.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

.It could be said then that the will of the people is more easily instituted within a parliamentary system.^ In parliamentary systems where leaders answer to backbenchers, fighting policy battles from a place within the government caucus is the norm.
  • Commentary - Democracy and Parliament by Christopher Moore 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.christophermoore.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For the reasons explained above, such a course is within the power of the Tribunal, and also commends itself on the merits as more likely to facilitate the efficient performance of parliamentary duties.
  • 2000 Report - NSW Department of Premier and Cabinet 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.remtribunals.nsw.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a parliamentary system, generally, conflict is a lot more muted."
  • Politics Articles | Parliamentary Systems May Serve Constituents Better | Miller-McCune Online Magazine 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.miller-mccune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to quicker legislative action, Parliamentarianism has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided.^ In addition to quicker legislative action, Parliamentarianism has attractive features for nations that are ethnically , racially , or ideologically divided.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to quicker legislative action, Parliamentarianism has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided.

^ In addition to votes on the government or its legislation, the House further holds the government responsible through the relentless review of individual cabinet ministers and their actions.
  • Parliamentary Government in Canada: Basic Organization and Practices | Mapleleafweb.com 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mapleleafweb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a unipersonal presidential system, all executive power is concentrated in the president.^ So, presidentialism separates the executive power from the legislative.
  • What's the difference between a constitutional monarchy, a republic system, and a parliamentary democracy? - Yahoo!7 Answers 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a unipersonal presidential system, all executive power is concentrated in the president.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems are characterized by no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a different set of checks and balances compared to those found in presidential systems.
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

.In a parliamentary system, with a collegial executive, power is more divided.^ In a parliamentary system, with a collegial executive, power is more divided.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Who has power in a parliamentary system?
  • WikiAnswers - Advantage of parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "The mongrel executive mixing parliamentary and presidential systems has created an executive that controls all branches of government: executive, parliament and judiciary.
  • allAfrica.com: Kenya: ODM Roots for Parliamentary System in New Law 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

.In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentarianism.^ In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in the power structure of parliamentarianism.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the French system, the President has broad powers.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

.Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination; Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.^ Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be equivalent to Shiite domination; Afghanistan 's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be equivalent to Shiite domination; Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired.

^ In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in the power structure of parliamentarianism.^ It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in the power structure of parliamentarianism.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement , in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism.

.The prime minister seldom tends to have as high importance as a ruling president, and there tends to be a higher focus on voting for a party and its political ideas than voting for an actual person.^ The party vote in the election was higher than usual.
  • Parliamentary Glossary T to Z: Students; PEO, Parliament of Australia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The premier seldom tends to have as high importance as a ruling president, and there tends to be a higher focus on voting for a party and its political ideas than voting for an actual person.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.In The English Constitution, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for producing serious debates, for allowing the change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time.^ Although Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused.
  • Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the English Constitution , Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for producing serious debates, for allowing the change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time.

^ In The English Constitution , Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for producing serious debates, for allowing the change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural.^ Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is usual for an election to be called after four years.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A591383 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ CIA World Fact Book: United Kingdom This method of government differs from the United States model of representative government whereby the executive has a fixed four-year term and often holds a significant influence over the legislative branches of government.
  • Parliamentary Democracy 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.There is also a body of scholarship, associated with Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl that claims that parliamentarianism is less prone to authoritarian collapse.^ There is also a body of scholarship, associated with Juan Linz , Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman , and Robert Dahl that claims that parliamentarianism is less prone to authoritarian collapse.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy.^ These scholars point out that since World War II , two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully transitioned to democracy.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since World War II, Turkey has experienced three periods of military government.
  • "Criminalizing Parliamentary Speech in Turkey" 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC kurdistan.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Countries with a parliamentary system of government .
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns.^ The U.S. is exceptional among presidential systems in its constitutional continuity.
  • The Hindu : Opinion / Leader Page Articles : Parliamentary government trumps presidential 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.hindu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ International systems - Transition, consolidation, breakdown .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While all other democracies are/were failing in developing world, Indian democracy is coming out with flying colors - mainly due to the fine balance the constitution makers have struck between unitary-parliamentary & presidential-federal systems.
  • Marginal Revolution: Are Parliamentary systems better? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.marginalrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

.A recent World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with lower corruption.^ A recent World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with lower corruption.
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, most parliamentary systems are bicameral , with an upper house designed to check the power of the lower (from which the executive comes).
  • What is Parliamentary Democracy? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was instructive to watch this seamless process in one of the world’s great democracies and the former imperial power from which we inherited our system of parliamentary democracy.
  • Bahama Pundit: The Roots of the Bahamian Parliamentary System 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.bahamapundit.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]

Criticisms of parliamentarianism

.One of the main criticisms and benefits of many parliamentary systems is that the head of government is in almost all cases not directly elected.^ Government: Parliamentary system .
  • Government: Parliamentary system 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.sverigeturism.se [Source type: Original source]

^ A parliamentary system is a system of government where in the ministers of the ...
  • Definition Of Parliamentary Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.futuregate.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary and Presidential systems of government.
  • Free Essay Differences of Parliamentary And Presidential Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.echeat.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a presidential system, the president is usually chosen directly by the electorate, or by a set of electors directly chosen by the people, separate from the legislature.^ In the presidential system, the executive and legislature are elected separately.
  • The Westminster system of government « Lords of the Blog 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC lordsoftheblog.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a presidential system , the legislature sets its own agenda and passes its own bills.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A presidential system separates the executive from the legislature and places a directly elected President at the head of the executive branch.
  • The Hindu : Opinion / Leader Page Articles : Parliamentary government trumps presidential 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.hindu.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, in a parliamentary system the prime minister is elected by the legislature, often under the strong influence of the party leadership.^ Who picks the prime minister within the parliamentary system of government?
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do like the strong party system, though.
  • Parliamentary Universalism (Motion at Vote) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC uselectionatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Parliamentary systems often allow the Prime Minister and cabinet to manipulate the legislature by offering intra-party perks and promotions."
  • Marginal Revolution: Are Parliamentary systems better? 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.marginalrevolution.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, a party's candidate for the head of government is usually known before the election, possibly making the election as much about the person as the party behind him or her.^ (Usually, this is a formality, as the parties have already decided this well before the election).
  • Australia's Parliamentary System of Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ecoteacher.asn.au [Source type: Original source]

^ President Hosni Mubarak invited him to form the new government after the parliamentary elections in 1999.

^ After an election, the Governor-General sends for the leader of the party or coalition which has secured a majority in the House of Representatives and commissions that person to form a government.
  • Australia's Parliamentary System of Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ecoteacher.asn.au [Source type: Original source]

.Some constituencies may have a popular local candidate under an unpopular leader (or the reverse), forcing a difficult choice on the electorate.^ I'm 49 and have never voted at a local, State or Federal election, am not on the electoral roll, but was able to stand as a Victorian Senate candidate.
  • Election 2001 - Direct Democracy not Parliamentary Rule 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.takver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using the ANROLV voting system, not only would voters be able to give preferences as it suited them, but their unused vote (if their local candidate is not elected) may be transferred to the party of their choice, who could use it to elect "at large" nominated candidates or to distribute to their existing elected representatives.
  • Increasing Democracy in Australia: A Plan to Introduce Far Greater Democracy into our Current System of Parliamentary Representation, by Andrew Guild 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.destinymagazine.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The increase registered in 1994 may be due to electoral realignments, connected with the ongoing expansion of the vote in PT and the localized growth of PSDB's political weight.
  • Teoria & Sociedade - Comparing houses of representatives: parliamentary recruitment in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC socialsciences.scielo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mixed member proportional representation (where voters cast two ballots) can make this choice easier.^ Mixed-member smoothly combines geographic, ideological and proportional representation.

^ Two parties limit the voters' choices.

^ The second system is the Mixed Member/Parallel system in which the choices expressed by the voters are used to elect representatives through two different systems - Party-list Proportional Representation and a plurality/majority system.
  • African Studies Quarterly - John Ishiyama - Alternative Electoral Systems and the 2005 Ethiopian Parliamentary Election 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused.^ Criminal trials are not taking place in a timely manner, leading to more alarm and fear when persons accused of serious crimes are allowed bail.

^ "I hope that the political climate will be healthy so we can take part in elections as much as the law allows," he added.
  • Iran's 2008 Parliamentary Elections: A Triumph of the System 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.meriajournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If new parliamentary elections are to take place today, Hamas would receive 31% (compared to 3...
  • Geneva Initiative - Yes to an agreement - Search 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.geneva-accord.org [Source type: News]

.In some systems, such as the British, a ruling party can schedule elections when it feels that it is likely to do well, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity.^ The great reluctance, however, invariably manifested to require such a disclaimer, even in the case of bribery, shows that it is considered likely to have some efficacy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - THOUGHTS ON PARLIAMENTARY REFORM 1859 - The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XIX - Essays on Politics and Society Part 2 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I find that had certain electoral rules been employed (particularly the Block Plurality system), the opposition parties would have fared much better in the 2005 parliamentary elections, and this would have had an important impact affecting the course of events that immediately followed the 2005 election.
  • African Studies Quarterly - John Ishiyama - Alternative Electoral Systems and the 2005 Ethiopian Parliamentary Election 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC web.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Without such parties, parliamentary systems would do no better than presidential systems in fostering a stable government.
  • At heart, the difference between the parliamentary and presidentialgovernment structures is minute 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system.^ The parliamentary system is a better system of government than the presidential system .
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential and parliamentary systems - - Unitary and federal systems .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The parliamentary system is a more common system of government than the presidential system .
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

.This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments.^ The Canadian federal parliament has just adopted fixed election dates.
  • Dealing with the worst | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In Australia’s parliamentary democracy the federal government is drawn from the Parliament .
  • 15. Parliamentary Principles: FAQ; Parliamentary Education Office, Parliament of Australia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.peo.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This would require constitutional changes, but in any case, elections alone will not resolve the key problems with democracy in Ukraine today.
  • Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC assembly.coe.int [Source type: Original source]

.In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date.^ The UML was able to form a minority government, as the other three parties were unable or unwilling to forge a coalition.
  • Political Systems and their impact on Governing Relations: (Presidential, Parliamentary and Hybrid Systems) 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.undp.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After an election, the Governor-General sends for the leader of the party or coalition which has secured a majority in the House of Representatives and commissions that person to form a government.
  • Australia's Parliamentary System of Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ecoteacher.asn.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I like the Canadian system because there are multiple parties, coalitions and regional dynamics going on all the time.
  • MinnesotaBrown: Parliamentary system is incoherent, but honorable 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.minnesotabrown.com [Source type: General]

.Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections avoids having periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system.^ Presidential and parliamentary systems - - Unitary and federal systems .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Presidential systems - Parliamentary systems .
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidential and parliamentary systems .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Critics of parliamentary systems point out that people with significant popular support in the community are prevented from becoming prime minister if they cannot get elected to parliament since there is no option to "run for prime minister" like one can run for president under a presidential system.^ The Prime Minister is not directly elected by the people; he is appointed by the Sovereign.
  • British Parliamentary System@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential and parliamentary systems - - Unitary and federal systems .
  • democracy :: Presidential and parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Who picks the prime minister within the parliamentary system of government?
  • GED Social Studies | Civics and Government 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.gedforfree.com [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, prime ministers may lose their positions solely because they lose their seats in parliament, even though they may still be popular nationally.^ The main leader of the nation is the Prime Minister.
  • What's the difference between a constitutional monarchy, a republic system, and a parliamentary democracy? - Yahoo!7 Answers 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We get great prime ministers when we have great parliaments.
  • Commentary - Democracy and Parliament by Christopher Moore 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.christophermoore.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ They should be saying, okay, we as the majority caucus support Prime Minister Martin and his policies today.
  • Commentary - Democracy and Parliament by Christopher Moore 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.christophermoore.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Supporters of parliamentarianism can respond by saying that as members of parliament, prime ministers are elected firstly to represent their electoral constituents and if they lose their support then consequently they are no longer entitled to be prime minister.^ The Prime Minister says that they have halved -- [Interruption.
  • andrewcoyne.com: The Golden Age of Parliamentary Oratory 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC andrewcoyne.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We get great prime ministers when we have great parliaments.
  • Commentary - Democracy and Parliament by Christopher Moore 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.christophermoore.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prime Minister, for example, is usually an elected member of the House of Commons.
  • Parliamentary Government in Canada: Basic Organization and Practices | Mapleleafweb.com 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.mapleleafweb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In parliamentary systems, the role of the statesman who represents the country as a whole goes to the separate position of head of state, which is generally non-executive and non-partisan.^ Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System .
  • Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System | Ian Welsh 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ianwelsh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliamentary systems also vary in the role performed by the head of state.
  • constitutional law :: Parliamentary systems -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the parliamentary system faction can also play a positive as well as negative role.
  • Separation of Powers and Parliamentary Systems 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.southsearepublic.org [Source type: Original source]

.Promising politicians in parliamentary systems likewise are normally preselected for safe seats - ones that are unlikely to be lost at the next election - which allows them to focus instead on their political career.^ Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System .
  • Parliamentary Politics in a non Parliamentary System | Ian Welsh 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.ianwelsh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system.

^ Political disregard for the ordinary voters apparently changes during election campaigns, when politicians are casting about for votes, making all sorts of promises to the people; but all their promises can be forgotten once they're back in parliament, and the system turns back into just another "parliamentary dictatorship" for another few years.
  • Increasing Democracy in Australia: A Plan to Introduce Far Greater Democracy into our Current System of Parliamentary Representation, by Andrew Guild 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.destinymagazine.info [Source type: Original source]

Countries with a parliamentary system of government

Unicameral System

.This table shows countries with parliament consisting of a single house.^ Once upon a time the House of Lords was simply abolished, creating a single house Parliament.
  • Parliamentary reform « Lords of the Blog 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC lordsoftheblog.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Speakers were to take their roles as representatives of the two houses of Parliament seriously, they should be dutifully appalled by the total disregard, disdain, and contempt for Parliament that this prorogation shows.

^ It was established under the Parliament (Joint Services) Act 1985 and consists of members from both Houses.
  • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Country Parliament
Albania Kuvendi
Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad
Bulgaria National Assembly
Botswana Parliament
Burkina Faso National Assembly
Croatia Sabor
Denmark Folketing
Dominica House of Assembly
Estonia Riigikogu
Finland Eduskunta/Riksdag
Greece Hellenic Parliament
Hungary National Assembly
Iceland Althing
Israel Knesset
Kosovo Kuvendi
Kuwait National Assembly of Kuwait
Latvia Saeima
Lebanon Assembly of Deputies
Lithuania Seimas
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
Republic of Macedonia Sobranie
Malta House of Representatives
Mauritius National Assembly
Moldova Parliament
Mongolia State Great Khural
Montenegro Parliament
Nepal Legislature-Parliament
New Zealand Parliament
Norway Stortinget
Palestinian Authority Parliament
Papua New Guinea National Parliament
Portugal Assembly of the Republic
Republic of Macedonia Sobranie - Assembly
Saint Kitts and Nevis National Assembly
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines House of Assembly
Samoa Fono
Serbia National Assembly
Singapore Parliament
Slovakia National Council
Sri Lanka Parliament
Sweden Riksdag
Turkey Grand National Assembly
Ukraine Verkhovna Rada
Vanuatu Parliament

Bicameral system

.This table shows organisations and countries with parliament consisting of two houses.^ The object of a conference being the adjustment of differences between two bodies, and the conference consisting of independent committees, its report to be a valid one must be agreed to by a majority of the committee from each House.
  • Reed's Parliamentary Rules 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.leg.wa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It was established under the Parliament (Joint Services) Act 1985 and consists of members from both Houses.
  • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Parliament of Ontario is unicameral and so consists of one House, the Legislative Assembly.
  • Improving Victoria's Parliamentary Committee System - Appendix B 2 February 2010 9:18 UTC www.parliament.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organisation or Country Parliament Upper chamber Lower chamber
Australia Commonwealth Parliament Senate House of Representatives
Austria Parliament Federal Council National Council
Antigua and Barbuda Parliament Senate House of Representatives
The Bahamas Parliament Senate House of Assembly
Barbados House of Assembly Senate House of Assembly
Belize National Assembly Senate House of Representatives
Belgium Federal Parliament Senate Chamber of Representatives
Bhutan Parliament National Council National Assembly
Canada Parliament Senate House of Commons
Czech Republic Parliament Senate Chamber of Deputies
Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly House of Federation House of People's Representatives
European Union Council of the European Union European Parliament
Germany Federal Legislature/Bundesversammlung (Federal Assembly) Bundesrat (Federal Council) Bundestag (Federal Diet)
Grenada Parliament Senate House of Representatives
India Parliament (Sansad) Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Lok Sabha (House of People)
Ireland Oireachtas Seanad Éireann Dáil Éireann
Iraq National Assembly Council of Union[3] Council of Representatives
Italy Parliament Senate of the Republic Chamber of Deputies
Jamaica Parliament Senate House of Representatives
Japan Diet House of Councillors House of Representatives
Malaysia Parliament Dewan Negara (Senate) Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
Netherlands Staaten-Generaal (States-General) Eerste Kamer (Senate) Tweede Kamer (House of Representatives)
Pakistan Parliament Senate National Assembly
Poland Parliament Senate Sejm
Romania Parliament Senate Chamber of Deputies
Saint Lucia Parliament Senate House of Assembly
Slovenia Parliament National Council National Assembly
South Africa Parliament National Council of Provinces National Assembly
Spain Cortes Generales Senate Congress of Deputies
Switzerland Federal Assembly Council of States National Council
Thailand National Assembly Senate House of Representatives
Trinidad and Tobago Parliament Senate House of Representatives
United Kingdom Parliament House of Lords House of Commons

References

  1. ^ T. St. John N. Bates (1986), "Parliament, Policy and Delegated Power", Statute Law Review (Oxford: Oxford University Press), http://slr.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/2/114.pdf 
  2. ^ SSRN-Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter by Daniel Lederman, Norman Loayza, Rodrigo Soares
  3. ^ The Council of Union is defined in the constitution of Iraq but does not currently exist.

Simple English

s where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. States denoted in green have the roles of head of state and head of government in one office, similar to presidential systems, but this office is filled by parliament's choice and elected separately.]]

A parliamentary system of government means that the executive branch of government must have the direct or indirect support of the parliament. This support is usually shown by a vote of confidence. The relationship between the executive and the legislature in a parliamentary system is called responsible government.

The separation of powers between the executive and law making branches, is not as obvious as it is in a presidential system, so there are different ways of balancing powers between the three branches which govern the country (the executive (or ministers), the law makers and the judges).

Parliamentary systems usually have a head of government and a head of state. The head of government is the prime minister, and the head of state often being an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or hereditary monarch.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Parliamentary system, which are similar to those in the above article.








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